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Jon C Gould, Mark R Wendling, Brant K Oeschlager, Sumeet K Mittal, Srinadh Komanduri, Kyle A Perry, Sean Cleary, Susan Galandiuk, Daniel J Scott, P Marco Fisichella, Nicholas J Shaheen, Kelly R Haisley, John G Hunter
BACKGROUND: Patients with Barrett's esophagus (BE) are at increased risk of developing esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). The incidence of EAC is rising faster than any other cancer. DISCUSSION: Patients with BE have a 30- to 40-fold increased risk of EAC. In the past 20 years, there have been dramatic advances in our understanding of the incidence and natural history of BE. Endoscopic treatment of BE is evolving. Even early EAC has been treated without esophagectomy and good oncologic results in the modern era...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
Jane V Carter, Norman J Galbraith, Dongyan Yang, James F Burton, Samuel P Walker, Susan Galandiuk
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is common and associated with significant mortality. Current screening methods for CRC lack patient compliance. microRNAs (miRNAs), identified in body fluids, are negative regulators of gene expression and are dysregulated in many cancers, including CRC. This paper summarises studies identifying blood-based miRNAs dysregulated in CRC compared with healthy controls in an attempt to evaluate their use as a screening tool for the diagnosis of CRC. METHODS: A search of electronic databases (PubMed and EMBASE) and grey literature was performed between January 2002 and April 2016...
March 14, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
Susan Galandiuk
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
Neal Bhutiani, William E Grizzle, Susan Galandiuk, Denis Otali, Gerald W Dryden, Nejat K Egilmez, Lacey R McNally
Currently, several non-invasive modalities, including MRI and PET, are being investigated to identify early intestinal inflammation, longitudinally monitor disease status, or detect dysplastic changes in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Here, we assess the applicability and utility of multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT) in evaluating the presence and severity of colitis. Mice with bacterial colitis demonstrated a temporally associated increase in mesenteric and colonic vascularity with an increase in mean signal intensity of oxygenated hemoglobin (p=0...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Jane V Carter, Henry L Roberts, Jianmin Pan, Jonathan D Rice, James F Burton, Norman J Galbraith, Maurice R Eichenberger, Jeffery Jorden, Peter Deveaux, Russell Farmer, Anna Williford, Ziad Kanaan, Shesh N Rai, Susan Galandiuk
OBJECTIVE: To develop a plasma-based microRNA (miRNA) diagnostic assay specific for colorectal neoplasms, building upon our prior work. BACKGROUND: Colorectal neoplasms [colorectal cancer (CRC) and colorectal advanced adenoma (CAA)] frequently develop in individuals at ages when other common cancers also occur. Current screening methods lack sensitivity, specificity, and have poor patient compliance. METHODS: Plasma was screened for 380 miRNAs using microfluidic array technology from a "Training" cohort of 60 patients, (10 each) control, CRC, CAA, breast cancer, pancreatic cancer, and lung cancer...
October 2016: Annals of Surgery
Bailey Nelson, Jane V Carter, Maurice R Eichenberger, Uri Netz, Susan Galandiuk
BACKGROUND: Many patients with rectal cancer undergo preoperative neoadjuvant chemoradiation, with approximately 70% exhibiting pathologic downstaging in response to treatment. Currently, there is no accurate test to predict patients who are likely to be complete responders to therapy. 5-Fluorouracil is used regularly in the neoadjuvant treatment of rectal cancer. Genetic polymorphisms affect the activity of thymidylate synthase, an enzyme involved in 5-Fluorouracil metabolism, which may account for observed differences in response to neoadjuvant treatment between patients...
November 2016: Surgery
Rodrick J Chiodini, Scot E Dowd, Susan Galandiuk, Brian Davis, Angela Glassing
Crohn's disease is characterized by increased permeability of the intestinal mucosal barriers and an abnormal or dysregulated immune response to specific and/or commensal bacteria arising from the intestinal lumen. To determine the types of bacteria that are transgressing the mucosal barrier and colonizing the intestinal submucosal tissues, we performed 16s rRNA gene microbiota sequencing of the submucosal and mucosal tissues at the advancing disease margin in ileal Crohn's disease. Microbial populations were compared between mucosa and submucosa and non-inflammatory bowel disease (non-IBD) controls, as well as to microbial populations previously found at the center of the disease lesion...
July 14, 2016: Microbiology
Angela Glassing, Scot E Dowd, Susan Galandiuk, Brian Davis, Rodrick J Chiodini
BACKGROUND: The advent and use of highly sensitive molecular biology techniques to explore the microbiota and microbiome in environmental and tissue samples have detected the presence of contaminating microbial DNA within reagents. These microbial DNA contaminants may distort taxonomic distributions and relative frequencies in microbial datasets, as well as contribute to erroneous interpretations and identifications. RESULTS: We herein report on the occurrence of bacterial DNA contamination within commonly used DNA extraction kits and PCR reagents and the effect of these contaminates on data interpretation...
2016: Gut Pathogens
Jane V Carter, Jianmin Pan, Shesh N Rai, Susan Galandiuk
BACKGROUND: It is vital for clinicians to understand and interpret correctly medical statistics as used in clinical studies. In this review, we address current issues and focus on delivering a simple, yet comprehensive, explanation of common research methodology involving receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. ROC curves are used most commonly in medicine as a means of evaluating diagnostic tests. METHODS: Sample data from a plasma test for the diagnosis of colorectal cancer were used to generate a prediction model...
