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Ecotoxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474988/changes-of-total-and-freely-dissolved-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-and-toxicity-of-biochars-treated-with-various-aging-processes
#1
Patryk Oleszczuk, Michał Kołtowski
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of biochar aging on the content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (the total content - Ctot , and the freely dissolved - Cfree ) in biochar and its ecotoxicity. Two biochars (BCS and BCM) with varying properties were aged for 420 days at different temperatures (-20 °C, 4 °C, 20 °C, 70 °C), at a variable temperature (-20/20 °C), in the presence of nutrients, and in the presence of inoculum and nutrients. After the aging process, Ctot and Cfree PAHs were determined in samples obtained and an ecotoxicological analysis was performed, which involved tests with bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), invertebrates (Folsomia candida) and plants (Lepidium sativum)...
February 20, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473658/gadolinium-as-a-new-emerging-contaminant-of-aquatic-environment
#2
REVIEW
Justyna Rogowska, Ewa Olkowska, Wojciech Ratajczyk, Lidia Wolska
Since the 1980 s, gadolinium based contrast agents (GBCA) are routinely used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as stable chelates of the Gd3+ ion, without toxic effects. Generally, GBCAs are considered as some of the safest contrast agents. However, it has been observed that they can accumulate in patients tissue, bone and probably in brain (causing nephrogenic systemic fibrosis in patients with kidney failure, insufficiency and disturbance of calcium homeostasis in the organism). The GBCAs are predominantly removed renally without metabolization...
February 23, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471804/genetic-mapping-and-comparative-genomics-to-inform-restoration-enhancement-and-culture-of-southern-flounder-paralichthys-lethostigma
#3
Shannon J O'Leary, Christopher M Hollenbeck, Robert R Vega, John R Gold, David S Portnoy
BACKGROUND: Southern flounder, Paralichthys lethostigma, historically support a substantial fishery along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the southern United States. Low year-class strengths over the past few years in the western Gulf of Mexico have raised concern that spawning stocks may be overfished. Current management of the resource includes releasing hatchery-raised juveniles to restock bays and estuaries; additionally, there is a growing interest in the potential for commercial aquaculture of the species...
February 23, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465953/infectivity-of-chordodes-nobilii-larvae-gordiida-nematomorpha
#4
Cecilia L Achiorno, L Cristina de Villalobos, Lucrecia Ferrari
The gordiids are freshwater representatives of the parasite phylum Nematomorpha that function as a link between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. In recent years, different ecotoxicologic studies have been made with the South-American gordiid species, Chordodes nobilii, that have demonstrated the capacity of this group to act as a bioindicator of contamination. Despite the Gordiida’s ecologic relevance, further studies are still needed to elucidate different aspects of the biology of the class, and among those, the infective capacity, a parameter that can be evaluated by the infection index mean abundance (IIMA)...
March 2017: Revista de Biología Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459161/mercury-concentration-and-the-absolute-and-relative-sizes-of-the-internal-organs-in-cormorants-phalacrocorax-carbo-l-1758-from-the-breeding-colony-by-the-vistula-lagoon-poland
#5
Małgorzata Misztal-Szkudlińska, Elżbieta Kalisińska, Piotr Szefer, Piotr Konieczka, Jacek Namieśnik
This work analyses the effect of mercury on the condition of cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo) from an extensive breeding colony in northern Poland, the largest in Europe. A total of 55 birds (44 adults and 11 immature) were obtained. Total mercury (Hg) concentrations were measured in the liver, kidneys, breast muscles, heart, gullet (oesophagus), stomach, intestines, trachea, lungs and eyeballs. The total body mass (TBM) and empty body mass (EBM) were measured, and the body parts taken for analysis were weighed...
February 16, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457682/predictive-models-in-ecotoxicology-bridging-the-gap-between-scientific-progress-and-regulatory-applicability-foreword
#6
Andreas Focks, Francesca Grisoni, Alpar Barsi, Marco Vighi
In the last decades, modelling approaches in the context of environmental risk assessment for chemicals have been under the spotlight of researchers in academia, regulatory bodies and industry. This is because mathematical and simulation models allow to gain deeper mechanistic understanding of fate and effect processes of organic contaminants in the environment. In addition, models make it possible to predict the toxic effects of compounds along with other relevant properties, such as biodegradability, uptake and bioaccumulation...
