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Yoojin Choi, Hyun-A Kim, Kyoung-Woong Kim, Byung-Tae Lee
With the increase in silver (Ag)-based products in our lives, it is essential to test the potential toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and silver ions (Ag ions) on living organisms under various conditions. Here, we investigated the toxicity of AgNPs with Ag ions to Escherichia coli K-12 strain under various conditions. We observed that both AgNPs and Ag ions display antibacterial activities, and that Ag ions had higher toxicity to E. coli K-12 strain than AgNPs under the same concentrations. To understand the toxicity of AgNPs at a cellular level, reactive oxygen species (ROS) enzymes were detected for use as antioxidant enzymatic biomarkers...
April 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
R Beiras, T Tato
Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is a organochlorine biocide that, unlike most other organochlorines, is still in use as timber preservative. Its water solubility, high toxicity, bioaccumulation potential, and the concentrations reported in estuarine waters (up to 0.1 µg L-1 ) indicate it may pose a risk in coastal environments. Aquatic environrmental regulations are commonly based on standard freshwater organisms that may not represent the sensitivity of marine species. The present study consists of a water quality criteira reevalutation of PCP in coastal waters based on toxicity tests conducted recording sensitive endpoints of marine species representative of coastal ecosystems, following QA/QC standard procedures...
April 7, 2018: Ecotoxicology
P Palma, C Matos, P Alvarenga, M Köck-Schulmeyer, I Simões, D Barceló, M J López de Alda
The objective of the study was to assess the integrated use of macroinvertebrate indexes and ecotoxicological parameters in the evaluation of the ecological status of a temporary stream with a strong agricultural influence. Water quality was analysed at two sampling sites along the stream, considering: chemical supporting parameters; hazardous substances (pesticides); benthic macroinvertebrate communities, through quality (Iberian Biological Monitoring Working Party and Iberian Average Score Per Taxon) and multi-metric indices (Southern Portuguese Index of Invertebrates and Ecological Quality Ratio); and ecotoxicological responses using lethal and sub-lethal bioassays...
April 5, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Aditi Sriram, Wendi Roe, Matu Booth, Brett Gartrell
Anthropogenic lead use has resulted in widespread environmental lead contamination known to affect wildlife populations worldwide. Ecotoxicological investigations in wild birds have thus far prioritised waterfowl and raptor species and primarily addressed contamination in natural ecosystems. Urban areas are increasingly associated with high levels of heavy metal contamination, however the risk of lead exposure in urban wildlife is less well known. This study investigates lead exposure in an urban population of North Island Kaka (Nestor meridionalis septentrionalis), an endemic New Zealand parrot...
April 5, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Azizullah Azizullah, Shakirullah Khan Shakir, Shahana Shoaib, Halima Bangash, Nadia Taimur, Waheed Murad, Muhammad Khan Daud
Hair shampoos, a mixture of various organic and organic compounds, are commonly used personnel care products. Since shampoos are used in almost every household and beauty shop, their ingredients are common components of domestic and municipal wastewater. However, studies on the effect of shampoos to aquatic plants can hardly be found in literature. Therefore, the present study was conducted to investigate the phytotoxic effects of two commonly used anti-dandruff shampoos (named here AD 1 and AD 2) using Lemna minor as a biotest organism...
April 4, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Jining Li, Tomoya Kosugi, Shohei Riya, Yohey Hashimoto, Hong Hou, Akihiko Terada, Masaaki Hosomi
Excavated soils with low-level As contamination obtained from construction projects during city development have been of great concern in Japan. Water-extractable As represents the most easily mobilized and ecotoxicologically relevant fraction in the soil environment. In the present study, the water-extractability of As in excavated alkaline urban soils was assessed using sequential leaching tests (SLTs) with a focus on the effects of test parameters. In addition, the potentially water-leachable As over an extremely long period was assessed using the pollution potential leaching index (PPLI), from which one can estimate the number of extractions required to reduce the As in the cumulative leachates to below the Japanese environmental standard (10 μg L-1 )...
March 31, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Giovanni Benelli
The employment of nanoparticles obtained through various synthesis routes as novel pesticides recently attracted high research attention. An impressive number of studies have been conducted to test their toxic potential against a wide number of arthropod pests and vectors, with major emphasis on mosquitoes and ticks. However, precise information on the mechanisms of action of nanoparticles against insects and mites are limited, with the noteworthy exception of silica, alumina, silver, and graphene oxide nanoparticles on insects, while no information is available for mites...
