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Shwu-Feng Tsay, Shih-Chung Chen, Shu-Jen Lu, Li-Ting Liu
Taiwan is projected to become an aged society in 2018. In addition to establishing a comprehensive, long-term care system that is able to deal with the expected impacts of population aging, it is imperative that the government focus on improving the prevention of aging-related conditions. This article introduces the innovative preventive care policy promoted by Taiwan's Ministry of Health and Welfare and its preliminary results. Furthermore, the foundational ideas behind this policy and how it is being executed are explained...
April 2018: Hu Li za Zhi the Journal of Nursing
Camila Carvalho de Araujo, Suelene A Coelho, Paulo Stahlschmidt, Cassia R T Juliato
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Pregnancy and delivery are well-established risk factors for pelvic floor dysfunction (PFD), but the physiopathology, such as the delivery route, is not well understood. This study evaluated the impact of delivery route on the pelvic floor muscles via 3D ultrasound. METHODS: This review is registered in the PROSPERO database. The criteria for inclusion were prospective studies with 3D translabial ultrasound assessment in primigravida women during pregnancy and postpartum published in English, Spanish or Portuguese between 1980 and 2016...
March 21, 2018: International Urogynecology Journal
Fatemeh Janani, Farahnaz Changaee
Introduction: Hypertension in pregnancy is one of the three factors of maternal mortality. Etiology of the disease is unknown, but the many factors contributing to the identification and control of it can be taken a step to prevent and reduce the symptoms of the disease. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of preeclampsia (high-blood pressure) in different seasons of the year. Methods: The present retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted on more than 8,000 pregnant women visiting Assali specialized hospital from 2011 to 2013...
October 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Ravishankar Suryanarayana, Muninarayana Chandrappa, Anil Navale Santhuram, S Prathima, S R Sheela
Background: Anemia is one of the most common nutritional deficiency disorders affecting the pregnant women in the developing countries. Anemia during pregnancy is commonly associated with poor pregnancy outcome and can result in complications that threaten the life of both mother and fetus. Objective: The objective of the study was to estimate the prevalence of anemia among pregnant women and to determine its association with maternal and fetal outcomes. Settings and Design: This study design was a prospective, observational, community-based study...
October 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Guang Hwi Kim, Hee Sung Lee, Sung Won Jung, Jae Gwang Lee, June Hee Lee, Kyung Jae Lee, Joo Ja Kim
Background: In modern society, the scale of the service industry is continuously expanding, and the number of service workers is increasing. Correspondingly, physical and mental problems related to emotional labor are becoming a major social problem. In this study, we investigated the relationship between emotional labor, workplace violence, and depressive symptoms in female bank employees, which is a typical service industry. Methods: In this study, the Korean Emotional Labor Scale (K-ELS) and Korean Workplace Violence Scale (K-WVS) were distributed to 381 female workers in their 20s at a bank in Seoul, Korea...
2018: Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Toshiyuki Takahashi
Microalgae have attracted attention for several industrial applications, but all such applications demand culture quality because of their sensitivity to environmental changes. Although simplicity, speed, and accuracy are important to assess algal cultures, researchers have expended vast amounts of labor to monitor algal health using hemocytometry. Along with its user bias, quantifying the cell status aside from the cell density is not easy. This paper describes the easy and rapid evaluation of algal number and status using an image-based cell counter (Countess II FL; Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc...
March 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Robert Galinsky, Simerdeep K Dhillon, Christopher A Lear, Kyohei Yamaguchi, Guido Wassink, Alistair J Gunn, Laura Bennet
Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4 ) is recommended for preterm neuroprotection, preeclampsia and preterm labor prophylaxis. There is an important unmet need to carefully test clinical interventions in both sexes. Therefore, we aimed to investigate cardiovascular and neurophysiological adaptations to MgSO4 during normoxia and asphyxia in preterm male and female fetal sheep. Fetuses were instrumented at 98{plus minus}1 days of gestation (d; term=147 d). At 104 d, unanaesthetised fetuses were randomly assigned to intravenous MgSO4 (n=12 F, 10 M) or saline (n=13 F, 10 M)...