February 19, 2018: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456907/nanoparticles-in-the-environment-where-do-we-come-from-where-do-we-go-to
#7
REVIEW
Mirco Bundschuh, Juliane Filser, Simon Lüderwald, Moira S McKee, George Metreveli, Gabriele E Schaumann, Ralf Schulz, Stephan Wagner
Nanoparticles serve various industrial and domestic purposes which is reflected in their steadily increasing production volume. This economic success comes along with their presence in the environment and the risk of potentially adverse effects in natural systems. Over the last decade, substantial progress regarding the understanding of sources, fate, and effects of nanoparticles has been made. Predictions of environmental concentrations based on modelling approaches could recently be confirmed by measured concentrations in the field...
2018: Environmental Sciences Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455353/lethal-and-sub-lethal-effects-of-cyproconazole-on-freshwater-organisms-a-case-study-with-chironomus-riparius-and-dugesia-tigrina
#8
Althiéris S Saraiva, Renato A Sarmento, Oksana Golovko, Tomas Randak, João L T Pestana, Amadeu M V M Soares
The fungicide cyproconazole (CPZ) inhibits the biosynthesis of ergosterol, an essential sterol component in fungal cell membrane and can also affect non-target organisms by its inhibitory effects on P450 monooxygenases. The predicted environmental concentration of CPZ is up to 49.05 μg/L and 145.89 μg/kg in surface waters and sediments, respectively, and information about CPZ toxicity towards non-target aquatic organisms is still limited. This study aimed to address the lack of ecotoxicological data for CPZ, and thus, an evaluation of the lethal and sub-lethal effects of CPZ was performed using two freshwater invertebrates (the midge Chironomus riparius and the planarian Dugesia tigrina)...
February 18, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454269/biological-effects-of-four-iron-containing-nanoremediation-materials-on-the-green-alga-chlamydomonas-sp
#9
Nhung H A Nguyen, Nadia R Von Moos, Vera I Slaveykova, Katrin Mackenzie, Rainer U Meckenstock, Silke Thűmmler, Julian Bosch, Alena Ševců
As nanoremediation strategies for in-situ groundwater treatment extend beyond nanoiron-based applications to adsorption and oxidation, ecotoxicological evaluations of newly developed materials are required. The biological effects of four new materials with different iron (Fe) speciations ([i] FerMEG12 - pristine flake-like milled Fe(0) nanoparticles (nZVI), [ii] Carbo-Iron ® - Fe(0)-nanoclusters containing activated carbon (AC) composite, [iii] Trap-Ox® Fe-BEA35 (Fe-zeolite) - Fe-doped zeolite, and [iv] Nano-Goethite - 'pure' FeOOH) were studied using the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas sp...
February 14, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453544/molecular-and-cellular-toxicology-of-nanomaterials-with-related-to-aquatic-organisms
#10
Mohd Ashraf Rather, Irfan Ahmad Bhat, Niti Sharma, Rupam Sharma
The increasing application of nanomaterials both in commercial and industrial products has led their accumulation in the aquatic ecosystem. The rapid development and large scale production of nanomaterials in the last few decades have stimulated concerns regarding their potential environmental health risks on aquatic biota. Inorganic nanoparticles, due to their unique properties and associated material characteristics resulted in toxicity of these nanomaterials in aquatic organisms. Understanding their novel properties at nanoscale has established to be a significant aspect of their toxicity...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453184/is-it-photosensitization-or-photodegradation-when-uv-b-irradiation-is-combined-with-bde-47-evidence-from-the-growth-and-reproduction-changes-of-rotifer-brachionus-plicatilis
#11
Chunchen Liu, Xuexi Tang, Bin Zhou, Yongshun Jiang, Mengchen Lv, Yu Zang, You Wang
Ecotoxicological methods were applied in the present study, and the marine rotifer Brachionus plicatilis was used as the toxic endpoint to depict what occurred when 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) was combined with solar ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B). B. plicatilis was exposed to three different combination methods of BDE-47 and UV-B at an equal toxicity ratio, including normal rotifer co-cultured with UV-B-irradiated BDE-47 (known as Method I), UV-B-irradiated rotifer co-cultured with BDE-47 exposure (known as Method II) and normal rotifer co-cultured with the simultaneous addition of BDE-47 and UV-B irradiation (known as Method III)...
