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Yueqiu Zhang, Shiliang Liu, Fangyan Cheng, Ana Coxixo, Xiaoyun Hou, Zhenyao Shen, Lei Chen
Surface sediments from Beiyun River located in the rapidly urbanized Beijing metropolis were collected and analyzed for heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) to investigate their spatial distribution pattern, ecotoxicology and source identification. Results indicated the average heavy metal concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn were approximately 4, 2, 3, 2, and 4 times higher than their background values. Spatially, we found the concentrations of heavy metals made significant change in four sections along urbanized river gradients...
October 20, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Iain M T Murray, Neil J Rowan, Sara McNamee, Katrina Campbell, Andrew M Fogarty
This constitutes the first study to report on the reduction in toxicity of the dinoflagellate algal toxin okadaic acid after novel pulsed light (PL) treatments where ecotoxicological assessment was performed using a miniaturised format of the conventional in vivo freshwater crustacean Daphnia sp. acute toxicity test. Bivalves accumulate this toxin, which can then enter the human food chain causing deleterious health effects such as diarrhetic shellfish poisoning. This miniaturised toxicological bioassay used substantially less sample volume and chemical reagents...
October 19, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Anna Kästel, Stefanie Allgeier, Carsten A Brühl
Mosquito control based on the use of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) is regarded as an environmental friendly method. However, Bti also affects non-target chironomid midges that are recognized as a central resource in wetland food webs. To evaluate the risk for different larval stages of Chironomus riparius we performed a test series of daily acute toxicity laboratory tests following OECD guideline 235 over the entire aquatic life cycle of 28 days. Our study is the first approach that performs an OECD approved test design with Bti and C...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
Messika Revel, Amélie Châtel, Catherine Mouneyrac
In recent years, the implication of genomics into ecotoxicological studies has been studied closely to allow a better understanding of organism's responses to environmental contaminants including engineering nanomaterials (ENMs). ENMs are increasingly produced for various applications including cosmetics, electronics, sports equipment, biomedicine and agriculture. Because of their small size, ENMs possess chemical or physical characteristics improved compared to the corresponding macro-sized material. As their application expend, the release of manufactured ENMs into the environment is likely to increase and concern over impacts for the aquatic ecosystem is growing...
October 12, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
A Cachada, C Coelho, A Gavina, A C Dias, C Patinha, A P Reis, E Ferreira da Silva, A C Duarte, R Pereira
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a global problem, and in urban soils they can be found at potentially hazard levels. Nevertheless, the real risks that these contaminants pose to the environment are not well known, since the bioavailability of PAHs in urban soils has been poorly studied. Therefore, the bioavailability of PAHs in some selected urban soils from Lisbon (Portugal) was evaluated. Moreover, the applicability of a first screening phase based on total contents of PAHs was assessed. Results show that bioavailability of PAHs is reduced (low levels in earthworms, low accumulation percentages, and low biota-to-soil accumulation factors values), especially in more contaminated soils...
October 7, 2017: Chemosphere
R Singh, A K Upadhyay, D P Singh
The present study was conducted to examine the impact of selenium (Se) on mineral nutrient status and oxidative stress in crop plant Oryza sativa treated with arsenic (As). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) study revealed the morphological deformities in leaf veins along with granular deposition on the leaf surface. The EDS analysis exhibited loss of elements (S, Si, Cl, K, Ca, Fe and Cu) in As(III) treatment in rice roots as compared to untreated root...
October 12, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Abua Ikem, Chung-Ho Lin, Bob Broz, Monty Kerley, Ho Le Thi
Enrofloxacin (ENRO), a fluoroquinolone, was quantified in overflows from an animal lot and residential sewage lagoons and in a receiving-stream (Gans Creek). The concentrations of ENRO in samples was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry. In total, ninety samples including duplicates were analyzed during several monthly sampling campaigns. The samples collected represented the residential sewage lagoon overflow (RLO), animal lot lagoon overflow (ALLO), the combined overflows (RLO and ALLO), and Gans Creek (upstream, midstream and downstream positions)...