April 3, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Tiziana Cappello, Alessia Giannetto, Vincenzo Parrino, Maria Maisano, Sabrina Oliva, Giuseppe De Marco, Giulia Guerriero, Angela Mauceri, Salvatore Fasulo
The Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lamarck 1819) is a popular shellfish commonly included in human diet and is routinely used as bioindicator in environmental monitoring programmes worldwide. Recently, metabolomics has emerged as a powerful tool both in food research and ecotoxicology for monitoring mussels' freshness and assessing the effects of environmental changes. However, there is still a paucity of data on complete metabolic baseline of mussel tissues. To mitigate this knowledge gap, similarities and differences in metabolite profile of digestive gland (DG), gills (G), and posterior adductor muscle (PAM) of aquaculture-farmed M...
March 27, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
Muhammad Atikul Islam Khan, Bhabananda Biswas, Euan Smith, Siraje Arif Mahmud, Nur A Hasan, Md Abdul Wadud Khan, Ravi Naidu, Mallavarapu Megharaj
In the ecotoxicological assessment of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil, microbial community profile is important aspect due to their involvement in soil functions. However, soil physicochemical properties and the inhabiting plants could dictate the microbial composition. A question remains unanswered is, how an integrated approach may be utilized to account for various contrasting soil properties, plant types (reference vs. native) and the nature of the hydrocarbon contamination. In this study, we utilized bacterial DNA profiling techniques to investigate the relationship between soil properties, contaminant and plant species...
March 28, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Vadim V Kumeiko, Yulia N Sokolnikova, Andrei V Grinchenko, Maria S Mokrina, Marina I Kniazkina
Quantitative analysis of the histopathological and immune parameters of bivalve Modiolus kurilensis collected from water areas with different level of ecotoxicological stress was performed. Significant differences between samples from polluted and non-polluted sites were revealed for total haemocyte count; percentage of agranulocytes; size and internal complexity of agranulocytes and granulocytes; phagocytic activity; percentage of NBT-positive cells; haemolytic activity and plasma protein concentration; percentage of the optical density of haemolymph major polypeptide bands at 55kDa, 78kDa, and 124kDa; concretion coverage area in the kidney tubules; thickness of the tubular basement membrane; nephrocyte shape; and karyopyknosis of the kidneys; and hypervacuolisation; necrosis; karyopyknosis; haemocyte infiltration; fibrosis; and invasion of the digestive gland...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Fernanda Baena-Díaz, Imelda Martínez-M, Yorleny Gil-Pérez, Daniel González-Tokman
Ivermectin is a powerful antiparasitic drug commonly used in cattle. Ivermectin residues are excreted in dung, threatening non-target coprophagous fauna such as dung beetles. This can have severe ecological and economic consequences for dung degradation and soil fertility. Even though the negative effects of direct ivermectin exposure on dung-degrading organisms are well known, effects could extend across generations. Here, we tested the effects of paternal or maternal exposure to ivermectin on offspring in the dung beetle Euoniticellus intermedius...
March 19, 2018: Chemosphere
Min-Hee Jang, Yu Sik Hwang
Increased production of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and their widespread application in industrial and consumer products have led to a rise in the release of CNTs into the aquatic environment. CNTs have a very strong adsorption affinity for various environmental contaminants; therefore, they may also influence the toxic effects of other pollutants, such as toxic metals. In this study, the effect of two different functionalized carbon nanotubes, carboxylate and polyethyleneimine modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (C-MWCNTs and N-MWCNT, respectively) on lead toxicity and bioaccumulation was investigated with a freshwater zooplankton Daphnia magna...
2018: PloS One
Laura Monclús, Manel Lopez-Bejar, Javier De la Puente, Adrian Covaci, Veerle L B Jaspers
Raptor feathers have been increasingly used to assess pollutants in ecotoxicological monitoring studies. However, the suitability of down feathers to detect pollutants has not yet been investigated. In this study, concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and organophosphate ester flame retardants (OPEs) were assessed in down and juvenile contour feathers of Spanish cinereous vulture (Aegypius monachus) nestlings (circa 73 days old) and contaminant concentrations were compared between both types of feathers from the same individuals...
