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Myelin oligodendrocyte antibodies

Kerstin Renner, Sonja Hellerbrand, Fabian Hermann, Christine Riedhammer, Yvonne Talke, Gabriela Schiechl, Manuel Rodriguez Gomez, Simone Kutzi, Dagmar Halbritter, Nicole Goebel, Hilke Brühl, Robert Weissert, Matthias Mack
Little is known about the role of IL-3 in multiple sclerosis (MS) in humans and in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Using myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) peptide-induced EAE, we show that CD4(+) T cells are the main source of IL-3 and that cerebral IL-3 expression correlates with the influx of T cells into the brain. Blockade of IL-3 with monoclonal antibodies, analysis of IL-3 deficient mice, and adoptive transfer of leukocytes demonstrate that IL-3 plays an important role for development of clinical symptoms of EAE, for migration of leukocytes into the brain, and for cerebral expression of adhesion molecules and chemokines...
October 6, 2016: JCI Insight
Tetsuya Akaishi, Masatoshi Konno, Ichiro Nakashima, Masashi Aoki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Internal Medicine
Tetsuya Akaishi, Ichiro Nakashima, Takayuki Takeshita, Kimihiko Kaneko, Shunji Mugikura, Douglas Kazutoshi Sato, Toshiyuki Takahashi, Toru Nakazawa, Masashi Aoki, Kazuo Fujihara
We compared the clinical features of optic neuritis (ON) that are frequently observed in various central nervous system demyelinating diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS), anti-aquaporin 4 (AQP4) antibody- and anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) autoantibody-related diseases. Almost all the AQP4-ON patients were female, whereas half of the MOG-ON patients were male. The ON-onset age was younger in MS-ON and was older in AQP4-ON. The ON-lesion detected using optic MRI in the acute phase was longer in MOG-ON and showed severe swelling and twisting...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Masataka Fukuoka, Ichiro Kuki, Hisashi Kawawaki, Kiyohiro Kim, Yuka Hattori, Hitomi Tsuji, Asako Horino, Megumi Nukui, Shin Okazaki
An 11-year-old boy presented with progressive leg hypesthesia but no history of trauma. Dysuria and constipation appeared subsequent to gait difficulty. He was admitted 8days after onset. Spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed longitudinal hyperintensity with cord swelling and hypointensity on T2-weighted images, suggesting severe inflammation and microbleeding change, respectively. Gadolinium contrast-enhanced MRI demonstrated mild enhancement in the lesions. Platelet count and coagulation findings were normal, and cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed no pleocytosis...
September 26, 2016: Brain & Development
Koji Yokoyama, Mutsuki Hori, Akira Yoshida
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
Izumi Kawachi, Hans Lassmann
Multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica (NMO) are autoimmune demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), having distinct immunological and pathological features. They have two pathogenic components, 'inflammation' and 'neurodegeneration', with different degrees of severity and pathogenetic mechanisms. The target antigen of autoimmunity in NMO is the water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4), and antibodies directed against this antigen result in astrocyte damage. MS is a disease primarily affecting myelin and oligodendrocytes, but thus far, no MS-specific autoantigen has been identified...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
Victoria Young, Gerardine Quaghebeur
Transverse myelitis is defined as inflammation of the spinal cord, named because of its typical clinical presentation with bandlike symptoms of altered sensation or pain in a horizontal fashion-at a specific dermatome level. Radiographic patterns might vary but the idiopathic form is more frequent to present as involvement of 3-4 vertebral segments and both sides of the cord. It is now recognized that there are numerous other causes as well as the idiopathic type, with often atypical features and geographic variation...
October 2016: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
Datis Kharrazian, Aristo Vojdani
Evidence continues to increase linking autoimmunity and other complex diseases to the chemicals commonly found in our environment. Bisphenol A (BPA) is a synthetic monomer used widely in many forms, from food containers to toys, medical products and many others. The potential for BPA to participate as a triggering agent for autoimmune diseases is likely due to its known immunological influences. The goal of this research was to determine if immune reactivity to BPA has any correlation with neurological antibodies...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
Harika Dasari, Bharath Wootla, Arthur E Warrington, Moses Rodriguez
We provide an overview of rehabilitation in neurological diseases. A large amount of literature available on neurorehabilitation is based from the rehabilitative work on stroke and spinal cord injuries. After a brief description of rehabilitation, the potential application of neurorehabilitation in neurodegenerative diseases specifically multiple sclerosis (MS) is summarized. Since MS causes a wide variety of symptoms, the rehabilitation in MS patients may benefit from an interdisciplinary approach that encloses physiotherapy, cognitive rehabilitation, psychological therapy, occupational therapy, and other methods to improve fatigue...