March 21, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Grace Lim, Francesca L Facco, Naveen Nathan, Jonathan H Waters, Cynthia A Wong, Holger K Eltzschig
Obstetric anesthesia has evolved over the course of its history to encompass comprehensive aspects of maternal care, ranging from cesarean delivery anesthesia and labor analgesia to maternal resuscitation and patient safety. Anesthesiologists are concerned with maternal and neonatal outcomes, and with preventing and managing complications that may present during childbirth. The current review will focus on recent advances in obstetric anesthesia, including labor anesthesia and analgesia, cesarean delivery anesthesia and analgesia, the effects of maternal anesthesia on breastfeeding and fever, and maternal safety...
March 21, 2018: Anesthesiology
Jing Sun, Wenhui Zhou, Haibo Yang, Xue Zhen, Longfei Ma, Dirk Williams, Xudong Sun, Ming-Fei Lang
The development of flexible and transparent devices requires completely transparent and flexible circuits (TFCs). To overcome the disadvantages of the previously reported TFCs that are partially transparent, lacking pattern control, or labor consuming, we achieve true TFCs via a facile process with precise pattern control, exhibiting concurrent high transparency, conductivity, flexibility, stretchability, and robustness. A highly transparent and flexible conductive film is first made through spin coating silver nanowires (AgNWs) onto polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), and demonstrates simultaneous high transparency (90...
March 21, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Cassandra Wasson, Telianne Chon
A 28-year-old term G3P0020 received an epidural with complete pain relief. Approximately 19 hours after the epidural placement, the pain increased. Sensory levels were rechecked and were bilateral and adequate at T8. Further discussion revealed that the pain was unrelated to her contractions; it was in her buttocks and radiating down the leg. The possibility of the fetus being positioned occiput posterior (OP) was discussed. The patient was placed into knee-chest position with instantaneous relief of her pain...
January 17, 2018: Curēus
Sepideh Gareh Sheyklo, Sakineh Hajebrahimi, Ahmad Moosavi, Fatemeh Pournaghi-Azar, Saber Azami-Aghdash, Morteza Ghojazadeh
Background and aim: Entonox was one of the important methods for pain management in the delivery process. In previous years some studies have assessed the effect of this method in Iran. In this regard, the aim of this study was to systematically review studies addressing the effect of Entonox for pain management in labor. Methods: This systematic review and meta-analysis study was conducted in 2016. The required data was collected using keywords such as "Entonox", "nitrous oxide", "vaginal delivery", "pain relief", "obstetric", "labor pain", and "labor analgesia", from databases including Google scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, Magiran, SID, and Scopus, and hand-searching of related and valid journals and references of articles...
December 2017: Electronic Physician
Tesfaye Assebe Yadeta, Alemayehu Worku, Gudina Egata, Berhanu Seyoum, Dadi Marami, Yemane Berhane
Background: Vertically transmitted group B Streptococcus (GBS) causes fetal and neonatal infections. However, there is limited information on the vertical transmission of GBS in low-income countries. This study, therefore, aimed to determine the rate of vertical transmission of GBS and associated factors among pregnant women in Eastern Ethiopia. Subjects and methods: A cross-sectional, facility-based study was conducted among pregnant women in Harar town, Eastern Ethiopia, from June to October, 2016...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
E K Hopper, L D Gonzalez
Human trafficking is a form of interpersonal trauma that has significant mental health impacts on survivors. This study examined psychological symptoms in 131 survivors of sex and labor trafficking, including people trafficked into or within the U.S. High rates of depression (71%) and PTSD (61%) were identified. Two thirds of survivors also met criteria for multiple categories of Complex PTSD (C-PTSD), including affect dysregulation and impulsivity; alterations in attention and consciousness; changes in interpersonal relationships; revictimization; somatic dysregulation; and alterations in self-perception...
