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Tatiana Kent, Timur D Rusanov, Trung M Hoang, Willem A Velema, Andrew T Krueger, William C Copeland, Eric T Kool, Richard T Pomerantz
DNA polymerase θ (Polθ) is a unique A-family polymerase that is essential for alternative end-joining (alt-EJ) of double-strand breaks (DSBs) and performs translesion synthesis. Because Polθ is highly expressed in cancer cells, confers resistance to ionizing radiation and chemotherapy agents, and promotes the survival of homologous recombination (HR) deficient cells, it represents a promising new cancer drug target. As a result, identifying substrates that are selective for this enzyme is a priority. Here, we demonstrate that Polθ efficiently and selectively incorporates into DNA large benzo-expanded nucleotide analogs (dxAMP, dxGMP, dxTMP, dxAMP) which exhibit canonical base-pairing and enhanced base stacking...
September 2, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Chris Bundell, Arada Rojana-Udomsart, Frank Mastaglia, Peter Hollingsworth, Andrew McLean-Tooke
The objective of this study was to establish a population based reference range for a commercial immunoblot assay detecting myositis specific autoantibodies (MSAs) and myositis associated autoantibodies (MAAs), and to assess the diagnostic performance of this reference range against the manufacturer's recommended ranges in a myositis patient cohort. A total of 124 patients from a myositis cohort and 197 healthy controls were serologically assessed using a commercial immunoblot containing eleven autoantigens (Jo-1, EJ, OJ, PL7, PL12, Mi-2, SRP, Ku, PMScl75, PMScl100 and Ro52) according to the manufacturer's instructions...
June 2016: Pathology
Ana Rolo, Dawn Savery, Sarah Escuin, Sandra C de Castro, Hannah E J Armer, Peter M G Munro, Matteo A Molè, Nicholas D E Greene, Andrew J Copp
Epithelial fusion is a crucial process in embryonic development, and its failure underlies several clinically important birth defects. For example, failure of neural fold fusion during neurulation leads to open neural tube defects including spina bifida. Using mouse embryos, we show that cell protrusions emanating from the apposed neural fold tips, at the interface between the neuroepithelium and the surface ectoderm, are required for completion of neural tube closure. By genetically ablating the cytoskeletal regulators Rac1 or Cdc42 in the dorsal neuroepithelium, or in the surface ectoderm, we show that these protrusions originate from surface ectodermal cells and that Rac1 is necessary for the formation of membrane ruffles which typify late closure stages, whereas Cdc42 is required for the predominance of filopodia in early neurulation...
2016: ELife
Sophie Blein, Claire Bardel, Vincent Danjean, Lesley McGuffog, Sue Healey, Daniel Barrowdale, Andrew Lee, Joe Dennis, Karoline B Kuchenbaecker, Penny Soucy, Mary Beth Terry, Wendy K Chung, David E Goldgar, Saundra S Buys, Ramunas Janavicius, Laima Tihomirova, Nadine Tung, Cecilia M Dorfling, Elizabeth J van Rensburg, Susan L Neuhausen, Yuan Chun Ding, Anne-Marie Gerdes, Bent Ejlertsen, Finn C Nielsen, Thomas Vo Hansen, Ana Osorio, Javier Benitez, Raquel Andrés Conejero, Ena Segota, Jeffrey N Weitzel, Margo Thelander, Paolo Peterlongo, Paolo Radice, Valeria Pensotti, Riccardo Dolcetti, Bernardo Bonanni, Bernard Peissel, Daniela Zaffaroni, Giulietta Scuvera, Siranoush Manoukian, Liliana Varesco, Gabriele L Capone, Laura Papi, Laura Ottini, Drakoulis Yannoukakos, Irene Konstantopoulou, Judy Garber, Ute Hamann, Alan Donaldson, Angela Brady, Carole Brewer, Claire Foo, D Gareth Evans, Debra Frost, Diana Eccles, Fiona Douglas, Jackie Cook, Julian Adlard, Julian Barwell, Lisa Walker, Louise Izatt, Lucy E Side, M John Kennedy, Marc Tischkowitz, Mark T Rogers, Mary E Porteous, Patrick