August 2016: International Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Nese Sinmaz, Tina Nguyen, Fiona Tea, Russell C Dale, Fabienne Brilot
BACKGROUND: Our knowledge of autoantibody-associated diseases of the central (CNS) and peripheral (PNS) nervous systems has expanded greatly over the recent years. A number of extracellular and intracellular autoantigens have been identified, and there is no doubt that this field will continue to expand as more autoantigens are discovered as a result of improved clinical awareness and methodological practice. In recent years, interest has shifted to uncover the target epitopes of these autoantibodies...
2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Michael Absoud, Benjamin M Greenberg, Ming Lim, Tim Lotze, Terrence Thomas, Kumaran Deiva
Pediatric acute transverse myelitis (ATM) is an immune-mediated CNS disorder and contributes to 20% of children experiencing a first acquired demyelinating syndrome (ADS). ATM must be differentiated from other presentations of myelopathy and may be the first presentation of relapsing ADS such as neuromyelitis optica (NMO) or multiple sclerosis (MS). The tenets of the diagnostic criteria for ATM established by the Transverse Myelitis Consortium Working Group can generally be applied in children; however, a clear sensory level may not be evident in some...
August 30, 2016: Neurology
Amit Bar-Or, Rogier Q Hintzen, Russell C Dale, Kevin Rostasy, Wolfgang Brück, Tanuja Chitnis
Elucidating pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying the spectrum of pediatric-onset CNS demyelinating diseases, particularly those that may distinguish multiple sclerosis (MS) from other entities, promises to both improve diagnostics and guide more-informed therapeutic decisions. Observations that pediatric- and adult-onset MS share the same genetic and environmental risk factors support the view that these conditions represent essentially the same illness manifesting at different ages. Nonetheless, special consideration must be given when CNS inflammation manifests in early life, at a time when multiple organs (including immune and nervous systems) are actively maturing...
August 30, 2016: Neurology
Hai Chen, Shi-Meng Liu, Xu-Xiang Zhang, Ya-Ou Liu, Si-Zhao Li, Zheng Liu, Hui-Qing Dong
BACKGROUND: Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) was long believed to be an aggressive form of multiple sclerosis (MS). This study aimed to describe the clinical features of patients with MS and NMOSD to assist in differential diagnoses in clinical practice. METHODS: Data including the patients' serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tests, image findings, and clinical information from 175 patients with MS or NMOSD at Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University from November 2012 to May 2014 were collected and analyzed retrospectively...
2016: Chinese Medical Journal
Irina A Isakova, Kate C Baker, Jason Dufour, Donald G Phinney
: : Krabbe disease, or globoid cell leukodystrophy, is a rare disorder caused by deficient galactosylceramidase activity and loss of myelin-forming oligodendrocytes, resulting in progressive demyelination and severely impaired motor function. Disease symptoms in humans appear within 3-6 months of age (early infantile) and manifest as marked irritability, spasticity, and seizures. The disease is often fatal by the second year of life, with few effective treatment options. Herein we evaluated the therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) administered intracranially to a 1-month-old rhesus macaque diagnosed with severe early-onset Krabbe disease that displayed neurologic and behavioral symptoms similar to those of human patients...
August 24, 2016: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
Pierre De Rossi, Virginie Buggia-Prévot, Benjamin L L Clayton, Jared B Vasquez, Carson van Sanford, Robert J Andrew, Ruben Lesnick, Alexandra Botté, Carole Deyts, Someya Salem, Eshaan Rao, Richard C Rice, Angèle Parent, Satyabrata Kar, Brian Popko, Peter Pytel, Steven Estus, Gopal Thinakaran
BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies have identified BIN1 within the second most significant susceptibility locus in late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). BIN1 undergoes complex alternative splicing to generate multiple isoforms with diverse functions in multiple cellular processes including endocytosis and membrane remodeling. An increase in BIN1 expression in AD and an interaction between BIN1 and Tau have been reported. However, disparate descriptions of BIN1 expression and localization in the brain previously reported in the literature and the lack of clarity on brain BIN1 isoforms present formidable challenges to our understanding of how genetic variants in BIN1 increase the risk for AD...