October 2017: Heliyon
Francesca Coppola, Ângela Almeida, Bruno Henriques, Amadeu M V M Soares, Etelvina Figueira, Eduarda Pereira, Rosa Freitas
Organisms in marine systems are exposed to multiple stressors that create a range of associated environmental and ecotoxicological risks. Examples of stressors include alterations related to climate change, such as temperature increase, and the exposure to pollutants arising from human activities. The present study evaluated the impacts of Arsenic exposure (1mg/L) and warming (21°C) in Mytilus galloprovincialis, acting alone and in combination. Our results demonstrated that both Arsenic exposure and warming induced oxidative stress and reduced mussels metabolism, with changes becoming more prominent with the exposure time and when mussels were exposed to both stressors in combination...
October 4, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Anna Carolina Chaaban Santos, Rodrigo Brasil Choueri, Guacira de Figueiredo Eufrasio Pauly, Denis Abessa, Fabiane Gallucci
The usual approaches used in ecological risk assessment have been based on individual and population level standard procedures. Although these have been important tools to assess adverse effects on ecosystems, they are generally simplified and therefore lack ecological realism. Microcosm studies using meiobenthic communities offer a good compromise between the complexity of the ecosystem and the often highly artificial settings of laboratory experiments. An experiment was designed to investigate the potential of the microcosm approach using meiofauna as a tool for ecotoxicological studies...
October 4, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Serge Bakire, Xinya Yang, Guangcai Ma, Xiaoxuan Wei, Haiying Yu, Jianrong Chen, Hongjun Lin
Organic chemicals in the aquatic ecosystem may inhibit algae growth and subsequently lead to the decline of primary productivity. Growth inhibition tests are required for ecotoxicological assessments for regulatory purposes. In silico study is playing an important role in replacing or reducing animal tests and decreasing experimental expense due to its efficiency. In this work, a series of theoretical models was developed for predicting algal growth inhibition (log EC50) after 72 h exposure to diverse chemicals...
October 5, 2017: Chemosphere
Si Li, Wanzi Shi, Wei Liu, Huimin Li, Wei Zhang, Jingrun Hu, Yanchu Ke, Weiling Sun, Jinren Ni
The occurrence of 94 antibiotics in water and sediments from seven major rivers and four seas in China during 2005-2016 was reviewed. Twelve antibiotics were most frequently detected in both water and sediment samples, including 3 sulfonamides (SAs), 2 tetracyclines (TCs), 4 fluoroquinolones (FQs), and 3 macrolides (MLs). Their median concentrations were below 100ng/L and 100ng/g in river water and sediments, respectively. The highest median concentrations were found in water (1.30-176ng/L) and sediments (0...
October 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Yanbin Zhao, Kun Zhang, Karl Fent
Environmental exposure of fish to steroid hormones through wastewater and agricultural runoff may pose a health risk. Thus far, ecotoxicological studies have largely been focused on the disruption of the sex hormone system, but additional effects have been poorly investigated. Here we report on the effects of a series of different natural and synthetic steroid hormones on the locomotor behavior and the transcriptional levels of core clock genes in zebrafish eleuthero-embryos (Danio rerio). Of the 20 steroids analyzed, progestins and corticosteroids, including progesterone and cortisol, significantly decreased the locomotor activities of eleuthero-embryos at concentrations as low as 16 ng/L, while estrogens such as 17β-estradiol led to an increase...
October 6, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Juan José Villaverde, Beatriz Sevilla-Morán, Carmen López-Goti, Luisa Calvo, José Luis Alonso-Prados, Pilar Sandín-España
The photochemical fate of the herbicide clethodim in natural waters was investigated under simulated and natural sunlight radiation. This herbicide exhibited a rapid degradation rate in simulated aquatic environment with half-lives ranged from 27.9min to 4.6h. The commercial formulation of clethodim showed a faster degradation with half-lives from 19.3min to 1.4h. It has also been demonstrated that the photolytic behavior of clethodim was affected by the water composition and the radiation intensity. Nine major photoproducts were identified and their distribution was dependent on the experimental conditions...
October 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Raquel Dafouz, Neus Cáceres, José Luis Rodríguez-Gil, Nicola Mastroianni, Miren López de Alda, Damià Barceló, Ángel Gil de Miguel, Yolanda Valcárcel
Caffeine is an emerging contaminant considered to be an indicator of human contamination that has been widely detected in various aquatic systems, especially in continental waters. Nevertheless, the extent of its possible environmental impact is yet to be determined. This study determined the presence of caffeine, and evaluated the environmental hazard posed by this substance, in the "Rías Gallegas", a series of costal inlets in north-west Spain which are of great ecological value and in which fishing and bivalve farming, are a significant source of income...
