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Fardin Ahmadi, Chris Sparham, Janusz Pawliszyn
In this paper problems associated with preparation of aqueous standard of highly hydrophobic compounds such as partial precipitation, being lost on the surfaces, low solubility in water and limited sample volume for accurate determination of their distribution coefficients are addressed. The following work presents two approaches that utilize blade thin film microextraction (TFME) to investigate partitioning of UV filters and biocides to humic acid (dissolved organic carbon) and sediment. A steady-state concentration of target analytes in water was generated using a flow-through aqueous standard generation (ASG) system...
July 14, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Ireen Vieweg, Maura Benedetti, Ilaria Lanzoni, Francesco Regoli, Jasmine Nahrgang
Increasing anthropogenic activities in the Arctic pose the risk for accidental oil spills but our knowledge of ecotoxicological effects is still limited for Arctic organisms. This study aimed to provide insights in baseline levels of antioxidants in polar cod (Boreogadus saida) from different Arctic locations and investigate the susceptibility of this species to oxidative stress during a 32 day dietary crude oil exposure. Baseline levels of individual antioxidants and total oxyradical scavenging capacity (TOSC) varied among different Arctic fjords...
June 13, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
Karina Petersen, Maria T Hultman, Steven J Rowland, Knut Erik Tollefsen
Many environmental matrices contaminated with organic pollutants derived from crude oil or degraded petroleum contain mixtures so complex that they are typically unresolved by conventional analytical techniques such as gas chromatography. The resulting chromatographic features have become known as 'humps' or unresolved complex mixtures (UCMs). These UCMs often dominate the organic contaminants of polluted environmental samples: for example, in oil sands produced water up to 150mgL(-1) of 'naphthenic acids' appear as UCMs when examined by gas chromatography as the esters...
June 29, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
Ton Spee, Daan Huizer
On June 1st, 2007 the European regulation on Registration, Evaluation and Restriction of Chemical substances (REACH) came into force. Aim of the regulation is safe use of chemicals for humans and for the environment. The core element of REACH is chemical safety assessment of chemicals and communication of health and safety hazards and risk management measures throughout the supply chain. Extended Safety Data Sheets (Ext-SDS) are the primary carriers of health and safety information. The aim of our project was to find out whether the actual exposure to methyl methacrylate (MMA) during the application of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) in floor coatings as assessed in the chemical safety assessment, reflect the exposure situations as observed in the Dutch building practice...
June 4, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Alastair Brown, Sven Thatje, Chris Hauton
Mineral prospecting in the deep sea is increasing, promoting concern regarding potential ecotoxicological impacts on deep-sea fauna. Technological difficulties in assessing toxicity in deep-sea species has promoted interest in developing shallow-water ecotoxicological proxy species. However, it is unclear how the low temperature and high hydrostatic pressure prevalent in the deep sea affect toxicity, and whether adaptation to deep-sea environmental conditions moderates any effects of these factors. To address these uncertainties we assessed the effects of temperature and hydrostatic pressure on lethal and sublethal (respiration rate, antioxidant enzyme activity) toxicity in acute (96-hour) copper and cadmium exposures, using the shallow-water ecophysiological model organism Palaemon varians...
July 14, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Lucas B Thompson, Gerardo L F Carfagno, Kurt Andresen, Andrea J Sitton, Taylor Bury, Laura L Lee, Kevin T Lerner, Peter P Fong
Engineered nanoparticles are aquatic contaminants of emerging concern exerting ecotoxicological effects on a wide variety of organisms. We exposed cetyltrimethylammonium bromide capped spherical gold nanoparticles to wood frog and bullfrog tadpoles with conspecifics and in combination with the other species continuously for 21 days, then measured uptake and localization of gold. Wood frog tadpoles alone and in combination with bullfrog tadpoles took up significantly more gold than bullfrogs. Bullfrog tadpoles in combination with wood frogs took up significantly more gold than controls...
July 13, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Xuchun Qiu, Wataru Tanoue, Atsushi Kawaguchi, Takashi Yanagawa, Masanori Seki, Yohei Shimasaki, Tsuneo Honjo, Yuji Oshima
Organisms in natural environments are often exposed to a broad variety of chemicals, and the multi-chemical mixtures exposure may produce significant toxic effects, even though the individual chemicals are present at concentrations below their no-observed-effect concentrations. This study represents the first attempt that uses the accelerated failure time (AFT) model to quantify the interaction and toxicity of multi-chemical mixtures in environmental toxicology. We firstly conducted the acute immobilization tests with Daphnia magna exposed to mixtures of diazinon (DZN), fenitrothion (MEP); and thiobencarb (TB) in single, binary, and ternary formulations, and then fitted the results to the AFT model...
