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Emerging Infectious Disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786132/the-economic-case-for-a-pandemic-fund
#1
Kevin Berry, Toph Allen, Richard D Horan, Jason F Shogren, David Finnoff, Peter Daszak
The rapid urban spread of Ebola virus in West Africa in 2014 and consequent breakdown of control measures led to a significant economic impact as well as the burden on public health and wellbeing. The US government appropriated $5.4 Billion for FY2015 and WHO proposed a $100 Million emergency fund largely to curtail the threat of future outbreaks. Using epidemiological analyses and economic modeling, we propose that the best use of these and similar funds would be to serve as global insurance against the continued threat of emerging infectious diseases...
May 21, 2018: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785478/changing-trend-of-infectious-diseases-in-nepal
#2
Shiba Kumar Rai
Many infectious/communicable diseases (IDs) are endemic in Nepal. Until a decade and half ago, IDs were the major cause of both morbidity and mortality accounting 70% for both. However, as a result of various preventive measures implemented by both the state and non-state actors, the overall IDs have shown a changing (declining) trend. The most impressive decline has been seen in the intestinal helminth infection. Though the overall burden of IDs is decreasing, several newer infectious diseases (emerging infections) namely, dengue fever, scrub typhus, influenza (H5N1 and H1N1), and others are posing a great public health problem...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785215/mycobacteriosis-and-tuberculosis-laboratory-diagnosis
#3
REVIEW
Davood Azadi, Tahereh Motallebirad, Kazem Ghaffari, Hasan Shojaei
Background: Tuberculosis is one of the most important infectious diseases that has claimed its victims throughout much of known human history. With Koch's discovery of the tubercle bacillus as the etiologic agent of the disease, his sanitary and hygienic measures, which were based on his discovery and the development of a vaccine against tuberculosis by Albert Calmette and Camille Guérin in 1921, an attenuated Mycobacterium bovis strain, bacilli Calmette-Guérin (BCG), and the discovery of the first antibiotic against tuberculosis, streptomycin by Selman Waksman in 1943, soon led to the opinion that appropriate control measures had become available for tuberculosis and it had been assumed that the disease could ultimately be eradicated...
2018: Open Microbiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785214/etiological-trends-and-patterns-of-antimicrobial-resistance-in-respiratory-infections
#4
Salma M Al-Zain Ahmed, Sara S Abdelrahman, Doua M Saad, Isra S Osman, Modasir G Osman, Eltahir A G Khalil
Background: Respiratory infections are one of the commonest causes of morbidity and mortality related to infectious diseases worldwide. The emergence of antimicrobial resistance is a major global health problem which is well established in developing countries. Good clinical suspicion and correct laboratory identification of respiratory infection causing organisms followed by the appropriate management are needed to compact both community-acquired and nosocomial infection respiratory infections...
2018: Open Microbiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783254/-legal-bases-of-vaccination-in-ukraine
#5
Olena O Terzi
OBJECTIVE: Introduction: Despite the extraordinary progress made in the field of vaccination, a large number of children in the last decade, 24 million children, or nearly 20% of children born every year, do not receive a full plan for vaccination during their first year of life. The aim: The purpose of the article is to analyze the legal framework of vaccination in Ukraine, comparing the approach of the domestic legislator to the vaccination with foreign experience. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: Methods of research are selected based on the goal of the study...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783081/recent-technological-advancements-in-tuberculosis-diagnostics-a-review
#6
REVIEW
Shagun Gupta, Vipan Kakkar
Early diagnosis and on-time effective treatment are indispensable for Tuberculosis (TB) control - a life threatening infectious communicable disease. The conventional techniques for diagnosing TB normally take two to three weeks. This delay in diagnosis and further increase in detection complexity due to the emerging risks of XDR-TB (Extensively drug Resistant-TB) and MDR-TB (Multidrug Resistant-TB) are evoking interest of researchers in the field of developing rapid TB detection techniques such as biosensing and other point-of-care (POC) techniques...
May 11, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781374/april-and-staci-could-be-predictors-of-severe-multiorgan-dysfunction-syndrome-in-sepsis
#7
Dajana F Lendak, Dunja M Mihajlović, Aleksandra S Novakov-Mikić, Jasmina M Boban, Milan Ubavić, Snežana V Brkić
Although the role of B cells in sepsis immunoregulation has become an interesting topic, there is lack of data on the role of B cell function regulators in prediction of multiorgan dysfunction syndrome (MODS). The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of A Proliferation Inducing Ligand (APRIL) and soluble Transmembrane Activator and CAML Interactor Protein (sTACI), the main B cell function regulators, in prediction of MODS development within the first 48h after admission to intensive care unit, among septic patients...
