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Andrea Gredelj, Alberto Barausse, Laura Grechi, Luca Palmeri
Over the past decades, per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) found in environmental matrices worldwide have raised concerns due to their toxicity, ubiquity and persistence. A widespread pollution of groundwater and surface waters caused by PFASs in Northern Italy has been recently discovered, becoming a major environmental issue, also because the exact risk for humans and nature posed by this contamination is unclear. Here, the Po River in Northern Italy was selected as a study area to assess the ecological risk posed by perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), a class of PFASs, considering the noticeable concentration of various PFAAs detected in the Po waters over the past years...
June 20, 2018: Environment International
Supratik Kar, Kunal Roy, Jerzy Leszczynski
An extensive use of pharmaceuticals and the widespread practices of their erroneous disposal measures have made these products contaminants of emerging concern (CEC). Especially, active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) are ubiquitously detected in surface water and soil, mainly in the aquatic compartment, where they do affect the living systems. Unfortunately, there is a huge gap in the availability of ecotoxicological data on pharmaceuticals' environmental behavior and ecotoxicity which force EMEA (European Medicines Agency) to release guidelines for their risk assessment...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Na Li, Ren-Lei Tong, Li Yao, Qing Chen, Xin Yan, De-Rong Ding, Ji-Guo Qiu, Jian He, Jian-Dong Jiang
The herbicide dicamba is initially demethylated to 3,6-dichlorosalicylate (3,6-DCSA) in Rhizorhabdus dicambivorans Ndbn-20 and is subsequently 5-hydroxylated to 3,6-dichlorogentisate (3,6-DCGA). In the present study, two glutathione-dependent 3,6-DCGA dehalogenases, DsmH1 and DsmH2, were identified in strain Ndbn-20. DsmH2 shared low identity (only 31%) with the tetrachlorohydroquinone (TCHQ) dehalogenase PcpC from Sphingobium chlorophenolicum ATCC 39723, while DsmH1 shared high identity (79%) with PcpC. In the phylogenetic tree of related glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), DsmH1 and DsmH2, together with PcpC and the 2,5-dichlorohydroquinone dehalogenase LinD, formed a separate clade...
June 22, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Hong Rong, Chengrun Wang, Xiaorui Yu, Jinbao Fan, Pei Jiang, Yuchuan Wang, Xianqing Gan, Yun Wang
Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and heavy metals could be absorbed and bioaccumulated by agricultural crops, implicating ecological risks. Herein, the present study investigated the ecotoxicological effects and mechanisms of individual carboxylated MWCNTs (MWCNTs-COOH) (2.5, 5.0 and 10 mg/L) and their combination with 20 µM Pb and 5 µM Cd (shortened as Pb + Cd) on roots of Vicia faba L. seedlings after 20 days of exposure. The results showed that the tested MWCNTs-COOH induced imbalance of nutrient elements, enhanced isozymes and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), resulting in accumulation of carbonylated proteins, elevation of endoproteases (EPs) isozymes, and reduction of HSP70 synthesis in the roots...
June 19, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Sylvain Bart, Joël Amossé, Christopher N Lowe, Christian Mougin, Alexandre R R Péry, Céline Pelosi
Ecotoxicological tests with earthworms are widely used and are mandatory for the risk assessment of pesticides prior to registration and commercial use. The current model species for standardized tests is Eisenia fetida or Eisenia andrei. However, these species are absent from agricultural soils and often less sensitive to pesticides than other earthworm species found in mineral soils. To move towards a better assessment of pesticide effects on non-target organisms, there is a need to perform a posteriori tests using relevant species...
June 21, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Karl Theo von der Trenck, Rainer Konietzka, Annegret Biegel-Engler, Jan Brodsky, Andrea Hädicke, Arnold Quadflieg, Rudolf Stockerl, Thorsten Stahl
Background: Per- and polyfluorinated chemicals (PFC) do not occur naturally in the environment and are, therefore, of anthropogenic origin. As a consequence of their wide range of everyday applications and their extreme persistence in the environment, PFC have become ubiquitous in nature and can, therefore, be detected in groundwater as well as in many other environmental matrices. The German States' Water and Soil Consortia have compiled 'significance thresholds' (GFS) to assess groundwater contaminated with PFC...
2018: Environmental Sciences Europe
Fanny Desbiolles, Laure Malleret, Christophe Tiliacos, Pascal Wong-Wah-Chung, Isabelle Laffont-Schwob
Due to their pseudo-persistence and their biological activity, pharmaceuticals are emerging contaminants of major concern for the environment. The aim of this review is to provide an updated inventory of the contamination of aquatic environments by 43 drugs representing different classes of pharmaceuticals, such as antibiotics, anti-inflammatory drugs, anti-depressants, sex hormones, lipid regulators and beta-blockers. The data collected is focused on contamination levels reported in marine coastal waters and in waste and river waters flowing into the Mediterranean Sea...
