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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738330/the-brain-gut-axis-contributes-to-neuroprogression-in-stress-related-disorders
#1
Kieran Rea, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
There is a growing emphasis on the relationship between the complexity and diversity of the microorganisms that inhabit our gut (human gastrointestinal microbiota) and brain health. The microbiota-gut-brain axis is a dynamic matrix of tissues and organs including the brain, glands, gut, immune cells, and gastrointestinal microbiota that communicate in a complex multidirectional manner to maintain homeostasis. Changes in this environment may contribute to the neuroprogression of stress-related disorders by altering physiological processes including hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation, neurotransmitter systems, immune function, and inflammatory responses...
July 24, 2017: Modern Trends in Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737424/facilitator-and-participant-use-of-facebook-in-a-community-based-intervention-for-parents-the-infant-extend-program
#2
Katherine L Downing, Karen J Campbell, Paige van der Pligt, Kylie D Hesketh
BACKGROUND: Social networking sites such as Facebook afford new opportunities for behavior-change interventions. Although often used as a recruitment tool, few studies have reported the use of Facebook as an intervention component to facilitate communication between researchers and participants. The aim of this study was to examine facilitator and participant use of a Facebook component of a community-based intervention for parents. METHODS: First-time parent groups participating in the intervention arm of the extended Infant Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial (InFANT Extend) Program were invited to join their own private Facebook group...
July 24, 2017: Childhood Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729236/adolescents-perspectives-on-personalized-e-feedback-in-the-context-of-health-risk-behavior-screening-for-primary-care-qualitative-study
#3
Garret G Zieve, Laura P Richardson, Katherine Katzman, Heather Spielvogle, Sandy Whitehouse, Carolyn A McCarty
BACKGROUND: Electronic health screening tools for primary care present an opportunity to go beyond data collection to provide education and feedback to adolescents in order to motivate behavior change. However, there is limited research to guide feedback message development. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore youth perceptions of and preferences for receiving personalized feedback for multiple health risk behaviors and reinforcement for health promoting behaviors from an electronic health screening tool for primary care settings, using qualitative methodology...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723302/why-use-group-visits-for-opioid-use-disorder-treatment-in-primary-care-a-patient-centered-qualitative-study
#4
Randi Sokol, Chiara Albanese, Deviney Chaponis, Jessica Early, George Maxted, Diana Morrill, Grace Poirier, Fran Puopolo, Zev Schuman-Olivier
BACKGROUND: Primary care providers are well positioned to respond to the opioid crisis by providing buprenorphine/naloxone (B/N) through shared medical appointments (SMA). While quantitative research has been previously conducted on SMAs with B/N, we conducted a qualitative assessment from the patients' point of view, considering whether and how group visits provide value for patients. METHODS: Twenty-five participants with opioid use disorder (OUD) who were enrolled in a weekly B/N group visit at a family medicine clinic participated in either of two one-hour-long focus groups, which were conducted as actual group visits...
July 19, 2017: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719247/telehealth-in-schools-using-a-systematic-educational-model-based-on-fiction-screenplays-interactive-documentaries-and-three-dimensional-computer-graphics
#5
Diogo Julien Miranda, Chao Lung Wen
BACKGROUND: Preliminary studies suggest the need of a global vision in academic reform, leading to education re-invention. This would include problem-based education using transversal topics, developing of thinking skills, social interaction, and information-processing skills. We aimed to develop a new educational model in health with modular components to be broadcast and applied as a tele-education course. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We developed a systematic model based on a "Skills and Goals Matrix" to adapt scientific contents on fictional screenplays, three-dimensional (3D) computer graphics of the human body, and interactive documentaries...
July 18, 2017: Telemedicine Journal and E-health: the Official Journal of the American Telemedicine Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714723/the-implementation-and-testing-of-a-referral-management-system-to-address-barriers-to-treatment-seeking-among-primary-care-veterans-with-ptsd
#6
Kyle Possemato, Emily M Johnson, Laura O Wray, Brad Webster, Tracy Stecker
Primary care (PC) patients have low rates of engagement in evidence-based psychotherapy for PTSD due to a variety of patient- and system-level barriers. We conducted a hybrid effectiveness-implementation study of a referral management system, called coordinated and alternative pathway to engagement (CAPE), to address barriers to receiving evidence-based treatment for PTSD. CAPE included the delivery of 1 session of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) within PC to identify and change treatment-seeking beliefs, phone contacts to assist veterans in attending appointments, and PC staff trainings on how to implement clinical practice guidelines for PTSD in PC...