J Morrison, Radka Platte, Ros Eeles, Rosemarie Davidson, Shirley Hodgson, Trevor Cole, Andrew K Godwin, Claudine Isaacs, Kathleen Claes, Kim De Leeneer, Alfons Meindl, Andrea Gehrig, Barbara Wappenschmidt, Christian Sutter, Christoph Engel, Dieter Niederacher, Doris Steinemann, Hansjoerg Plendl, Karin Kast, Kerstin Rhiem, Nina Ditsch, Norbert Arnold, Raymonda Varon-Mateeva, Rita K Schmutzler, Sabine Preisler-Adams, Nadja Bogdanova Markov, Shan Wang-Gohrke, Antoine de Pauw, Cédrick Lefol, Christine Lasset, Dominique Leroux, Etienne Rouleau, Francesca Damiola, Hélène Dreyfus, Laure Barjhoux, Lisa Golmard, Nancy Uhrhammer, Valérie Bonadona, Valérie Sornin, Yves-Jean Bignon, Jonathan Carter, Linda Van Le, Marion Piedmonte, Paul A DiSilvestro, Miguel de la Hoya, Trinidad Caldes, Heli Nevanlinna, Kristiina Aittomäki, Agnes Jager, Ans Mw van den Ouweland, Carolien M Kets, Cora M Aalfs, Flora E van Leeuwen, Frans Bl Hogervorst, Hanne Ej Meijers-Heijboer, Jan C Oosterwijk, Kees Ep van Roozendaal, Matti A Rookus, Peter Devilee, Rob B van der Luijt, Edith Olah, Orland Diez, Alex Teulé, Conxi Lazaro, Ignacio Blanco, Jesús Del Valle, Anna Jakubowska, Grzegorz Sukiennicki, Jacek Gronwald, Jan Lubinski, Katarzyna Durda, Katarzyna Jaworska-Bieniek, Bjarni A Agnarsson, Christine Maugard, Alberto Amadori, Marco Montagna, Manuel R Teixeira, Amanda B Spurdle, William Foulkes, Curtis Olswold, Noralane M Lindor, Vernon S Pankratz, Csilla I Szabo, Anne Lincoln, Lauren Jacobs, Marina Corines, Mark Robson, Joseph Vijai, Andreas Berger, Anneliese Fink-Retter, Christian F Singer, Christine Rappaport, Daphne Geschwantler Kaulich, Georg Pfeiler, Muy-Kheng Tea, Mark H Greene, Phuong L Mai, Gad Rennert, Evgeny N Imyanitov, Anna Marie Mulligan, Gord Glendon, Irene L Andrulis, Sandrine Tchatchou, Amanda Ewart Toland, Inge Sokilde Pedersen, Mads Thomassen, Torben A Kruse, Uffe Birk Jensen, Maria A Caligo, Eitan Friedman, Jamal Zidan, Yael Laitman, Annika Lindblom, Beatrice Melin, Brita Arver, Niklas Loman, Richard Rosenquist, Olufunmilayo I Olopade, Robert L Nussbaum, Susan J Ramus, Katherine L Nathanson, Susan M Domchek, Timothy R Rebbeck, Banu K Arun, Gillian Mitchell, Beth Y Karlan, Jenny Lester, Sandra Orsulic, Dominique Stoppa-Lyonnet, Gilles Thomas, Jacques Simard, Fergus J Couch, Kenneth Offit, Douglas F Easton, Georgia Chenevix-Trench, Antonis C Antoniou, Sylvie Mazoyer, Catherine M Phelan, Olga M Sinilnikova, David G Cox
INTRODUCTION: Individuals carrying pathogenic mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes have a high lifetime risk of breast cancer. BRCA1 and BRCA2 are involved in DNA double-strand break repair, DNA alterations that can be caused by exposure to reactive oxygen species, a main source of which are mitochondria. Mitochondrial genome variations affect electron transport chain efficiency and reactive oxygen species production. Individuals with different mitochondrial haplogroups differ in their metabolism and sensitivity to oxidative stress...
2015: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
Andrew G Weisenberger, Brian Kross, Seungjoon Lee, John McKisson, J E McKisson, Wenze Xi, Carl Zorn, Chantal D Reid, Calvin R Howell, Alexander S Crowell, Laurie Cumberbatch, Brent Fallin, Alexander Stolin, Mark F Smith
Several positron emitting radioisotopes such as (11)C and (13)N can be used in plant biology research. The (11)CO(2) tracer is used to facilitate plant biology research toward optimization of plant productivity, biofuel development and carbon sequestration in biomass. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has been used to study carbon transport in live plants using (11)CO(2). Because plants typically have very thin leaves, little medium is present for the emitted positrons to undergo an annihilation event...
