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Emerging Infectious Disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101877/using-a-call-center-to-coordinate-zika-virus-testing-new-york-city-2016
#1
Jasmine Jacobs-Wingo, Ifeoma Ezeoke, Alhaji Saffa, Anna Tate, David Lee, Kimberly Johnson, Katherine Whittemore, Alex Illescas, Austin Collins, Maytal Rand, Jennifer L Rakeman, Jay K Varma, Neil M Vora
BACKGROUND: After local testing criteria for Zika virus expanded to include asymptomatic pregnant women who traveled to areas with active Zika virus transmission while pregnant, the New York City (NYC) Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) experienced a surge in test requests and subsequent testing delays due to factors such as incorrectly completed laboratory requisition forms. The authors describe how DOHMH addressed these issues by establishing the Zika Testing Call Center (ZTCC)...
November 2016: Journal of Emergency Management: JEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101308/antibacterial-resistance-in-patients-with-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#2
REVIEW
Sehnaz Alp, Murat Akova
Recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are at substantial risk of bacterial, fungal, viral, and parasitic infections depending on the time elapsed since transplantation, presence of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and the degree of immunosuppression. Infectious complications in HSCT recipients are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Bacterial infections constitute the major cause of infectious complications, especially in the early post-transplant period. The emergence of antibacterial resistance complicates the management of bacterial infections in this patient group...
2017: Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099652/path-of-infectious-diseases-in-brazil-in-the-last-50-years-an-ongoing-challenge
#3
Eliseu Alves Waldman, Ana Paula Sayuri Sato
In this article, we comment on the main features of infectious diseases in Brazil in the last 50 years, highlighting how much of this path Revista de Saúde Pública could portray. From 1967 to 2016, 1,335 articles focusing on infectious diseases were published in Revista de Saúde Pública. Although the proportion of articles on the topic have decreased from about 50.0% to 15.0%, its notability remained and reflected the growing complexity of the research required for its control. It is noteworthy that studies design and analysis strategies progressively became more sophisticated, following the great development of epidemiology in Brazil in the recent decades...
December 22, 2016: Revista de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097318/emerging-and-reemerging-infectious-diseases-the-dichotomy-between-acute-outbreaks-and-chronic-endemicity
#4
Catharine I Paules, Anthony S Fauci
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 12, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097052/population-dynamics-of-epidemic-and-endemic-states-of-drug-resistance-emergence-in-infectious-diseases
#5
Diána Knipl, Gergely Röst, Seyed M Moghadas
The emergence and spread of drug-resistance during treatment of many infectious diseases continue to degrade our ability to control and mitigate infection outcomes using therapeutic measures. While the coverage and efficacy of treatment remain key factors in the population dynamics of resistance, the timing for the start of the treatment in infectious individuals can significantly influence such dynamics. We developed a between-host disease transmission model to investigate the short-term (epidemic) and long-term (endemic) states of infections caused by two competing pathogen subtypes, namely the wild-type and resistant-type, when the probability of developing resistance is a function of delay in start of the treatment...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095468/evaluating-hospital-based-surveillance-for-outbreak-detection-in-bangladesh-analysis-of-healthcare-utilization-data
#6
Birgit Nikolay, Henrik Salje, Katharine Sturm-Ramirez, Eduardo Azziz-Baumgartner, Nusrat Homaira, Makhdum Ahmed, A Danielle Iuliano, Repon C Paul, Mahmudur Rahman, M Jahangir Hossain, Stephen P Luby, Simon Cauchemez, Emily S Gurley
BACKGROUND: The International Health Regulations outline core requirements to ensure the detection of public health threats of international concern. Assessing the capacity of surveillance systems to detect these threats is crucial for evaluating a country's ability to meet these requirements. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We propose a framework to evaluate the sensitivity and representativeness of hospital-based surveillance and apply it to severe neurological infectious diseases and fatal respiratory infectious diseases in Bangladesh...
January 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092376/infectious-immunity-in-the-central-nervous-system-and-brain-function
#7
REVIEW
Robyn S Klein, Charise Garber, Nicole Howard
Inflammation is emerging as a critical mechanism underlying neurological disorders of various etiologies, yet its role in altering brain function as a consequence of neuroinfectious disease remains unclear. Although acute alterations in mental status due to inflammation are a hallmark of central nervous system (CNS) infections with neurotropic pathogens, post-infectious neurologic dysfunction has traditionally been attributed to irreversible damage caused by the pathogens themselves. More recently, studies indicate that pathogen eradication within the CNS may require immune responses that interfere with neural cell function and communication without affecting their survival...
