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Rodrick J Chiodini, Scot E Dowd, James N Barron, Susan Galandiuk, Brian Davis, Angela Glassing
PURPOSE: Crohn's disease is a chronic debilitating intestinal syndrome of unknown aetiology that is thought to result in part from an imbalance (dysbiosis) of the intestinal microbial populations, known as the microbiota. In this study we sought to compare the microbiota at the mucosal and submucosal levels at the resection margin in Crohn's disease to those in other intestinal dysbiotic disease controls to determine the level of bacterial translocation. METHODOLOGY: 16S microbiota sequencing was performed on DNA extracted from mucosal and submucosal samples from resected intestinal tissues from Crohn's disease and controls...
April 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Stephen J O'Brien, Jane V Carter, James F Burton, Brent G Oxford, Miranda N Schmidt, Jacob C Hallion, Susan Galandiuk
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality as many patients are diagnosed with advanced stage disease. MicroRNAs are small, noncoding RNA molecules that have a major role in gene expression regulation and are dysregulated in CRC. The miR-200 family is involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). This systematic review describes the roles of the miR-200 family in EMT in CRC. A search of electronic databases (PubMed and Embase) was conducted between January 2000 and July 2017...
June 15, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Uri Netz, Norman J Galbraith, Stephen O'Brien, Jane Carter, Stephen Manek, Robert E Petras, Susan Galandiuk
BACKGROUND: The advisability of performing ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for patients with indeterminate colitis is debated. Indeterminate colitis is found in up to 15% of inflammatory bowel disease colectomy specimens. We determined long-term outcomes in patients diagnosed with indeterminate colitis undergoing ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. METHODS: Fifty-six patients were included with a mean follow-up of 14 ± 7 years. Long-term behavior was defined based on surgeon assessment as "Crohn disease-like" in patients who subsequently developed clear signs of Crohn disease and as "non-Crohn disease-like...
March 2018: Surgery
Susan Galandiuk
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
Norman J Galbraith, Stephen Manek, Samuel Walker, Campbell Bishop, Jane V Carter, Meredith Cahill, Sarah A Gardner, Hiram C Polk, Susan Galandiuk
This study focuses on impaired monocyte function, which occurs in some patients after trauma, major elective surgery, or sepsis. This monocyte impairment increases the risk of secondary infection and death. We aimed to determine the influence IκK-16 had on monocytes using an ex-vivo model of human monocyte impairment. We included the effects of the well-studied comparators interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) on impaired monocytes. Primary human monocytes were stimulated with 10ng/mL of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 16h and then challenged with 100ng/mL LPS to assess the monocyte inflammatory response...
April 2018: Immunobiology
Jane V Carter, Hiram C Polk, Norman J Galbraith, Kelly M McMasters, William G Cheadle, Molly Poole, Susan Galandiuk
BACKGROUND: There are an increasing number of women in surgery. Previously, many questions focused upon their ability to complete surgical training and contribute fully to the surgical workforce. More meaningful information lies in identifying the long-term follow-up of where, and in what specialty, women residents eventually practice. METHODS: All residents entering general surgery training at the University of Louisville between 1996 and 2009 were studied. Comparison between men and women was performed for program completion, length of residency training, and eventual specialty practice...
June 6, 2017: American Journal of Surgery
Norman Galbraith, Jane V Carter, Uri Netz, Dongyan Yang, Donald E Fry, Michael McCafferty, Susan Galandiuk
IMPORTANCE: Perforated diverticulitis carries the risk of significant comorbidity and mortality. Although colon resection provides adequate source control, the procedure itself carries morbidity, as well as later stoma reversal procedures. The effectiveness of laparoscopic lavage to treat perforated diverticulitis remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to conduct a meta-analysis to evaluate current studies comparing laparoscopic lavage with colon resection in cases of perforated diverticulitis for the effectiveness in source control, without the need for subsequent interventions, stoma formation, and death...
September 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
Jon C Gould, Mark R Wendling, Brant K Oeschlager, Sumeet K Mittal, Srinadh Komanduri, Kyle A Perry, Sean Cleary, Susan Galandiuk, Daniel J Scott, P Marco Fisichella, Nicholas J Shaheen, Kelly R Haisley, John G Hunter
BACKGROUND: Patients with Barrett's esophagus (BE) are at increased risk of developing esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). The incidence of EAC is rising faster than any other cancer. DISCUSSION: Patients with BE have a 30- to 40-fold increased risk of EAC. In the past 20 years, there have been dramatic advances in our understanding of the incidence and natural history of BE. Endoscopic treatment of BE is evolving. Even early EAC has been treated without esophagectomy and good oncologic results in the modern era...
August 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
Jane V Carter, Norman J Galbraith, Dongyan Yang, James F Burton, Samuel P Walker, Susan Galandiuk
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is common and associated with significant mortality. Current screening methods for CRC lack patient compliance. microRNAs (miRNAs), identified in body fluids, are negative regulators of gene expression and are dysregulated in many cancers, including CRC. This paper summarises studies identifying blood-based miRNAs dysregulated in CRC compared with healthy controls in an attempt to evaluate their use as a screening tool for the diagnosis of CRC. METHODS: A search of electronic databases (PubMed and EMBASE) and grey literature was performed between January 2002 and April 2016...
March 14, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
Susan Galandiuk
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
Neal Bhutiani, William E Grizzle, Susan Galandiuk, Denis Otali, Gerald W Dryden, Nejat K Egilmez, Lacey R McNally
Currently, several noninvasive modalities, including MRI and PET, are being investigated to identify early intestinal inflammation, longitudinally monitor disease status, or detect dysplastic changes in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Here, we assess the applicability and utility of multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT) in evaluating the presence and severity of colitis. Methods: C57B/6 mice were untreated or treated with Bacteroides fragilis and antibiotic-mediated depletion of intestinal flora to initiate colitis...
