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Minghui Yang, Bingdang Wu, Qiuhao Li, Xiaofeng Xiong, Haoran Zhang, Yu Tian, Jiawen Xie, Ping Huang, Suo Tan, Guodong Wang, Li Zhang, Shujuan Zhang
Biodegradability and toxicity are two important indexes in considering the feasibility of a chemical process for environmental remediation. The acetylacetone (AA) mediated photochemical process has been proven as an efficient approach for dye decolorization. Both AA and its photochemical degradation products had a high bioavailability. However, the biocompatibility and ecotoxicology of the UV/AA treated solutions are unclear yet. In the present work, we evaluated the biocompatibility and toxicity of the UV/AA treated solutions at both biochemical and organismal levels...
December 1, 2017: Chemosphere
Leyla Tahrani, Ines Mehri, Tim Reyns, Roel Anthonissen, Luc Verschaeve, Anis Bel Haj Khalifa, Joris Van Loco, Hassen Abdenaceur, Hedi Ben Mansour
The UPLC MS/MS analysis showed the presence of the two antibiotics in the pharmaceutical industry discharges during 3 months; norfloxacin and spiramycin which were quantified with the mean concentrations of 226.7 and 84.2 ng mL-1, respectively. Sixteen resistant isolates were obtained from the pharmaceutical effluent and identified by sequencing. These isolates belong to different genera, namely Citrobacter, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Delftia, Shewanella, and Rheinheimera. The antibiotic resistance phenotypes of these isolates were determined (27 tested antibiotics-discs)...
December 11, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
Pierre Hennebert
Different ecotoxicological test batteries and concentration limits have been proposed to assess the hazard property (HP) HP 14 'Ecotoxic' for waste in the European Union and its member states. In test batteries, if the concentration of waste in the culture/dilution medium producing 50% of inhibitory biological effect in one or more test(s) is below the concentration limit of the test, the waste is classified as hazardous. A summarized review of the test batteries proposed since 1998 is presented. The last proposed test battery uses seven aquatic and terrestrial species with standardized methods, but with options and uniform concentration limits of 10% of waste eluate or solid waste in the culture/dilution medium...
December 5, 2017: Waste Management
Álvaro Alonso, Guillermo Valle-Torres
One of the aims of ecotoxicology is the assessment of the effects of chemicals on the ecosystems. Bioassays assessing lethality are frequently used in ecotoxicology, however they usually employ supra-environmental toxic concentrations. Toxicity tests employing behavioral endpoints may present a balance between simplicity (i.e., laboratory bioassays) and complexity (i.e., relevant ecological effects). The aim of this study was to develop a feeding behavioral bioassay with the aquatic snail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum, which included a 2 days exposure to cadmium, followed by a 9 days post-exposure observational period...
December 5, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Arthur David, Anke Lange, Charles R Tyler, Elizabeth M Hill
Fish can be exposed to a variety of neuroactive pharmaceuticals via the effluent discharges from wastewater treatment plants and concerns have arisen regarding their potential impacts on fish behaviour and ecology. In this study, we investigated the uptake of 14 neuroactive pharmaceuticals from a treated wastewater effluent into blood plasma and brain regions of roach (Rutilus rutilus) after exposure for 15days. We show that a complex mixture of pharmaceuticals including, 6 selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, a serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, 3 atypical antipsychotics, 2 tricyclic antidepressants and a benzodiazepine, concentrate in different regions of the brain including the telencephalon, hypothalamus, optic tectum and hindbrain of effluent-exposed fish...
December 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Simona Schiavo, Maria Oliviero, Jiji Li, Sonia Manzo
Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are increasingly used in several personal care products, with high potential to be released directly into marine environment with consequent adverse impact on marine biota. This paper aimed to compare the ecotoxicological effect of ZnO NPs (< 100 nm) towards three marine organisms widely used in toxicity assessment: an algal species (Dunaliella tertiolecta), a bioluminescent bacterium (Vibrio fischeri), and a crustacean (Artemia salina). Bulk ZnO (ZnO bulk, 200 nm) and ionic zinc were also investigated for understanding the role of size and of ionic release in the ZnO toxic action...