October 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Hans-Martin Kauffmann, Hennicke Kamp, Regine Fuchs, Brian N Chorley, Lize Deferme, Timothy Ebbels, Jörg Hackermüller, Stefania Perdichizzi, Alan Poole, Ursula G Sauer, Knut E Tollefsen, Tewes Tralau, Carole Yauk, Ben van Ravenzwaay
'Omics technologies are gaining importance to support regulatory toxicity studies. Prerequisites for performing 'omics studies considering GLP principles were discussed at the European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) Workshop Applying 'omics technologies in Chemical Risk Assessment. A GLP environment comprises a standard operating procedure system, proper pre-planning and documentation, and inspections of independent quality assurance staff. To prevent uncontrolled data changes, the raw data obtained in the respective 'omics data recording systems have to be specifically defined...
October 5, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Trevor J Krabbenhoft, Thomas F Turner
Comparative transcriptomics can now be conducted on organisms in natural settings, which has greatly enhanced understanding of genome-environment interactions. Here, we demonstrate the utility and potential pitfalls of comparative transcriptomics of wild organisms, with an example from three cyprinid fish species (Teleostei:Cypriniformes). We present extensively filtered and annotated transcriptome assemblies that provide a valuable resource for studies of genome evolution (e.g. polyploidy), ecological and morphological diversification, speciation, and shared and unique responses to environmental variation in cyprinid fishes...
September 6, 2017: DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
Maria Brüggemann, Oliver Licht, Éva Fetter, Matthias Teigeler, Christoph Schäfers, Elke Eilebrecht
In order to be defined as endocrine disruptor, a substance has to meet several criteria, including the induction of specific adverse effects, specific endocrine mode-of-action and a plausible link between both. Especially the latter criterion might not always be unequivocally determined, particularly as the endocrine system consists of diverse endocrine axes. The axes closely interact with each other, and manipulation of one triggers effects on the other. This review aimed at identifying some of the many interconnections between these axes...
October 6, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Jiang-Chi Fei, Xiao-Bo Min, Zhen-Xing Wang, Zhi-Hua Pang, Yan-Jie Liang, Yong Ke
In recent years, international research on the toxicity of the heavy metal, antimony, has gradually changed focus from early medical and pharmacological toxicology to environmental toxicology and ecotoxicology. However, little research has been conducted for sources identification and risk management of heavy metals pollution by long-term antimony mining activities. In this study, a large number of investigations were conducted on the temporal and spatial distribution of antimony and related heavy metal contaminants (lead, zinc, and arsenic), as well as on the exposure risks for the population for the Yuxi river basin in the Hunan province, China...
October 5, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Céline Boulangé-Lecomte, Benoit Xuereb, Gauthier Trémolet, Aurélie Duflot, Nathalie Giusti, Stéphanie Olivier, Elena Legrand, Joëlle Forget-Leray
In recent years, the interest in the use of vitellogenin (VTG) as a biomarker of endocrine disruption in fish has led to VTG being considered as a potential tool in invertebrates. Among aquatic invertebrate models in ecotoxicology, the copepods are considered as reference species in marine, estuarine and freshwater ecosystems. In this context, we identified a VTG cDNA in Eurytemora affinis. The Ea-VTG2 cDNA is 5416bp in length with an open reading frame (ORF) of 5310bp that encodes a putative protein of 1769 amino acids residues...
September 30, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
A Rotini, A Gallo, I Parlapiano, M T Berducci, R Boni, E Tosti, E Prato, C Maggi, A M Cicero, L Migliore, L Manfra
Metal oxide nanoparticles, among them copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs), are widely used in different applications (e.g. batteries, gas sensors, superconductors, plastics and metallic coatings), increasing their potential release in the environment. In aquatic matrix, the behavior of CuO NPs may strongly change, depending on their surface charge and some physical-chemical characteristics of the medium (e.g. ionic strength, salinity, pH and natural organic matter content). Ecotoxicity of CuO NPs to aquatic organisms was mainly studied on freshwater species, few tests being performed on marine biota...
September 27, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
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