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Training performance modeling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334569/assessment-of-prehospital-hemorrhage-and-airway-care-using-a-simulation-model
#1
Mariya E Skube, Seth Witthuhn, Kristine Mulier, Bonnie Boucher, Elizabeth Lusczek, Greg J Beilman
BACKGROUND: The quality of prehospital care impacts patient outcomes. Military efforts have focused on training revision and the creation of high fidelity simulation models to address potentially survivable injuries. We sought to investigate the applicability of models emphasizing hemorrhage control and airway management to a civilian population. METHODS: Prehospital healthcare providers (PHPs) undergoing their annual training were enrolled. A trauma scenario was simulated with two modules: hemorrhage control and airway management...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333058/acquisition-of-a-socially-learned-tool-use-sequence-in-chimpanzees-implications-for-cumulative-culture
#2
Gillian L Vale, Sarah J Davis, Susan P Lambeth, Steven J Schapiro, Andrew Whiten
Cumulative culture underpins humanity's enormous success as a species. Claims that other animals are incapable of cultural ratcheting are prevalent, but are founded on just a handful of empirical studies. Whether cumulative culture is unique to humans thus remains a controversial and understudied question that has far-reaching implications for our understanding of the evolution of this phenomenon. We investigated whether one of human's two closest living primate relatives, chimpanzees, are capable of a degree of cultural ratcheting by exposing captive populations to a novel juice extraction task...
September 2017: Evolution and Human Behavior: Official Journal of the Human Behavior and Evolution Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331586/positive-effects-of-total-recovery-period-on-anti-and-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-are-not-linked-to-performance-re-establishment-in-overtrained-mice
#3
Alisson L da Rocha, Ana P Pinto, Bruno C Pereira, Eike B Kohama, Gustavo P Morais, Larissa G de Vicente, José R Pauli, Dennys E Cintra, Eduardo R Ropelle, Leandro P de Moura, Hugo T Filho, Adelino S R da Silva
The association between excessive training sessions (i.e., overtraining/OT) and periods of inadequate recovery is linked to the nonfunctional overreaching (NFOR) state, which is defined as an unexplained decrement or stagnation of performance. The cytokine hypothesis of OT considers that pro-inflammatory cytokines are responsible by the NFOR state-induced performance decrement. Investigations using rodent models of OT verified increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in hypothalamus, liver, serum and skeletal muscle samples...
January 10, 2018: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331253/evaluation-of-three-machine-learning-models-for-self-referral-decision-support-on-low-back-pain-in-primary-care
#4
Wendy Oude Nijeweme-d'Hollosy, Lex van Velsen, Mannes Poel, Catharina G M Groothuis-Oudshoorn, Remko Soer, Hermie Hermens
BACKGROUND: Most people experience low back pain (LBP) at least once in their life and for some patients this evolves into a chronic condition. One way to prevent acute LBP from transiting into chronic LBP, is to ensure that patients receive the right interventions at the right moment. We started research in the design of a clinical decision support system (CDSS) to support patients with LBP in their self-referral to primary care. For this, we explored the possibilities of using supervised machine learning...
February 2018: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331214/the-stockholm-3-model-for-prostate-cancer-detection-algorithm-update-biomarker-contribution-and-reflex-test-potential
#5
Peter Ström, Tobias Nordström, Henrik Grönberg, Martin Eklund
BACKGROUND: It has been shown that the Stockholm-3 model (S3M) outperforms prostate-specific antigen (PSA) as a screening tool for prostate cancer. OBJECTIVE: To update the S3M, to give a detailed account of the value of each predictor in the S3M, and to evaluate the S3M as a reflex test for men with PSA ≥3ng/ml. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: During 2012-2015, the Stockholm-3 study evaluated the S3M relative to PSA as tests for Gleason score ≥7 prostate cancers among men aged 50-69 yr...
January 10, 2018: European Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330977/effectiveness-of-horizontal-peer-assisted-learning-in-physical-examination-performance
#6
Inamullah Shah, Usman Mahboob, Sajida Shah
BACKGROUND: All students cannot be individually trained in physical examination skills due to faculty and time limitations. Peer-assisted learning (PAL) can solve this dilemma if it is used in undergraduate curriculum. Empirical effectiveness of horizontal peer-assisted learning model has not been reported previously. The objective of this study was to compare horizontal peer-assisted learning (PAL) with expert-assisted learning (EAL) in teaching of physical examination skills. METHODS: This is a randomized controlled study (Solomon four group design) carried out at a medical school...