2016: Molecular Neurodegeneration
Melania Spadaro, Lisa Ann Gerdes, Markus Krumbholz, Birgit Ertl-Wagner, Franziska Sabrina Thaler, Elisabeth Schuh, Imke Metz, Astrid Blaschek, Andrea Dick, Wolfgang Brück, Reinhard Hohlfeld, Edgar Meinl, Tania Kümpfel
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the presence of antibodies to conformation-intact myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) in a subgroup of adult patients with clinically definite multiple sclerosis (MS) preselected for a specific clinical phenotype including severe spinal cord, optic nerve, and brainstem involvement. METHODS: Antibodies to MOG were investigated using a cell-based assay in 3 groups of patients: 104 preselected patients with MS (group 1), 55 age- and sex-matched, otherwise unselected patients with MS (group 2), and in 22 brain-biopsied patients with demyelinating diseases of the CNS (n = 19 with MS), 4 of whom classified as MS type II (group 3)...
October 2016: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
Jenea M Bin, Stephanie N Harris, Timothy E Kennedy
The mouse monoclonal antibody marketed as anti-adenomatous polyposis coli clone CC1, often referred to as CC1, is the antibody most commonly used to specifically label mature oligodendrocytes without labeling myelin. Previous studies have shown that despite being raised against adenomatous polyposis coli, this antibody binds another unknown antigen. We show that the CC1 antibody binds Quaking 7, an RNA-binding protein that is highly up-regulated in myelinating oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system...
October 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
Kazuya Kuboyama, Akihiro Fujikawa, Ryoko Suzuki, Naomi Tanga, Masaharu Noda
Protein-tyrosine phosphatase receptor type Z (PTPRZ) is predominantly expressed in the developing brain as a CS proteoglycan. PTPRZ has long (PTPRZ-A) and short type (PTPRZ-B) receptor forms by alternative splicing. The extracellular CS moiety of PTPRZ is required for high-affinity binding to inhibitory ligands, such as pleiotrophin (PTN), midkine, and interleukin-34; however, its functional significance in regulating PTPRZ activity remains obscure. We herein found that protein expression of CS-modified PTPRZ-A began earlier, peaking at approximately postnatal days 5-10 (P5-P10), and then that of PTN peaked at P10 at the developmental stage corresponding to myelination onset in the mouse brain...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Ji Hyeon Ahn, Bai Hui Chen, Bich Na Shin, Jeong Hwi Cho, In Hye Kim, Joon Ha Park, Jae Chul Lee, Hyun Jin Tae, Yun Lyul Lee, Jaesuk Lee, Kyunghee Byun, Goo-Bo Jeong, Bonghee Lee, Young-Myeong Kim, Moo-Ho Won, Soo Young Choi
Oligodendrocytes play a crucial role in creating the myelin sheath that is an important component in the neural transmission. In an animal model of transient cerebral ischemia, application of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) have not been yet reported. In this study, the effects of F3.Olig2 transplantation on memory and cognitive dysfunction, in the aged gerbil induced by ischemic stroke were investigated. To investigate the possible mechanisms, changes in the expression of myelin basic protein (MBP), oligodendrocytes specific protein (OSP) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were examined...
July 20, 2016: Cell Transplantation
Joshua N Douglas, Lidia A Gardner, Hannah E Salapa, Stephen J Lalor, Sangmin Lee, Benjamin M Segal, Paul E Sawchenko, Michael C Levin
BACKGROUND: Neurodegeneration is believed to be the primary cause of permanent, long-term disability in patients with multiple sclerosis. The cause of neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis appears to be multifactorial. One mechanism that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis is the targeting of neuronal and axonal antigens by autoantibodies. Multiple sclerosis patients develop antibodies to the RNA-binding protein, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNP A1), which is enriched in neurons...
2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
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