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Ecotoxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440957/the-role-of-high-throughput-screening-in-ecotoxicology-and-engineered-nanomaterials
#1
REVIEW
Andrew Barrick, Amélie Châtel, Mélanie Bruneau, Catherine Mouneyrac
The field of environmental toxicology developed as a result of growing concerns about anthropogenic influences on the environment and how to ameliorate ecological impact. Many governmental bodies are beginning to emphasize prevention rather than mitigation when addressing novel products, leading to more of a focus on identifying potential toxicity prior to release. With the exponential advances in their development and sale, novel metamaterials and biotechnology are set to dramatically outpace the capabilities of current testing strategies...
April 25, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440940/from-the-sea-to-the-laboratory-characterization-of-microplastic-as-prerequisite-for-the-assessment-of-ecotoxicological-impact
#2
Annegret Potthoff, Kathrin Oelschlägel, Mechthild Schmitt-Jansen, Christoph Daniel Rummel, Dana Kühnel
The presence of microplastic (MP) in the aquatic environment is recognized as a global-scale pollution issue. Secondary MP particles result from an ongoing fragmentation process governed by various biotic and abiotic factors. For a reliable risk assessment of these MP particles, knowledge about interactions with biota is needed. However, extensive testing with standard organisms under reproducible laboratory conditions with well-characterized MP suspensions is not available yet. As MP in the environment represents a mixture of particles differing in properties (e...
May 2017: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438785/nuclear-receptor-research-in-zebrafish
#3
Marcel J M Schaaf
Nuclear receptors (NRs) form a superfamily of transcription factors that can be activated by ligands and are involved in a wide range of physiological processes. NRs are well conserved between vertebrate species. The zebrafish, an increasingly popular animal model system, contains a total of 73 NR genes, and orthologues of almost all human NRs are present. In this review article, an overview is presented of NR research in which the zebrafish has been used as a model. Research is described on the three most studied zebrafish NRs: the Estrogen Receptors (ERs), Retinoic Acid Receptors (RARs) and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors (PPARs)...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437725/evaluation-of-ecotoxicological-effects-of-benzophenone-uv-filters-luminescent-bacteria-toxicity-genotoxicity-and-hormonal-activity
#4
Qiuya Zhang, Xiaoyan Ma, Mawuli Dzakpasu, Xiaochang C Wang
The widespread use of organic ultraviolet (UV) filters in personal care products raises concerns about their potentially hazardous effects on human and ecosystem health. In this study, the toxicities of four commonly used benzophenones (BPs) UV filters including benzophenone (BP), 2-Hydroxybenzophenone (2HB), 2-Hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone (BP3), and 2-Hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone-5-sulfonicacid (BP4) in water were assayed in vitro using Vibrio fischeri, SOS/umu assay, and yeast estrogen screen (YES) assay, as well as in vivo using zebrafish larvae...
April 21, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433593/tissue-distribution-and-metabolism-of-triadimefon-and-triadimenol-enantiomers-in-chinese-lizards-eremias-argus
#5
Jitong Li, Yinghuan Wang, Wei Li, Peng Xu, Baoyuan Guo, Jianzhong Li, Huili Wang
Triadimefon (TF, S-(+)-TF, R-(-)-TF) and its metabolite triadimenol (TN, TN-A1, A2 and TN-B1, B2) are two systemic fungicides and both of them are chiral pharmaceuticals which are widely used in agricultural industry. Many researches focused on the toxicity effects of triadimefon on mammals, while the ecotoxicological data of tiradimefon on reptiles is limited. In order to understand the toxicity mechanism of triadimefon in reptiles, the current study administrated S-(+)-TF or R-(-)-TF traidimefon (50mg/kg(bw)) to Chinese lizards (Eremias argus) respectively, the absorption, distribution of triadimefon and the formation of triadimenol were analysed at different sampling times...
