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"Natural selection"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921776/transcriptional-responses-to-short-term-and-long-term-host-plant-experience-and-parasite-load-in-an-oligophagous-beetle
#1
Caroline Müller, Heiko Vogel, David G Heckel
Oligophagous herbivores must adjust their enzymatic machinery to the different host plant species they consume. If different hosts are used from one generation to the next, adaptation may be highly plastic, while if a single host is used over several generations there may be a longer-term response due to natural selection. Using an experimental evolutionary approach, we investigated effects of long-term experience versus short-term responses to different host plants in the oligophagous mustard leaf beetle Phaedon cochleariae...
September 16, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921508/selection-on-skewed-characters-and-the-paradox-of-stasis
#2
Suzanne Bonamour, Céline Teplitsky, Anne Charmantier, Pierre-André Crochet, Luis-Miguel Chevin
Observed phenotypic responses to selection in the wild often differ from predictions based on measurements of selection and genetic variance. An overlooked hypothesis to explain this paradox of stasis is that a skewed phenotypic distribution affects natural selection and evolution. We show through mathematical modelling that, when a trait selected for an optimum phenotype has a skewed distribution, directional selection is detected even at evolutionary equilibrium, where it causes no change in the mean phenotype...
September 18, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916329/ecological-extension-of-the-theory-of-evolution-by-natural-selection-from-a-perspective-of-western-and-eastern-holistic-philosophy
#3
REVIEW
Toshiyuki Nakajima
Evolution by natural selection requires the following conditions: (1) a particular selective environment, (2) variation of traits in the population; (3) differential survival/reproduction among types of organisms; and (4) heritable traits. However, the traditional (standard) model does not unclearly explain how and why these conditions are generated or determined. What generates a selective environment? What generates new types? How does a certain type replace, or coexist, with others? In this paper, based on the holistic philosophy in Western and Eastern traditions, I focus on the ecosystem as a higher-level system and generator of conditions that induce the evolution of local populations; I also aim to identify the ecosystem processes that generate those conditions...
September 12, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915892/modelling-the-impact-of-the-long-term-use-of-insecticide-treated-bed-nets-on-anopheles-mosquito-biting-time
#4
Claudia P Ferreira, Silas P Lyra, Franciane Azevedo, David Greenhalgh, Eduardo Massad
BACKGROUND: Evidence of changing in biting and resting behaviour of the main malaria vectors has been mounting up in recent years as a result of selective pressure by the widespread and long-term use of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs), and indoor residual spraying. The impact of resistance behaviour on malaria intervention efficacy has important implications for the epidemiology and malaria control programmes. In this context, a theoretical framework is presented to understand the mechanisms determining the evolution of feeding behaviour under the pressure of use of ITNs...
September 15, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915003/the-evolution-of-dna-templated-synthesis-as-a-tool-for-materials-discovery
#5
Rachel K O'Reilly, Andrew J Turberfield, Thomas R Wilks
Precise control over reactivity and molecular structure is a fundamental goal of the chemical sciences. Billions of years of evolution by natural selection have resulted in chemical systems capable of information storage, self-replication, catalysis, capture and production of light, and even cognition. In all these cases, control over molecular structure is required to achieve a particular function: without structural control, function may be impaired, unpredictable, or impossible. The search for molecules with a desired function is often achieved by synthesizing a combinatorial library, which contains many or all possible combinations of a set of chemical building blocks (BBs), and then screening this library to identify "successful" structures...
September 15, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910411/molecular-population-genetics-of-the-polycomb-genes-in-drosophila-subobscura
#6
Juan M Calvo-Martín, Montserrat Papaceit, Carmen Segarra
Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are important regulatory factors that modulate the chromatin state. They form protein complexes that repress gene expression by the introduction of posttranslational histone modifications. The study of PcG proteins divergence in Drosophila revealed signals of coevolution among them and an acceleration of the nonsynonymous evolutionary rate in the lineage ancestral to the obscura group species, mainly in subunits of the Pcl-PRC2 complex. Herein, we have studied the nucleotide polymorphism of PcG genes in a natural population of D...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904765/the-evolutionary-consequences-of-habitat-fragmentation-body-morphology-and-coloration-differentiation-among-brook-trout-populations-of-varying-size
#7
Carol Zastavniouk, Laura K Weir, Dylan J Fraser
A reduction in population size due to habitat fragmentation can alter the relative roles of different evolutionary mechanisms in phenotypic trait differentiation. While deterministic (selection) and stochastic (genetic drift) mechanisms are expected to affect trait evolution, genetic drift may be more important than selection in small populations. We examined relationships between mature adult traits and ecological (abiotic and biotic) variables among 14 populations of brook trout. These naturally fragmented populations have shared ancestry but currently exhibit considerable variability in habitat characteristics and population size (49 < Nc < 10,032; 3 < Nb < 567)...
