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Philip D Hopkins, Tara Mastren, Justyna Florek, Roy Copping, Mark Brugh, Kevin D John, Meiring F Nortier, Eva R Birnbaum, Freddy Kleitz, Michael E Fassbender
The separation of Th, Pa, and U is of high importance in many applications including nuclear power, nuclear waste, environmental and geochemistry, nuclear forensics and nuclear medicine. Diglycolamide (DGA)-based resins have shown the ability to separate many elements, however, these resins consist of non-covalent impregnation of the DGA molecules on the resin backbone resulting in co-elution of the extraction molecule during separation cycles, therefore limiting their long-term and repeated use. Covalently binding the DGA molecules onto silica is one way to overcome this issue...
March 12, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Saideh Ghadimi, Giti Forghani, Gholam Abbas Kazemi
The Angouran Mine, located in northwest Iran, is the largest Zn-Pb producer in the Middle East. This study was designed to investigate the distribution, geochemistry, and mineralogy of the aerosols in the mining area and to assess their likely health impacts on the local residents. For this purpose, 36 aerosol samples were collected from 2014 to 2015 at nine sites located in mine district and upwind and downwind directions. The concentration of potentially toxic elements in the aerosols was determined using AAS instrument...
March 7, 2018: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Dawn E Holmes, Roberto Orelana, Ludovic Giloteaux, Li-Ying Wang, Pravin Shrestha, Kenneth Williams, Derek R Lovley, Amelia-Elena Rotaru
Previous studies of acetate-promoted bioremediation of uranium-contaminated aquifers focused on Geobacter because no other microorganisms that can couple the oxidation of acetate with U(VI) reduction had been detected in situ. Monitoring the levels of methyl CoM reductase subunit A (mcrA) transcripts during an acetate-injection field experiment demonstrated that acetoclastic methanogens from the genus Methanosarcina were enriched after 40 days of acetate amendment. The increased abundance of Methanosarcina corresponded with an accumulation of methane in the groundwater...
March 2, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Mónica Rouco, Kyle R Frischkorn, Sheean T Haley, Harriet Alexander, Sonya T Dyhrman
The N2 -fixing cyanobacterium Trichodesmium is intensely studied because of the control this organism exerts over the cycling of carbon and nitrogen in the low nutrient ocean gyres. Although iron (Fe) and phosphorus (P) bioavailability are thought to be major drivers of Trichodesmium distributions and activities, identifying resource controls on Trichodesmium is challenging, as Fe and P are often organically complexed and their bioavailability to a single species in a mixed community is difficult to constrain...
February 28, 2018: ISME Journal
Changwei Lü, Jiang He, Bing Wang
The chemistry of sedimentary organic phosphorus (OP) and its fraction distribution in sediments are greatly influenced by environmental conditions such as terrestrial inputs and runoffs. The linkage of OP with environmental conditions was analyzed on the basis of OP spatial and historical distributions in lake sediments. The redundancy analysis and OP spatial distribution results suggested that both NaOH-OP (OP extracted by NaOH) and Re-OP (residual OP) in surface sediments from the selected 13 lakes reflected the gradient effects of environmental conditions and the autochthonous and/or allochthonous inputs driven by latitude zonality in China...
February 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Xingyun Hu, Yuyan Yue, Xianjia Peng
As part of a broader study of the environmental geochemistry behavior of vanadium (V), the release kinetics of V from the dissolution of natural vanadium titano-magnetite under environmentally relevant conditions was investigated. In both the acidic and basic domains, the V release rate was found to be proportional to fractional powers of hydrogen ion and dissolved oxygen activities. The dependence of the rate on dissolved oxygen can also be described in terms of the Langmuir adsorption model. The empirical rate equation is given by: r [Formula: see text] where, α=0...
February 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Navdeep K Dhami, Abhijit Mukherjee, Elizabeth L J Watkin
Natural mineral formations are a window into important processes leading to carbon storage and mineralized carbonate structures formed through abiotic and biotic processes. In the current study, we made an attempt to undertake a comprehensive approach to characterize the mineralogical, mechanical, and microbial properties of different kinds of speleothems from karstic caves; with an aim to understand the bio-geo-chemical processes in speleothem structures and their impact on nanomechanical properties. We also investigated the biomineralization abilities of speleothem surface associated microbial communities in vitro ...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
A Deveau, G Bonito, J Uehling, M Paoletti, M Becker, S Bindschedler, S Hacquard, V Hervé, J Labbé, O A Lastovetsky, S Mieszkin, L J Millet, B Vajna, P Junier, P Bonfante, B P Krom, S Olsson, J D van Elsas, L Y Wick
Fungi and bacteria are found living together in a wide variety of environments. Their interactions are significant drivers of many ecosystem functions and are important for the health of plants and animals. A large number of fungal and bacterial families are engaged in complex interactions that lead to critical behavioural shifts of the microorganisms ranging from mutualism to pathogenicity. The importance of bacterial-fungal interactions (BFI) in environmental science, medicine and biotechnology has led to the emergence of a dynamic and multidisciplinary research field that combines highly diverse approaches including molecular biology, genomics, geochemistry, chemical and microbial ecology, biophysics and ecological modelling...
