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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920978/network-interactions-underlying-mirror-feedback-in-stroke-a-dynamic-causal-modeling-study
#1
Soha Saleh, Mathew Yarossi, Thushini Manuweera, Sergei Adamovich, Eugene Tunik
Mirror visual feedback (MVF) is potentially a powerful tool to facilitate recovery of disordered movement and stimulate activation of under-active brain areas due to stroke. The neural mechanisms underlying MVF have therefore been a focus of recent inquiry. Although it is known that sensorimotor areas can be activated via mirror feedback, the network interactions driving this effect remain unknown. The aim of the current study was to fill this gap by using dynamic causal modeling to test the interactions between regions in the frontal and parietal lobes that may be important for modulating the activation of the ipsilesional motor cortex during mirror visual feedback of unaffected hand movement in stroke patients...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920722/a-new-structure-activity-relationship-sar-model-for-predicting-drug-induced-liver-injury-based-on-statistical-and-expert-based-structural-alerts
#2
Fabiola Pizzo, Anna Lombardo, Alberto Manganaro, Emilio Benfenati
The prompt identification of chemical molecules with potential effects on liver may help in drug discovery and in raising the levels of protection for human health. Besides in vitro approaches, computational methods in toxicology are drawing attention. We built a structure-activity relationship (SAR) model for evaluating hepatotoxicity. After compiling a data set of 950 compounds using data from the literature, we randomly split it into training (80%) and test sets (20%). We also compiled an external validation set (101 compounds) for evaluating the performance of the model...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919388/stage-specific-predictive-models-for-breast-cancer-survivability
#3
Rohit J Kate, Ramya Nadig
BACKGROUND: Survivability rates vary widely among various stages of breast cancer. Although machine learning models built in past to predict breast cancer survivability were given stage as one of the features, they were not trained or evaluated separately for each stage. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether there are differences in performance of machine learning models trained and evaluated across different stages for predicting breast cancer survivability. METHODS: Using three different machine learning methods we built models to predict breast cancer survivability separately for each stage and compared them with the traditional joint models built for all the stages...
January 2017: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919382/a-clinical-decision-support-system-for-prediction-of-pregnancy-outcome-in-pregnant-women-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#4
Khadijeh Paydar, Sharareh R Niakan Kalhori, Mahmoud Akbarian, Abbas Sheikhtaheri
OBJECTIVE: Pregnancy among systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-affected women is highly associated with poor obstetric outcomes. Predicting the risk of foetal outcome is essential for maximizing the success of pregnancy. This study aimed to develop a clinical decision support system (CDSS) to predict pregnancy outcomes among SLE-affected pregnant women. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 149 pregnant women with SLE, who were followed at Shariati Hospital (104 pregnancies) and a specialized clinic (45 pregnancies) from 1982 to 2014...
January 2017: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919220/deepqa-improving-the-estimation-of-single-protein-model-quality-with-deep-belief-networks
#5
Renzhi Cao, Debswapna Bhattacharya, Jie Hou, Jianlin Cheng
BACKGROUND: Protein quality assessment (QA) useful for ranking and selecting protein models has long been viewed as one of the major challenges for protein tertiary structure prediction. Especially, estimating the quality of a single protein model, which is important for selecting a few good models out of a large model pool consisting of mostly low-quality models, is still a largely unsolved problem. RESULTS: We introduce a novel single-model quality assessment method DeepQA based on deep belief network that utilizes a number of selected features describing the quality of a model from different perspectives, such as energy, physio-chemical characteristics, and structural information...
December 5, 2016: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919204/use-maintenance-and-dose-effects-of-cognitive-speed-of-processing-training-in-parkinson-s-disease
#6
Elise G Valdés, Melissa L O'Connor, Ergun Y Uc, Robert A Hauser, Ross Andel, Jerri D Edwards
INTRODUCTION: Recent research indicated that cognitive speed of processing training (SPT) improved Useful Field of View (UFOV) among individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). The effects of SPT in PD have not been further examined. The objectives of the current study were to investigate use, maintenance, and dose effects of SPT among individuals with PD. METHODS: Participants who were randomized to SPT or a delayed control group completed the UFOV at a six-month follow-up visit...
December 6, 2016: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918787/an-ovine-model-for-exclusive-endoscopic-ear-surgery
#7
Lukas Anschuetz, Marco Bonali, Michael Ghirelli, Francesco Mattioli, Domenico Villari, Marco Caversaccio, Livio Presutti
Importance: With the international spread of exclusive transcanal endoscopic ear surgery, the need for a suitable and affordable surgical training model has grown during the past years. Objective: To develop and validate an ex vivo animal model for exclusive endoscopic ear surgery. Design, Setting, and Animal Models: In an experimental study, we compared ovine and human middle ear anatomy in 4 specimens and assessed the lamb as a model for endoscopic ear surgery...
