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Emerging Infectious Disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341432/duck-beak-atrophy-and-dwarfism-syndrome-disease-complex-interplay-of-novel-goose-parvovirus-related-virus-and-duck-circovirus
#1
P Li, J Li, R Zhang, J Chen, W Wang, J Lan, Z Xie, S Jiang
As a newly emerged infectious disease, duck "beak atrophy and dwarfism syndrome (BADS)" disease has caused huge economic losses to waterfowl industry in China since 2015. Novel goose parvovirus-related virus (NGPV) is believed the main pathogen of BADS disease; however, BADS is rarely reproduced by infecting ducks with NGPV alone. As avian circovirus infection causes clinical symptoms similar to BADS, duck circovirus (DuCV) is suspected the minor pathogen of BADS disease. In this study, an investigation was carried out to determine the coinfection of NGPV and DuCV in duck embryos and in ducks with BADS disease...
January 16, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336958/prehospital-emergencies-in-illegal-gold-mining-sites-in-french-guiana
#2
Gérald Egmann, Pierre Tattevin, Renaud Palancade, Matthieu Nacher
INTRODUCTION: Illegal gold mining is flourishing in French Guiana, existing outside the law due to both the high cost of gold mining permits and the challenges of law enforcement within the Amazon forest. We report the characteristics of, and the medical responses to, medical emergencies in illegal gold mining sites. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of all medical emergencies reported from illegal gold mining sites to the centralized call office of SAMU 973 from 1998 through 2000 and from 2008 through 2010...
January 11, 2018: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335029/estimating-the-proportion-of-clinically-diagnosed-infectious-and-non-infectious-animal-diseases-in-ganta-afeshum-woreda-eastern-tigray-zone-ethiopia
#3
Mebrahtu Tedla, Mebrahtu Gebreselassie
OBJECTIVE: This study was performed with the objective of identifying the proportion of emerging and endemic livestock diseases using cross sectional survey. RESULT: A total of 285 clinically diseased animals were presented to a veterinary clinic and diagnosed tentatively based on history, clinical sign, and simple laboratory diagnostics and from the study, actinomycosis (15.83%), mastitis (15%), tick infestation (10%), respiratory diseases (9.16%) and gastro intestinal parasitism (9...
January 15, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333950/willingness-to-pay-for-an-ebola-vaccine-during-the-2014-2016-ebola-outbreak-in-west-africa-results-from-a-u-s-national-sample
#4
Julia E Painter, Michael E von Fricken, Suyane Viana de O Mesquita, Ralph J DiClemente
The 2014-2016 Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa led to advances in the development of vaccines against Ebola. This study examined factors associated with willingness to pay for an Ebola vaccine among a U.S. national sample during the recent Ebola outbreak. From April 30-May 8, 2015, a national survey was conducted using the GfK Group's KnowlegePanel®. Main outcome measures included willingness to pay at least $1; more than $50; and more than $100 for an Ebola vaccine. Analyses were conducted using weighted multivariable logistic regression...
January 15, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331587/il-23-il-17-immune-axis-in-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-exploring-newer-vistas-for-understanding-pathobiology-and-therapeutic-implications
#5
REVIEW
Monojit Debnath, Madhu Nagappa, Geetanjali Murari, Arun B Taly
Guillain Barré Syndrome (GBS) is a severe disorder of the peripheral nervous system with an inadequately known etiopathology. It is a post infectious immune mediated disorder, characterized by autoantibody production, complement activation as well as T reactivity against gangliosides. However, the precise etiopathogenesis remains poorly understood in a majority of the patients. Th17 cells, a recently identified lineage of Th cells have emerged as a predominant inducer of autoimmunity and inflammation in various immunological disorders...
January 10, 2018: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325027/pathogens-microbiome-and-the-host-emergence-of-the-ecological-koch-s-postulates
#6
Pascale Vonaesch, Mark Anderson, Philippe J Sansonetti
Even though tremendous progress has been made in the last decades to elucidate the mechanisms of intestinal homeostasis, dysbiosis and disease, we are only at the beginning of understanding the complexity of the gut ecosystem and the underlying interaction networks. We are also only starting to unravel the mechanisms that pathogens have evolved to overcome the barriers imposed by the microbiota and host to exploit the system to their own benefit. Recent work in these domains clearly indicates that the 'traditional Koch's postulate', which state that a given pathogen leads to a distinct disease, are not valid for all 'infectious' diseases, but that a more complete and complex interpretation of the Koch's postulate is needed in order to understand and explain them...
January 9, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322642/peste-des-petits-ruminants-in-china-since-its-first-outbreak-in-2007-a-10-year-review
#7
REVIEW
F Liu, J Li, L Li, Y Liu, X Wu, Z Wang
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a highly infectious disease of small ruminants and caused by small ruminant morbillivirus (SRMV), formerly called peste-des-petits-ruminants virus (PPRV). This disease is circulating in Africa (except most countries in southern Africa), the Arabian Peninsula, the Middle East, and Central, East and South-East Asia. Peste des petits ruminants is still regarded as an exotic disease in China, where its first outbreak was reported in the Ngari region of Tibet in 2007, but effectively controlled by slaughter, vaccination and animal movement restriction in PPR-infected areas...
