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Emerging Infectious Disease

Yadveer Singh Grewal, Muhammad J A Shiddiky, Stephen M Mahler, Gerard A Cangelosi, Matt Trau
Rapid progress in disease biomarker discovery has increased the need for robust detection technologies. In the past several years, the designs of many immunoaffinity reagents have focused on lowering costs, improving specificity while also promoting stability. Antibody fragments (scFvs) have long been displayed on the surface of yeast and phage libraries for selection, however the stable production of such fragments presents challenges that hamper their widespread use in diagnostics. Membrane and cell wall proteins similarly suffer from stability problems when solubilized from their native environment...
October 20, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Lakshmi Ganapathi, Lara Danziger-Isakov, Camille Kotton, Deepali Kumar, Shirish Huprikar, Marian G Michaels, Janet A Englund
BACKGROUND: Pediatric transplant infectious diseases (PTID) is emerging as an area of expertise within pediatric infectious diseases. Although guidelines for training in PTID have been published, no prior national survey has been conducted to identify trainee-described needs for instruction in PTID. METHODS: A survey was designed through collaboration between the American Society of Transplantation and the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society, to assess trainee exposure, self-knowledge, and self-competency in PTID...
October 19, 2016: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Eric T Lofgren, Andrea M Egizi, Nina H Fefferman
The modern healthcare system involves complex interactions among microbes, patients, providers, and the built environment. It represents a unique and challenging setting for control of the emergence and spread of infectious diseases. We examine an extension of the perspectives and methods from ecology (and especially urban ecology) to address these unique issues, and we outline 3 examples: (1) viewing patients as individual microbial ecosystems; (2) the altered ecology of infectious diseases specifically within hospitals; and (3) ecosystem management perspectives for infection surveillance and control...
October 20, 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Douglas A E White, Erik S Anderson, Sarah K Pfeil, Laura J Deering, Tamara Todorovic, Tarak K Trivedi
BACKGROUND: Recent studies demonstrate high rates of previously undiagnosed hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among patients screened in urban emergency departments (ED). Experts caution, however, that public health interventions, such as screening for infectious diseases, must not interfere with the primary mission of EDs to provide timely acute care. Increases in ED length of stay (LOS) have been associated with decreased quality of ED care. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we assess the influence of an integrated HCV screening protocol on ED LOS...
2016: PloS One
A Fitzner, W Niedbalski
Seroprevalence studies of RHDV antibodies in domestic rabbits were conducted between 2008-2014. A total of 12,169 sera from the provinces of central, southern and south-east Poland, including 7,570 samples collected from mixed-breed rabbits reared in smallholder farms and nearly 4,600 sera taken mainly from unvaccinated rabbits kept in industrial farms, were examined using ELISA tests. Additionally, cross-reactivity of selected tested and control archival sera using both classic RHDV and RHDVa antigens was determined by HI assay...
September 1, 2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
Bronwyn M Gunn, Galit Alter
Induction of pathogen-specific binding antibodies has long been considered a signature of protective immunity following vaccination and infection. The humoral immune response is a complex network of antibodies that target different specificities and drive different functions, collectively acting to limit and clear infection either directly, via pathogen neutralization, or indirectly, via pathogen clearance by the innate immune system. Emerging data suggest that not all antibody responses are equal, and qualitative features of antibodies may be key to defining protective immune profiles...
