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Emerging Infectious Disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913973/emergence-of-new-virulent-rabbit-hemorrhagic-disease-virus-strains-in-saudi-arabia
#1
Mahmoud M Ismail, Mahmoud H A Mohamed, Ibrahim M El-Sabagh, Mohamed A Al-Hammadi
Rabbit hemorrhagic disease is an acute fatal highly contagious viral infectious disease that causes high losses among rabbitries. The disease was first reported in China in 1984 and later on in Saudi Arabia in 1996. The aim of this study was to investigate the emergence and pathogenicity of new rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) strains in Saudi Arabia. The pathogenicity was confirmed by inoculation in susceptible rabbits. Three RHDV strains were detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using primers targeting VP60 capsid protein gene in infected rabbitries during 2012 and 2013...
December 2, 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913674/immunoglobulins-and-their-receptors-and-subversion-of-their-protective-roles-by-bacterial-pathogens
#2
REVIEW
Jenny M Woof
Immunoglobulins (Igs) play critical roles in immune defence against infectious disease. They elicit potent elimination processes such as triggering complement activation and engaging specific Fc receptors present on immune cells, resulting in phagocytosis and other killing mechanisms. Many important pathogens have evolved mechanisms to subvert or evade Ig-mediated defence. One such mechanism used by several pathogenic bacteria features proteins that bind the Ig Fc region and compromise engagement of host effector molecules...
December 15, 2016: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913489/platelets-in-infectious-disease
#3
Elizabeth Middleton, Matthew T Rondina
Sepsis is a dynamic, acute, infectious disease syndrome characterized by dysregulated thrombo-inflammatory responses. The high mortality associated with sepsis has been recognized since the earliest clinicians' writings. Despite this, advances in the treatment of sepsis have been more modest. This is limited, in part, by the heterogeneity in the definition, population, presentation, and causal factors of infectious syndromes. Given the persistently high morbidity and mortality associated with sepsis, a better understanding of the dysregulated cellular biology underpinning sepsis is needed...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911071/severe-brain-injury-in-massachusetts-assessing-the-continuum-of-care
#4
Laura Lorenz, Gabrielle Katz
Acquired brain injury (ABI) is a major public health problem in Massachusetts (Hackman et al, 2014) and includes traumatic brain injury (TBI), stroke, ABI-related infectious diseases, metabolic disorders affecting the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord), and brain tumor. Advances in emergency medical care and neurosurgery mean that more people are surviving severe traumatic brain injury (Trexler et al, 2014). Yet many patients with severe TBI in particular, are not receiving inpatient services after initial treatment (Hackman et al, 2014; CDC, 2014) or later that are known to be effective (Malec & Kean, 2015; Lewis & Horn, 2015; BI Commission, 2011; Kolakowsky-Hayner et al, 2000; Interviews)...
December 10, 2015: Issue Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906864/potential-for-treatment-and-a-zika-virus-vaccine
#5
Natalie Quanquin, Lulan Wang, Genhong Cheng
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Zika virus (ZIKV) has only recently been exposed as a significant public health threat, and much of our limited knowledge of its pathogenesis and triggered immune responses were discovered in only the last few years. There are currently no ZIKV-specific therapeutics or vaccines available. This review seeks to bring the reader up-to-date with the latest developments in finding a way to combat this emerging infectious disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Current strategies used for developing ZIKV vaccines or treatments follow proven methods used against other flaviviruses...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906121/one-health-training-and-research-activities-in-western-europe
#6
REVIEW
Reina Sikkema, Marion Koopmans
INTRODUCTION: The increase in emerging human infectious diseases that have a zoonotic origin and the increasing resistance of microorganisms to antimicrobial drugs have shown the need for collaborations between the human, animal and environmental health sectors. The One Health concept increasingly receives recognition from policy makers and researchers all over the world. This overview compiled research and education activities in the area of One Health in Western Europe (Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Iceland, Ireland, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Monaco, the Netherlands, Portugal, Scandinavia, Spain, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom (UK), with a focus on infectious diseases...
2016: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906007/what-happens-to-cardiovascular-system-behind-the-undetectable-level-of-hiv-viremia
#7
REVIEW
Gabriella d'Ettorre, Giancarlo Ceccarelli, Paolo Pavone, Pietro Vittozzi, Gabriella De Girolamo, Ivan Schietroma, Sara Serafino, Noemi Giustini, Vincenzo Vullo
Despite the combined antiretroviral therapy has improved the length and quality of life of HIV infected patients, the survival of these patients is always decreased compared with the general population. This is the consequence of non-infectious illnesses including cardio vascular diseases. In fact large studies have indicated an increased risk of coronary atherosclerotic disease, myocardial infarction even in HIV patients on cART. In HIV infected patients several factors may contribute to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular problems: life-style, metabolic parameters, genetic predisposition, viral factors, immune activation, chronic inflammation and side effects of antiretroviral therapy...
