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Emerging Infectious Disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335562/virus-bacteria-interactions-an-emerging-topic-in-human-infection
#1
REVIEW
Erin A Almand, Matthew D Moore, Lee-Ann Jaykus
Bacteria and viruses often occupy the same niches, however, interest in their potential collaboration in promoting wellness or disease states has only recently gained traction. While the interaction of some bacteria and viruses is well characterized (e.g., influenza virus), researchers are typically more interested in the location of the infection than the manner of cooperation. There are two overarching types of bacterial-virus disease causing interactions: direct interactions that in some way aid the viruses, and indirect interactions aiding bacteria...
March 21, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331993/molecular-characterization-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-human-influenza-a-viruses-isolated-in-iran-during-the-2014-2015-season
#2
Elham Moasser, Farida Behzadian, Afagh Moattari, Fatemeh Fotouhi, Amir Rahimi, Hassan Zaraket, Seyed Younes Hosseini
Influenza A viruses are an important cause of severe infectious diseases in humans and are characterized by their fast evolution rate. Global monitoring of these viruses is critical to detect newly emerging variants during annual epidemics. Here, we sought to genetically characterize influenza A/H1N1pdm09 and A/H3N2 viruses collected in Iran during the 2014-2015 influenza season. A total of 200 nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from patients with influenza-like illnesses. Swabs were screened for influenza A and B using real-time PCR...
March 22, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331130/cytopenias-and-clonal-expansion-of-gamma-delta-t-cells-in-a-patient-with-anaplasmosis-a-potential-diagnostic-pitfall
#3
Daniel Marko, Anamarija M Perry, Arjuna Ponnampalam, Michel R Nasr
Human granulocytic anaplasmosis is a rare, tick-borne infectious disease caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Herein, we report a rare case of human granulocytic anaplasmosis associated with cytopenias and clonal expansion of gamma/delta T-cells in the bone marrow. A 77-year old man presented multiple times to the emergency department complaining of muscle weakness. Complete blood count detected cytopenias and peripheral blood smear showed pseudo Pelger-Huet neutrophils. These findings prompted bone marrow evaluation with ancillary studies including flow cytometry, karyotyping and T-cell rearrangement studies...
2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hematopathology: JCEH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331092/monkeypox-virus-host-factor-screen-in-haploid-cells-identifies-essential-role-of-garp-complex-in-extracellular-virus-formation
#4
Susan Realegeno, Andreas S Puschnik, Amrita Kumar, Cynthia Goldsmith, Jillybeth Burgado, Suryaprakash Sambhara, Victoria A Olson, Darin Carroll, Inger Damon, Tetsuya Hirata, Taroh Kinoshita, Jan E Carette, Panayampalli Subbian Satheshkumar
Monkeypox virus (MPXV) is a human pathogen that is a member of the Orthopoxvirus genus, which includes Vaccinia virus and Variola virus (the causative agent of smallpox). Human monkeypox is considered an emerging zoonotic infectious disease. To identify host factors required for MPXV infection, we performed a genome-wide insertional mutagenesis screen in human haploid cells. The screen revealed several candidate genes, including those involved in Golgi trafficking, glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis and glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) - anchor biosynthesis...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331091/ebolaviruses-associated-with-differential-pathogenicity-induce-distinct-host-responses-in-human-macrophages
#5
Judith Olejnik, Adriana Forero, Laure R Deflubé, Adam J Hume, Whitney A Manhart, Andrew Nishida, Andrea Marzi, Michael G Katze, Hideki Ebihara, Angela L Rasmussen, Elke Mühlberger
Ebola virus (EBOV) and Reston virus (RESTV) are members of the Ebolavirus genus which greatly differ in their pathogenicity. While EBOV causes a severe disease in humans characterized by a dysregulated inflammatory response and elevated cytokine and chemokine production, there are no reported disease-associated human cases of RESTV infection, suggesting that RESTV is non-pathogenic for humans. The underlying mechanisms determining the pathogenicity of different ebolavirus species are not yet known. In this study we dissect the host response to EBOV and RESTV infection in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs)...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330752/prevalence-and-distribution-of-covert-mortality-nodavirus-cmnv-in-cultured-crustacean
#6
Qingli Zhang, TingTing Xu, Xiaoyuan Wan, Shuang Liu, Xiuhua Wang, Xiaoping Li, Xuan Dong, Bing Yang, Jie Huang
An emerging covert mortality nodavirus (CMNV) was proved to be the infectious agent of shrimp viral covert mortality disease (VCMD). Prevalence and distribution of CMNV were investigated by using the methods of reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP), nested reverse transcription PCR, gene sequencing, histopathology, in situ RNA hybridization (ISH) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) in this study. RT-LAMP results showed that CMNV positive samples appeared in the cultured crustaceans including Litopenaeus vannamei, Fenneropenaeus chinensis, Marsupenaeus japonicus, Penaeus monodon, and Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and mostly distributed the coastal provinces in China...
