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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316048/toxic-elements-and-bio-metals-in-cantharellus-mushrooms-from-poland-and-china
#1
Jerzy Falandysz, Maria Chudzińska, Danuta Barałkiewicz, Małgorzata Drewnowska, Anetta Hanć
Data on multi-trace element composition and content relationships have been obtained for Cantharellus cibarius, C. tubaeformis, and C. minor mushrooms from Poland and China by inductive coupled plasma-dynamic reaction cell-mass spectroscopy. There is no previous data published on As, Li, V, Tl, and U in chanterelles from Poland and on Ba, Co, Cr, Ni, Rb, and Sr in chanterelles from China. The results implied a role of the soil background geochemistry at the collection site with the occurrence of Ag, As, Ba, Cr, Cs, Li, Mn, Pb, Rb, Sr, U, and V in the fruiting bodies...
March 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296889/investigation-of-bacterial-communities-within-the-digestive-organs-of-the-hydrothermal-vent-shrimp-rimicaris-exoculata-provide-insights-into-holobiont-geographic-clustering
#2
Dominique A Cowart, Lucile Durand, Marie-Anne Cambon-Bonavita, Sophie Arnaud-Haond
Prokaryotic communities forming symbiotic relationships with the vent shrimp, Rimicaris exoculata, are well studied components of hydrothermal ecosystems at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR). Despite the tight link between host and symbiont, the observed lack of spatial genetic structure seen in R. exoculata contrasts with the geographic differentiation detected in specific bacterial ectosymbionts. The geographic clustering of bacterial lineages within a seemingly panmictic host suggests either the presence of finer scale restriction to gene flow not yet detected in the host, horizontal transmission (environmental selection) of its endosymbionts as a consequence of unique vent geochemistry, or vertically transmitted endosymbionts that exhibit genetic differentiation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291805/socioeconomic-factors-associated-with-severe-acute-malnutrition-in-jamaica
#3
Debbie S Thompson, Novie Younger-Coleman, Parris Lyew-Ayee, Lisa-Gaye Greene, Michael S Boyne, Terrence E Forrester
OBJECTIVES: Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is an important risk factor for illness and death globally, contributing to more than half of deaths in children worldwide. We hypothesized that SAM is positively correlated to poverty, low educational attainment, major crime and higher mean soil concentrations of lead, cadmium and arsenic. METHODS: We reviewed admission records of infants admitted with a diagnosis of SAM over 14 years (2000-2013) in Jamaica. Poverty index, educational attainment, major crime and environmental heavy metal exposure were represented in a Geographic Information System (GIS)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285858/high-resolution-profile-of-inorganic-aqueous-geochemistry-and-key-redox-zones-in-an-arsenic-bearing-aquifer-in-cambodia
#4
Laura A Richards, Daniel Magnone, Chansopheaktra Sovann, Chivuth Kong, Sebastian Uhlemann, Oliver Kuras, Bart E van Dongen, Christopher J Ballentine, David A Polya
Arsenic contamination of groundwaters in South and Southeast Asia is a major threat to public health. In order to better understand the geochemical controls on the mobility of arsenic in a heavily arsenic-affected aquifer in northern Kandal Province, Cambodia, key changes in inorganic aqueous geochemistry have been monitored at high vertical and lateral resolution along dominant groundwater flow paths along two distinct transects. The two transects are characterized by differing geochemical, hydrological and lithological conditions...
March 9, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278427/clustering-disjoint-hj-biplot-a-new-tool-for-identifying-pollution-patterns-in-geochemical-studies
#5
A B Nieto-Librero, C Sierra, M P Vicente-Galindo, O Ruíz-Barzola, M P Galindo-Villardón
This paper introduces a new mathematical algorithm termed Clustering Disjoint HJ-Biplot (CDBiplot), which searches for the underlying data structure in order to find the best classification of the object groups in a reduced space. To this end, disjoint factorial axes are generated, in which each variable only contributes to the formation of one factorial axis. A graphical representation of the individuals and variables is performed using the HJ-Biplot method. In order to facilitate the use of this new method within any practical context, a function in the language R has been developed...