December 1, 2016: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918664/modern-techniques-and-technologies-applied-to-training-and-performance-monitoring
#8
William A Sands, Ashley A Kavanaugh, Steven R Murray, Jeni R McNeal, Monèm Jemni
Athlete preparation and performance continues to increase in complexity and costs. Modern coaches are shifting from reliance on personal memory, experience, and opinion to evidence from collected training load data. Training load monitoring may hold vital information for developing systems of monitoring that follow the training process with such precision that both performance prediction and day-to-day management of training become an adjunct to preparation and performance. Time series data collection and analyses in sport are still in their infancy with considerable efforts being applied in "big-data" analytics and models of the appropriate variables to monitor and methods for doing so...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918287/measuring-discrimination-and-reversal-learning-in-mouse-models-within-4-days-and-without-prior-food-deprivation
#9
Esther Remmelink, August B Smit, Matthijs Verhage, Maarten Loos
Many neurological and psychiatric disorders are characterized by deficits in cognitive flexibility. Modeling cognitive flexibility in mice enables the investigation of mechanisms underlying these deficits. The majority of currently available behavioral tests targeting this cognitive domain are reversal learning tasks that require scheduled food restriction, extended training periods and labor-intensive, and stress-inducing animal handling. Here, we describe a novel 4-day (4-d) continuously running task measuring discrimination- and reversal learning in an automated home cage (CognitionWall DL/RL task) that largely eliminates these limitations...
November 2016: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917376/evaluation-of-an-intervention-to-improve-essential-obstetric-and-newborn-care-access-and-quality-in-cotopaxi-ecuador
#10
Edward Broughton, Jorge Hermida, Kathleen Hill, Nancy Sloan, Mario Chavez, Daniel Gonzalez, Juana Maria Freire, Ximena Gudino
BACKGROUND: Despite improvements in health-care utilization, disadvantages persist among rural, less educated, and indigenous populations in Ecuador. The United States Agency for International Development-funded Cotopaxi Project created a provincial-level network of health services, including community agents to improve access, quality, and coordination of essential obstetric and newborn care. We evaluated changes in participating facilities compared to non-participating controls. METHODS: The 21 poorest parishes (third-level administrative unit) in Cotopaxi were targeted from 2010 to 2013 for a collaborative health system performance improvement...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916118/an-in%C3%A2-vitro-approach-for-lipolysis-measurement-using-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry-and-partial-least-squares-based-analysis
#11
Wen-Qi Chang, Jian-Liang Zhou, Yi Li, Zi-Qi Shi, Li Wang, Jie Yang, Ping Li, Li-Fang Liu, Gui-Zhong Xin
The elevation of free fatty acids (FFAs) has been regarded as a universal metabolic signature of excessive adipocyte lipolysis. Nowadays, in vitro lipolysis assay is generally essential for drug screening prior to the animal study. Here, we present a novel in vitro approach for lipolysis measurement combining UHPLC-Orbitrap and partial least squares (PLS) based analysis. Firstly, the calibration matrix was constructed by serial proportions of mixed samples (blended with control and model samples). Then, lipidome profiling was performed by UHPLC-Orbitrap, and 403 variables were extracted and aligned as dataset...
January 15, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915361/neuroscience-literacy-brain-tells-as-signals-of-brain-dysfunction-affecting-daily-life
#12
Charlotte B Royeen, James R Brašić, Leah Dvorak, Casey Provoziak-O'Brien, Chetna Sethi, S Omar Ahmad
The structures and circuits of the central and the peripheral nervous systems provide the basis for thinking, speaking, experiencing sensations, and performing perceptual and motor activities in daily life. Healthy people experience normal functioning without giving brain functions a second thought, while dysfunction of the neural circuits may lead to marked impairments in cognition, communication, sensory awareness, and performing perceptual and motor tasks. Neuroscience literacy provides the knowledge to associate the deficits observed in patients with the underlying deficits in the structures and circuits of the nervous system...
2016: Journal of Allied Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915358/improving-quality-and-reducing-waste-in-allied-health-workplace-education-programs-a-pragmatic-operational-education-framework-approach
#13
Janet Golder, Melanie K Farlie, Samantha Sevenhuysen
BACKGROUND: Efficient utilisation of education resources is required for the delivery of effective learning opportunities for allied health professionals. This study aimed to develop an education framework to support delivery of high-quality education within existing education resources. METHODS: This study was conducted in a large metropolitan health service. Homogenous and purposive sampling methods were utilised in Phase 1 (n=43) and 2 (n=14) consultation stages...
2016: Journal of Allied Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914193/coaching-a-new-model-for-academic-and-career-achievement
#14
Nicole M Deiorio, Patricia A Carney, Leslie E Kahl, Erin M Bonura, Amy Miller Juve
BACKGROUND: Individualized education is emerging as an innovative model for physician training. This requires faculty coaching to guide learners' achievements in academic performance, competency development, and career progression. In addition, coaching can foster self-reflection and self-monitoring using a data-guided approach to support lifelong learning. CONTEXT: Coaching differs from mentoring or advising, and its application in medical education is novel. Because of this, definitions of the concept and the constructs of coaching as applied to medical education are needed to accurately assess the coaching relationship and coaching processes...