April 27, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905351/-visualizing-research-lines-in-public-health-an-analysis-based-on-bibliometric-maps-applied-to-the-revista-espa%C3%A3-ola-de-salud-p%C3%A3%C2%BAblica-2006-2015
#8
Carmen Gálvez
OBJECTIVE: Identifying research lines is essential to understand the knowledge structure of a scientific domain. The aim of this study was to identify the main research topics of within the domain of public health, in the Revista Española de Saslud Pública during 2006-2015. METHODS: Original articles included in the Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) database, available online through the Web of Science (WoS), were selected. The analysis units used were the keywords, KeyWords Plus (KW+), extracted automatically by SSCI...
December 1, 2016: Revista Española de Salud Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903023/-adrenal-insufficiency
#9
Stephanie Burger-Stritt, Stefanie Hahner
Even under established replacement therapy, chronic adrenal insufficiency is associated with an impairment in daily life activities and a higher number of sick-days. In patients with individually adjusted glucocorticoid doses (avoiding over-replacement) the frequency of glucocorticoid side effects is low. Besides the standard treatment with conventional hydrocortisone, new formulas aiming at more adjusted physiological circadian cortisol profiles or improved individual dosing have been evaluated in recent clinical trials...
November 2016: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902357/pathogenesis-of-senecavirus-a-infection-in-finishing-pigs
#10
Lok R Joshi, Maureen H V Fernandes, Travis Clement, Steven Lawson, Angela Pillatzki, Talita P Resende, Fabio Vanucci, Gerald F Kutish, Eric Nelson, Diego G Diel
Senecavirus A (SVA) is an emerging picornavirus that has been recently associated with vesicular disease and neonatal mortality in swine. Many aspects of SVA infection biology and pathogenesis, however, remain unknown. Here the pathogenesis of SVA was investigated in finishing pigs. Animals were inoculated via the oronasal route with a contemporary SVA strain SD15-26 and monitored for clinical signs and lesions associated with SVA infection. Viremia was assessed in serum and virus shedding monitored in oral and nasal secretions and feces by real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR) and/or virus isolation...
October 14, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902345/advances-in-canine-distemper-virus-cdv-pathogenesis-research-a-wildlife-perspective
#11
Angelika Katrin Loots, Emily Mitchell, Desiré Lee Dalton, Antoinette Kotzé, Estelle H Venter
Canine distemper virus (CDV) has emerged as a significant disease of wildlife, is highly contagious and readily transmitted between susceptible hosts. Initially described as an infectious disease of domestic dogs, it is now recognised as a global multi-host pathogen, infecting and causing mass mortalities in a wide range of carnivore species. The last decade has seen the effect of numerous CDV outbreaks in various wildlife populations. Prevention of CDV requires a clear understanding of the potential hosts in danger of infection as well as the dynamic pathways CDV uses to gain entry to its host cells and its ability to initiate viral shedding and disease transmission...
November 28, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900646/the-potential-of-omics-technologies-in-lyme-disease-biomarker-discovery-and-early-detection
#12
REVIEW
Alaa Badawi
Lyme borreliosis (LB) is the most prevalent arthropod-borne infectious disease in North America and many countries of the temperate Northern Hemisphere. It is associated with local and systemic manifestations and has persistent post-treatment health complications in some individuals. Innate and acquired immunity-related inflammation is likely to play a critical role in both host defense against Borrelia burgdorferi and disease severity. Large-scale analytical approaches to quantify gene expression (transcriptomics), proteins (proteomics) and metabolites (metabolomics) in LB have recently emerged with a potential to advance the development of disease biomarkers in early, disseminated and posttreatment disease stages...
November 29, 2016: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900629/dracorhodin-perochlorate-attenuates-staphylococcus-aureus-usa300-virulence-by-decreasing-%C3%AE-toxin-expression
#13
Yumin Liu, Dongxue Shi, Yan Guo, Meng Li, Yonghong Zha, Quankai Wang, Jianfeng Wang
α-Toxin, a pore-forming toxin secreted by most Staphylococcus aureus, plays critical role in the pathogenesis associated with various infectious diseases. The USA300 which is a major international epidemic methicilin-resisrant S. aureus has spread rapidly to multiple countries and become an emerging public health concern. In this study, the in vitro efficacy of Dracorhodin Perochlorate (DP) against USA300 virulence was evaluated. Using susceptibility testing, immunoblots, rabbit blood haemolytic assay and real-time RT-PCR, we observed that the α-toxin production was decreased when USA300 was co-cultured with different sub-inhibitory concentration of DP...