February 28, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276502/calcium-isotope-fractionation-between-aqueous-compounds-relevant-to-low-temperature-geochemistry-biology-and-medicine
#6
Frédéric Moynier, Toshiyuki Fujii
Stable Ca isotopes are fractionated between bones, urine and blood of animals and between soils, roots and leaves of plants by >1000 ppm for the (44)Ca/(40)Ca ratio. These isotopic variations have important implications to understand Ca transport and fluxes in living organisms; however, the mechanisms of isotopic fractionation are unclear. Here we present ab initio calculations for the isotopic fractionation between various aqueous species of Ca and show that this fractionation can be up to 3000 ppm...
March 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276174/sulfolobus-islandicus-meta-populations-in-yellowstone-national-park-hot-springs
#7
Kate M Campbell, Angela Kouris, Whitney England, Rika E Anderson, R Blaine McCleskey, D Kirk Nordstrom, Rachel J Whitaker
Abiotic and biotic forces shape the structure and evolution of microbial populations. We investigated forces that shape the spatial and temporal population structure of Sulfolobus islandicus by comparing geochemical and molecular analysis from seven hot springs in five regions sampled over three years in Yellowstone National Park. Through deep amplicon sequencing, we uncovered 148 unique alleles at two loci whose relative frequency provides clear evidence for independent populations in different hot springs...
March 9, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275994/experimental-and-visual-research-on-the-microbial-induced-carbonate-precipitation-by-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#8
Yang Bai, Xu-Jing Guo, Yun-Zhen Li, Tao Huang
Microbial induced carbonate precipitation (MICP) is a common occurrence of geochemistry influences in many fields, such as biological, geographical, and engineering systems. However, the processes that control interactions between carbonate biomineralization and biofilm properties are poorly understood. We develop a method for real time, in situ and nondestructive imaging with confocal scanning microscopy. This method provides a possible way to observe biomineralization process and the morphology of biomineralized deposits within biofilms...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273599/radiocesium-in-migratory-aquatic-game-birds-using-contaminated-u-s-department-of-energy-reactor-cooling-reservoirs-a-long-term-perspective
#9
Robert A Kennamer, Ricki E Oldenkamp, James C Leaphart, Joshua D King, A Lawrence Bryan, James C Beasley
Low-level releases of radiocesium into former nuclear reactor cooling-reservoirs on the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina, USA, dating primarily to the late 1950s and early 1960s, have allowed examination of long-term contaminant attenuation in biota occupying these habitats. Periodic collections of migratory game birds since the 1970s have documented (137)Cs (radiocesium) activity concentrations in birds of SRS reservoirs, including mainly Par Pond and Pond B. In this study, during 2014 and 2015 we released wild-caught American coots (Fulica americana) and ring-necked ducks (Aythya collaris) onto Pond B...
March 5, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273570/novel-geochemistry-inspired-method-for-the-deep-removal-of-vanadium-from-molybdate-solution
#10
Jialiang Zhang, Yuping Deng, Qiuyue Zhou, Peixin Qin, Yubo Liu, Chengyan Wang
Separation of vanadium from molybdates is an essential task for processing the leaching solution of hazardous spent hydrodesulphurization (HDS) catalyst. In this study, the difference in the main naturally occurring mineral forms of Mo and V inspired us to develop a method for the deep removal of V from molybdate solution using Fe3O4 as an adsorbent. First, the adsorbent was synthesized with coprecipitation method, and then it was characterized by XRD, TEM, and VSM. The synthesized material consisted of pure Fe3O4 nanoparticles that exhibited paramagnetic property, with a saturated magnetization of 68...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256313/geochemical-anomalies-of-household-dust-in-an-industrialized-city-huelva-sw-spain
#11
Raquel Torres-Sánchez, Ana María Sánchez de la Campa, María Beltrán, Daniel Sánchez-Rodas, Jesús D de la Rosa
Geochemical anomalies of sulphide like elements (Cu, As and Cd) derived from the industrial activity have been identified in household dust of Huelva (SW Spain) using geochemical maps. Major and trace elements were analysed by ICP-OES and ICP-MS, respectively. Electron images of single particles were analysed by SEM-EDS in order to know their size, shape and composition. The geochemistry of the household dust has been compared to anomalies in deposition particles, PM10 and soils. A zonation has been observed: the eastern part of the city displays higher concentrations of sulphide like elements than the western part, supporting the origin of these elements related to the vicinity of industrial estates (Cu-smelter processes)...