March 18, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330498/identification-of-cattle-buffaloes-and-rodents-as-reservoir-animals-of-leptospira-in-the-district-of-gampaha-sri-lanka
#7
D T H Denipitiya, N V Chandrasekharan, W Abeyewickreme, R A Hartskeerl, M D Hapugoda
BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is an important emerging infectious disease in Sri Lanka. Rats are the most important reservoir of Leptospira but domestic and wild mammals may also act as important maintenance or accidental hosts. In Sri Lanka, knowledge of reservoir animals of leptospires is poor. The objective of this study was to identify potential reservoir animals of Leptospira in the District of Gampaha, Sri Lanka. FINDINGS: Blood and kidney samples were collected from 38 rodents and mid-stream urine samples were randomly collected from 45 cattle and five buffaloes in the District of Gampaha...
March 23, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329653/introducing-public-health-themes-in-clinical-dermatology
#8
Scott A Norton
The ACGME's Core Competencies comprise six domains, which in turn contain dozens of often overlapping milestones. Several competencies explicitly invoke public health topics - but if one wears the right set of lenses, nearly every milestone, nearly every aspect of health and medicine, can be viewed from a public health perspective. Why then is Dermatology generally taught - and practiced - in an Intensive Care manner, where seemingly unlimited diagnostic & therapeutic efforts focus on single individuals, not the community?In this presentation, I argue that topics of public health concern should not be relegated to the minor leagues of GME...
September 15, 2016: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328962/the-blood-dna-virome-in-8-000-humans
#9
Ahmed Moustafa, Chao Xie, Ewen Kirkness, William Biggs, Emily Wong, Yaron Turpaz, Kenneth Bloom, Eric Delwart, Karen E Nelson, J Craig Venter, Amalio Telenti
The characterization of the blood virome is important for the safety of blood-derived transfusion products, and for the identification of emerging pathogens. We explored non-human sequence data from whole-genome sequencing of blood from 8,240 individuals, none of whom were ascertained for any infectious disease. Viral sequences were extracted from the pool of sequence reads that did not map to the human reference genome. Analyses sifted through close to 1 Petabyte of sequence data and performed 0.5 trillion similarity searches...
March 22, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327796/keeping-track-of-hidden-dangers-the-short-history-of-the-sabi%C3%A3-virus
#10
Joel Henrique Ellwanger, José Artur Bogo Chies
Emerging infectious diseases are a global threat. In countries like Brazil, where biodiversity is high and public health conditions in terms of infrastructure and medical care are often precarious, emerging diseases are particularly worrisome. The lack of monitoring strategies to identify pathogens with the potential to cause outbreaks or epidemics is another problem in Brazil and other developing countries. In this article, we present the history of the Sabiá virus (SABV), a pathogen that was described in the 1990s in Brazil...
January 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326205/shigella-sonnei-bacteremia-presenting-with-profound-hepatic-dysfunction
#11
Oluwaseun Shogbesan, Andrew Rettew, Bilal Shaikh, Abdullateef Abdulkareem, Anthony Donato
Worldwide, Shigellosis is a significant public health issue, associated with nearly one million deaths annually. About half a million cases of Shigella infection are reported annually in the United States. Shigella bacteremia is uncommon and generally seen in children and immunocompromised adults. We present a case of a Shigella sonnei bacteremia with marked hepatic derangement in a 27-year-old previously healthy homosexual male with history of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, who presented to the emergency room with a 4-day history of loose watery stool, abdominal cramps, nausea and vomiting, and yellow skin of 2-day duration...
2017: Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321401/advances-in-emerging-and-neglected-infectious-diseases
#12
EDITORIAL
Charles T Spencer, Jose Ronnie Vasconcelos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321350/shigellosis-caused-by-ctx-m-type-esbl-producing-shigella-flexneri-in-two-siblings-of-rural-nepal-first-case-report-from-the-country
#13
Narayan Prasad Parajuli, Govardhan Joshi, Bashu Dev Pardhe, Jyotsna Shakya, Anjeela Bhetwal, Shreena Shakya, Roshan Pandit, Sumesh Shreekhanda Shrestha, Puspa Raj Khanal
Shigellosis is an acute infectious disease characterized as severe bloody diarrhea (dysentery) and is accountable for a significant burden of morbidity and mortality especially in children under the age of 5 years. Antimicrobial therapy is required in the cases of severe dysentery associated with Shigella. However, emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR) strains of Shigella spp. over the last two decades has restricted the use of common therapeutic antimicrobials. In MDR strains, the third-generation cephalosporins have been used for the treatment, but, unfortunately, emerging reports of enzyme mediated β-lactam resistance among Shigella isolates from various parts of the world have greatly compromised the therapy of pediatric dysentery...