May 21, 2018: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781044/sleeve-gastrectomy-in-morbidly-obese-hiv-patients-focus-on-anti-retroviral-treatment-absorption-after-surgery
#8
Chloé Amouyal, Marion Buyse, Lea Lucas-Martini, Déborah Hirt, Laurent Genser, Adriana Torcivia, Jean-Luc Bouillot, Jean-Michel Oppert, Judith Aron-Wisnewsky
CONTEXT: Anti-retroviral therapy (ART) dramatically reduced AIDS development, thus enabling patients to live as long as the general population. New challenges have emerged particularly cardiometabolic diseases and weight gain, with some HIV patients seeking bariatric surgery (BS). However, BS outcomes during HIV remain poorly described, with scarce data on ART pharmacokinetic post-BS. OBJECTIVE: Describing sleeve gastrectomy (SG) results in HIV patients in terms of ART pharmacokinetic, HIV control, weight loss, and metabolic outcomes...
May 20, 2018: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780364/antibacterial-efficacy-of-polysaccharide-capped-silver-nanoparticles-is-not-compromised-by-acrab-tolc-efflux-pump
#9
Mitali Mishra, Satish Kumar, Rakesh K Majhi, Luna Goswami, Chandan Goswami, Harapriya Mohapatra
Antibacterial therapy is of paramount importance in treatment of several acute and chronic infectious diseases caused by pathogens. Over the years extensive use and misuse of antimicrobial agents has led to emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR) and extensive drug resistant (XDR) pathogens. This drastic escalation in resistant phenotype has limited the efficacy of available therapeutic options. Thus, the need of the hour is to look for alternative therapeutic approaches to mitigate healthcare concerns caused due to MDR bacterial infections...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779724/the-emerging-use-of-social-media-for-health-related-purposes-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-scoping-review
#10
Emily Hagg, V Susan Dahinten, Leanne M Currie
BACKGROUND: Social media allows for instant access to, and dissemination of, information around the globe. Access to social media in low- and middle-income countries has increased exponentially in recent years due to technological advances. Despite this growth, the use of social media in low- and middle-income countries is less well-researched than in high-income countries. OBJECTIVE: To identify, explore and summarize the current state of the literature on the use of social media for health in low- and middle-income countries...
July 2018: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779674/forecasting-respiratory-infectious-outbreaks-using-ed-based-syndromic-surveillance-for-febrile-ed-visits-in-a-metropolitan-city
#11
Tae Han Kim, Ki Jeong Hong, Sang Do Shin, Gwan Jin Park, Sungwan Kim, Nhayoung Hong
BACKGROUND: Monitoring and detecting sudden outbreaks of respiratory infectious disease is important. Emergency Department (ED)-based syndromic surveillance systems have been introduced for early detection of infectious outbreaks. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a forecasting model of respiratory infectious disease outbreaks based on a nationwide ED syndromic surveillance using daily number of emergency department visits with fever. METHODS: We measured the number of daily ED visits with body temperature ≥ 38...
May 10, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779454/vaccinia-based-vaccines-to-biothreat-and-emerging-viruses
#12
Les P Nagata, Chad R Irwin, Wei-Gang Hu, David H Evans
The past few years have seen a rash of emerging viral diseases, including the Ebola crisis in West Africa, the pandemic spread of chikungunya, and the recent explosion of Zika in South America. Vaccination is the most reliable and cost-effective method of control of infectious diseases, however, there is often a long delay in production and approval in getting new vaccines to market. Vaccinia was the first vaccine developed for the successful eradication of smallpox and has properties that make it attractive as a universal vaccine vector...
May 21, 2018: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776384/competence-of-mosquitoes-native-to-the-united-kingdom-to-support-replication-and-transmission-of-rift-valley-fever-virus
#13
Sarah Lumley, Luis M Hernández-Triana, Daniel L Horton, Maria Del Mar Fernández de Marco, Jolyon M Medlock, Roger Hewson, Anthony R Fooks, Nicholas Johnson
BACKGROUND: Rift Valley fever phlebovirus (RVFV) is a mosquito-borne arbovirus causing severe disease in humans and livestock. It is endemic in Africa and spread to the Arabian Peninsula in 2000 raising concerns it could emerge in Europe. The ability of temperate mosquitoes from the United Kingdom (UK) to support replication and transmission of RVFV is unknown. METHODS: In this study, two colonised lines of Culex pipiens, wild-caught Aedes detritus and Ae. rusticus from the UK were infected with pathogenic strains of RVFV to assess their vector competence...
