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"Natural selection"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533464/the-colours-of-humanity-the-evolution-of-pigmentation-in-the-human-lineage
#1
REVIEW
Nina G Jablonski, George Chaplin
Humans are a colourful species of primate, with human skin, hair and eye coloration having been influenced by a great variety of evolutionary forces throughout prehistory. Functionally naked skin has been the physical interface between the physical environment and the human body for most of the history of the genus Homo, and hence skin coloration has been under intense natural selection. From an original condition of protective, dark, eumelanin-enriched coloration in early tropical-dwelling Homo and Homo sapiens, loss of melanin pigmentation occurred under natural selection as Homo sapiens dispersed into non-tropical latitudes of Africa and Eurasia...
July 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533334/the-evolutionary-basis-of-translational-accuracy-in-plants
#2
Salvatore Camiolo, Gaurav Sablok, Andrea Porceddu
Mistranslation errors compromise fitness by wasting resources on nonfunctional proteins. In order to reduce the cost of mistranslations, natural selection chooses the most accurately-translated codons at sites that are particularly important for protein structure and function. We investigated the determinants underlying selection for translational accuracy in several species of plants belonging to three clades: the Brassicaceae, Fabidae and Poaceae. Although signatures of translational selection were found in genes from a wide range of species, the underlying factors varied in nature and intensity...
May 22, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526354/outline-of-a-unified-darwinian-evolutionary-theory-for-physical-and-biological-systems
#3
REVIEW
Carlos Baladrón, Andrei Khrennikov
The scheme of a unified Darwinian evolutionary theory for physical and biological systems is described. Every physical system is methodologically endowed with a classical information processor what turns every system into an agent being also susceptible to evolution. Biological systems retain this structure as natural extensions of physical systems from which they are built up. Optimization of information flows turns out to be the key element to study the possible emergence of quantum behavior and the unified Darwinian description of physical and biological systems...
May 16, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526096/pvgama-reticulocyte-binding-activity-predicting-conserved-functional-regions-by-natural-selection-analysis
#4
Luis A Baquero, Darwin A Moreno-Pérez, Diego Garzón-Ospina, Johanna Forero-Rodríguez, Heidy D Ortiz-Suárez, Manuel A Patarroyo
BACKGROUND: Adhesin proteins are used by Plasmodium parasites to bind and invade target cells. Hence, characterising molecules that participate in reticulocyte interaction is key to understanding the molecular basis of Plasmodium vivax invasion. This study focused on predicting functionally restricted regions of the P. vivax GPI-anchored micronemal antigen (PvGAMA) and characterising their reticulocyte binding activity. RESULTS: The pvgama gene was initially found in P...
May 19, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523922/comparative-genetic-diversity-of-potato-virus-y-populations-based-on-coat-protein-gene
#5
H Hosseini, M Mehrvar, M Zakiaghl, M Siampour
Potato virus Y (PVY) is an important plant pathogen with a wide host range including economically important crops of potato, tobacco, tomato, and pepper. The coat protein gene has been commonly used in studying molecular biology of plant viruses including PVY. In this study, we used a large dataset of CP sequences from isolates collected across the world to assess the detailed molecular evolution of PVY populations with a focus on the Iranian PVY population. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the world PVY population had two major lineages (O:C and N:NTN); each comprising several divergent sublineages...
2017: Acta Virologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521626/experimental-evolution-of-resistance-against-bacillus-thuringiensis-in-the-insect-model-host-galleria-mellonella-results-in-epigenetic-modifications
#6
Krishnendu Mukherjee, Ekaterina Grizanova, Ekaterina Chertkova, Ruediger Lehmann, Ivan Dubovskiy, Andreas Vilcinskas
Epigenetic mechanisms have been proposed to translate environmental stimuli into heritable transgenerational phenotypic variations that can significantly influence natural selection. An intriguing example is exposure to pathogens, which imposes selection for host resistance. To test this hypothesis, we used larvae of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella as model host to experimentally select for resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), the most widely used bacterial agent for the biological control of pest insects...