September 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904147/long-legged-bees-make-adaptive-leaps-linking-adaptation-to-coevolution-in-a-plant-pollinator-network
#8
Anton Pauw, Belinda Kahnt, Michael Kuhlmann, Denis Michez, Graham A Montgomery, Elizabeth Murray, Bryan N Danforth
Adaptation is evolution in response to natural selection. Hence, an adaptation is expected to originate simultaneously with the acquisition of a particular selective environment. Here we test whether long legs evolve in oil-collecting Rediviva bees when they come under selection by long-spurred, oil-secreting flowers. To quantify the selective environment, we drew a large network of the interactions between Rediviva species and oil-secreting plant species. The selective environment of each bee species was summarized as the average spur length of the interacting plant species weighted by interaction frequency...
September 13, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903058/insuperable-problems-of-the-genetic-code-initially-emerging-in-an-rna-world
#9
Peter R Wills, Charles W Carter
Differential equations for error-prone information transfer (template replication, transcription or translation) are developed in order to consider, within the theory of autocatalysis, the advent of coded protein synthesis. Variations of these equations furnish a basis for comparing the plausibility of contrasting scenarios for the emergence of specific tRNA aminoacylation, ultimately by enzymes, and the relationship of this process with the origin of the universal system of molecular biological information processing embodied in the Central Dogma...
September 10, 2017: Bio Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902834/alternative-evolutionary-histories-in-the-sequence-space-of-an-ancient-protein
#10
Tyler N Starr, Lora K Picton, Joseph W Thornton
To understand why molecular evolution turned out as it did, we must characterize not only the path that evolution followed across the space of possible molecular sequences but also the many alternative trajectories that could have been taken but were not. A large-scale comparison of real and possible histories would establish whether the outcome of evolution represents an optimal state driven by natural selection or the contingent product of historical chance events; it would also reveal how the underlying distribution of functions across sequence space shaped historical evolution...
September 13, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899756/stability-based-sorting-the-forgotten-process-behind-not-only-biological-evolution
#11
Jan Toman, Jaroslav Flegr
Natural selection is considered to be the main process that drives biological evolution. It requires selected entities to originate dependent upon one another by the means of reproduction or copying, and for the progeny to inherit the qualities of their ancestors. However, natural selection is a manifestation of a more general persistence principle, whose temporal consequences we propose to name "stability-based sorting" (SBS). Sorting based on static stability, i.e., SBS in its strict sense and usual conception, favours characters that increase the persistence of their holders and act on all material and immaterial entities...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898601/characterization-of-the-gray-whale-eschrichtius-robustus-genome-and-a-genotyping-array-based-on-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-in-candidate-genes
#12
J Andrew DeWoody, Nadia B Fernandez, Anna Brüniche-Olsen, Jennifer D Antonides, Jacqueline M Doyle, Phillip San Miguel, Rick Westerman, Vladimir V Vertyankin, Céline A J Godard-Codding, John W Bickham
Genetic and genomic approaches have much to offer in terms of ecology, evolution, and conservation. To better understand the biology of the gray whale Eschrichtius robustus (Lilljeborg, 1861), we sequenced the genome and produced an assembly that contains ∼95% of the genes known to be highly conserved among eukaryotes. From this assembly, we annotated 22,711 genes and identified 2,057,254 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Using this assembly, we generated a curated list of candidate genes potentially subject to strong natural selection, including genes associated with osmoregulation, oxygen binding and delivery, and other aspects of marine life...
June 2017: Biological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894101/intense-natural-selection-preceded-the-invasion-of-new-adaptive-zones-during-the-radiation-of-new-world-leaf-nosed-bats
#13
Daniela M Rossoni, Ana Paula A Assis, Norberto P Giannini, Gabriel Marroig
The family Phyllostomidae, which evolved in the New World during the last 30 million years, represents one of the largest and most morphologically diverse mammal families. Due to its uniquely diverse functional morphology, the phyllostomid skull is presumed to have evolved under strong directional selection; however, quantitative estimation of the strength of selection in this extraordinary lineage has not been reported. Here, we used comparative quantitative genetics approaches to elucidate the processes that drove cranial evolution in phyllostomids...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893996/evolution-of-flexibility-and-rigidity-in-retaliatory-punishment
#14
Adam Morris, James MacGlashan, Michael L Littman, Fiery Cushman
Natural selection designs some social behaviors to depend on flexible learning processes, whereas others are relatively rigid or reflexive. What determines the balance between these two approaches? We offer a detailed case study in the context of a two-player game with antisocial behavior and retaliatory punishment. We show that each player in this game-a "thief" and a "victim"-must balance two competing strategic interests. Flexibility is valuable because it allows adaptive differentiation in the face of diverse opponents...