July 17, 2017: Psychological Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713800/strategies-for-meaningful-engagement-between-community-based-health-researchers-and-first-nations-participants
#7
Jaime Cidro, Marion Maar, Sabrina Peressini, Robert J Schroth, John Broughton, Lisa Jamieson, Herenia P Lawrence
The Baby Teeth Talk Study (BTT) is a partnership-based research project looking at interventions to prevent early childhood caries (ECC) in First Nations populations in Canada. Community-based researchers (CBRs) conducted preventive and behavioral interventions that targeted expectant mothers and their newborns, over a 3-year period. The work of the CBRs requires a great deal of training and skills to administer the interventions. It also requires a broad set of strategies to meaningfully engage participants to make health-promoting changes in their behavior to prevent ECC in their children...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705030/college-students-responses-to-emotional-anti-alcohol-abuse-media-messages-should-we-scare-or-amuse-them
#8
Moon J Lee
This study examined college students' responses to emotional anti-alcohol abuse media messages (i.e., fear vs. humor appeal) aimed at discouraging heavy/binge drinking. An experiment was conducted with 94 college students. As expected, college students generally expressed higher levels of interest in anti-alcohol abuse media messages when watching fear appeal than those watching humor appeal. However, college binge drinkers who watched the fear appeal reported lower levels of readiness to change their drinking behavior than those who watched the humor appeal...
July 1, 2017: Health Promotion Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698032/beyond-infection-maternal-immune-activation-by-environmental-factors-microglial-development-and-relevance-for-autism-spectrum-disorders
#9
REVIEW
Staci D Bilbo, Carina L Block, Jessica L Bolton, Richa Hanamsagar, Phuong K Tran
Immune molecules such as cytokines and chemokines and the cells that produce them within the brain, notably microglia, are critical for normal brain development. This recognition has in recent years led to the working hypothesis that inflammatory events during pregnancy, e.g. in response to infection, may disrupt the normal expression of immune molecules during critical stages of neural development and thereby contribute to the risk for neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This hypothesis has in large part been shepherded by the work of Dr...
July 8, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690825/white-crowned-sparrow-males-show-immediate-flexibility-in-song-amplitude-but-not-in-song-minimum-frequency-in-response-to-changes-in-noise-levels-in-the-field
#10
Elizabeth P Derryberry, Katherine Gentry, Graham E Derryberry, Jennifer N Phillips, Raymond M Danner, Julie E Danner, David A Luther
The soundscape acts as a selective agent on organisms that use acoustic signals to communicate. A number of studies document variation in structure, amplitude, or timing of signal production in correspondence with environmental noise levels thus supporting the hypothesis that organisms are changing their signaling behaviors to avoid masking. The time scale at which organisms respond is of particular interest. Signal structure may evolve across generations through processes such as cultural or genetic transmission...
July 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686471/the-meaning-of-breastfeeding-is-changing-and-so-must-our-language-about-it
#11
Kathleen M Rasmussen, Julia P Felice, Elizabeth J O'Sullivan, Christine D Garner, Sheela R Geraghty
For millennia, the word "breastfeeding" has meant feeding an infant at his/her own mother's breast. With the recent introduction of high-efficiency breast pumps, other possibilities are now widely used, including feeding an infant his/her own mother's milk from a cup or bottle. This milk may be recently pumped or stored for a short or long time. Infants also may be fed another mother's milk. As a result, the use of the term "breastfeeding" to describe these different behaviors now inhibits clear communication among and between healthcare providers, researchers, mothers, and members of the lay public...
July 7, 2017: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685756/the-role-of-the-endocannabinoid-system-and-genetic-variation-in-adolescent-brain-development
#12
Heidi C Meyer, Francis S Lee, Dylan G Gee
During adolescence, both rodent and human studies have revealed dynamic changes in the developmental trajectories of corticolimbic structures, which are known to contribute to the regulation of fear and anxiety-related behaviors. The endocannabinoid (eCB) system critically regulates stress responsivity and anxiety throughout the lifespan. Emerging evidence suggests that during adolescence, changes in eCB signaling contribute to the maturation of local and corticolimbic circuit populations of neurons, such as mediating the balance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission within the prefrontal cortex...
July 7, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684334/just-a-thought-how-mind-wandering-is-represented-in-dynamic-brain-connectivity
#13
REVIEW
Aaron Kucyi
The neuroscience of mind-wandering has begun to flourish, with roles of brain regions and networks being defined for various components of spontaneous thought. However, often underappreciated is that most of brain activity does not represent immediately occurring thoughts. Instead, spontaneous, organized network activity largely reflects "intrinsic" functions that are unrelated to the current experience. There remains no consensus on how brain networks represent mind-wandering in parallel to functioning in other ongoing, predominantly unconscious processes...