April 20, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431352/degradation-of-sulfamethoxazole-by-uv-uv-h2o2-and-uv-persulfate-pds-formation-of-oxidation-products-and-effect-of-bicarbonate
#6
Yi Yang, Xinglin Lu, Jin Jiang, Jun Ma, Guanqi Liu, Ying Cao, Weili Liu, Juan Li, Suyan Pang, Xiujuan Kong, Congwei Luo
The frequent detection of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) in wastewater and surface waters gives rise of concerns about their ecotoxicological effects and potential risks to induce antibacterial resistant genes. UV/hydrogen peroxide (UV/H2O2) and UV/persulfate (UV/PDS) advanced oxidation processes have been demonstrated to be effective for the elimination of SMX, but there is still a need for a deeper understanding of product formations. In this study, we identified and compared the transformation products of SMX in UV, UV/H2O2 and UV/PDS processes...
March 28, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429753/impact-of-surface-active-guanidinium-tetramethylguanidinium-and-cholinium-based-ionic-liquids-on-vibrio-fischeri-cells-and-dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine-liposomes
#7
Antti H Rantamäki, Suvi-Katriina Ruokonen, Evangelos Sklavounos, Lasse Kyllönen, Alistair W T King, Susanne K Wiedmer
We investigated the toxicological effect of seven novel cholinium, guanidinium, and tetramethylguanidinium carboxylate ionic liquids (ILs) from an ecotoxicological point of view. The emphasis was on the potential structure-toxicity dependency of these surface-active ILs in aqueous environment. The median effective concentrations (EC50) were defined for each IL using Vibrio (Aliivibrio) fischeri marine bacteria. Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) liposomes were used as biomimetic lipid membranes to study the interactions between the surface-active ILs and the liposomes...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425566/gender-specific-histopathological-response-in-guppies-poecilia-reticulata-exposed-to-glyphosate-or-its-metabolite-aminomethylphosphonic-acid
#8
Adriana Maria Antunes, Thiago Lopes Rocha, Fernando Santiago Pires, Meire Alves de Freitas, Vanessa Rafaela Milhomem Cruz Leite, Sarah Arana, Paulo César Moreira, Simone Maria Teixeira Sabóia-Morais
Ecotoxicity of glyphosate (GLY) and its metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) was investigated in guppies, Poecilia reticulata. We tested the effects of these chemicals on the gills and liver of both male and female guppies using qualitative and quantitative histopathological analyses associated with histopathological condition indexes. Both genders showed similar median lethal concentration (LC50 ) at 96 h for GLY (68.78 and 70.87 mg l(-1) ) and AMPA (180 and 164.32 mg l(-1) ). However, the histopathological assessment of both fish organs exposed to sublethal concentrations of GLY (35 mg l(-1) ) and AMPA (82 mg l(-1) ) for 96 h showed a tissue- and gender-specific histopathological response...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425344/20-years-of-fish-immunotoxicology-what-we-know-and-where-we-are
#9
Kristina Rehberger, Inge Werner, Bettina Hitzfeld, Helmut Segner, Lisa Baumann
Despite frequent field observations of impaired immune response and increased disease incidence in contaminant-exposed wildlife populations, immunotoxic effects are rarely considered in ecotoxicological risk assessment. The aim of this study was to review the literature on immunotoxic effects of chemicals in fish to quantitatively evaluate (i) which experimental approaches were used to assess immunotoxic effects, (ii) whether immune markers exist to screen for potential immunotoxic activities of chemicals, and (iii) how predictive those parameters are for adverse alterations of fish immunocompetence and disease resistance...
April 20, 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419896/the-use-of-diatoms-in-ecotoxicology-and-bioassessment-insights-advances-and-challenges
#10
REVIEW
Lalit K Pandey, Elizabeth A Bergey, Jie Lyu, Jihae Park, Soyeon Choi, Hojun Lee, Stephen Depuydt, Young-Tae Oh, Sung-Mo Lee, Taejun Han
Diatoms are regularly used for bioassessment and ecotoxicological studies in relation to environmental and anthropogenic disturbances. Traditional taxonomical diatom parameters (cell counts, biovolume estimates, species richness, diversity indices and metrics using sensitive and tolerant diatom species) are regularly used for these studies. In the same context, very less focus was given on new endpoints of diatoms (life-forms, nuclear anomalies, alteration in photosynthetic apparatus shape, motility, lipid bodies, size reduction and deformities), in spite of their numerous merits, such as, their easiness, quickness, cheapness, global acceptation and no especial training in diatom taxonomy...