December 3, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Harouna Traoré, Olivier Crouzet, Laure Mamy, Christine Sireyjol, Virginie Rossard, Rémi Servien, Eric Latrille, Fabrice Martin-Laurent, Dominique Patureau, Pierre Benoit
Understanding the fate and ecotoxicological effects of pesticides largely depends on their molecular properties. We recently developed "TyPol" (Typology of Pollutants), a classification method of organic compounds based on statistical analyses. It combines several environmental (sorption coefficient, degradation half-life) and one ecotoxicological (bioconcentration factor) parameters, to structural molecular descriptors (number of atoms in the molecule, molecular surface, dipole moment, energy of orbitals, etc...
December 2, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Na Li, Li Yao, Qin He, Jiguo Qiu, Dan Cheng, Derong Ding, Qing Tao, Jian He, Jiandong Jiang
The degradation of the herbicide dicamba is initiated by demethylation to form 3,6-dichlorosalicylate (3,6-DCSA) in Rhizorhabdus dicambivorans Ndbn-20. In the present study, a 3,6-DCSA-degradation-deficient mutant Ndbn-20m was screened. A cluster dsmR1DABCEFGR2 was lost in this mutant. The cluster consisted of nine genes, and all of which were apparently induced by 3,6-DCSA. DsmA shared 30-36% identities with the monooxygenase components of reported three-component cytochrome P450 systems, and formed a monophyletic branch in the phylogenetic tree...
December 1, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Laura Bille, Giovanni Binato, Claudio Gabrieli, Amedeo Manfrin, Francesco Pascoli, Tobia Pretto, Anna Toffan, Manuela Dalla Pozza, Roberto Angeletti, Giuseppe Arcangeli
INTRODUCTION: Fish kills are events of strong emotional impact on the population because of the frequent suspicion that they can be the result of serious pollution accidents. As a matter of fact, they are often due to natural occurrences, such as low levels of dissolved oxygen in the water, but in many cases the causes remain unknown. Fish are particularly sensitive to pesticides and pyrethroids are reported to be the most ecotoxicologically active in the aquatic environment. Nevertheless, the reported cases of massive wild fish mortalities due to these toxicants are very few...
November 6, 2017: Forensic Science International
Marc Bourgin, Birgit Beck, Marc Boehler, Ewa Borowska, Julian Fleiner, Elisabeth Salhi, Rebekka Teichler, Urs von Gunten, Hansruedi Siegrist, Christa S McArdell
To protect the ecosystem and drinking water resources in Switzerland and in the countries of the downstream catchments, a new Swiss water protection act entered into force in 2016 aiming to reduce the discharge of micropollutants from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). As a consequence, selected WWTPs must be upgraded by an advanced treatment for micropollutant abatement with suitable and economic options such as (powdered) activated carbon treatment or ozonation. WWTP Neugut (105'000 people equivalent) was the first WWTP in Switzerland to implement a long-term full-scale ozonation...
October 20, 2017: Water Research
Archibold Buah-Kwofie, Marc S Humphries, Letitia Pillay
Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have been used extensively in the eastern regions of South Africa for agricultural and malaria control purposes, yet few data exist on the local environmental and social impacts of these compounds. Such issues have become of increasing concern in the iSimangaliso World Heritage Site, where the continued use of OCPs may pose risks to several sensitive and protected species. This study was designed to examine the bioaccumulation of OCPs in two common fish species, Oreochromis mossambicus (Mozambique tilapia) and Clarias gariepinus (African sharptooth catfish) from iSimangaliso Wetland Park...
November 26, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Michelle A North, David W Kinniburgh, Judit E G Smits
The objective of this study was to design an enclosure suitable for studying the ecotoxicological effects of vehicle emissions on groups of wild birds without compromising welfare. Two, adjacent enclosures sheltered from sunlight, wind and rain, were bird-proofed and wrapped with thick polyethylene sheeting. Emissions were directed into the treatment enclosure from the exhaust of a light-duty gasoline truck, using flexible, heat-proof pipe, with joins sealed to prevent leakage. During active exposure, the engine was idled for five hours per day, six days per week for four weeks...
November 28, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Peter Matthiessen, James R Wheeler, Lennart Weltje
This review critically examines the data on claimed endocrine-mediated adverse effects of chemicals on wildlife populations. It focuses on the effects of current-use chemicals, and compares their apparent scale and severity with those of legacy chemicals which have been withdrawn from sale or use, although they may still be present in the environment. The review concludes that the effects on wildlife of many legacy chemicals with endocrine activity are generally greater than those caused by current-use chemicals, with the exception of ethinylestradiol and other estrogens found in sewage effluents, which are causing widespread effects on fish populations...