March 20, 2018: Behavioral Medicine
Petter Lundborg, Erik Plug, Astrid Wurtz Rasmussen
This paper introduces a new IV strategy based on IVF (in vitro fertilization) induced fertility variation among childless women to estimate the causal effect of having children on their career. For this purpose, we use administrative data on IVF treated women in Denmark. Because observed chances of IVF success do not depend on labor market histories, IVF treatment success provides a plausible instrument for childbearing. Our IV estimates indicate that fertility effects on earnings are: (i) negative, large, and long-lasting; (ii) driven by fertility effects on hourly earnings and not so much on labor supply; and (iii) much stronger at the extensive margin than at the intensive margin...
June 2017: American Economic Review
Denise Aumer, Fiona N Mumoki, Christian W W Pirk, Robin F A Moritz
Social insects are characterized by the division of labor. Queens usually dominate reproduction, whereas workers fulfill non-reproductive age-dependent tasks to maintain the colony. Although workers are typically sterile, they can activate their ovaries to produce their own offspring. In the extreme, worker reproduction can turn into social parasitism as in Apis mellifera capensis. These intraspecific parasites occupy a host colony, kill the resident queen, and take over the reproductive monopoly. Because they exhibit a queenlike behavior and are also treated like queens by the fellow workers, they are so-called pseudoqueens...
March 20, 2018: Die Naturwissenschaften
K Dolecheck, J Bewley
Lameness is one of the most costly dairy cow diseases, yet adoption of lameness prevention strategies remains low. Low lameness prevention adoption might be attributable to a lack of understanding regarding total lameness costs. In this review, we evaluated the contribution of different expenditures and losses to total lameness costs. Evaluated expenditures included labor for treatment, therapeutic supplies, lameness detection and lameness control and prevention. Evaluated losses included non-saleable milk, reduced milk production, reduced reproductive performance, increased animal death, increased animal culling, disease interrelationships, lameness recurrence and reduced animal welfare...
March 20, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Colin F Funaro, Katalin Böröczky, Edward L Vargo, Coby Schal
Chemical communication is fundamental to success in social insect colonies. Species-, colony-, and caste-specific blends of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) and other chemicals have been well documented as pheromones, mediating important behavioral and physiological aspects of social insects. More specifically, royal pheromones used by queens (and kings in termites) enable workers to recognize and care for these vital individuals and maintain the reproductive division of labor. In termites, however, no royal-recognition pheromones have been identified to date...
March 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Tea Lallukka, Børge Sivertsen, Erkki Kronholm, Yu Sun Bin, Simon Øverland, Nick Glozier
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate the interaction of two key determinants of sleep health, quantity and quality, with physical, emotional, and social functioning, in the general population. DESIGN: Nationally-representative Australian cross-sectional study. SETTING: General population. PARTICIPANTS: 14,571 people aged 15 or older in Household, Income and Labor Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) in 2013. MEASUREMENTS: The associations of sleep quality (good/poor) in combination with mid-range (6-8 hours), short (<6) or long (>8) sleep duration with functioning, determined from the SF-36, were evaluated using logistic regression adjusting for sociodemographic, relationships, health behaviors, obesity, pain, and mental and physical illness confounders...
April 2018: Sleep Health
Philip M Gerwin, Rada M Norinsky, Ravi J Tolwani
Laboratory animal programs and core laboratories often set service rates based on cost estimates. However, actual costs may be unknown, and service rates may not reflect the actual cost of services. Accurately evaluating the actual costs of services can be challenging and time-consuming. We used a time-driven activity-based costing (ABC) model to determine the cost of services provided by a resource laboratory at our institution. The time-driven approach is a more efficient approach to calculating costs than using a traditional ABC model...
March 1, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
Jesse J Liu, Jeffrey S Raskin, Fran Hardaway, Katherine Holste, Sarah Brown, Ahmed M Raslan
BACKGROUND: Delivery of higher value healthcare is an ultimate government and public goal. Improving efficiency by standardization of surgical steps can improve patient outcomes, reduce costs, and lead to higher value healthcare. Lean principles and methodology have improved timeliness in perioperative medicine; however, process mapping of surgery itself has not been performed. OBJECTIVE: To apply Plan/Do/Study/Act (PDSA) cycles methodology to lumbar posterior instrumented fusion (PIF) using lean principles to create a standard work flow, identify waste, remove intraoperative variability, and examine feasibility among pilot cases...
March 14, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
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