March 24, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Simon Spycher, Simon Mangold, Tobias Doppler, Marion Junghans, Irene Wittmer, Christian Stamm, Heinz Singer
The risks associated with pesticides in small streams remain poorly characterized. The challenges reside in understanding the complexities of (1) the highly dynamic concentration profiles of (2) several hundred active substances with (3) differing seasonality. The present study addressed these three challenges simultaneously. Five small streams in catchments under intensive agricultural land use were sampled using half-day composite samples from March to August 2015. Of 213 active substances quantified using liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry, a total of 128 was detected at least at one of the sites...
March 27, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Fan Zhang, Yihang Li, Yu Shi, Lihong Wang, Qing Zhou, Xiaohua Huang
The accumulation of rare earth elements (REEs) in the environment has recently become a new environmental problem. There have been many studies about the effects of REEs on plant at the individual, organ, cellular and genetic levels. Plants exist in populations under natural conditions, but little is known about the effects of REEs on plant populations. In this study, the effects of lanthanum (III) [La(III)] on the root module growth of soybean (Glycine max L) populations at different densities were investigated by simulating La(III) pollution...
March 13, 2018: Chemosphere
Raphael Ricardo Zepon Tarpani, Adisa Azapagic
Pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) are of increasing interest because of their ecotoxicological properties and environmental impacts. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are the main pathway for their release into freshwaters due to the inefficiency of conventional WWTPs in removing many of these contaminants from effluents. Therefore, different advanced effluent treatment techniques have been proposed for their treatment. However, it is not known at present how effective these treatment methods are and whether on a life cycle basis they cause other environmental impacts which may outweigh the benefits of the treatment...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Paula Sá-Pereira, Mário S Diniz, Liliana Moita, Teresa Pinheiro, Elsa Mendonça, Susana M Paixão, Ana Picado
The mode of action for nanoparticle (NP) toxicity in aquatic organisms is not yet fully understood. In this work, a strategy other than toxicity testing was applied to Daphnia magna exposed to TiO2 -NPs: the use of nuclear microscopy and the assessment of protein profile. D. magna is a keystone species broadly used as a model system in ecotoxicology. Titanium (Ti) was found in the D. magna digestive tract, mainly in the gut. The penetration of Ti into the epithelial region was greater at higher exposure levels and also observed in eggs in the brood pouch...
March 23, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Maria Bonsignore, Daniela Salvagio Manta, Ehab A Al-Tayeb Sharif, Fabio D'Agostino, Anna Traina, Enza Maria Quinci, Luigi Giaramita, Calogera Monastero, Mohamed Benothman, Mario Sprovieri
A comprehensive assessment of the potential adverse effects on environment and human health generated by the inputs of chemicals from the most important Libyan petrochemical plant is presented. Ecotoxicological risk associated with the presence of As, Hg, Ni, Zn and PAHs in marine sediments is low or moderate, with a probability of toxicity for ecosystem <9% and <20% for heavy metals and PAHs respectively. However, surface sediments result strongly enriched in Hg and As of anthropogenic origin. Investigation of metals in fish allowed to assess potential risks for human populations via fish intake...
March 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Samuel Che Nde, Manny Mathuthu
The concentration of potential toxic elements (PTEs) in the Upper Crocodile river catchment area in North-west Province, South Africa, was investigated. Water and sediment samples were collected among different land uses in the upper Crocodile River catchment area and analysed using inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Several guidelines were used to gauge the level of contamination and possible toxic effect of PTEs. The physicochemical analysis showed that electrical conductivity (EC), pH, and total dissolved solids (TDS) values complied with the recommended values of Department of Water and Forestry (DWAF) guidelines for South Africa...
March 23, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Andreia Cm Rodrigues, Ana L Machado, Maria D Bordalo, Liliana Saro, Fátima C P Simão, Rui Mj Rocha, Oksana Golovko, Vladimir Zlabek, Carlos Barata, Amadeu M V M Soares, João L T Pestana
Anthropogenic activities increase pesticide contamination and biological invasions in freshwater ecosystems. Understanding their combined effects on community structure and on ecosystem functioning presents challenges for an improved ecological risk assessment. This study focuses on an artificial stream mesocosms experiment testing for direct and indirect effects of insecticide (chlorantraniliprole - CAP) exposure on the structure of a benthic macroinvertebrate freshwater community and on ecosystem functioning (leaf decomposition, primary production)...
March 22, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
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