October 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330003/effects-of-5-ht5a-receptor-blockade-on-amnesia-or-forgetting
#7
L Aparicio-Nava, L A Márquez-García, A Meneses
Previously the effects (0.01-3.0 mg/kg) of post-training SB-699551 (a 5-HT5A receptor antagonist) were reported in the associative learning task of autoshaping, showing that SB-699551 (0.1 mg/kg) decreased lever-press conditioned responses (CR) during short-term (STM; 1.5-h) or (3.0 mg/kg) long-term memory (LTM; 24-h); relative to the vehicle animals. Moreover, as pro-cognitive efficacy of SB-699551 was reported in the ketamine-model of schizophrenia. Hence, firstly aiming improving performance (conditioned response, CR), in this work autoshaping lever-press vs...
January 9, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329416/automatic-ecg-based-detection-of-autonomic-arousals-and-their-association-with-cortical-arousals-leg-movements-and-respiratory-events-in-sleep
#8
Mads Olsen, Logan Douglas Schneider, Joseph Cheung, Paul E Peppard, Poul J Jennum, Emmanuel Mignot, Helge Bjarup Dissing Sorensen
Study objectives: The current definition of sleep arousals neglects to address the diversity of arousals and their systemic cohesion. Autonomic arousals (AA) are autonomic activations often associated with cortical arousals (CA), but they may also occur in isolation in relation to a respiratory event, a leg movement event or spontaneously, without any other physiological associations. AA should be acknowledged as essential events to understand and explore the systemic implications of arousals...
January 10, 2018: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329402/discovering-foodborne-illness-in-online-restaurant-reviews
#9
Thomas Effland, Anna Lawson, Sharon Balter, Katelynn Devinney, Vasudha Reddy, HaeNa Waechter, Luis Gravano, Daniel Hsu
Objective: We developed a system for the discovery of foodborne illness mentioned in online Yelp restaurant reviews using text classification. The system is used by the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) to monitor Yelp for foodborne illness complaints. Materials and Methods: We built classifiers for 2 tasks: (1) determining if a review indicated a person experiencing foodborne illness and (2) determining if a review indicated multiple people experiencing foodborne illness...
January 10, 2018: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329240/effective-data-driven-calibration-for-a-galvanometric-laser-scanning-system-using-binocular-stereo-vision
#10
Junchao Tu, Liyan Zhang
A new solution to the problem of galvanometric laser scanning (GLS) system calibration is presented. Under the machine learning framework, we build a single-hidden layer feedforward neural network (SLFN)to represent the GLS system, which takes the digital control signal at the drives of the GLS system as input and the space vector of the corresponding outgoing laser beam as output. The training data set is obtained with the aid of a moving mechanism and a binocular stereo system. The parameters of the SLFN are efficiently solved in a closed form by using extreme learning machine (ELM)...
January 12, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326414/-effect-of-debriefing-based-on-the-clinical-judgment-model-on-simulation-based-learning-outcomes-of-end-of-life-care-for-nursing-students-a-non-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
Kyung In Jeong, Ja Yun Choi
PURPOSE: This study was conducted to identify effects of debriefing based on the clinical judgment model for nursing students on their knowledge, skill performance, clinical judgment, self-confidence and learner satisfaction during simulation based end-of-life care (ELC) education. METHODS: Simulation based ELC education was developed in six steps as follows: selection of learning subjects and objects, development of learning tools, a trial run of simulation-based education, students' skill training, and evaluators' training...
December 2017: Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325763/clinical-experience-with-three-dimensional-printing-techniques-in-orthopedic-trauma
#12
Ji Wan Kim, Yongkoo Lee, Joonho Seo, Jai Hyung Park, Yong Min Seo, Sung Soo Kim, Hyun Chul Shon
BACKGROUND: To report our experiences with the use of three-dimensional (3D) printing in the field of orthopedic trauma. METHODS: This retrospective study enrolled 24 patients from three university teaching hospitals in whom 3D printing technique was applied: 14 patients with acetabular fractures and 10 patients with clavicular shaft fractures. We summarized our experiences with 3D printed bone models. RESULTS: Three-dimensional printed acetabular models improved understanding of complex acetabular anatomy and fracture pattern to plan the optimal positioning of a reduction clamp and the trajectory of screws...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Science: Official Journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325561/workforce-patterns-in-the-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hiv-in-c%C3%A3-te-d-ivoire-a-qualitative-model
#13
Brianne H Rowan, Julia Robinson, Adam Granato, Claire Konan Bla, Seydou Kouyaté, Guy Vincent Djety, Kouamé Abo, Ahoua Koné, Stephen Gloyd
BACKGROUND: Côte d'Ivoire continues to struggle with one of the highest rates of mother-to-child HIV transmission in West Africa, previously thought to be in part due to suboptimal workforce patterns. This study aimed to understand the process through which workforce patterns impact prevention of mother-to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) program success, from the perspective of healthcare workers in Côte d'Ivoire. METHODS: A total of 142 semi-structured interviews were conducted with physicians, midwives, nurses, community counselors, social workers, pharmacists, management personnel and health aides from a nationally representative sample of 48 PMTCT sites across Côte d'Ivoire...