October 15, 2016: Trends in Molecular Medicine
Thespina Yamanis, Elisabeth Nolan, Susan Shepler
BACKGROUND: Future infectious disease epidemics are likely to disproportionately affect countries with weak health systems, exacerbating global vulnerability. To decrease the severity of epidemics in these settings, lessons can be drawn from the Ebola outbreak in West Africa. There is a dearth of literature on public perceptions of the public health response system that required citizens to report and treat Ebola cases. Epidemiological reports suggested that there were delays in diagnosis and treatment...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Suvajyoti Guha, Brady McCaffrey, Prasanna Hariharan, Matthew R Myers
Surgical respirators, surgical masks (SMs) and facemasks for pediatric use (FPUs) are routinely used in the US healthcare industry as personal protective equipment (PPE) against infectious diseases. While N95s including surgical respirators have been routinely studied, SMs and FPUs have not received as much attention, particularly in the context of aerosolized threats. This is because SMs and PFUs are not designed to protect against sub-micron aerosols. However, with the possibility of new or re-emerging airborne diseases or bio-aerosol weapons lingering, combined with the limited availability of respirators and logistical issues associated with fit-testing millions, the general adult and pediatric populations may elect to wear SMs and FPUs, respectively, in the case of a pandemic or a bio-terrorist attack...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Marcos Espinal, Sylvain Aldighieri, Ronald St John, Francisco Becerra-Posada, Carissa Etienne
The World Health Organization's determination of the Ebola virus disease outbreak as a public health event of international concern prompted non affected countries to implement measures to prevent, detect, and manage the introduction of the virus in their territories. The outbreak provided an opportunity to assess the operational implementation of the International Health Regulations' core capacities and health systems' preparedness to handle a potential or confirmed case of Ebola virus disease. A public health framework implemented in Latin America and Caribbean countries encompassing preparatory self-assessments, in-country visits, and follow-up suggests that the region should increase efforts to consolidate and sustain progress on core capacities and health system preparedness to face public health events with national or international repercussions...
March 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
Takashi Suzuki, Joseph H Osei, Akihiro Sasaki, Michelle Adimazoya, Maxwell Appawu, Daniel Boakye, Nobuo Ohta, Samuel Dadzie
BACKGROUND: Dengue is one of the emerging diseases that can mostly only be controlled by vector control since there is no vaccine for the disease. Although, Dengue has not been reported in Ghana, movement of people from neighbouring countries where the disease has been reported can facilitate transmission of the disease. OBJECTIVE: This study was carried on the University of Ghana campus to determine the risk of transmission of viral haemorrhagic fevers and the insecticide susceptibility status of Ae...
September 2016: Ghana Medical Journal
Jian-Jun Wen, Xianxiu Wan, John Thacker, Nisha Jain Garg
BACKGROUND: Chagasic cardiomyopathy (CCM) caused by Trypanosoma cruzi (Tc) infection is prevalent in Latin America and recognized as an emerging infectious heart disease in the US. The NO-cGMP-PKG1α pathway maintains cardiac homeostasis and inotropy and may be disturbed due to phosphodiesterase (PDE5) mediated cGMP catabolism in CCM. METHODS AND RESULTS: C57BL/6 mice were infected with Tc, and at the end of acute parasitemia (i.e. 45 days post-infection), treated with sildenafil (SIL, 1 mg/kg) twice per week for 3 weeks...
June 2016: JACC. Basic to Translational Science
Nathan D Grubaugh, Kristian G Andersen
The epidemics of Ebola virus in West Africa and Zika virus in America highlight how viruses can explosively emerge into new territories. These epidemics also exposed how unprepared we are to handle infectious disease emergencies. This is also true when we consider hypothesized new clinical features of infection, such as the associations between Zika virus infection and severe neurological disease, including microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome. On the surface, these pathologies appear to be new features of Zika virus infection, however, causal relationships have not yet been established...
2016: F1000Research
Archana Vimal, Awanish Kumar
Allosterism has emerged as an innovative and significant mode of drug discovery. It facilitates the targeting of an allosteric site that is unique and more specific. A relatively new approach to allosteric regulation is the morpheein model, a concerted dissociative model that describes the equilibrium of alternate quaternary structure assemblies, whose architectures are dictated by alternate conformations in the dissociated state. It is involved in various biological phenomena, including enzyme regulation. One such enzyme is l-asparaginase, which is exploited by pathogenic microbes to cause infectious disease in humans...
October 11, 2016: Drug Discovery Today
Alexandre Y Saito, Adriana A Marin Rodriguez, Danielle S Menchaca Vega, Rodrigo A C Sussmann, Emília A Kimura, Alejandro M Katzin
Malaria, an infectious disease that kills more than 438,000 people per year worldwide, is a major public health problem. The emergence of strains resistant to conventional therapeutic agents necessitates the discovery of new drugs. We previously demonstrated that various substances, including terpenes, have antimalarial activity in vitro and in vivo. Nerolidol is a sesquiterpene present as an essential oil in several plants that is used in scented products and has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration as a food-flavouring agent...