October 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Chao Zhou, Ylenia Carotenuto, Valentina Vitiello, Changwen Wu, Jianshe Zhang, Isabella Buttino
The calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa is a reference species in standardized ecotoxicology bioassay. Despite this interest, there is a lack of knowledge on molecular responses of A. tonsa to contaminants. We generated a de novo assembled transcriptome of A. tonsa exposed 4 days to 8.5 and 17 mg/L nickel nanoparticles (NiNPs), which have been shown to reduce egg hatching success and larval survival but had no effects on the adults. Aims of our study were to 1) improve the knowledge on the molecular responses of A...
June 14, 2018: Chemosphere
Julio Alberto Alegre Stelzer, Catiusa Kuchak Rosin, Luana Hainzenreder Bauer, Marilia Hartmann, Fernando Hepp Pulgati, Alexandre Arenzon
On the past few years, Fish Embryo Test (FET) became protagonist regarding the usage of "animal-friendly" protocols for ecotoxicological proposes. As OECD 236 FET has been widely applied on the scope of REACH (simple mixture exposures), but it is blindly worldwide spreading as a Whole Effluent Test (WET) - complex mixture exposures. However, comparative peer-reviewed data regarding FET's efficiency for WET is virtually absent. The primary objective of this paper is to compare OECD 236 with other worldwide used standard and slightly modified ecotoxicological protocols, providing a comprehensive overview of available tests for WET...
June 21, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Dimitri Van de Perre, Ivo Roessink, Colin R Janssen, Erik Smolders, Frederik De Laender, Paul J Van den Brink, Karel A C De Schamphelaere
Ecotoxicological studies mainly consist of single-species experiments evaluating the effects of a single stressor. However, under natural conditions aquatic communities are exposed to a mixture of stressors. This study was set up to identify how the toxicity of zinc (Zn) is affected by increased temperature (T) and increased phosphorus supply (P) and how these interactions vary among species, functional groups, community structure and function. Aquatic microcosms were subjected to three Zn concentrations (background: no Zn added; 75 µg Zn/L and 300 µg Zn/L), two temperatures (16-19 °C and 21-24 °C) and 2 different P additions (low: 0...
June 21, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Alexandra N Steele, Rachelle M Belanger, Paul A Moore
Chemical pollutants enter aquatic systems through numerous pathways (e.g., surface runoff and ground water contamination), thus associating these contaminant sources with varying hydrodynamic environments. The hydrodynamic environment shapes the temporal and spatial distribution of chemical contaminants through turbulent mixing. The differential dispersal of contaminants is not commonly addressed in ecotoxicological studies and may have varying implications for organism health. The purpose of this study is to understand how differing routes of exposure to atrazine alter social behaviors and physiological responses of aquatic organisms...
June 19, 2018: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Peter D Fields, Darren J Obbard, Seanna J McTaggart, Yan Galimov, Tom J Little, Dieter Ebert
Phylogeography places population genetics in an explicitly spatial context, and in doing so attempts to reconstruct the historical and contemporary evolutionary processes acting across a species range through space and time. Here we present the phylogeographical structure of Daphnia magna as determined for full mitochondrial genomes from samples of 60 populations throughout much of the species known range, including Europe, the Middle East, and Asia. Contrary to previous analyses, the present analysis of the mitochondrial genome reveals coarse-grained (continental scale) evidence for spatial structure, and in particular a deep split between Western Eurasia and East Asian D...
June 16, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Elizabeth Carazo-Rojas, Greivin Pérez-Rojas, Marta Pérez-Villanueva, Cristina Chinchilla-Soto, Juan Salvador Chin-Pampillo, Paula Aguilar-Mora, Melvin Alpízar-Marín, Mario Masís-Mora, Carlos E Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Zisis Vryzas
A pesticide monitoring study including 80 and 60 active ingredients (in surface waters and sediments, respectively) was carried out in a river basin in Costa Rica during 2007-2012. A special emphasis was given on the exceptional ecological conditions of the tropical agro-ecosystem and the pesticide application strategies in order to establish a reliable monitoring network. A total of 135 water samples and 129 sediment samples were collected and analyzed. Long-term aquatic ecotoxicological risk assessment based on risk quotient in three trophic levels was conducted...