February 27, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255820/a-powerful-tool-for-assessing-distribution-and-fate-of-potentially-toxic-metals-ptms-in-soils-integration-of-laser-ablation-spectrometry-la-icp-ms-on-thin-sections-with-soil-micromorphology-and-geochemistry
#12
Fabio Scarciglia, Donatella Barca
The dynamic behavior and inherent spatial heterogeneity, at different hierarchic levels, of the soil system often make the spatial distribution of potentially toxic metals (PTMs) quite complex and difficult to assess correctly. This work demonstrates that the application of laser ablation spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to soil thin sections constitutes an ancillary powerful tool to well-established analytical methods for tracing the behavior and fate of potential soil contaminants at the microsite level. It allowed to discriminate the contribution of PTMs in distinct soil sub-components, such as parent rock fragments, neoformed, clay-enriched or humified matrix, and specific pedogenetic features of illuvial origin (unstained or iron-stained clay coatings) even at very low contents...
March 2, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246525/a-survey-of-photogeochemistry
#13
REVIEW
Timothy A Doane
The participation of sunlight in the natural chemistry of the earth is presented as a unique field of study, from historical observations to prospects for future inquiry. A compilation of known reactions shows the extent of light-driven interactions between naturally occurring components of land, air, and water, and provides the backdrop for an outline of the mechanisms of these phenomena. Catalyzed reactions, uncatalyzed reactions, direct processes, and indirect processes all operate in natural photochemical transformations, many of which are analogous to well-known biological reactions...
2017: Geochemical Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237470/ex-situ-groundwater-treatment-triggering-the-mobilization-of-geogenic-uranium-from-aquifer-sediments
#14
Andre Banning, Nadine Pawletko, Julia Röder, Christine Kübeck, Frank Wisotzky
Uranium (U) concentrations in groundwater extracted for drinking water usage from a Quaternary fluvial aquifer partly exceed the German drinking water guideline of 10μgL(-1). Responsible sources and mobilization processes were unknown and gave rise to this study. Land use of the watershed is mainly agricultural leading to groundwater nitrate concentrations >50mgL(-1) and a need for water treatment prior to utilization as drinking water. This is successfully accomplished by addition of nutrients triggering bacterial nitrate reduction, followed by the addition of NaOH for water softening and CO2 for pH adjustment, with subsequent reinfiltration into the aquifer...
February 23, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236816/assessment-and-ecological-risk-of-heavy-metals-in-sediment-and-molluscs-from-the-mediterranean-coast
#15
Ahmed El Nemr, Ghada F El-Said
  Heavy metal contamination in both sediments and molluscs from the Egyptian Mediterranean coast was investigated. Seawater, sediments, and mollusc samples were collected from representative locations along the coastal area. Different representations of the data set, including, statistical methods (correlation matrix and cluster analyses), various sediment quality assessment methods, and bioaccumulation factor calculation, were combined to investigate the trends of heavy metals, identify pollution sources, and assess sediment quality from a toxicological point of view...