2017: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319732/an-antigen-to-remember-regulation-of-b-cell-memory-in-health-and-disease
#14
REVIEW
Aleta Pupovac, Kim L Good-Jacobson
Vaccine success relies on the formation of immunity. Humoral immunity is critical and is mediated by long-lived antibody-secreting cells and memory B cells (MBCs). Chronic infectious diseases cause a significant global burden of disease; pathogens that evade the immune system can cause phenotypical and functional changes to immune memory populations. Thus, recent studies have focused on MBC subset function. IgM(+) MBCs have emerged as important early responders in malaria. Atypical MBCs have functional qualities associated with exhaustion in chronic infectious diseases, but the requirements for their formation and where they localize remains unknown...
March 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319235/preparing-for-emerging-infectious-diseases
#15
Lisa Saiman, Amy S Arrington, Michael Bell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 20, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318535/organism-and-microbiome-analysis-techniques-and-implications-for-chronic-rhinosinusitis
#16
REVIEW
Ashleigh A Halderman, Andrew P Lane
Modern advances in DNA sequencing have allowed for the development of culture-independent techniques with application to infectious and inflammatory conditions, such as rhinosinusitis. Although paradigm-changing discoveries have resulted from molecular microbiologic methods for a number of diseases, insights provided into the role of bacteria in chronic rhinosinusitis have yet to be fully understood to the point of impacting clinical diagnosis and management. As culture-independent techniques continue to evolve and become more refined, it is likely that a better understanding will emerge of how the microbiome influences chronic rhinosinusitis pathogenesis and response to therapy...
March 16, 2017: Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316896/vector-competence-of-anopheles-and-culex-mosquitoes-for-zika-virus
#17
Brittany L Dodson, Jason L Rasgon
Zika virus is a newly emergent mosquito-borne flavivirus that has caused recent large outbreaks in the new world, leading to dramatic increases in serious disease pathology including Guillain-Barre syndrome, newborn microcephaly, and infant brain damage. Although Aedes mosquitoes are thought to be the primary mosquito species driving infection, the virus has been isolated from dozens of mosquito species, including Culex and Anopheles species, and we lack a thorough understanding of which mosquito species to target for vector control...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316465/chicken-egg-yolk-antibodies-igy-for-prophylaxis-and-treatment-of-rotavirus-diarrhea-in-human-and-animal-neonates-a-concise-review
#18
Hlaing Myat Thu, Theingi Win Myat, Mo Mo Win, Kyaw Zin Thant, Shofiqur Rahman, Kouji Umeda, Sa Van Nguyen, Faustino C Icatlo, Kyoko Higo-Moriguchi, Koki Taniguchi, Takao Tsuji, Keiji Oguma, Sang Jong Kim, Hyun Suk Bae, Hyuk Joon Choi
The rotavirus-induced diarrhea of human and animal neonates is a major public health concern worldwide. Until recently, no effective therapy is available to specifically inactivate the rotavirion particles within the gut. Passive immunotherapy by oral administration of chicken egg yolk antibody (IgY) has emerged of late as a fresh alternative strategy to control infectious diseases of the alimentary tract and has been applied in the treatment of diarrhea due to rotavirus infection. The purpose of this concise review is to evaluate evidence on the properties and performance of anti-rotavirus immunoglobulin Y (IgY) for prevention and treatment of rotavirus diarrhea in human and animal neonates...
2017: Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315686/crystal-structure-of-the-catalytic-domain-of-clostridium-perfringens-neuraminidase-in-complex-with-a-non-carbohydrate-based-inhibitor-2-cyclohexylamino-ethanesulfonic-acid
#19
Youngjin Lee, Hyung-Seop Youn, Jung-Gyu Lee, Jun Yop An, Kyoung Ryoung Park, Jung Youn Kang, Young Bae Ryu, Mi Sun Jin, Ki Hun Park, Soo Hyun Eom
Anti-bacterial and anti-viral neuraminidase agents inhibit neuraminidase activity catalyzing the hydrolysis of terminal N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) from glycoconjugates and help to prevent the host pathogenesis that lead to fatal infectious diseases including influenza, bacteremia, sepsis, and cholera. Emerging antibiotic and drug resistances to commonly used anti-neuraminidase agents such as oseltamivir (Tamiflu) and zanamivir (Relenza) have highlighted the need to develop new anti-neuraminidase drugs...
March 15, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303104/mathematical-modeling-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-colonization-invasive-infection-and-treatment
#20
Elisa Domínguez-Hüttinger, Neville J Boon, Thomas B Clarke, Reiko J Tanaka
Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp) is a commensal bacterium that normally resides on the upper airway epithelium without causing infection. However, factors such as co-infection with influenza virus can impair the complex Sp-host interactions and the subsequent development of many life-threatening infectious and inflammatory diseases, including pneumonia, meningitis or even sepsis. With the increased threat of Sp infection due to the emergence of new antibiotic resistant Sp strains, there is an urgent need for better treatment strategies that effectively prevent progression of disease triggered by Sp infection, minimizing the use of antibiotics...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
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