November 24, 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
Katharina Bluemlein, Manfred Elend, Tim Meijster, Alison Margary, Rosalie Tibaldi, Stefan Hahn, Susanne Hesse
A series of laboratory simulations were conducted in order to determine the airborne protection that might be afforded by different combinations of workplace exposure controls typically encountered when handling volatile solvents (e.g. solvent transfer). These conditions, referred to as risk management measures (RMMs) under the Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of Chemicals Regulation (REACH), are typically described using standard phrases in safety data sheets [and specifically those of the European Phrase Catalogue (EUPhraC)]...
November 19, 2017: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
Célia S M Laranjeiro, Liliana João Gatões da Silva, André M P T Pereira, Angelina Pena, Celeste M Lino
This study provides the first environmental risk assessment (ERA) for zearalenone (ZEN), the only known mycoestrogen, based on a broad-scale investigation on its occurrence in rivers and creeks from Portugal. Water sample filtration and immunoaffinity columns (IAC) clean-up followed by liquid chromatograph with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS (n) ) provided an analytical method with good analytical performance. ZEN levels were determined for seven Portuguese rivers and one creek, during two different seasons, in a total of 38 samples collected upstream wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs)...
November 21, 2017: Mycotoxin Research
Qing Cao, Alan D Steinman, Lei Yao, Liqiang Xie
Irrigation with eutrophic water containing cyanobacteria toxins poses a potential risk to soil animals. To evaluate ecotoxicological effect of microcystins (MCs) on earthworms, filter paper acute toxicity test, avoidance test and a 14-d artificial soil test were carried out. No acute toxicity was found in the filter paper test, and earthworms showed no avoidance response to MCs exposure. In the artificial soil test, Eisenia fetida were allowed to grow in presence or absence of MCs (0, 1, 10, 100, 1000 μg kg(-1) of soil) for 1, 7, and 14 d...
November 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
Brian J Hughes, Kevin Cox, Virunya Bhat
Di 2-ethylhexyl cyclohexane-1,4-dicarboxylate (DEHCH, CAS 84731-70-4) is an ester of polycarboxylic acid assessed in a wide variety of ecotoxicological and mammalian toxicity assays as a substitute for phthalate ester-type plasticizers. Laboratory animal data indicate that DEHCH has a low acute oral and dermal toxicity, is non-irritating to the skin and eyes, and is a non-sensitizer. In an OECD 422 combined repeat dose toxicity study with a reproductive/developmental toxicity screening test in Sprague-Dawley rats, minimal effects were observed on the liver, spleen, and thyroid...
November 18, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
A V Rudik, A V Dmitriev, V M Bezhentsev, A A Lagunin, D A Filimonov, V V Poroikov
Biotransformation is a process of the chemical modifications which may lead to the reactive metabolites, in particular the epoxides. Epoxide reactive metabolites may cause the toxic effects. The prediction of such metabolites is important for drug development and ecotoxicology studies. Epoxides are formed by some oxidation reactions, usually catalysed by cytochromes P450, and represent a large class of three-membered cyclic ethers. Identification of molecules, which may be epoxidized, and indication of the specific location of epoxide functional group (which is called SOE - site of epoxidation) are important for prediction of epoxide metabolites...
November 20, 2017: SAR and QSAR in Environmental Research
Yang Du, Wen-Qian Wang, Zhou-Tao Pei, Fahmi Ahmad, Rou-Rou Xu, Yi-Min Zhang, Li-Wei Sun
Ultraviolet (UV)-absorbing chemicals (UV filters) are used in personal care products for the protection of human skin and hair from damage by UV radiation. Although these substances are released into the environment in the production and consumption processes, little is known about their ecotoxicology effects. The acute toxicity and potential ecological risk of UV filters benzophenone-3 (BP-3) and benzophenone-4 (BP-4) on Chlorella vulgaris, Daphnia magna, and Brachydanio rerio were analyzed in the present study...
November 19, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Anna Freixa, Vicenç Acuña, Josep Sanchís, Marinella Farré, Damià Barceló, Sergi Sabater
An increasing amount of carbon-based nanomaterials (CNM) (mostly fullerenes, carbon nanotubes and graphene) has been observed in aquatic systems over the last years. However, the potential toxicity of these CNM on aquatic ecosystems remains unclear. This paper reviews the existing literature on the toxic effects of CNM in aquatic organisms as well as the toxic effects of CNM through influencing the toxicity of other micro-pollutants, and outlines a series of research needs to reduce the uncertainty associated with CNMs toxic effects...
November 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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