January 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899918/mechanistic-basis-of-antimicrobial-actions-of-silver-nanoparticles
#14
REVIEW
Tikam Chand Dakal, Anu Kumar, Rita S Majumdar, Vinod Yadav
Multidrug resistance of the pathogenic microorganisms to the antimicrobial drugs has become a major impediment toward successful diagnosis and management of infectious diseases. Recent advancements in nanotechnology-based medicines have opened new horizons for combating multidrug resistance in microorganisms. In particular, the use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as a potent antibacterial agent has received much attention. The most critical physico-chemical parameters that affect the antimicrobial potential of AgNPs include size, shape, surface charge, concentration and colloidal state...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899013/in-vitro-antiviral-activity-of-ribavirin-against-severe-fever-with-thrombocytopenia-syndrome-virus
#15
Myung Jin Lee, Kye-Hyung Kim, Jongyoun Yi, Su Jin Choi, Pyoeng Gyun Choe, Wan Beom Park, Nam Joong Kim, Myoung-Don Oh
Background/Aims: Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease caused by severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV), a novel bunyavirus. As yet, there is no effective antiviral therapy for SFTS. Ribavirin is a broad-spectrum antiviral agent, which has been tried for treatment of SFTS. In this study, antiviral activity of ribavirin against SFTSV has been investigated. Methods: Vero cell-grown SFTSV strain Gangwon/Korea/2012 was treated with ribavirin at various concentrations...
November 30, 2016: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896497/the-slippery-difficulty-of-ever-containing-drug-resistance-with-current-practices
#16
REVIEW
R Fullybright
It has previously been shown that the rate of drug resistance emergence in medicine is exponential, while we have been producing drugs at a much lower rate. Our ability to successfully contain resistance at any one time is function of how many drugs we have at our disposal to counter new resistances from pathogens. Here, we assess our level of preparedness through a mathematical comparison of the drug manufacture rate by the pharmaceutical industry with the resistance emergence rate in pathogens. To that effect, changes in the rates of growth of the drugs production and resistance emergence processes are computed over multiple time segments and compared...
November 28, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894035/an-isothermal-label-free-and-rapid-one-step-rna-amplification-detection-assay-for-diagnosis-of-respiratory-viral-infections
#17
Bonhan Koo, Choong Eun Jin, Tae Yoon Lee, Jeong Hoon Lee, Mi Kyoung Park, Heungsup Sung, Se Yoon Park, Hyun Jung Lee, Sun Mi Kim, Ji Yeun Kim, Sung-Han Kim, Yong Shin
Recently, RNA viral infections caused by respiratory viruses, such as influenza, parainfluenza, respiratory syncytial virus, coronavirus, and Middle East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and Zika virus, are a major public health threats in the world. Although myriads of diagnostic methods based on RNA amplification have been developed in the last decades, they continue to lack speed, sensitivity, and specificity for clinical use. A rapid and accurate diagnostic method is needed for appropriate control, including isolation and treatment of the patients...
November 23, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890668/the-next-generation-of-antimicrobial-peptides-amps-as-molecular-therapeutic-tools-for-the-treatment-of-diseases-with-social-and-economic-impacts
#18
REVIEW
Nicolau B da Cunha, Nicole B Cobacho, Juliane F C Viana, Loiane A Lima, Kamila B O Sampaio, Stephan S M Dohms, Arthur C R Ferreira, César de la Fuente-Núñez, Fabrício F Costa, Octávio L Franco, Simoni C Dias
Anti-infective drugs have had a key role in the contemporary world, contributing to dramatically decrease mortality rates caused by infectious diseases worldwide. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are multifunctional effectors of the innate immune system of mucosal surfaces and present antimicrobial activity against a range of pathogenic viruses, bacteria, and fungi. However, the discovery and development of new antibacterial drugs is a crucial step to overcome the great challenge posed by the emergence of antibiotic resistance...
November 23, 2016: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890107/an-analysis-of-causative-factors-in-closed-criminal-medical-malpractice-cases-of-the-taiwan-supreme-court-2000-2014
#19
Kuan-Han Wu, Shih-Yu Cheng, Yung-Lin Yen, Chien-Hung Wu, Ming-Ta Tsai, Fu-Jen Cheng
Most medical malpractice in Taiwan leads to criminal prosecution. This study examined the epidemiologic factors and clinical errors that led to medical malpractice convictions in Taiwanese criminal prosecutions. A retrospective, 15-year population-based review of criminal Supreme Court judgments pertaining to medical malpractice against physicians and nurses was conducted. Eighty-four cases were reviewed, yielding data that included the number and specialty involved, accused hospitals, the diagnosis, the time interval between incidents to closure, result of adjudication, the origin of cases (private vs...
November 2016: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889206/protlid-a-residue-based-pharmacophore-approach-to-identify-cognate-protein-ligands-in-the-immunoglobulin-superfamily
#20
Eng-Hui Yap, Andras Fiser
Members of the extracellular immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) play a key role in immune regulation through the control of the co-stimulatory pathway, and have emerged as potent drug targets in cancers, infectious diseases, and autoimmunity. Despite the difficult experimental access to this class of proteins, single structures of ectodomains of IgSF proteins are solved with regularity. However, the most biologically critical challenge for this class of proteins is the identification of their cognate ligands that communicate intercellular signals...
November 11, 2016: Structure
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