January 10, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321020/meta-analysis-of-human-gene-expression-in-response-to-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-reveals-potential-therapeutic-targets
#8
Zhang Wang, Seda Arat, Michal Magid-Slav, James R Brown
BACKGROUND: With the global emergence of multi-drug resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, new strategies to treat tuberculosis are urgently needed such as therapeutics targeting potential human host factors. RESULTS: Here we performed a statistical meta-analysis of human gene expression in response to both latent and active pulmonary tuberculosis infections from nine published datasets. We found 1655 genes that were significantly differentially expressed during active tuberculosis infection...
January 10, 2018: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320984/prevalence-and-antibiotic-susceptibility-of-uropathogens-from-cases-of-urinary-tract-infections-uti-in-shashemene-referral-hospital-ethiopia
#9
Wubalem Desta Seifu, Alemayehu Desalegn Gebissa
BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infection (UTI) remains to be one of the most common infectious diseases diagnosed in developing countries. And a widespread use of antibiotics against uropathogens has led to the emergence of antibiotic resistant species. A laboratory based cross-sectional survey was conducted in Shashemene referral hospital to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of uropathogens. METHODS: We have collected 384 clean catch mid-stream urine samples from all suspected UTI outpatients using sterile screw capped container...
January 10, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319583/the-infectious-and-non-infectious-etiology-clinical-picture-and-outcome-of-neutropenia-in-immunocompetent-hospitalized-children
#10
Odeya David, Yariv Fruchtman, Ruslan Sergienko, Joseph Kapelushnik, Eugene Leibovitz
BACKGROUND: Acquired neutropenia in immunocompetent children is common and its differential diagnosis ranges from benign causes to life-threatening diseases. We described the etiology, clinical picture and outcome of new onset neutropenia in immunocompetent children assessed in the emergency department and hospitalized at our medical center. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Previously healthy children admitted with neutropenia (absolute neutrophil count [ANC] <1.5 x 10/L) were included...
January 9, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319338/vigilance-and-sentinels-in-global-health-security
#11
Chris Lyttleton
Global health security is increasingly reliant on vigilance to provide early warning of transnational health threats. In theory, this approach requires that sentinels, based in communities most affected by new or re-emerging infectious diseases, deliver timely alerts of incipient risk. Medicalizing global safety also implies there are particular forms of insecurity that must be remedied to pre-empt disease spread. I examine vigilance in the context of spreading drug resistant malaria in Southeast Asian border zones and argue that to act as sentinels, marginal groups vulnerable to infection must be able to articulate what social and behavioral factors prompt proliferating disease risks...
January 10, 2018: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318963/nanodiagnostics-and-nanodelivery-applications-in-genetic-alterations
#12
Maria Sofia Falzarano, Cristina Flesia, Roberta Cavalli, Caterina Guiot, Alessandra Ferlini
Background Genetic alterations cause hereditary diseases (HDs) with a wide range of incidences. Some, like cystic fibrosi, occur frequently (1/1,000 newborns), whilst others, such as Pompe disease and other metabolic disorders are very rare (1/100,000 newborns). They are well under the threshold of 1/3,000, denoted by the European Community as rare diseases (RDs). Genetic alterations are also associated with multifactorial disorders like diabetes, and underline both somatic and germline mutations in cancer...
January 10, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318503/university-students-knowledge-attitudes-and-sources-of-information-about-zika-virus
#13
Ashley N Plaster, Julia E Painter, Dylan H Tjersland, Kathryn H Jacobsen
Colleges and universities are valuable partners for community health education outreach targeted to young adults. After the outbreak of Zika virus infection in the Americas was declared to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern on February 1, 2016, postsecondary institutions played an important role in educating at-risk communities about health promotion and disease prevention strategies. In April 2016, we recruited 613 undergraduate students from a large public university to complete a survey about their Zika-related knowledge, attitudes, and information seeking behaviors...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318111/escherichia-coli-in-iran-an-overview-of-antibiotic-resistance-a-review-article
#14
REVIEW
Hesam Alizade
Background: Escherichia coli is the most prominent cause of infectious diseases that span from the gastrointestinal tract to extra-intestinal sites such as urinary tract infection, septicaemia, and neonatal meningitis. The emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance in E. coli is an increasing public health concern across the world. Rising resistance in E. coli isolates is also observed in Iran. This review summarizes the status of antibiotic resistance of E. coli isolates in Iran from 2007 to 2016...