February 19, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
Faizan Ur Rehman Qaisar, Fan Zhang, Ramesh Raj Pant, Guanxing Wang, Sardar Khan, Chen Zeng
The Indus River Basin (IRB) with an area of 139,202 km2 is the lifeline river basin of Pakistan. An intensive study was conducted in six subcatchments of the IRB with five in the Upper Indus Basin (UIB) and one of the Lower Indus Basin (LIB; between Tarbela Dam and Panjand), i.e., the Gilgit River Basin (UIB-I), Hunza River Basin (UIB-II), UIB-III, UIB-IV and UIB-V, and LIB. A total of 84 surface water samples were collected from main stream and tributaries from June to August, 2016. The pH, electric conductivity (EC), and total dissolved solids (TDS) were measured in situ, whereas major ions (Ca2+ , Mg2+ , K+ , Na+ , Cl- , SO4 2- , and NO3 - ) and Si were analyzed in the laboratory...
February 22, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Cleyton Saialy Medeiros Cunha, Ygor Jacques Agra Bezerra da Silva, Maria Eugenia Ortiz Escobar, Clístenes Williams Araújo do Nascimento
The Itataia uranium-phosphate deposit is the largest uranium reserve in Brazil. Rare earth elements (REEs) are commonly associated with phosphate deposits; however, there are no studies on the concentrations of REEs in soils of the Itataia deposit region. Thus, the objective of the research was to evaluate the concentration and spatial variability of REEs in topsoils of Itataia phosphate deposit region. In addition, the influence of soil properties on the geochemistry of REEs was investigated. Results showed that relatively high mean concentrations (mg kg-1 ) of heavy REEs (Gd 6...
February 22, 2018: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
M Usman, J M Byrne, A Chaudhary, S Orsetti, K Hanna, C Ruby, A Kappler, S B Haderlein
Mixed-valent iron [Fe(II)-Fe(III)] minerals such as magnetite and green rust have received a significant amount of attention over recent decades, especially in the environmental sciences. These mineral phases are intrinsic and essential parts of biogeochemical cycling of metals and organic carbon and play an important role regarding the mobility, toxicity, and redox transformation of organic and inorganic pollutants. The formation pathways, mineral properties, and applications of magnetite and green rust are currently active areas of research in geochemistry, environmental mineralogy, geomicrobiology, material sciences, environmental engineering, and environmental remediation...
February 21, 2018: Chemical Reviews
E J Fleming, T Woyke, A R Donatello, M M M Kuypers, A Sczyrba, S Littmann, D Emerson
Leptothrix ochracea is known for producing large volumes of iron-oxyhydroxide sheaths that alter wetland biogeochemistry. For over a century, these delicate structures have fascinated microbiologists and geoscientists. Because L. ochracea still resists long-term in vitro culture, the debate regarding its metabolic classification dates back to 1885. We developed a novel culturing technique for L. ochracea using in situ natural waters, and coupled this with single cell genomics and nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrophotometry (nanoSIMS) to probe L...
February 16, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Nancy G Prouty, E Brendan Roark, Leslye M Mohon, Ching-Chih Chang
Understanding iodine concentration, transport, and bioavailability is essential in evaluating iodine's impact to the environment and its effectiveness as an environmental biogeotracer. While iodine and its radionuclides have proven to be important tracers in geologic and biologic studies, little is known about transport of this element to the deep sea and subsequent uptake in deep-sea coral habitats. Results presented here on deep-sea black coral iodine speciation and iodine isotope variability provides key information on iodine behavior in natural and anthropogenic environments, and its geochemical pathway in the Gulf of Mexico...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Gal Y Kreitman, Ryan J Elias, David W Jeffery, Gavin L Sacks
Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs), particularly low molecular weight sulfhydryls like hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) and methanethiol (MeSH), are often observed in wines with sulfurous off-aromas. Recent work has shown both H 2 S and MeSH can increase up to a few µM (> 40 µg/L) during anoxic storage, but the identity of the latent sources of these sulfhydryls is still disputed. This review critically evaluates the latent precursors and pathways likely to be responsible for the loss and formation of these sulfhydryls during wine storage based on the existing enology literature as well as studies from food chemistry, geochemistry, biochemistry, and synthetic chemistry...