February 2, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417180/multiplexed-assay-for-protein-quantitation-in-the-invertebrate-gammarus-fossarum-by-liquid-chromatography-coupled-to-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#11
Aurore Charnot, Duarte Gouveia, Jean Armengaud, Christine Almunia, Arnaud Chaumot, Jérôme Lemoine, Olivier Geffard, Arnaud Salvador
A highly multiplexed liquid chromatography mass spectrometry-selected reaction monitoring (SRM)-based assay for determination of 40 potential protein biomarkers from Gammarus fossarum, an ecotoxicological relevant species, was described. The assay relies on 71 stable isotope-labeled reported peptide standards for the quantitation of proteins of interest in relation to essential physiological functions such as reproductive cycle, defense mechanism, and enzymes involved in homeostasis process and in energy. A direct linear relationship between the spiked peptide concentration and the area under the peak was clearly demonstrated in biological extracts...
April 17, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412625/toxicity-of-two-effluents-from-agricultural-activity-comparing-the-genotoxicity-of-sugar-cane-and-orange-vinasse
#12
Camila Fernandes H Garcia, Raphael B de Souza, Cleiton Pereira de Souza, Cintya Ap Christofoletti, Carmem S Fontanetti
Vinasse, produced by several countries as a by-product of agricultural activity, has different alternatives for its reuse, mainly fertirrigation. Several monocultures, such as sugar cane and orange crops, produce this effluent. Sugar cane vinasse is already widely used in fertirrigation and orange vinasse has potential for this intention. However, its use as a fertilizer has caused great concern. Thus, ecotoxicological evaluation is extremely important in order to assess the possible effects on the environment...
April 13, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411514/cylindrospermopsin-induced-changes-in-growth-toxin-production-and-antioxidant-response-of-acutodesmus-acuminatus-and-microcystis-aeruginosa-under-differing-light-and-nitrogen-conditions
#13
Mathias Ahii Chia, Micheline Kézia Cordeiro-Araújo, Adriana Sturion Lorenzi, Maria do Carmo Bittencourt-Oliveira
Growing evidence suggests that some bioactive metabolites (e.g. cyanotoxins) produced by cyanobacteria have allelopathic potential, due to their inhibitory or stimulatory effects on competing species. Although a number of studies have shown that the cyanotoxin cylindrospermopsin (CYN) has variable effects on phytoplankton species, the impact of changing physicochemical conditions on its allelopathic potential is yet to be investigated. We investigated the physiological response of Microcystis aeruginosa (Cyanobacteria) and Acutodesmus acuminatus (Chlorophyta) to CYN under varying nitrogen and light conditions...
April 12, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411499/characteristics-and-environmental-fate-of-the-anionic-surfactant-sodium-lauryl-ether-sulphate-sles-used-as-the-main-component-in-foaming-agents-for-mechanized-tunnelling
#14
REVIEW
Anna Barra Caracciolo, Martina Cardoni, Tanita Pescatore, Luisa Patrolecco
The anionic surfactant sodium lauryl ether sulphate (SLES) is the main component of most commercial products used for soil conditioning in the excavation industry, in particular as lubricants for mechanized tunnelling. Its use during the excavation processes can result in either the subsequent possible re-use of the huge amount of soil debris as by-products (e.g. land covering) or its discharge as waste. Currently, there are neither SLES soil threshold limits in European legislation, nor comprehensive studies on the environmental risk for soil ecosystems in these exposure scenarios...
April 12, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411468/nine-co-localized-cytochrome-p450-genes-of-the-cyp2n-cyp2ad-and-cyp2p-gene-families-in-the-mangrove-killifish-kryptolebias-marmoratus-genome-identification-and-expression-in-response-to-b-%C3%AE-p-bpa-op-and-np
#15
Jayesh Puthumana, Bo-Mi Kim, Chang-Bum Jeong, Duck-Hyun Kim, Hye-Min Kang, Jee-Hyun Jung, Il-Chan Kim, Un-Ki Hwang, Jae-Seong Lee
The CYP2 genes are the largest and most diverse cytochrome P450 (CYP) subfamily in vertebrates. We have identified nine co-localized CYP2 genes (∼55kb) in a new cluster in the genome of the highly resilient ecotoxicological fish model Kryptolebias marmoratus. Molecular characterization, temporal and tissue-specific expression pattern, and response to xenobiotics of these genes were examined. The CYP2 gene clusters were characterized and designated CYP2N22-23, CYP2AD12, and CYP2P16-20. Gene synteny analysis confirmed that the cluster in K...