July 7, 2012: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Angus G Jones, Rachel Ej Besser, Beverley M Shields, Timothy J McDonald, Suzy V Hope, Bridget A Knight, Andrew T Hattersley
BACKGROUND: In patients with both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes endogenous insulin secretion falls with time which changes treatment requirements, however direct measurement of endogenous insulin secretion is rarely performed. We aimed to assess the impact of endogenous insulin secretion on postprandial glucose increase and the effectiveness of prandial exogenous insulin. METHODS: We assessed endogenous insulin secretion in 102 participants with insulin treated diabetes (58 Type 1) following a standardised mixed meal without exogenous insulin...
2012: BMC Endocrine Disorders
T S Shylasree, Andrew Bryant, Robert Ej Howells
BACKGROUND: Vulval cancer is a rare gynaecological cancer. There is no standard approach for treating locally advanced primary vulval cancer (FIGO stage III and IV). Combined treatment modalities have been developed using radiotherapy, chemotherapy and surgery. The advantages and disadvantages of such treatment is not well evaluated. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of neoadjuvant and primary chemoradiation for women with locally advanced primary vulval cancer compared to other primary modalities of treatment such as primary surgery or primary radiation...
2011: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Lars M Rimol, Ingrid Agartz, Srdjan Djurovic, Andrew A Brown, J Cooper Roddey, Anna K Kähler, Morten Mattingsdal, Lavinia Athanasiu, Alexander H Joyner, Nicholas J Schork, Eric Halgren, Kjetil Sundet, Ingrid Melle, Anders M Dale, Ole A Andreassen
Loss-of-function mutations in the genes associated with primary microcephaly (MCPH) reduce human brain size by about two-thirds, without producing gross abnormalities in brain organization or physiology and leaving other organs largely unaffected [Woods CG, et al. (2005) Am J Hum Genet 76:717-728]. There is also evidence suggesting that MCPH genes have evolved rapidly in primates and humans and have been subjected to selection in recent human evolution [Vallender EJ, et al. (2008) Trends Neurosci 31:637-644]...
January 5, 2010: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Michael Stavri, K T Mathew, Andrew Gordon, Steven D Shnyder, Robert A Falconer, Simon Gibbons
A phytochemical study of the asteraceous herb Pulicaria crispa (Forssk.) Oliv. resulted in the characterisation of three guaianolide sesquiterpenes, 2alpha,4alpha-dihydroxy-7alphaH,8alphaH,10alphaH-guaia-1(5),11(13)-dien-8beta,12-olide (1), 1alpha,2alpha-epoxy-4beta-hydroxy-5alphaH,7alphaH,8alphaH,10alphaH-guaia-11(13)-en-8beta,12-olide (2) and 5,10-epi-2,3-dihydroaromatin (3). The structures were assigned on the basis of extensive 1 and 2D NMR experiments. Compound 3 exhibited weak antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium phlei with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 0...
June 2008: Phytochemistry
Andrew M Lemieux, Cody J Diehl, Julie A Sloniger, Erik J Henriksen
Male heterozygous TG(mREN2)27 rats (TGR) overexpress a murine renin transgene, display marked hypertension, and have insulin resistance of skeletal muscle glucose transport and insulin signaling. We have shown previously that voluntary exercise training by TGR improves insulin-mediated skeletal muscle glucose transport (Kinnick TR, Youngblood EB, O'Keefe MP, Saengsirisuwan V, Teachey MK, and Henriksen EJ. J Appl Physiol 93: 805-812, 2002). The present study evaluated whether this training-induced enhancement of muscle glucose transport is associated with upregulation of critical insulin signaling elements, including insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, Akt, and glycogen synthase kinase-3...
July 2005: Journal of Applied Physiology
Pat P Ongusaha, Jennifer C Kwak, Andrew J Zwible, Salvador Macip, Shigeki Higashiyama, Naoyuki Taniguchi, Li Fang, Sam W Lee
Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) has been shown to stimulate the growth of a variety of cells in an autocrine or paracrine manner. Although HB-EGF is widely expressed in tumors compared with normal tissue, its contribution to tumorigenicity is unknown. HB-EGF can be produced as a membrane-anchored form (pro-HB-EGF) and later processed to a soluble form (s-HB-EGF), although a significant amount of pro-HB-EGF remains uncleaved on the cell surface. To understand the roles of two forms of HB-EGF in promoting tumor growth, we have studied the effects of HB-EGF expression in the process of tumorigenesis using in vitro and in vivo systems...
August 1, 2004: Cancer Research
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