February 16, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
J Tapia, R González, B Townley, V Oliveros, F Álvarez, G Aguilar, A Menzies, M Calderón
The Atacama Desert, the driest of its kind on Earth, hosts a number of unique geological and geochemical features that make it unlike any other environment on the planet. Considering its location on the western border of South America, between 17 and 28 °S, its climate has been characterized as arid to hyperarid for at least the past 10 million years. Notably dry climatic conditions of the Atacama Desert have been related to uplift of the Andes and are believed to have played an important role in the development of the most distinctive features of this desert, including: (i) nitrates and iodine deposits in the Central Depression, (ii) secondary enrichment in porphyry copper deposits in the Precordillera, (iii) Li enrichment in salt flats of the Altiplano, and (iv) life in extreme habitats...
February 14, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Wânia Duleba, Andreia C Teodoro, Jean-Pierre Debenay, Maria Virgínia Alves Martins, Silas Gubitoso, Leonardo Antônio Pregnolato, Laura Misailidis Lerena, Silvio Miranda Prada, José Eduardo Bevilacqua
The Dutos e Terminais do Centro Sul (DTCS) is one of the largest petroleum terminals of the South America located in the São Sebastião Channel (SSC) on the southeastern Brazilian coast. The aims of this study were to compare the sediment quality near the DTCS with that of several sites in the SSC region including the Araçá (AR) domestic sewage outfall and to assess the efficiency of the DTCS wastewater treatment plant. To achieve these goals, textural, geochemical, and living benthic foraminifera results were analyzed for the DTCS, AR, and SSC regions...
2018: PloS One
Hamza Al-Qasmi, Gareth T W Law, L Keith Fifield, John A Howe, Tim Brand, Gregory L Cowie, Kathleen A Law, Francis R Livens
The nuclear fuel reprocessing plants on the Sellafield site (UK) have released low-level effluents into the Irish Sea under authorisation since 1952. This has led to the labelling of nearby offshore sediments with a range of artificial radionuclides. In turn, these sediments act as a long-term secondary source of both soluble and particle-associated radionuclides to coastal areas. These radionuclides are of interest both in assessing possible environmental impacts and as tracers for marine processes. Here we present results from a study of the geochemistry of natural (234, 238U) and artificial (137Cs, 241Am, 238Pu, 239+240Pu, and 236U) radionuclides and their accumulation in sediments from Loch Etive, Scotland...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Andrew W Rate
Urban environments are dynamic and highly heterogeneous, and multiple additions of potential contaminants are likely on timescales which are short relative to natural processes. The likely sources and location of soil or sediment contamination in urban environment should therefore be detectable using multielement geochemical composition combined with rigorously applied multivariate statistical techniques. Soil, wetland sediment, and street dust was sampled along intersecting transects in Robertson Park in metropolitan Perth, Western Australia...
February 5, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Elizabeth A Oberlin, Mark W Claire, Samuel P Kounaves
Locations on Earth that provide insights into processes that may be occurring or may have occurred throughout martian history are often broadly deemed "Mars analog environments." As no single locale can precisely represent a past or present martian environment, it is important to focus on characterization of terrestrial processes that produce analogous features to those observed in specific regions of Mars or, if possible, specific time periods during martian history. Here, we report on the preservation of ionic species in soil samples collected from the Tindouf region of Morocco and compare them with the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica, the Atacama Desert in Chile, the martian meteorite EETA79001, and the in situ Mars analyses from the Phoenix Wet Chemistry Laboratory (WCL)...
February 9, 2018: Astrobiology
Julia Endresen Storesund, Anders Lanzèn, Antonio García-Moyano, Anna-Louise Reysenbach, Lise Øvreås
The microbial diversity associated with diffuse venting deep-sea hydrothermal deposits is tightly coupled to the geochemistry of the hydrothermal fluids. Previous 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing (metabarcoding) of marine iron-hydroxide deposits along the Arctic Mid Ocean Ridge, revealed the presence of diverse bacterial communities associated with these deposits (Storesund and Øvreås in Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 104:569-584, 2013). One of the most abundant and diverse phyla detected was the enigmatic Planctomycetes...
February 8, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
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