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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736227/molecular-mechanisms-of-omega-3-fatty-acids-in-the-migraine-headache
#1
REVIEW
Neda Soveyd, Mina Abdolahi, Sama Bitarafan, Abbas Tafakhori, Payam Sarraf, Mansoureh Togha, Ali Asghar Okhovat, Mahsa Hatami, Mohsen Sedighiyan, Mahmoud Djalali, Niyaz Mohammadzadeh Honarvar
Migraine is a common chronic inflammatory neurological disease with the progressive and episodic course. Much evidence have shown a role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of migraine. Omega-3 fatty acids are an important components of cell membranes phospholipids. The intake of these fatty acids is related to decrease concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP), proinflammatory eicosanoids, cytokines, chemokines and other inflammation biomarkers. Many of clinical trials have shown the beneficial effect of dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases in human, including Parkinson's disease (PD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Alzheimer's disease (AD), multiple sclerosis (MS) and migraine headaches...
October 7, 2017: Iranian Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690822/association-between-macronutrient-intake-and-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-prognosis
#2
Boeun Kim, Youri Jin, Seung Hyun Kim, Yongsoon Park
OBJECTIVES: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease, and the nutritional state of ALS patients is associated with survival. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether macronutrient intake at early stage of the disease was positively associated with survival and duration from symptom onset to death, tracheostomy, or non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in ALS. METHODS: ALS patients diagnosed according to EI Escorial criteria were recruited from 2011 to 2016 and followed up until 2017, when they reached the endpoint of death, tracheostomy, or NIV use...
April 24, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687024/improved-stratification-of-als-clinical-trials-using-predicted-survival
#3
James D Berry, Albert A Taylor, Danielle Beaulieu, Lisa Meng, Amy Bian, Jinsy Andrews, Mike Keymer, David L Ennist, Bernard Ravina
Introduction: In small trials, randomization can fail, leading to differences in patient characteristics across treatment arms, a risk that can be reduced by stratifying using key confounders. In ALS trials, riluzole use (RU) and bulbar onset (BO) have been used for stratification. We hypothesized that randomization could be improved by using a multifactorial prognostic score of predicted survival as a single stratifier. Methods: We defined a randomization failure as a significant difference between treatment arms on a characteristic...
April 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667443/implications-of-structural-and-functional-brain-changes-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#4
Thanuja Dharmadasa, William Huynh, Jun Tsugawa, Yoshimitsu Shimatani, Yan Ma, Matthew C Kiernan
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease that causes progressive muscle weakness and disability, eventually leading to death. Heterogeneity of disease has become a major barrier to understanding key clinical questions such as prognosis and disease spread, and has disadvantaged clinical trials in search of therapeutic intervention. Patterns of disease have been explored through recent advances in neuroimaging, elucidating structural, molecular and functional changes. Unique brain signatures have emerged that have lent a greater understanding of critical disease mechanisms, offering opportunities to improve diagnosis, guide prognosis, and establish candidate biomarkers to direct future therapeutic strategies...
April 19, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666705/the-role-of-moderate-aerobic-exercise-as-determined-by-cardiopulmonary-exercise-testing-in-als
#5
Anna Caroline Marques Braga, Anabela Pinto, Susana Pinto, Mamede de Carvalho
Introduction: The efficacy of cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) to determining exercise intensity has not been established in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). We studied this intervention. Methods: We included 48 ALS patients randomized in 2 groups: G1 ( n = 24), exercise intensity leveled by CPET; G2 ( n = 24), standard care limited by fatigue, during 6 months. ALS functional scale (ALSFRS-R) and forced vital capacity (FVC) were performed every 3 months; CPET was done at admission ( T 1) and 6 months later ( T 2)...
2018: Neurology Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607695/-als-reversals-demographics-disease-characteristics-treatments-and-co-morbidities
#6
Daniel Harrison, Paul Mehta, Michael A van Es, Elijah Stommel, Vivian E Drory, Beatrice Nefussy, Leonard H van den Berg, Jesse Crayle, Richard Bedlack
OBJECTIVE: To identify differences in demographics, disease characteristics, treatments, and co-morbidities between patients with "amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) reversals" and those with typically progressive ALS. METHODS: Cases of possible ALS reversals were found in prior publications, in the Duke ALS clinic, through self-referral or referral from other Neurologists, and on the internet. Of 89 possible reversals identified, 36 cases were included because chart or literature review confirmed their diagnosis and a robust, sustained improvement in at least one objective measure...
April 2, 2018: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607174/effect-of-a-passive-exhalation-port-on-tracheostomy-ventilation-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-patients-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Andrea Vianello, Giovanna Arcaro, Beatrice Molena, Silvia Iovino, Federico Gallan, Cristian Turato, Rosario Marchese-Ragona
Background: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients often require long-term tracheostomy ventilation (LT-TV) because of progressive ventilatory failure. Although widely used for non-invasive ventilation (NIV), passive exhalation port systems have not been gaining popularity for TV because of the possibility of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) rebreathing. The current study set out to investigate the effect of a Whisper Swivel connector in comparison to an active exhalation valve on gas exchange and symptoms in ALS patients requiring LT-TV...