March 1, 2017: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236208/seeking-evidence-of-multidisciplinarity-in-environmental-geochemistry-and-health-an-analysis-of-arsenic-in-drinking-water-research
#16
Abiodun D Aderibigbe, Alex G Stewart, Andrew S Hursthouse
A multidisciplinary approach to research affords the opportunity of objectivity, creation of new knowledge and potentially a more generally acceptable solution to problems that informed the research in the first place. It increasingly features in national programmes supporting basic and applied research, but for over 40 years, has been the arena for many research teams in environmental geochemistry and health. This study explores the nature of multidisciplinary research in the earth and health sciences using a sample selected from co-authored articles reporting research on arsenic (As) in drinking water from 1979 to 2013...
February 24, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229521/microbial-potential-for-carbon-and-nutrient-cycling-in-a-geogenic-supercritical-carbon-dioxide-reservoir
#17
Adam J E Freedman, BoonFei Tan, Janelle R Thompson
Microorganisms catalyze carbon cycling and biogeochemical reactions in the deep subsurface and thus may be expected to influence the fate of injected supercritical (sc) CO2 following geological carbon sequestration (GCS). We hypothesized that natural subsurface scCO2 reservoirs, which serve as analogs for the long-term fate of sequestered scCO2 , harbor a "deep carbonated biosphere" with carbon cycling potential. We sampled subsurface fluids from scCO2 -water separators at a natural scCO2 reservoir at McElmo Dome, Colorado for analysis of 16S rRNA gene diversity and metagenome content...
February 22, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223966/geological-and-geochemical-controls-on-subsurface-microbial-life-in-the-samail-ophiolite-oman
#18
Kaitlin R Rempfert, Hannah M Miller, Nicolas Bompard, Daniel Nothaft, Juerg M Matter, Peter Kelemen, Noah Fierer, Alexis S Templeton
Microbial abundance and diversity in deep subsurface environments is dependent upon the availability of energy and carbon. However, supplies of oxidants and reductants capable of sustaining life within mafic and ultramafic continental aquifers undergoing low-temperature water-rock reaction are relatively unknown. We conducted an extensive analysis of the geochemistry and microbial communities recovered from fluids sampled from boreholes hosted in peridotite and gabbro in the Tayin block of the Samail Ophiolite in the Sultanate of Oman...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219248/high-performance-method-for-determination-of-pu-isotopes-in-soil-and-sediment-samples-by-sector-field-inductively-coupled-plasma-mass-spectrometry
#19
Zhongtang Wang, Jian Zheng, Youyi Ni, Wu Men, Keiko Tagami, Shigeo Uchida
Plutonium is extensively studied in radioecology (e.g., soil to plant transfer and radiological assessment) and geochemistry (e.g., sediment dating). Here, we reported a new chemical separation method for rapid determination of Pu in soil and sediment samples, based on the following investigations: extraction behaviors of interfering elements (IEs, for inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) measurement) on TEVA resin; decontamination of U using TEVA, UTEVA, and DGA resins; and the impact of coprecipitation on Pu determination...
February 21, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218533/water-table-dynamics-and-biogeochemical-cycling-in-a-shallow-variably-saturated-floodplain
#20
Steven B Yabusaki, Michael J Wilkins, Yilin Fang, Kenneth H Williams, Bhavna Arora, John Bargar, Harry R Beller, Nicholas J Bouskill, Eoin L Brodie, John N Christensen, Mark E Conrad, Robert E Danczak, Eric King, Mohamad R Soltanian, Nicolas F Spycher, Carl I Steefel, Tetsu K Tokunaga, Roelof Versteeg, Scott R Waichler, Haruko M Wainwright
Three-dimensional variably saturated flow and multicomponent biogeochemical reactive transport modeling, based on published and newly generated data, is used to better understand the interplay of hydrology, geochemistry, and biology controlling the cycling of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, iron, sulfur, and uranium in a shallow floodplain. In this system, aerobic respiration generally maintains anoxic groundwater below an oxic vadose zone until seasonal snowmelt-driven water table peaking transports dissolved oxygen (DO) and nitrate from the vadose zone into the alluvial aquifer...
March 7, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
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