July 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Bárbara Mesquita, Isabel Lopes, Susana Silva, Maria João Bessa, Maksim Starykevich, Jorge Carneiro, Tiago L P Galvão, Mário G S Ferreira, João Tedim, João Paulo Teixeira, Sónia Fraga
Due to their unique electronic and optical features, gold nanoparticles (AuNP) have received a great deal of attention for application in different fields such as catalysis, electronics, and biomedicine. The large-volume manufacturing predicted for future decades and the inevitable release of these substances into the environment necessitated an assessment of potential adverse human and ecological risks due to exposure to AuNP. Accordingly, this study aimed to examine the acute and developmental toxicity attributed to a commercial suspension of Au nanorods stabilized with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB-AuNR) using early embryonic stages of zebrafish (Danio rerio), a well-established model in ecotoxicology...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
U H Yim, J S Khim, M Kim, J-H Jung, W J Shim
The Hebei Spirit oil spill (HSOS) on December 7, 2007 was the worst oil spill recorded in Korea, with the release of approximately 10,900 tons of crude oil and 375 km of coastline polluted along the west coast of Korea. Cleanup operation was conducted by official and contract responders as well as volunteers for massive oil containment and removal of heavy accumulations of stranded oil. Together with the oil cleanup, a long-term environmental impact assessment (EIA) of the HSOS was initiated based on the Marine Environmental Management Act, which covers oil contamination in a multimedia environment, toxic effects on organisms, and ecosystem injury...
July 10, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Marina G Pintado-Herrera, Tatiane Combi, Carmen Corada-Fernández, Eduardo González-Mazo, Pablo A Lara-Martín
Contamination of aquatic systems by no longer used but very persistent compounds (e.g., organochlorine pesticides) and newly detected chemicals, such as personal care products (PCPs), represents a raising concern. In this study, we carried out one of the first comparisons of both types of contaminants, legacy and emerging, in two coastal systems (Cadiz Bay and Huelva Estuary). A wide range of analytes were selected to this end, including hydrocarbons, UV filters, fragrances, and antimicrobials. Analysis of surface sediments revealed the occurrence of 46 out of 97 target analytes, most of them predominantly accumulated in depositional areas with high organic carbon content...
July 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Marjolaine Bourdat-Deschamps, Sabrina Ferhi, Nathalie Bernet, Fréderic Feder, Olivier Crouzet, Dominique Patureau, Denis Montenach, Géraud D Moussard, Vincent Mercier, Pierre Benoit, Sabine Houot
Recycling organic waste products in agriculture is a potential route for the dispersion of pharmaceutical residues in the environment. In this study, the concentrations of thirteen pharmaceuticals and the personal care product triclosan (PPCPs) were determined in different environmental matrices from long-term experimental fields amended with different organic waste products (OWPs), including sludge, composted sludge with green wastes, livestock effluents and composted urban wastes applied at usual agricultural rates...
July 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Antoine Gosset, Claude Durrieu, Frédéric Orias, Rémy Bayard, Yves Perrodin
Urbanization has led to considerable pressure on urban/suburban aquatic ecosystems. Urban Wet Weather Discharges (UWWD) during rainfall events are a major source of pollutants leached onto and into urban surfaces and sewers, which in turn affect aquatic ecosystems. We assessed the ecotoxicity of the different compounds identified in UWWD and identified the hazard represented by each of them. To this end, hazard quotient (HQ) values were calculated for each compound detected in UWWD based on their predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) values and their maximum measured effluent concentrations (MECmax) found in the dissolved part of UWWD...
July 10, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Abdelhafidh Khazri, Ali Mezni, Hassen Khazri, Badreddine Sellami, Jaume Aceña, Sandra Pérez, Ethel Eljarrat, Damià Barceló, Hamouda Beyrem, Ezzeddine Mahmoudi
Laboratory experiments were carried out to assess uptake and metabolism of the epilepsy drug, carbamazepine and its consequent biological responses in marine clam (Ruditapes decussatus) a model non-target organism in ecotoxicology. Clams were exposed to two nominal concentrations (C1= 30 µg/L and C2= 50 µg/L) of CBZ for a maximum period of 14 days. Analysis of CBZ and their metabolites in clam and water after exposure to two nominal concentrations of the pharmaceutical drug were performed using UPLC-HRMS analysis...