September 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887790/polyspecificity-of-anti-lipid-a-antibodies-and-its-relevance-to-the-development-of-autoimmunity
#15
Omid Haji-Ghassemi, Susannah M L Gagnon, Sven Müller-Loennies, Stephen V Evans
The process of natural selection favours germ-line gene segments that encode CDRs that have the ability to recognize a range of structurally related antigens. This presents an immunological advantage to the host, as it can confer protection against a common pathogen and still cope with new or changing antigens. Cross-reactive and polyspecific antibodies also play a central role in autoimmune responses, and a link has been shown to exist between auto-reactive B cells and certain bacterial infections. Bacterial DNA, lipids, and carbohydrates have been implicated in the progression of autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus...
September 9, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886704/differentiated-transcriptional-signatures-in-the-maize-landraces-of-chiapas-mexico
#16
Matthew A Kost, Hugo R Perales, Saranga Wijeratne, Asela J Wijeratne, Eric Stockinger, Kristin L Mercer
BACKGROUND: Landrace farmers are the keepers of crops locally adapted to the environments where they are cultivated. Patterns of diversity across the genome can provide signals of past evolution in the face of abiotic and biotic change. Understanding this rich genetic resource is imperative especially since diversity can provide agricultural security as climate continues to shift. RESULTS: Here we employ RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to understand the role that conditions that vary across a landscape may have played in shaping genetic diversity in the maize landraces of Chiapas, Mexico...
September 8, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884826/an-experimental-test-of-the-physiological-consequences-of-avian-malaria-infection
#17
Laura A Schoenle, Meredith Kernbach, Mark F Haussmann, Frances Bonier, Ignacio T Moore
1.Chronic, low-intensity parasite infections can reduce host fitness through negative impacts on reproduction and survival, even if they produce few overt symptoms. As a result, these parasites can influence the evolution of host morphology, behavior, and physiology. The physiological consequences of chronic infection can provide insight into the processes underlying parasite-driven natural selection. 2.Here, we evaluate the physiological consequences of natural, low-intensity infection in an avian host-parasite system: adult male red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) infected with haemosporidian parasites...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884795/assortment-and-the-analysis-of-natural-selection-on-social-traits
#18
Grant C McDonald, Damien R Farine, Kevin R Foster, Jay M Biernaskie
A central problem in evolutionary biology is to determine whether and how social interactions contribute to natural selection. This can be addressed with selection analyses that relate individual fitness to individual and social phenotypes. One such approach, known as social selection analysis, leads to the intuitive result that fitness effects from social partners will contribute to selection only if there is a correlation between the traits of individuals and their social partners (non-random phenotypic assortment)...
September 8, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882507/stochastic-noncooperative-and-cooperative-evolutionary-game-strategies-of-a-population-of-biological-networks-under-natural-selection
#19
REVIEW
Bor-Sen Chen, Chin-Hsun Yeh
We review current static and dynamic evolutionary game strategies of biological networks and discuss the lack of random genetic variations and stochastic environmental disturbances in these models. To include these factors, a population of evolving biological networks is modeled as a nonlinear stochastic biological system with Poisson-driven genetic variations and random environmental fluctuations (stimuli). To gain insight into the evolutionary game theory of stochastic biological networks under natural selection, the phenotypic robustness and network evolvability of noncooperative and cooperative evolutionary game strategies are discussed from a stochastic Nash game perspective...
September 4, 2017: Bio Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880881/comprehensive-analysis-of-the-codon-usage-patterns-in-the-envelope-glycoprotein-e2-gene-of-the-classical-swine-fever-virus
#20
Ye Chen, Xinxin Li, Xiaojuan Chi, Song Wang, Yanmei Ma, Jilong Chen
The classical swine fever virus (CSFV), circulating worldwide, is a highly contagious virus. Since the emergence of CSFV, it has caused great economic loss in swine industry. The envelope glycoprotein E2 gene of the CSFV is an immunoprotective antigen that induces the immune system to produce neutralizing antibodies. Therefore, it is essential to study the codon usage of the E2 gene of the CSFV. In this study, 140 coding sequences of the E2 gene were analyzed. The value of effective number of codons (ENC) showed low codon usage bias in the E2 gene...
2017: PloS One
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