2016: Medical Education Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914178/longitudinal-assessment-of-examiner-experience-and-the-accuracy-of-sonographic-fetal-weight-estimation-at-term
#15
Florian Faschingbauer, Jutta Heimrich, Eva Raabe, Sven Kehl, Michael Schneider, Matthias Schmid, Matthias W Beckmann, Tobias Hepp, Anika Lübke, Andreas Mayr, Ralf L Schild
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the influence of examiner experience on the accuracy of sonographic weight estimation and to further analyze examiners' individual learning curves. METHODS: In this multicenter study, 4613 sonographic weight estimations performed by 18 examiners at the beginning of their ultrasound training were included. To assess the effect of experience on the accuracy of weight estimation, a multivariable mixed regression model analysis was performed, with percentage error and absolute percentage error as outcome variables and the examiner, the examiner's experience (number of examinations), birth weight, gestational age, scan-to-delivery interval, and maternal body mass index as fixed effects and the perinatal center as random intercepts...
December 3, 2016: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913362/learning-to-predict-eye-fixations-via-multiresolution-convolutional-neural-networks
#16
Nian Liu, Junwei Han, Tianming Liu, Xuelong Li
Eye movements in the case of freely viewing natural scenes are believed to be guided by local contrast, global contrast, and top-down visual factors. Although a lot of previous works have explored these three saliency cues for several years, there still exists much room for improvement on how to model them and integrate them effectively. This paper proposes a novel computation model to predict eye fixations, which adopts a multiresolution convolutional neural network (Mr-CNN) to infer these three types of saliency cues from raw image data simultaneously...
November 29, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913152/development-and-validation-of-an-objective-scoring-tool-for-robot-assisted-radical-prostatectomy-prostatectomy-assessment-and-competency-evaluation-pace
#17
Ahmed A Hussein, Khurshid R Ghani, James Peabody, Richard Sarle, Ronney Abaza, Daniel Eun, Jim Hu, Michael Fumo, Brian Lane, Jeffrey Montgomery, Nobuyuki Hinata, Deborah Rooney, Bryan Comstock, Hei Kit Chan, Sridhar S Mane, James L Mohler, Gregory Wilding, David Miller, Khurshid A Guru
INTRODUCTION: and Background: Comprehensive training and skill acquisition by urologic surgeons are vital to optimize surgical outcomes and patient safety. We sought to develop and validate an objective and procedure specific tool to assess the quality of robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP)-Prostatectomy Assessment and Competence Evaluation (PACE) METHODS: Development and content validation of PACE was performed by deconstruction of RARP into seven key domains utilizing the Delphi methodology...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911409/measuring-progressive-neurological-disability-in-a-mouse-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#18
Francesca Gilli, Darlene B Royce, Andrew R Pachner
After intracerebral infection with the Theiler's Murine Encephalomyelitis Virus (TMEV), susceptible SJL mice develop a chronic-progressive demyelinating disease, with clinical features similar to the progressive forms of multiple sclerosis (MS). The mice show progressive disability with loss of motor and sensory functions, which can be assessed with multiple apparatuses and protocols. Among them, the Rotarod performance test is a very common behavioral test, its advantage being that it provides objective measurements, but it is often used assuming that it is straightforward and simple...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909972/can-we-estimate-short-and-intermediate-term-survival-in-patients-undergoing-surgery-for-metastatic-bone-disease
#19
Jonathan A Forsberg, Rikard Wedin, Patrick J Boland, John H Healey
BACKGROUND: Objective means of estimating survival can be used to guide surgical decision-making and to risk-stratify patients for clinical trials. Although a free, online tool ( www.pathfx.org ) can estimate 3- and 12-month survival, recent work, including a survey of the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society, indicated that estimates at 1 and 6 months after surgery also would be helpful. Longer estimates help justify the need for more durable and expensive reconstructive options, and very short estimates could help identify those who will not survive 1 month and should not undergo surgery...
December 1, 2016: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909071/does-task-specific-training-improve-upper-limb-performance-in-daily-life-poststroke
#20
Kimberly J Waddell, Michael J Strube, Ryan R Bailey, Joseph W Klaesner, Rebecca L Birkenmeier, Alexander W Dromerick, Catherine E Lang
Background A common assumption is that changes in upper limb (UL) capacity, or what an individual is capable of doing, translates to improved UL performance in daily life, or what an individual actually does. This assumption should be explicitly tested for individuals with UL paresis poststroke. Objective To examine changes in UL performance after an intensive, individualized, progressive, task-specific UL intervention for individuals at least 6 months poststroke. Methods Secondary analysis on 78 individuals with UL paresis who participated in a phase II, single-blind, randomized parallel dose-response trial...
December 1, 2016: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
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