September 30, 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Judith Barasche, Fabiola Stollar, Marcel M Bergmann, Jean-Christoph Caubet
In infants, the causes of acute repetitive vomiting and severely altered-consciousness status include a broad differential diagnosis, that is, primarly sepsis, infectious gastroenteritis, head injury, and intoxication, as well as neurologic, metabolic, and cardiologic condition diseases. In patients developing such symptoms, allergy as an etiological cause is often not considered by primary care physicians. With this case report, we aim to draw the attention of general pediatricians, emergency physicians, and intensivists to the fact that non-immunoglobulin E-mediated food allergic gastrointestinal disorders such as food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome should be considered in patients with sepsis-like symptoms...
October 6, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Eric Goberville, Nina-Coralie Hautekèete, Richard R Kirby, Yves Piquot, Christophe Luczak, Grégory Beaugrand
Beyond the direct influence of climate change on species distribution and phenology, indirect effects may also arise from perturbations in species interactions. Infectious diseases are strong biotic forces that can precipitate population declines and lead to biodiversity loss. It has been shown in forest ecosystems worldwide that at least 10% of trees are vulnerable to extinction and pathogens are increasingly implicated. In Europe, the emerging ash dieback disease caused by the fungus Hymenoscyphus fraxineus, commonly called Chalara fraxinea, is causing a severe mortality of common ash trees (Fraxinus excelsior); this is raising concerns for the persistence of this widespread tree, which is both a key component of forest ecosystems and economically important for timber production...
October 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
D Ayoub, L R Lopetuso, F Chamseddine, A Dajani, K Lahiri, H Mahmoud, M S Miqdady, G Zirizzotti, M A Sultan, F Franceschi, A Gasbarrini
OBJECTIVE: Gastroenteritis represents with respiratory tract infection the most common infectious disease syndrome of humans in developing countries. Gut microbiota regional variation and dysbiosis play a crucial role in triggering and worsening this devastating GI disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: With this manuscript, we want to explore and emphasize the critical aspect of acute gastroenteritis in Middle-East Countries and its correlation with the clinical aspect of gut microbiota modification and intestinal homeostasis...
September 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Edward C Holmes, Gytis Dudas, Andrew Rambaut, Kristian G Andersen
The 2013-2016 epidemic of Ebola virus disease in West Africa was of unprecedented magnitude and changed our perspective on this lethal but sporadically emerging virus. This outbreak also marked the beginning of large-scale real-time molecular epidemiology. Here, we show how evolutionary analyses of Ebola virus genome sequences provided key insights into virus origins, evolution and spread during the epidemic. We provide basic scientists, epidemiologists, medical practitioners and other outbreak responders with an enhanced understanding of the utility and limitations of pathogen genomic sequencing...
October 12, 2016: Nature
Rémi Peyraud, Ludovic Cottret, Lucas Marmiesse, Jérôme Gouzy, Stéphane Genin
Bacterial pathogenicity relies on a proficient metabolism and there is increasing evidence that metabolic adaptation to exploit host resources is a key property of infectious organisms. In many cases, colonization by the pathogen also implies an intensive multiplication and the necessity to produce a large array of virulence factors, which may represent a significant cost for the pathogen. We describe here the existence of a resource allocation trade-off mechanism in the plant pathogen R. solanacearum. We generated a genome-scale reconstruction of the metabolic network of R...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Charlotte Bernigaud, Fang Fang, Katja Fischer, Anne Lespine, Ludwig Serge Aho, Dominique Dreau, Andrew Kelly, Jean-François Sutra, Francis Moreau, Thomas Lilin, Françoise Botterel, Jacques Guillot, Olivier Chosidow
BACKGROUND: Scabies is one of the commonest dermatological conditions globally; however it is a largely underexplored and truly neglected infectious disease. Foremost, improvement in the management of this public health burden is imperative. Current treatments with topical agents and/or oral ivermectin (IVM) are insufficient and drug resistance is emerging. Moxidectin (MOX), with more advantageous pharmacological profiles may be a promising alternative. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a porcine scabies model, 12 pigs were randomly assigned to receive orally either MOX (0...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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