May 18, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774299/spatial-distribution-and-cluster-analysis-of-dengue-using-self-organizing-maps-in-andhra-pradesh-india-2011-2013
#14
Srinivasa Rao Mutheneni, Rajasekhar Mopuri, Suchithra Naish, Deepak Gunti, Suryanarayana Murty Upadhyayula
Background and objectives: Dengue is an emerging and re-emerging infectious disease, transmitted by mosquitoes. It is mostly prevalent in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world, particularly, in Asia-Pacific region. To understand the epidemiology and spatial distribution of dengue, a retrospective surveillance study was conducted in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India during 2011-2013. Material and methods: District-wise disease endemicity levels were mapped through geographical information system (GIS) tools...
February 2018: Parasite Epidemiology and Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773064/the-hydrocarbon-staple-beyond-recent-advances-towards-stapled-peptide-therapeutics-that-target-protein-protein-interactions
#15
Robert A Hillman, Jonathan W Nadraws, Michael A Bertucci
Anomalous protein-protein interactions (PPIs) have been correlated to a variety of disease states, such as cancer, infectious disease, neurological disorders, diabetes, endocrine disorders and cardiovascular disease. Stapled peptides are an emerging intervention for these PPIs due to their improved structural rigidity and pharmacokinetic properties relative to unstapled peptides. This review details the most recent advances in the field of stapled peptide therapeutics, including the increasing variety of PPIs being targeted and types of peptide staples being employed...
May 17, 2018: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772759/human-babesiosis-caused-by-babesia-duncani-has-widespread-distribution-across-canada
#16
John D Scott, Catherine M Scott
Human babesiosis caused by Babesia duncani is an emerging infectious disease in Canada. This malaria-like illness is brought about by a protozoan parasite infecting red blood cells. Currently, controversy surrounds which tick species are vectors of B. duncani. Since the availability of a serological or molecular test in Canada for B. duncani has been limited, we conducted a seven-year surveillance study (2011⁻2017) to ascertain the occurrence and geographic distribution of B. duncani infection country-wide...
May 17, 2018: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770047/emerging-infectious-diseases-prediction-and-detection
#17
N H Ogden, P AbdelMalik, Jrc Pulliam
Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs), including West Nile virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Lyme disease, have had a direct effect within Canada, while many more EIDs such as Zika, chikungunya and Ebola are a threat to Canadians while travelling. Over 75% of EIDs affecting humans are, or were originally, zoonoses (infectious diseases transmitted from animals to humans). There are two main ways by which infectious diseases can emerge: by changes in their geographical ranges and by adaptive emergence, a genetic change in a microorganism that results in it becoming capable of invading a new niche, often by jumping to a new host species such as humans...
October 5, 2017: Canada Communicable Disease Report, Relevé des Maladies Transmissibles Au Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768293/seasonality-of-common-pediatric-infectious-diseases
#18
Susan C Lipsett, Michael C Monuteaux, Andrew M Fine
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Traditional sources cite seasonal patterns for common infectious diseases, often based on microbiologic data, but little is known about cyclical trends in clinically diagnosed infectious conditions in the emergency department (ED). We leveraged the publicly available Nationwide Emergency Department Sample database to measure the seasonality of the most common pediatric infectious diseases diagnosed in US EDs. METHODS: We searched the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample database to identify infectious diagnoses comprising at least 1% of all diagnosis codes ascribed to patients 21 years and younger in US EDs from 2009 to 2013...
May 15, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765814/designing-of-phenol-based-%C3%AE-carbonic-anhydrase1-inhibitors-through-qsar-molecular-docking-and-md-simulation-approach
#19
Shahzaib Ahamad, Md Imtaiyaz Hassan, Neeraja Dwivedi
Tuberculosis (Tb) is an airborne infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Beta-carbonic anhydrase 1 ( β-CA1 ) has emerged as one of the potential targets for new antitubercular drug development. In this work, three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationships (3D-QSAR), molecular docking, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation approaches were performed on a series of natural and synthetic phenol-based β-CA1 inhibitors. The developed 3D-QSAR model ( r 2  = 0.94, q 2  = 0...
May 2018: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765395/progressive-neurological-decline-with-deep-bilateral-imaging-changes-a-protean-presentation-of-dural-arteriovenous-fistulae
#20
Rene A Colorado, Marcelo Matiello, Hyun-Sik Yang, James D Rabinov, Aman Patel, Joshua A Hirsch, Ram Chavali, Thabele M Leslie-Mazwi
Intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulae (DAVF) within the deep cerebral vasculature are diagnostically challenging because of their variable clinical presentation and typical bilateral neuroimaging findings mimicking inflammatory, infectious, and metabolic processes. Increasingly, reports have emerged highlighting the diagnostic and treatment challenges of these lesions and their associated high morbidity and rapid clinical deterioration when untreated. We describe here a case series of 4 patients with deep cerebral DAVF who presented with impaired arousal or memory and behavioral changes...
April 2018: Interventional Neurology
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