February 13, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453063/-1-h-nmr-based-metabolomics-reveals-interactive-effects-between-the-carrier-solvent-methanol-and-a-pharmaceutical-mixture-in-an-amphibian-developmental-bioassay-with-limnodynastes-peronii
#12
Steven D Melvin, Oliver A H Jones, Anthony R Carroll, Frederic D L Leusch
Organic carrier solvents are used in aquatic toxicity testing to improve chemical solubility and facilitate the exploration of dose-response relationships. Both water- and solvent-control groups are normally included in these scenarios to ensure that the solvent itself has no effect on the test organism, but this fails to consider possible interactive effects between carrier solvents and contaminants of interest. We explored this topic by exposing Limnodynastes peronii tadpoles to a mixture of common water-soluble pharmaceuticals (diclofenac, metformin and valproic acid) in the presence and absence of the carrier solvent methanol, according to standard developmental bioassay methodology...
February 10, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451365/the-genome-of-the-freshwater-monogonont-rotifer-brachionus-calyciflorus
#13
Hui-Su Kim, Bo-Young Lee, Jeonghoon Han, Chang-Bum Jeong, Dae-Sik Hwang, Min-Chul Lee, Hye-Min Kang, Duck-Hyun Kim, Hee-Jin Kim, Spiros Papakostas, Steven A J Declerck, Ik-Young Choi, Atsushi Hagiwara, Heum Gi Park, Jae-Seong Lee
Monogononta is the most speciose class of rotifers, with more than 2000 species. The monogonont genus Brachionus is widely distributed at a global scale, and a few of its species are commonly used as ecological and evolutionary models to address questions related to aquatic ecology, cryptic speciation, evolutionary ecology, the evolution of sex, and ecotoxicology. With the importance of Brachionus species in many areas of research, it is remarkable that the genome has not been characterized. This study aims to address this lacuna by presenting, for the first time, the whole genome assembly of the freshwater species Brachionus calyciflorus...
February 16, 2018: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451363/the-genome-of-the-marine-medaka-oryzias-melastigma
#14
Hui-Su Kim, Bo-Young Lee, Jeonghoon Han, Chang-Bum Jeong, Dae-Sik Hwang, Min-Chul Lee, Hye-Min Kang, Duck-Hyun Kim, Daehwan Lee, Jaebum Kim, Ik-Young Choi, Jae-Seong Lee
Marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma) is considered to be a useful fish model for marine and estuarine ecotoxicology studies and has good potential for field-based population genomics because of its geographical distribution in Asian estuarine and coastal areas. In this study, we present the first whole genome draft of O. melastigma. The genome assembly consists of 8,602 scaffolds (N50=23.737 Mb) and a total genome length of 779.4 Mb. A total of 23,528 genes were predicted, and 12,670 gene families shared with three teleost species (Japanese medaka, mangrove killifish, and zebrafish) were identified...
February 16, 2018: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448175/metals-in-mangrove-ecosystems-and-associated-biota-a-global-perspective
#15
REVIEW
Rasika Kulkarni, Deepti Deobagkar, Smita Zinjarde
Mangrove forests prevalent along the intertidal regions of tropical and sub-tropical coastlines are inimitable and dynamic ecosystems. They protect and stabilize coastal areas from deleterious consequences of natural disasters such as hurricanes and tsunamis. Although there are reviews on ecological aspects, industrial uses of mangrove-associated microorganisms and occurrence of pollutants in a region-specific manner, there is no exclusive review detailing the incidence of metals in mangrove sediments and associated biota in these ecosystems on a global level...