February 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091735/comprehensive-assessment-of-peripheral-blood-tcr%C3%AE-repertoire-in-infectious-mononucleosis-and-chronic-active-ebv-infection-patients
#8
Shenglin Liu, Qian Zhang, Dongli Huang, Wenli Zhang, Fengluan Zhong, Jia Feng, Xueru Chen, Qingxiang Meng, Xiaofan Chen, Wei Zhang, Hongyu Zhang
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) primary infection is usually asymptomatic, but it sometimes progresses to infectious mononucleosis (IM). Occasionally, some people develop chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV) with underlying immunodeficiency, which belongs to a continuous spectrum of EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disorders (EBV(+) LPD) with heterogeneous clinical presentations and high mortality. It has been well established that T cell-mediated immune response plays a critical role in the disease evolution of EBV infection...
January 14, 2017: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091625/mplex-a-method-for-simultaneous-pathogen-inactivation-and-extraction-of-samples-for-multi-omics-profiling
#9
Kristin E Burnum-Johnson, Jennifer E Kyle, Amie J Eisfeld, Cameron P Casey, Kelly G Stratton, Juan F Gonzalez, Fabien Habyarimana, Nicholas M Negretti, Amy C Sims, Sadhana Chauhan, Larissa B Thackray, Peter J Halfmann, Kevin B Walters, Young-Mo Kim, Erika M Zink, Carrie D Nicora, Karl K Weitz, Bobbie-Jo M Webb-Robertson, Ernesto S Nakayasu, Brian Ahmer, Michael E Konkel, Vladimir Motin, Ralph S Baric, Michael S Diamond, Yoshihiro Kawaoka, Katrina M Waters, Richard D Smith, Thomas O Metz
The continued emergence and spread of infectious agents is of great concern, and systems biology approaches to infectious disease research can advance our understanding of host-pathogen relationships and facilitate the development of new therapies and vaccines. Molecular characterization of infectious samples outside of appropriate biosafety containment can take place only subsequent to pathogen inactivation. Herein, we describe a modified Folch extraction using chloroform/methanol that facilitates the molecular characterization of infectious samples by enabling simultaneous pathogen inactivation and extraction of proteins, metabolites, and lipids for subsequent mass spectrometry-based multi-omics measurements...
January 16, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091389/trali-syndrome-during-the-treatment-of-a-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-case
#10
Hülya Çaşkurlu, Rahman Nurmuhammedov, Zarni Htway
Malaria, which is one of the three most important infectious diseases globally, is endemic in many areas of the world. Plasmodium falciparum is not endemic to Turkey but can be seen after travel to epidemic countries. Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) syndrome is a rare disease, which may develop following the transfusion of all types of blood products, including plasma. Here we describe a case of TRALI syndrome in a 29-year-old male, who presented with fever after 15 days of returning from a business trip to Burkina Faso...
December 2016: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090568/pathophysiology-of-intestinal-na-h-exchange
#11
Michael A Gurney, Daniel Laubitz, Fayez K Ghishan, Pawel R Kiela
Several members of the SLC9A family of Na(+)/H(+) exchangers are expressed in the gut, with varying expression patterns and cellular localization. Not only do they participate in the regulation of basic epithelial cell functions, including control of transepithelial Na(+) absorption, intracellular pH (pH i ), cell volume, and nutrient absorption, but also in cellular proliferation, migration, and apoptosis. Additionally, they modulate the extracellular milieu in order to facilitate other nutrient absorption and to regulate the intestinal microbial microenvironment...
January 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090400/medical-school-hotline-pacific-center-for-emerging-infectious-diseases-research
#12
Richard Yanagihara, Vivek R Nerurkar, George Hui, Gwen A Jacobs
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Hawai'i Journal of Medicine & Public Health: a Journal of Asia Pacific Medicine & Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089281/features-of-public-healthcare-services-provided-to-migrant-patients-in-the-eastern-macedonia-and-thrace-region-greece
#13
Christos A Tsitsakis, Anastasios Karasavvoglou, Efstathios Tsaridis, Georgia Ramantani, Giannoula Florou, Persefoni Polychronidou, Stamatios Stamatakis
BACKGROUND: The influx of migrants, refugees and asylum-seekers into European Union (EU) countries, especially into Greece, in the last 20 years is an issue of growing concern and requires a rational approach. The aim of this study is to chart the use of public health services by the migrants of the Eastern Macedonia and Thrace Region, which forms the northeastern border of Greece. METHODS: We collected data from five of the six public hospitals in the specified region, and we carried out a per clinic cross tabulation analysis of admission diagnosis and citizenship variables in order to establish the frequency at which the various diagnoses emerge per distinct group of migrant and non-migrant patients in each clinic...
December 27, 2016: Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089098/toward-a-collaborative-model-of-pandemic-preparedness-and-response-taiwan-s-changing-approach-to-pandemics
#14
REVIEW
Jonathan Schwartz, Muh-Yong Yen
BACKGROUND: Over time, as newly emerging infectious diseases have become increasingly common and more easily spread, it has become clear that traditional response mechanisms have proven inadequate to the task of prevention and control. PURPOSE: To explore whether enhanced cooperation with local government and community institutions can effectively supplement traditional state-centric public health epidemic responses. METHODS: Drawing on Taiwan as a case study, we assess the role of the whole-of-society approach to epidemic response as arises from the collaborative governance literature...