January 11, 2018: Human Resources for Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324597/internal-podalic-version-and-breech-extraction-enhancing-realistic-sensations-in-a-simulation-model
#14
Jérôme M J Cornette, Jan S Erkamp
BACKGROUND: Experience with internal podalic version and breech extraction is diminishing, especially in the younger generation of obstetricians. Simulation training is essential to teach and maintain these skills. INSTRUMENT: We present a mannequin-based simulation method that enhances realistic sensations during training. EXPERIENCE: By positioning the fetal mannequin into a thin plastic bag filled with water, the impression of palpating, grabbing, and pulling the fetal feet through the plastic bag is similar to reaching feet through intact membranes...
January 9, 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323519/pigeons-in-control-of-their-actions-learning-and-performance-in-stop-signal-and-change-signal-tasks
#15
Christina Meier, Stephen E G Lea, Ian P L McLaren
In human participants, 2 paradigms commonly assumed to measure the executive-control processes involved in response inhibition are the stop-signal and change-signal tasks. There is, however, also considerable evidence that performance in these tasks can be mediated by associative processes. To assess which components of inhibitory response control might be associative, we developed analogues of these tasks for pigeons. We trained pigeons to peck quickly at 1 of 2 keys of different colors to obtain a food reward...
January 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323226/lateral-and-basal-amygdala-account-for-opposite-behavioral-responses-during-the-long-term-expression-of-fearful-memories
#16
Eugenio Manassero, Annamaria Renna, Luisella Milano, Benedetto Sacchetti
Memories of fearful events can be maintained throughout the lifetime of animals. Here we showed that lesions of the lateral nucleus (LA) performed shortly after training impaired the retention of long-term memories, assessed by the concomitant measurement of two dissociable defensive responses, freezing and avoidance in rats. Strikingly, when LA lesions were performed four weeks after training, rats did not show freezing to a learned threat stimulus, but they were able to direct their responses away from it...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322938/mdd-carb-a-combinatorial-model-for-the-identification-of-protein-carbonylation-sites-with-substrate-motifs
#17
Hui-Ju Kao, Shun-Long Weng, Kai-Yao Huang, Fergie Joanda Kaunang, Justin Bo-Kai Hsu, Chien-Hsun Huang, Tzong-Yi Lee
BACKGROUND: Carbonylation, which takes place through oxidation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on specific residues, is an irreversibly oxidative modification of proteins. It has been reported that the carbonylation is related to a number of metabolic or aging diseases including diabetes, chronic lung disease, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease. Due to the lack of computational methods dedicated to exploring motif signatures of protein carbonylation sites, we were motivated to exploit an iterative statistical method to characterize and identify carbonylated sites with motif signatures...
December 21, 2017: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321637/detection-of-american-football-head-impacts-using-biomechanical-features-and-support-vector-machine-classification
#18
Lyndia C Wu, Calvin Kuo, Jesus Loza, Mehmet Kurt, Kaveh Laksari, Livia Z Yanez, Daniel Senif, Scott C Anderson, Logan E Miller, Jillian E Urban, Joel D Stitzel, David B Camarillo
Accumulation of head impacts may contribute to acute and long-term brain trauma. Wearable sensors can measure impact exposure, yet current sensors do not have validated impact detection methods for accurate exposure monitoring. Here we demonstrate a head impact detection method that can be implemented on a wearable sensor for detecting field football head impacts. Our method incorporates a support vector machine classifier that uses biomechanical features from the time domain and frequency domain, as well as model predictions of head-neck motions...
December 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319745/short-version-of-the-instrument-for-assessment-of-stress-in-nursing-students-in-the-brazilian-reality
#19
Ana Lúcia Siqueira Costa, Rodrigo Marques da Silva, Fernanda Carneiro Mussi, Patrícia Maria Serrano, Eliane da Silva Graziano, Karla de Melo Batista
GOAL: validate a short version of the Instrument for assessment of stress in nursing students in the Brazilian reality. METHOD: Methodological study conducted with 1047 nursing students from five Brazilian institutions, who answered the 30 items initially distributed in eight domains. Data were analyzed in the R Statistical Package and in the latent variable analysis, using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, Cronbach's alpha and item-total correlation...
January 8, 2018: Revista Latino-americana de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319737/a-non-living-effective-model-for-microvascular-training
#20
Cristina Pires Camargo, Daniel Imbassahy de Sa Bittencourt de Camara E Silva, Fauze Camargo Maluf, Julio Morais-Besteiro, Rolf Gemperli
PURPOSE: To introduce a nonliving microvascular training model based on vessels diameter and feasibility. METHODS: We dissected ten oxen tongues, and divided the pedicles into three-thirds: proximal, middle and distal. We measured the external vessels diameter in all regions. We performed a descriptive statistical analysis. Three students (two beginner level and one intermediate level) performed this training. We evaluated the confidence, according Likert scale...
December 2017: Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira
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