February 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593436/comparing-methods-to-combine-functional-loss-and-mortality-in-clinical-trials-for-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#8
Ruben Pa van Eijk, Marinus Jc Eijkemans, Dimitris Rizopoulos, Leonard H van den Berg, Stavros Nikolakopoulos
Objective: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) clinical trials based on single end points only partially capture the full treatment effect when both function and mortality are affected, and may falsely dismiss efficacious drugs as futile. We aimed to investigate the statistical properties of several strategies for the simultaneous analysis of function and mortality in ALS clinical trials. Methods: Based on the Pooled Resource Open-Access ALS Clinical Trials (PRO-ACT) database, we simulated longitudinal patterns of functional decline, defined by the revised amyotrophic lateral sclerosis functional rating scale (ALSFRS-R) and conditional survival time...
2018: Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577526/the-assessment-of-bulbar-function-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-validation-of-a-self-report-scale-cns-bfs
#9
Richard A Smith, Eric A Macklin, Kathleen J Myers, Gary L Pattee, Kimberly L Goslin, Gregg D Meekins, Jordan R Green, Jeremy M Shefner, Erik P Pioro
BACKGROUND: Impaired bulbar functions of speech and swallowing are among the most serious consequences of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Despite this, clinical trials in ALS have rarely emphasized bulbar function as an endpoint. When symptomatic benefit is measured, the rater-administered ALSFRS-R functional rating scale or various quality of life measures are commonly used. Accordingly, we sought to evaluate the utility of measures specific to bulbar function in ALS. METHODS: We assessed bulbar functions in 120 ALS patients, with clinicians first making direct observations of the degree of speech, swallowing, and salivation impairment in these subjects...
March 25, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545836/gemals-a-promising-therapy-for-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#10
Michel Geffard, Arturo Mangas, Denis Bedat, Rafael Coveñas
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease that currently has no cure. At present, the only approved treatment for ALS is Riluzole, a glutamate release blocker that improves life expectancy by 3-6 months. ALS-Endotherapia (GEMALS) is a novel therapeutic approach to treat ALS and the aim of the present study was to investigate the potential beneficial effects of this novel treatment. A total of 31 patients with ALS were assessed in the current study. Deceleration of the disease was observed in 83...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525492/stage-at-which-riluzole-treatment-prolongs-survival-in-patients-with-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-a-retrospective-analysis-of-data-from-a-dose-ranging-study
#11
Ton Fang, Ahmad Al Khleifat, Jacques-Henri Meurgey, Ashley Jones, P Nigel Leigh, Gilbert Bensimon, Ammar Al-Chalabi
BACKGROUND: Riluzole is the only drug to prolong survival for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and, at a dose of 100 mg, was associated with a 35% reduction in mortality in a clinical trial. A key question is whether the survival benefit occurs at an early stage of disease, late stage, or is spread throughout the course of the disease. To address this question, we used the King's clinical staging system to do a retrospective analysis of data from the original dose-ranging clinical trial of riluzole...
May 2018: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523587/characterisation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-from-patients-with-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#12
Nicole Matejckova, Alena Zajicova, Barbora Hermankova, Jan Kossl, Pavla Bohacova, Vladimir Holan, Eliska Javorkova
AIMS: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have recently been tested in clinical trials to treat severe diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Since autologous MSCs are frequently used for therapy, we aimed to evaluate the possible influence of the disease on characteristics and function of these cells. METHODS: MSCs were isolated from the bone marrow of patients with ALS and compared with MSCs from healthy controls (HC). The cells were tested for phenotype, growth properties, differentiation ability, metabolic activity, secretory potential, expression of genes for immunomodulatory molecules and for the ability to regulate proliferation of mitogen-stimulated peripheral blood leucocytes...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29495962/rns60-exerts-therapeutic-effects-in-the-sod1-als-mouse-model-through-protective-glia-and-peripheral-nerve-rescue
#13
Antonio Vallarola, Francesca Sironi, Massimo Tortarolo, Noemi Gatto, Roberta De Gioia, Laura Pasetto, Massimiliano De Paola, Alessandro Mariani, Supurna Ghosh, Richard Watson, Andreas Kalmes, Valentina Bonetto, Caterina Bendotti
BACKGROUND: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects the motor neuromuscular system leading to complete paralysis and premature death. The multifactorial nature of ALS that involves both cell-autonomous and non-cell-autonomous processes contributes to the lack of effective therapies, usually targeted to a single pathogenic mechanism. RNS60, an experimental drug containing oxygenated nanobubbles generated by modified Taylor-Couette-Poiseuille flow with elevated oxygen pressure, has shown anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties in different experimental paradigms...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29488820/safety-and-feasibility-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-a-pilot-study-with-a-single-subject-experimental-design
#14
Sangeetha Madhavan, Anjali Sivaramakrishnan, Sam Bond, Qin Li Jiang
INTRODUCTION: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been explored as a neuromodulatory tool to prime motor function in several neurological disorders. Studies using tDCS in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are limited. We investigated the safety, feasibility and effects of long-term tDCS in an individual with ALS. METHODS: A 36-year-old male diagnosed with clinically definite ALS received 12 sessions each of anodal, sham, and cathodal tDCS. Outcome measures included disease progression (revised ALS functional rating scale (ALSFRS-R)), clinical measures of endurance and mobility, and corticomotor excitability...