July 10, 2017: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
Livier Mireya Sánchez-Aceves, Octavio Dublán-García, Leticia-Xochitl López-Martínez, Karen Adriana Novoa-Luna, Hariz Islas-Flores, Marcela Galar-Martínez, Sandra García-Medina, María Dolores Hernández-Navarro, Leobardo Manuel Gómez-Oliván
Steviol glycosides are sweetening compounds from the Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni plant. This product is considered safe for human consumption and was approved as a food additive by the Food and Drugs Administration (FDA) and European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Its effects on the ecosystem have not been studied in depth; therefore, it is necessary to carry out ecotoxicological studies in organisms such as Cyprinus carpio. The present study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant activity by SGs on diverse tissues in C...
2017: BioMed Research International
Jun Wang, Jun Wang, Zhenzhong Zhang, Xiaona Zhang, Shaoguo Ru, YiFei Dong
Vitellogenin (Vtg) is a sensitive biomarker for environmental estrogens. In this study, an immunosensor for quantifying zebrafish Vtg was developed using the Octet system. First, Protein A sensors were immobilized with purified anti-lipovitellin (Lv) antibody that demonstrated specificity to Vtg. Then, antibody-coated biosensors were immersed into zebrafish Lv standards and diluted samples. The Octet system measured and recorded kinetic parameters between antigens and captured antibody within 5 min. Sample Vtg concentrations were automatically calculated by interpolating relative binding rates observed with each sample and the immobilized anti-Lv antibody into the developed standard curve...
July 6, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
Monia Renzi, Teresa Romeo, Cristiana Guerranti, Guido Perra, Simonepietro Canese, Pierpaolo Consoli, Silvano E Focardi, Claudio Berti, Mario Sprovieri, Serena Gherardi, Daniela Salvagio, Luigi Giaramita, Valentina Esposito, Pietro Battaglia, Salvatore Giacobbe, Franco Andaloro
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the hazard from shipwrecks on communities by a holistic approach taking into account different effects on biological communities. Multibeam and Remotely Operated Vehicles surveys recorded ecological assessment of fish and benthic species on three shipwrecks flooded during the Second World War on Maërl beds habitats in the strait of Sicily. Pollution levels of a wide range of chemicals of ecotoxicological concern were also measured in sediments and in fish species from different trophic levels...
July 6, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
M van Pomeren, N R Brun, W J G M Peijnenburg, M G Vijver
In ecotoxicology, it is continuously questioned whether (nano)particle exposure results in particle uptake and subsequent biodistribution or if particles adsorb to the epithelial layer only. To contribute to answering this question, we investigated different uptake routes in zebrafish embryos and how they affect particle uptake into organs and within whole organisms. This is addressed by exposing three different life stages of the zebrafish embryo in order to cover the following exposure routes: via chorion and dermal exposure; dermal exposure; oral and dermal exposure...
June 19, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
Jarosław Lewkowski, Marta Morawska, Anna Kaczmarek, Diana Rogacz, Piotr Rychter
A wide range of biological activities of aminophosphonates predisposes them to find applications as anticancer, antiviral, antimicrobial, antifungal, or herbicidal agents. Despite a number of positive aspects of the use of aminophosphonates, their applications may cause a risk to the environment, which is well exemplified by the case of glyphosate. Therefore, scientists see a pressing need to rate ecotoxicity of aminophosphonates. Nowadays, it is recommended to use comprehensive tools to carry out appropriate and effective risk assessments of toxic substances...
July 7, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Giovanni Benelli, John C Beier
The effective and eco-friendly control of Anopheles vectors plays a key role in any malaria management program. Integrated Vector Management (IVM) suggests making use of the full range of vector control tools available. The strategies for IVM require novel technologies to control outdoor transmission of malaria. Despite the wide number of promising control tools tested against mosquitoes, current strategies for malaria vector control used in most African countries are not sufficient to achieve successful malaria control...
July 3, 2017: Acta Tropica
Darlan Q Brito, Carlos José S Passos, Daphne H F Muniz, Eduardo C Oliveira-Filho
In a global scenario of climate change, several studies have predicted an increase in fires in different parts of the world. With the occurrence of rains following the fires in the Brazilian savanna (Cerrado biome), the compounds present in ashes may enter aquatic environments and cause adverse effects to these ecosystems. In this context, this study evaluated the potential toxicity of ashes from two areas of Cerrado and an area of pasture, through ecotoxicological bioassays and using three aquatic species from distinct trophic levels, which were exposed to different dilutions of ashes: the microcrustacean Ceriodaphnia dubia, the fish Danio rerio and the mollusc Biomphalaria glabrata...
July 6, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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