June 14, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Gabrielle do Amaral E Silva Müller, Karim Hahn Lüchmann, Guilherme Razzera, Guilherme Toledo-Silva, Maria João Bebianno, Maria Risoleta Freire Marques, Afonso Celso Dias Bainy
Diesel fuel water-accommodated fraction (diesel-WAF) is a complex mixture of organic compounds that may cause harmful effects to marine invertebrates. Expression of microsomal proteins can be changed by oil exposure, causing functional alterations in endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The aim of this study was to investigate changes in protein expression signatures in microsomes of oysterl Crassostrea brasiliana (=C.gasar) gill after exposure to 10% diesel-WAF for 24 and 72 h. Protein expression signatures of gills of oysters exposed to diesel-WAF were compared to those of unexposed oysters using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) to identify differentially expressed proteins...
June 6, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Juliska Princz, Muriel Jatar, Heather Lemieux, Rick Scroggins
Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a persistent organic pollutant, which has been detected at significant concentrations in soils at sites used for fire-fighting training operations. Recent ecotoxicological research has mainly focused on earthworms to assess the toxicity of PFOS in soil. However, the inclusion of other soil taxonomic groups allow for a more holistic estimate of contaminant risk, including the derivation of more comprehensive soil quality guidelines. The present study assessed the toxicity of PFOS using the collembolan, Folsomia candida, and the oribatid mite, Oppia nitens, in two types of soil: a coarse-textured sandy loam (VSL) and fine-textured clay loam (NRS)...
June 4, 2018: Chemosphere
Sarva Mangala Praveena, Siti Norashikin Mohamad Shaifuddin, Syazwani Sukiman, Fauzan Adzima Mohd Nasir, Zanjabila Hanafi, Norizah Kamarudin, Tengku Hanidza Tengku Ismail, Ahmad Zaharin Aris
This study investigated the occurrence of nine pharmaceuticals (amoxicillin, caffeine, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, dexamethasone, diclofenac, nitrofurazone, sulfamethoxazole, and triclosan) and to evaluate potential risks (human health and ecotoxicological) in Lui, Gombak and Selangor (Malaysia) rivers using commercial competitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) kit assays. Physicochemical properties of these rivers showed the surface samples belong to Class II of Malaysian National Water Quality Standards which requires conventional treatment before consumption...
June 11, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Alexandra Y Grün, Constantin B App, Andreas Breidenbach, Jutta Meier, George Metreveli, Gabriele E Schaumann, Werner Manz
The application of engineered silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in a considerable amount of registered commercial products inevitably will result in the continuous release of AgNPs into the natural aquatic environment. Therefore, native biofilms, as the prominent life form of microorganisms in almost all known ecosystems, will be subjected to AgNP exposure. Despite the exponentially growing research activities worldwide, it is still difficult to assess nanoparticle-mediated toxicity in natural environments. In order to obtain an ecotoxicologically relevant exposure scenario, we performed experiments with artificial stream mesocosm systems approaching low dose AgNP concentrations close to predicted environmental concentrations...
2018: PloS One
Mazhar Abbas, Muhammad Adil, Syed Ehtisham-Ul-Haque, Bushra Munir, Muhammad Yameen, Abdul Ghaffar, Ghulam Abbas Shar, M Asif Tahir, Munawar Iqbal
Vibrio fischeri bioluminescence inhibition bioassay (VFBIA) has been widely applied for the monitoring of toxicity on account of multiple advantages encompassing shorter test duration, sensitive, cost-effective and ease of operation. Moreover, this bioassay found to be equally applicable to all types of matrices (organic & inorganic compounds, metals, wastewater, river water, sewage sludge, landfill leachate, herbicides, treated wastewater etc.) for toxicity monitoring. This review highlights the apparent significance of Vibrio fischeri bioluminescence inhibition assay for ecotoxicological screening and evaluation of diverse chemical substances toxicity profile...
June 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Hariz Islas-Flores, Itzayana Pérez-Alvaréz, Leobardo M Gómez-Oliván
Pharmaceuticals are chemical compounds which are used to preserve human and animal health. Once administered, these compounds are metabolized or can remain unaltered until excreted. Therefore, a mixture of pharmaceuticals and their metabolites enters municipal sewers and wastewater treatment plants where, depending on their polarity, water solubility, and persistence, they cannot be completely removed or transformed during the treatment process, so that unaltered pharmaceuticals and/or their metabolites can enter surface water...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Guidi Zhong, Zhonghua Wu, Nian Liu, Jun Yin
Glyphosate, as a broad-spectrum herbicide, is frequently detected in water, and phosphorus widely enters the water due to the extensive use of phosphorus-containing substances in agriculture, industries and daily life. Thus, aquatic ecosystems are exposed to both glyphosate and phosphorus, which may affect aquatic organisms. In the present research, we studied the physiological responses of the floating aquatic plant species H. dubia to different concentrations of glyphosate (0, 1, 5, 15 mg/L) with different levels of phosphate (0, 50, 100 mg/L) after 14 days (d) of treatment...
May 30, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
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