February 28, 2018: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486281/increasing-the-efficiency-of-clinical-trials-in-neurodegenerative-disorders-using-group-sequential-trial-designs
#15
Ruben P A van Eijk, Stavros Nikolakopoulos, Toby A Ferguson, Dawei Liu, Marinus J C Eijkemans, Leonard H van den Berg
OBJECTIVE: Clinical trials in neurodegenerative disorders are facing high futility rates and rising development costs. We aim to review and exemplify the value of group sequential trial designs (i.e. designs with one or more prospectively planned interim analyses) within the field of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We reviewed the literature to identify sequentially conducted trials. Subsequently, we re-analyzed the dexpramipexole trial (EMPOWER), a classically designed and conducted trial involving 942 participants, by sequentially monitoring the functional questionnaire and survival endpoint...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472887/a-possible-role-for-platelet-activating-factor-receptor-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-treatment
#16
Marcelo R S Briones, Amanda M Snyder, Renata C Ferreira, Elizabeth B Neely, James R Connor, James R Broach
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the third most prevalent neurodegenerative disease affecting upper and lower motor neurons. An important pathway that may lead to motor neuron degeneration is neuroinflammation. Cerebrospinal Fluids of ALS patients have increased levels of the inflammatory cytokine IL-18. Because IL-18 is produced by dendritic cells stimulated by the platelet-activating factor (PAF), a major neuroinflammatory mediator, it is expected that PAF is involved in ALS. Here we show pilot experimental data on amplification of PAF receptor (PAFR) mRNA by RT-PCR...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460270/towards-a-tdp-43-based-biomarker-for-als-and-ftld
#17
REVIEW
Emily Feneberg, Elizabeth Gray, Olaf Ansorge, Kevin Talbot, Martin R Turner
TDP-43 accumulates in nerve cells of nearly all cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS; the commonest form of motor neuron disease) and in the majority of Tau-negative frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). There is currently no biochemical test or marker of disease activity for ALS or FTLD, and the clinical diagnosis depends on the opinion of an experienced neurologist. TDP-43 has a key role in the pathogenesis of ALS/FTLD. Measuring TDP-43 in easily accessible biofluids, such as blood or cerebrospinal fluid, might reduce diagnostic delay and offer a readout for use in future drug trials...
February 19, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449625/toll-like-receptor-4-modulation-influences-human-neural-stem-cell-proliferation-and-differentiation
#18
Chiara Grasselli, Daniela Ferrari, Cristina Zalfa, Matias Soncini, Gianluigi Mazzoccoli, Fabio A Facchini, Laura Marongiu, Francesca Granucci, Massimiliano Copetti, Angelo Luigi Vescovi, Francesco Peri, Lidia De Filippis
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation is pivotal to innate immunity and has been shown to regulate proliferation and differentiation of human neural stem cells (hNSCs) in vivo. Here we study the role of TLR4 in regulating hNSC derived from the human telencephalic-diencephalic area of the fetal brain and cultured in vitro as neurospheres in compliance with Good Manifacture Procedures (GMP) guidelines. Similar batches have been used in recent clinical trials in ALS patients. We found that TLR2 and 4 are expressed in hNSCs as well as CD14 and MD-2 co-receptors, and TLR4 expression is downregulated upon differentiation...
February 15, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409450/using-an-onset-anchored-bayesian-hierarchical-model-to-improve-predictions-for-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-disease-progression
#19
Alex G Karanevich, Jeffrey M Statland, Byron J Gajewski, Jianghua He
BACKGROUND: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), also known as Lou Gehrig's disease, is a rare disease with extreme between-subject variability, especially with respect to rate of disease progression. This makes modelling a subject's disease progression, which is measured by the ALS Functional Rating Scale (ALSFRS), very difficult. Consider the problem of predicting a subject's ALSFRS score at 9 or 12 months after a given time-point. METHODS: We obtained ALS subject data from the Pooled Resource Open-Access ALS Clinical Trials Database, a collection of data from various ALS clinical trials...
February 6, 2018: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405033/therapy-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-als-an-unexpected-evolving-scenario
#20
Vincenzo Silani
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease resulting in increasing disability, being uniformly fatal. Since its approval in the 1990s, riluzole remained for long time the unique treatment, offering modest survival benefit. Most recently a second drug has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for treatment of ALS: edaravone. Significant advances have been made in the symptomatic management of the disease but more effective drug therapy targeting disease progression is still dreadfully needed, the success appearing almost a miracle...
December 1, 2017: Archives Italiennes de Biologie
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