February 12, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447350/soil-protists-a-fertile-frontier-in-soil-biology-research
#16
Stefan Geisen, Edward A D Mitchell, Sina Adl, Michael Bonkowski, Micah Dunthorn, Flemming Ekelund, Leonardo D Fernández, Alexandre Jousset, Valentyna Krashevska, David Singer, Frederick W Spiegel, Julia Walochnik, Enrique Lara
Protists include all eukaryotes except plants, fungi and animals. They are an essential, yet often forgotten, component of the soil microbiome. Method developments have now furthered our understanding of the real taxonomic and functional diversity of soil protists. They occupy key roles in microbial foodwebs as consumers of bacteria, fungi and other small eukaryotes. As parasites of plants, animals and even of larger protists, they regulate populations and shape communities. Pathogenic forms play a major role in public health issues as human parasites, or act as agricultural pests...
February 13, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442200/seasonal-occurrence-source-evaluation-and-ecological-risk-assessment-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-in-industrial-and-agricultural-effluents-discharged-in-wadi-el-bey-tunisia
#17
Imen Gdara, Ines Zrafi, Catia Balducci, Angelo Cecinato, Ahmed Ghrabi
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are of great concern due to their persistence, bioaccumulation and toxic properties. The occurrence, source and ecological risk assessment of 26 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in industrial and agricultural effluents affecting the Wadi El Bey watershed were investigated by means of gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric analysis (GC/MS). Total PAHs (∑ 26 PAH) ranged from 1.21 to 91.7 µg/L. The 4- and 5-ring compounds were the principal PAHs detected in most of 5 sites examined...
February 13, 2018: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438934/dynamic-energy-budget-models-in-ecological-risk-assessment-from-principles-to-applications
#18
REVIEW
Jan Baas, Starrlight Augustine, Gonçalo M Marques, Jean-Lou Dorne
In ecological risk assessment of chemicals, hazard identification and hazard characterisation are most often based on ecotoxicological tests and expressed as summary statistics such as No Observed Effect Concentrations or Lethal Concentration values and No Effect Concentrations. Considerable research is currently ongoing to further improve methodologies to take into account toxico kinetic aspects in toxicological assessments, extrapolations of toxic effects observed on individuals to population effects and combined effects of multiple chemicals effects...
February 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427970/removal-of-antiretroviral-drugs-stavudine-and-zidovudine-in-water-under-uv254-and-uv254-h2o2-processes-quantum-yields-kinetics-and-ecotoxicology-assessment
#19
Danilo Russo, Antonietta Siciliano, Marco Guida, Roberto Andreozzi, Nuno M Reis, Gianluca Li Puma, Raffaele Marotta
The concentration of antiretroviral drugs in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) effluents and surface waters of many countries has increased significantly due to their widespread use for HIV treatment. In this study, the removal of stavudine and zidovudine under UV254 photolysis or UV254/H2O2 was investigated in a microcapillary film (MCF) photoreactor, using minimal water samples quantities. The UV254 quantum yield of zidovudine, (2.357 ± 0.0589)·10-2 mol ein-1 (pH 4.0-8.0), was 28-fold higher that the yield of stavudine (8...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426208/tannery-mixed-liquors-from-an-ecotoxicological-and-mycological-point-of-view-risks-vs-potential-biodegradation-application
#20
Valeria Tigini, Federico Bevione, Valeria Prigione, Anna Poli, Lucrezia Ranieri, Francesco Spennati, Giulio Munz, Giovanna Cristina Varese
Fungi are known to be present in the activated sludge of wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). Their study should be at the base of an overall vision of the plant effectiveness and of effluents sanitary impact. Moreover, it could be fundamental for the implementation of successful bioaugmentation strategies aimed at the removal of recalcitrant or toxic compounds. This is one of the first studies on the cultivable autochthonous mycoflora present in the mixed liquors of two WWTP treating either vegetable or chromium tannery effluents...
February 2, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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