March 31, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411389/the-comet-assay-in-folsomia-candida-a-suitable-approach-to-assess-genotoxicity-in-collembolans
#16
Diogo N Cardoso, Ana Rita R Silva, Andreia Cruz, Joana Lourenço, Joana Neves, Catarina Malheiro, Sónia Mendo, Amadeu M V M Soares, Susana Loureiro
The present study shows the comet assay technique being successfully applied for the first time to one of the most widely used soil organisms in standardized ecotoxicological tests, Folsomia candida, providing a step forward in assessing the genotoxicity induced by xenobiotics. Because collembolans have a high content of chitin, a new methodology was developed in which the heads of the collembolans were separated from the rest of the body, allowing the hemolymph to leak out. This procedure allows the cells to be released, and after lysis the genetic material is available for the comet assay...
March 16, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410521/micropollutants-in-source-separated-wastewater-streams-and-recovered-resources-of-source-separated-sanitation
#17
A Butkovskyi, L Hernandez Leal, G Zeeman, H H M Rijnaarts
The quality of anaerobic sludge and struvite from black water treatment system, aerobic sludge from grey water treatment system and effluents of both systems was assessed for organic micropollutant content in order to ensure safety when reusing these products. Use of anaerobic black water sludge and struvite as soil amendments is recommended based on the low micropollutant content. Aerobic grey water sludge is recommended for disposal, because of the relatively high micropollutant concentrations, exceeding those in sewage sludge...
April 11, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407593/assessing-the-influence-of-ocean-acidification-to-marine-amphipods-a-comparative-study
#18
M C Passarelli, I Riba, A Cesar, F Serrano-Bernando, T A DelValls
CO2 increases in the ocean may occur both by the capacity of CO2 exchanges with its dissolved form between atmosphere and surface seawater as well by CO2 leaks during the carbon capture and storage (CCS) process. The decrease in seawater pH may result in a reduction in the concentration of both hydroxide and carbonate (OH(-) and CO3(2-)). The main aim of this work is to conduct an ecotoxicology comparative survey using two amphipod species from Europe and Brazil exposed to different acidification (CO2) scenarios...
April 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406081/ecotoxicological-analysis-of-acrylamide-using-a-microalga-as-an-indicator-organism
#19
Bárbara Werle Nunes Keila Fernanda Hedlund Maria Angelica Oliveira And Elvis Carissimi
Aquatic ecosystems are very prone to contamination. The fast and accurate assessment of the toxicity of the water is animportant tool for environmental safety. The aim of this study was to assess the possible toxic effects of acrylamide on physiological parameters of the ChlorophyceaeandDesmodesmus quadricauda. Cells in exponential growth phase were exposed for 72 hours to different concentrations of acrylamide. Light microscopy analysis documented cell density, number of cells per coenobia, cell dimensions, and biovolume; chlorophyll "a" concentration was also determined...
April 12, 2017: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402053/pseudoreplication-and-the-usage-of-biomarkers-in-ecotoxicological-bioassays
#20
Flávio H Tincani, Grabrieli L Galvan, Antonio E M L Marques, Gustavo S Santos, Letícia S Pereira, Thiago A da Silva, Helena C Silva de Assis, Ronilson V Barbosa, Marta M Cestari
Pseudoreplication is a widely discussed topic in the scientific community. Its principal critique concerns the lack of independence in flawed experimental designs and the use of inferential statistics to test the hypothesis of such experiments. Thirty years after its appearance, it remains misunderstood by many researchers, including ecotoxicologists. In this work, we will try to clarify some of its concepts by filling in what seems to be a gap in the terminology of manipulative experiments. We propose the term experimental medium to refer strictly to the relevant spatial scale of the experiment, in order to preserve the specificity of the experimental and observational units, and to display pseudoreplication as a kind of misinterpretation and/or misanalysis of inferential statistics...
April 12, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
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