January 2018: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317998/new-and-emerging-therapies-for-acute-and-chronic-graft-versus-host-disease
#15
REVIEW
LaQuisa Hill, Amin Alousi, Partow Kebriaei, Rohtesh Mehta, Katayoun Rezvani, Elizabeth Shpall
Graft versus host disease (GVHD) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality following allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT). Despite the use of prophylactic GVHD regimens, a significant proportion of transplant recipients will develop acute or chronic GVHD following HSCT. Corticosteroids are standard first-line therapy, but are only effective in roughly half of all cases with ~50% of patients going on to develop steroid-refractory disease, which increases the risk of nonrelapse mortality...
January 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316967/ecological-distribution-and-population-dynamics-of-rift-valley-fever-virus-mosquito-vectors-diptera-culicidae-in-senegal
#16
Biram Biteye, Assane G Fall, Mamadou Ciss, Momar T Seck, Andrea Apolloni, Moussa Fall, Annelise Tran, Geoffrey Gimonneau
BACKGROUND: Many zoonotic infectious diseases have emerged and re-emerged over the last two decades. There has been a significant increase in vector-borne diseases due to climate variations that lead to environmental changes favoring the development and adaptation of vectors. This study was carried out to improve knowledge of the ecology of mosquito vectors involved in the transmission of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) in Senegal. METHODS: An entomological survey was conducted in three Senegalese agro-systems, Senegal River Delta (SRD), Senegal River Valley (SRV) and Ferlo, during the rainy season (July to November) of 2014 and 2015...
January 9, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304840/factors-influencing-adherence-to-tuberculosis-treatment-in-asmara-eritrea-a-qualitative-study
#17
Frezghi Hidray Gebreweld, Meron Mehari Kifle, Fitusm Eyob Gebremicheal, Leban Lebahati Simel, Meron Mebrahtu Gezae, Shewit Sibhatu Ghebreyesus, Yordanos Tesfamariam Mengsteab, Nebiat Ghirmay Wahd
BACKGROUND: Non-adherence to tuberculosis (TB) treatment is an important barrier for TB prevention and control. Poor adherence may result in prolonged disease infectiousness, drug resistance, relapse and death. The aim of this study was to assess factors influencing adherence to tuberculosis treatment in selected health facilities in Asmara, Eritrea. METHODS: A qualitative study which included in-depth interviews with 12 TB patients, three focus group discussions in selected health facilities in which one group comprised eight patients and key informant interviews with three health workers...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302270/back-to-the-future-in-a-petri-dish-origin-and-impact-of-resurrected-microbes-in-natural-populations
#18
REVIEW
Shira Houwenhuyse, Emilie Macke, Lien Reyserhove, Lore Bulteel, Ellen Decaestecker
Current natural populations face new interactions because of the re-emergence of ancient microbes and viruses. These risks come from the re-emergence of pathogens kept in laboratories or from pathogens that are retained in the permafrost, which become available upon thawing due to climate change. We here focus on the effects of such re-emergence in natural host populations based on evolutionary theory of virulence and long-term studies, which investigate host-pathogen adaptations. Pathogens tend to be locally and temporally adapted to their co-occurring hosts, but when pathogens from a different environment or different time enter the host community, the degree to which a new host-pathogen interaction is a threat will depend on the specific genotypic associations, the time lag between the host and the pathogen, and the interactions with native or recent host and pathogen species...
January 2018: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302150/the-forgotten-plague-psychiatric-manifestations-of-ebola-zika-and-emerging-infectious-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Veronica Tucci, Nidal Moukaddam, Jonathan Meadows, Suhal Shah, Sagar C Galwankar, G Bobby Kapur
The media and public health generally focus on the biological and physical ramifications of epidemics. Mental health issues that coincide with emerging diseases and epidemics are rarely examined and sometimes, even eschewed due to cultural considerations. Psychiatric manifestations of various infectious diseases, especially with a focus on Ebola Virus disease (EVD) and Zika Virus, are discussed in this commentary to illustrate the continued need of care after the resolution of the actual illness. Various infectious diseases have associations with mental illness, such as an increased risk of obsessive-compulsive disorders and Tourette syndrome in children with Group B streptococcal infection...
October 2017: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299272/design-and-model-based-recommendations-for-detecting-and-quantifying-an-amphibian-pathogen-in-environmental-samples
#20
Brittany A Mosher, Kathryn P Huyvaert, Tara Chestnut, Jacob L Kerby, Joseph D Madison, Larissa L Bailey
Accurate pathogen detection is essential for developing management strategies to address emerging infectious diseases, an increasingly prominent threat to wildlife. Sampling for free-living pathogens outside of their hosts has benefits for inference and study efficiency, but is still uncommon. We used a laboratory experiment to evaluate the influences of pathogen concentration, water type, and qPCR inhibitors on the detection and quantification of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) using water filtration. We compared results pre- and post-inhibitor removal, and assessed inferential differences when single versus multiple samples were collected across space or time...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
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