December 18, 2016: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088586/a-case-control-study-of-risk-sources-for-severe-fever-with-thrombocytopenia-syndrome-in-hubei-province-china
#15
Xuesen Xing, Xuhua Guan, Li Liu, Junqiang Xu, Guoming Li, Jianbo Zhan, Gongping Liu, Xiaoqing Jiang, Xingfu Shen, Yongzhong Jiang, Yang Wu, Hao Zhang, Jing Huang, Fan Ding, Sha Sha, Man Liu, Faxian Zhan
BACKGROUND: Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS), an emerging infectious disease caused by a novel bunyavirus, was discovered in rural areas of Central China in 2009. METHODS: A case-control study based on hospital data was applied to detect the potential risk sources for SFTS in SFTS-endemic counties in Hubei Province. Cases were defined as hospitalized SFTSV confirmed patients. Controls were randomly selected from non-SFTSV patients in the same hospital ward within 2 weeks of inclusion of the cases, and they were matched by age (+/- 5 years) and gender according to 1:2 matching condition...
January 11, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088326/acute-kidney-injury-due-to-tropical-infectious-diseases-and-animal-venoms-a-tale-of-2-continents
#16
REVIEW
Emmanuel A Burdmann, Vivekanand Jha
South and Southeast Asia and Latin American together comprise 46 countries and are home to approximately 40% of the world population. The sociopolitical and economic heterogeneity, tropical climate, and malady transitions characteristic of the region strongly influence disease behavior and health care delivery. Acute kidney injury epidemiology mirrors these inequalities. In addition to hospital-acquired acute kidney injury in tertiary care centers, these countries face a large preventable burden of community-acquired acute kidney injury secondary to tropical infectious diseases or animal venoms, affecting previously healthy young individuals...
January 11, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088124/nipah-virus-transmission-of-a-zoonotic-paramyxovirus
#17
REVIEW
Bronwyn Anne Clayton
Nipah virus is a recently-recognised, zoonotic paramyxovirus that causes severe disease and high fatality rates in people. Outbreaks have occurred in Malaysia, Singapore, India and Bangladesh, and a putative Nipah virus was also recently associated with human disease in the Philippines. Worryingly, human-to-human transmission is common in Bangladesh, where outbreaks occur with near-annual frequency. Onward human transmission of Nipah virus in Bangladesh is associated with close contact with clinically-unwell patients or their infectious secretions...
January 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081120/epidemiology-of-chikungunya-virus-outbreaks-in-guadeloupe-and-martinique-2014-an-observational-study-in-volunteer-blood-donors
#18
Pierre Gallian, Isabelle Leparc-Goffart, Pascale Richard, Françoise Maire, Olivier Flusin, Rachid Djoudi, Jacques Chiaroni, Remi Charrel, Pierre Tiberghien, Xavier de Lamballerie
BACKGROUND: During Dec-2013, a chikungunya virus (CHIKV) outbreak was first detected in the French-West Indies. Subsequently, the virus dispersed to other Caribbean islands, continental America and many islands in the Pacific Ocean. Previous estimates of the attack rate were based on declaration of clinically suspected cases. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Individual testing for CHIKV RNA of all (n = 16,386) blood donations between Feb-24th 2014 and Jan-31st 2015 identified 0·36% and 0·42% of positives in Guadeloupe and Martinique, respectively...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081063/state-laws-requiring-hand-sanitation-stations-at-animal-contact-exhibits-united-states-march-april-2016
#19
Aila Hoss, Colin Basler, Lauren Stevenson, Kelly Gambino-Shirley, Misha Park Robyn, Megin Nichols
In the United States, animal contact exhibits, such as petting zoos and agricultural fairs, have been sources of zoonotic infections, including infections with Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Cryptosporidium (1-4). The National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians recommends handwashing after contact with animals as an effective prevention measure to disease transmission at these exhibits (4). This report provides a list of states that have used law, specifically statutes and regulations, as public health interventions to increase hand sanitation at animal contact exhibits...
January 13, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080989/overview-of-chytrid-emergence-and-impacts-on-amphibians
#20
REVIEW
Karen R Lips
Chytridiomycosis is an emerging infectious disease of amphibians that affects over 700 species on all continents where amphibians occur. The amphibian-chytridiomycosis system is complex, and the response of any amphibian species to chytrid depends on many aspects of the ecology and evolutionary history of the amphibian, the genotype and phenotype of the fungus, and how the biological and physical environment can mediate that interaction. Impacts of chytridiomycosis on amphibians are varied; some species have been driven extinct, populations of others have declined severely, whereas still others have not obviously declined...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
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