July 3, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682184/-women-and-active-life-an-extended-tpb-based-multimedia-software-to-boost-and-sustain-physical-activity-and-fitness-of-iranian-women
#14
Zeinab Gholamnia-Shirvani, Fazlollah Ghofranipour, Reza Gharakhanlou, Anoshirvan Kazemnejad
Inactivity is prevalent in women, although regular physical activity (PA) has significant health benefits. Health education interventions based on multimedia software and the extended Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) with planning may be efficacious in promoting PA. This randomized controlled trial, conducted in 2014, aimed to evaluate theory-based multimedia for increasing and maintaining PA and fitness of 130 military personnel's wives in Tehran, Iran. We randomly selected respondents by multi-stage cluster sampling...
July 6, 2017: Women & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678872/physician-communication-coaching-effects-on-patient-experience
#15
Adrianne Seiler, Alexander Knee, Reham Shaaban, Christine Bryson, Jasmine Paadam, Rohini Harvey, Satoko Igarashi, Christopher LaChance, Evan Benjamin, Tara Lagu
BACKGROUND: Excellent communication is a necessary component of high-quality health care. We aimed to determine whether a training module could improve patients' perceptions of physician communication behaviors, as measured by change over time in domains of patient experience scores related to physician communication. STUDY DESIGN: We designed a comprehensive physician-training module focused on improving specific "etiquette-based" physician communication skills through standardized simulations and physician coaching with structured feedback...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677095/the-effects-of-hallucinogens-on-gene-expression
#16
David A Martin, Charles D Nichols
The classic serotonergic hallucinogens, or psychedelics, have the ability to profoundly alter perception and behavior. These can include visual distortions, hallucinations, detachment from reality, and mystical experiences. Some psychedelics, like LSD, are able to produce these effects with remarkably low doses of drug. Others, like psilocybin, have recently been demonstrated to have significant clinical efficacy in the treatment of depression, anxiety, and addiction that persist for at least several months after only a single therapeutic session...
July 5, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675134/overview-of-the-infant-and-young-child-feeding-policy-environment-in-pakistan-federal-sindh-and-punjab-context
#17
Hana Mahmood, Yasmeen Suleman, Tabish Hazir, Durre Samin Akram, Shahadat Uddin, Michael J Dibley, Saleem Abassi, Amara Shakeel, Narjis Kazmi, Anne Marie Thow
BACKGROUND: Appropriate infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices have been identified as important for appropriate child growth and development. (Ministry of Planning and Development, Ministry of National Health Services, Regulations and Coordination (2012)) Children in Pakistan still experience high rates of malnutrition, indicating a likely need for stronger IYCF policy. The purpose of this study was to identify major stakeholders who shape the IYCF policy environment and analyze which policies protect, promote and support IYCF practices, either directly or indirectly...
June 13, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672373/a-research-agenda-for-communication-between-health-care-professionals-and-patients-living-with-serious-illness
#18
James A Tulsky, Mary Catherine Beach, Phyllis N Butow, Susan E Hickman, Jennifer W Mack, R Sean Morrison, Richard L Street, Rebecca L Sudore, Douglas B White, Kathryn I Pollak
Importance: Poor communication by health care professionals contributes to physical and psychological suffering in patients living with serious illness. Patients may not fully understand their illness, prognosis, and treatment options or may not receive medical care consistent with their goals. Despite considerable research exploring the role of communication in this setting, many questions remain, and a clear agenda for communication research is lacking. Observations: Through a consensus conference and subsequent activities, we reviewed the state of the science, identified key evidence gaps in understanding the impact of communication on patient outcomes, and created an agenda for future research...
July 3, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668091/amplification-and-propagation-of-interleukin-1%C3%AE-signaling-by-murine-brain-endothelial-and-glial-cells
#19
Stephanie M Krasnow, J Gabriel Knoll, Santhosh Chakkaramakkil Verghese, Peter R Levasseur, Daniel L Marks
BACKGROUND: During acute infections and chronic illnesses, the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) acts within the brain to elicit metabolic derangements and sickness behaviors. It is unknown which cells in the brain are the proximal targets for IL-1β with respect to the generation of these illness responses. We performed a series of in vitro experiments to (1) investigate which brain cell populations exhibit inflammatory responses to IL-1β and (2) examine the interactions between different IL-1β-responsive cell types in various co-culture combinations...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665905/implementation-of-practice-transformation-patient-experience-according-to-practice-leaders
#20
Denise D Quigley, Alina I Palimaru, Alex Y Chen, Ron D Hays
OBJECTIVE: Examine practice leaders' perceptions and experiences of how patient-centered medical home (PCMH) transformation improves patient experience. SUBJECTS: Thirty-six interviews with lead physicians (n = 13), site clinic administrators (n = 13), and nurse supervisors (n = 10). METHODS: Semi-structured interviews at 14 primary care practices within a large urban Federally Qualified Health Center (FQHC) delivery system to identify critical patient experience domains and mechanisms of change...
July 2017: Quality Management in Health Care
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