June 2016: Surgery
Norman Galbraith, Samuel Walker, Susan Galandiuk, Sarah Gardner, Hiram C Polk
BACKGROUND: Trauma, major elective surgery, and overt sepsis can lead to a cascade of immunological change. A subset of these patients will have a degree of immune suppression that leads to hyporesponsive innate defenses, increasing the risk of infective co-morbidity and death. This article is an overview of monocyte impairment in the high-risk surgical patient. Specifically, our primary focus is on observations made pertaining to monocyte function and pathophysiological mechanisms underpinning this impairment...
June 2016: Surgical Infections
Angela Glassing, Scot E Dowd, Susan Galandiuk, Brian Davis, Jeffrey R Jorden, Rodrick J Chiodini
Microbial metagenomics are hindered in clinical tissue samples as a result of the large relative amount of human DNA in relation to microbial DNA acting as competitive inhibitors of downstream applications. We evaluated the LOOXSTER® Enrichment Kit to separate eukaryotic and prokaryotic DNA in submucosal intestinal tissue samples having a low microbial biomass and to determine the effects of enrichment on 16s rRNA microbiota sequencing. The enrichment kit reduced the amount of human DNA in the samples 40-70% resulting in a 3...
December 2015: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Susan Galandiuk
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2015: Annals of Surgery
Rodrick J Chiodini, Scot E Dowd, William M Chamberlin, Susan Galandiuk, Brian Davis, Angela Glassing
Since Crohn's disease is a transmural disease, we hypothesized that examination of deep submucosal tissues directly involved in the inflammatory disease process may provide unique insights into bacterial populations transgressing intestinal barriers and bacterial populations more representative of the causes and agents of the disease. We performed deep 16s microbiota sequencing on isolated ilea mucosal and submucosal tissues on 20 patients with Crohn's disease and 15 non-inflammatory bowel disease controls with a depth of coverage averaging 81,500 sequences in each of the 70 DNA samples yielding an overall resolution down to 0...
2015: PloS One
Susan Galandiuk
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2015: American Journal of Surgery
Jonathan Rice, Henry Roberts, Shesh N Rai, Susan Galandiuk
INTRODUCTION: Plasma microRNAs (miRNAs) are promising biomarkers for many forms of cancer in humans; however, a fundamental concern is the lack of standardization in current data acquisition and reporting. Part of this problem lies in the use of numerous, different housekeeping genes (HKG) for the acquisition of real-time polymerase chain reaction data. This existing practice of using different HKGs generally is accepted, but reproducibility of data for comparison and validation between different laboratories calls for improvement...
November 2015: Surgery
Adrian T Billeter, Norman Galbraith, Samuel Walker, Chelsea Lawson, Sarah A Gardner, Harshini Sarojini, Susan Galandiuk, Hiram C Polk
INTRODUCTION: Hypothermia is a well-known risk factor for postoperative complications because it prolongs the monocyte inflammatory response. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether temperature-activated ion channels (transient receptor protein channels [TRP] A1 and V1) mediate the effects of temperature on monocytes. METHODS: Primary human monocytes were isolated and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide at 32°C or 39°C. RNA was isolated for analysis of microRNA (miR)-155 expression, and cytokines in the supernatant were measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
September 2015: Surgery
Jonathan Rice, Henry Roberts, James Burton, Jianmin Pan, Vanessa States, Shesh N Rai, Susan Galandiuk
There are increasing reports of plasma miRNAs as biomarkers of human disease but few standards in methodologic reporting, leading to inconsistent data. We systematically reviewed plasma miRNA studies published between July 2013-June 2014 to assess methodology. Six parameters were investigated: time to plasma extraction, methods of RNA extraction, type of miRNA, quantification, cycle threshold (Ct) setting, and methods of statistical analysis. We compared these data with a proposed standard methodologic technique...
2015: PloS One
Susan Galandiuk
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2015: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
Henry Roberts, Shesh N Rai, Jianmin Pan, J Michael Rao, Robert C Keskey, Ziad Kanaan, Ethan P Short, Edward Mottern, Susan Galandiuk
AIMS: To define the number/frequency of organ systems affected by extraintestinal manifestations (EIMs), to identify factors affecting the clinical course of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and EIM development, and to determine the impact of smoking, disease duration and location on the diagnosis of EIMs in Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). METHODS: IBD patients were derived from a single university colorectal surgery practice. Smoking data were obtained through a modified Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey...
2014: Digestion
Adrian T Billeter, Jason Hellmann, Henry Roberts, Devin Druen, Sarah A Gardner, Harshini Sarojini, Susan Galandiuk, Sufan Chien, Aruni Bhatnagar, Matthew Spite, Hiram C Polk
Therapeutic hypothermia is commonly used to improve neurological outcomes in patients after cardiac arrest. However, therapeutic hypothermia increases sepsis risk and unintentional hypothermia in surgical patients increases infectious complications. Nonetheless, the molecular mechanisms by which hypothermia dysregulates innate immunity are incompletely understood. We found that exposure of human monocytes to cold (32°C) potentiated LPS-induced production of TNF and IL-6, while blunting IL-10 production. This dysregulation was associated with increased expression of microRNA-155 (miR-155), which potentiates Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling by negatively regulating Ship1 and Socs1...
December 2014: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
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