June 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Jane V Carter, Henry L Roberts, Jianmin Pan, Jonathan D Rice, James F Burton, Norman J Galbraith, Maurice R Eichenberger, Jeffery Jorden, Peter Deveaux, Russell Farmer, Anna Williford, Ziad Kanaan, Shesh N Rai, Susan Galandiuk
OBJECTIVE: To develop a plasma-based microRNA (miRNA) diagnostic assay specific for colorectal neoplasms, building upon our prior work. BACKGROUND: Colorectal neoplasms [colorectal cancer (CRC) and colorectal advanced adenoma (CAA)] frequently develop in individuals at ages when other common cancers also occur. Current screening methods lack sensitivity, specificity, and have poor patient compliance. METHODS: Plasma was screened for 380 miRNAs using microfluidic array technology from a "Training" cohort of 60 patients, (10 each) control, CRC, CAA, breast cancer, pancreatic cancer, and lung cancer...
October 2016: Annals of Surgery
Bailey Nelson, Jane V Carter, Maurice R Eichenberger, Uri Netz, Susan Galandiuk
BACKGROUND: Many patients with rectal cancer undergo preoperative neoadjuvant chemoradiation, with approximately 70% exhibiting pathologic downstaging in response to treatment. Currently, there is no accurate test to predict patients who are likely to be complete responders to therapy. 5-Fluorouracil is used regularly in the neoadjuvant treatment of rectal cancer. Genetic polymorphisms affect the activity of thymidylate synthase, an enzyme involved in 5-Fluorouracil metabolism, which may account for observed differences in response to neoadjuvant treatment between patients...
November 2016: Surgery
Rodrick J Chiodini, Scot E Dowd, Susan Galandiuk, Brian Davis, Angela Glassing
Crohn's disease is characterized by increased permeability of the intestinal mucosal barriers and an abnormal or dysregulated immune response to specific and/or commensal bacteria arising from the intestinal lumen. To determine the types of bacteria that are transgressing the mucosal barrier and colonizing the intestinal submucosal tissues, we performed 16S rRNA gene microbiota sequencing of the submucosal and mucosal tissues at the advancing disease margin in ileal Crohn's disease. Microbial populations were compared between mucosa and submucosa and non-inflammatory bowel disease (non-IBD) controls, as well as to microbial populations previously found at the centre of the disease lesion...
September 2016: Microbiology
Angela Glassing, Scot E Dowd, Susan Galandiuk, Brian Davis, Rodrick J Chiodini
BACKGROUND: The advent and use of highly sensitive molecular biology techniques to explore the microbiota and microbiome in environmental and tissue samples have detected the presence of contaminating microbial DNA within reagents. These microbial DNA contaminants may distort taxonomic distributions and relative frequencies in microbial datasets, as well as contribute to erroneous interpretations and identifications. RESULTS: We herein report on the occurrence of bacterial DNA contamination within commonly used DNA extraction kits and PCR reagents and the effect of these contaminates on data interpretation...
2016: Gut Pathogens
Jane V Carter, Jianmin Pan, Shesh N Rai, Susan Galandiuk
BACKGROUND: It is vital for clinicians to understand and interpret correctly medical statistics as used in clinical studies. In this review, we address current issues and focus on delivering a simple, yet comprehensive, explanation of common research methodology involving receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. ROC curves are used most commonly in medicine as a means of evaluating diagnostic tests. METHODS: Sample data from a plasma test for the diagnosis of colorectal cancer were used to generate a prediction model...
June 2016: Surgery
Norman Galbraith, Samuel Walker, Susan Galandiuk, Sarah Gardner, Hiram C Polk
BACKGROUND: Trauma, major elective surgery, and overt sepsis can lead to a cascade of immunological change. A subset of these patients will have a degree of immune suppression that leads to hyporesponsive innate defenses, increasing the risk of infective co-morbidity and death. This article is an overview of monocyte impairment in the high-risk surgical patient. Specifically, our primary focus is on observations made pertaining to monocyte function and pathophysiological mechanisms underpinning this impairment...
June 2016: Surgical Infections
Angela Glassing, Scot E Dowd, Susan Galandiuk, Brian Davis, Jeffrey R Jorden, Rodrick J Chiodini
Microbial metagenomics are hindered in clinical tissue samples as a result of the large relative amount of human DNA in relation to microbial DNA acting as competitive inhibitors of downstream applications. We evaluated the LOOXSTER® Enrichment Kit to separate eukaryotic and prokaryotic DNA in submucosal intestinal tissue samples having a low microbial biomass and to determine the effects of enrichment on 16s rRNA microbiota sequencing. The enrichment kit reduced the amount of human DNA in the samples 40-70% resulting in a 3...
December 2015: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Susan Galandiuk
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2015: Annals of Surgery
Rodrick J Chiodini, Scot E Dowd, William M Chamberlin, Susan Galandiuk, Brian Davis, Angela Glassing
Since Crohn's disease is a transmural disease, we hypothesized that examination of deep submucosal tissues directly involved in the inflammatory disease process may provide unique insights into bacterial populations transgressing intestinal barriers and bacterial populations more representative of the causes and agents of the disease. We performed deep 16s microbiota sequencing on isolated ilea mucosal and submucosal tissues on 20 patients with Crohn's disease and 15 non-inflammatory bowel disease controls with a depth of coverage averaging 81,500 sequences in each of the 70 DNA samples yielding an overall resolution down to 0...
2015: PloS One
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