May 19, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515895/disruptive-natural-selection-predicts-divergence-between-the-sexes-during-adaptive-radiation
#7
Stephen P De Lisle, Locke Rowe
Evolution of sexual dimorphism in ecologically relevant traits, for example, via resource competition between the sexes, is traditionally envisioned to stall the progress of adaptive radiation. An alternative view is that evolution of ecological sexual dimorphism could in fact play an important positive role by facilitating sex-specific adaptation. How competition-driven disruptive selection, ecological sexual dimorphism, and speciation interact during real adaptive radiations is thus a critical and open empirical question...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515874/universal-expressions-of-population-change-by-the-price-equation-natural-selection-information-and-maximum-entropy-production
#8
Steven A Frank
The Price equation shows the unity between the fundamental expressions of change in biology, in information and entropy descriptions of populations, and in aspects of thermodynamics. The Price equation partitions the change in the average value of a metric between two populations. A population may be composed of organisms or particles or any members of a set to which we can assign probabilities. A metric may be biological fitness or physical energy or the output of an arbitrarily complicated function that assigns quantitative values to members of the population...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515840/self-optimization-of-stride-length-among-experienced-and-inexperienced-runners
#9
Iain Hunter, Kelly Lee, Jared Ward, James Tracy
Experienced runners appear to naturally select a stride length which is optimal for minimizing oxygen uptake. However, whether this ability is naturally built into the human body or whether it is learned through experience has not been previously tested. This study investigated whether inexperienced runners are as capable as experienced runners of self-optimizing stride length to minimize oxygen uptake. Thirty-three subjects (nineteen experienced and fourteen inexperienced) ran for twenty-minutes while preferred and economical stride lengths were measured...
2017: International Journal of Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514636/eco-evolutionary-theory-and-insect-outbreaks
#10
David J Páez, Vanja Dukic, Jonathan Dushoff, Arietta Fleming-Davies, Greg Dwyer
Eco-evolutionary theory argues that population cycles in consumer-resource interactions are partly driven by natural selection, such that changes in densities and changes in trait values are mutually reinforcing. Evidence that the theory explains cycles in nature, however, is almost nonexistent. Experimental tests of model assumptions are logistically impractical for most organisms, while for others, evidence that population cycles occur in nature is lacking. For insect baculoviruses in contrast, tests of model assumptions are straightforward, and there is strong evidence that baculoviruses help drive population cycles in many insects, including the gypsy moth that we study here...
June 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514627/what-kind-of-maternal-effects-can-be-selected-for-in-fluctuating-environments
#11
Stephen R Proulx, Henrique Teotónio
Just as phenotypic plasticity can evolve when developing individuals get informational cues about their future adult environment, deterministic maternal effects, where offspring trait values depend on the maternal environment, can evolve when mothers gain reliable information about the environments their offspring will face. Randomizing maternal effects (a type of diversifying bet hedging), where offspring trait values are randomized, can evolve by natural selection even when information about future environments is unavailable...
June 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512224/the-general-form-of-hamilton-s-rule-makes-no-predictions-and-cannot-be-tested-empirically
#12
Martin A Nowak, Alex McAvoy, Benjamin Allen, Edward O Wilson
Hamilton's rule asserts that a trait is favored by natural selection if the benefit to others, [Formula: see text], multiplied by relatedness, [Formula: see text], exceeds the cost to self, [Formula: see text] Specifically, Hamilton's rule states that the change in average trait value in a population is proportional to [Formula: see text] This rule is commonly believed to be a natural law making important predictions in biology, and its influence has spread from evolutionary biology to other fields including the social sciences...
May 16, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509909/experimental-evolution-and-the-dynamics-of-adaptation-and-genome-evolution-in-microbial-populations
#13
Richard E Lenski
Evolution is an on-going process, and it can be studied experimentally in organisms with rapid generations. My team has maintained 12 populations of Escherichia coli in a simple laboratory environment for >25 years and 60 000 generations. We have quantified the dynamics of adaptation by natural selection, seen some of the populations diverge into stably coexisting ecotypes, described changes in the bacteria's mutation rate, observed the new ability to exploit a previously untapped carbon source, characterized the dynamics of genome evolution and used parallel evolution to identify the genetic targets of selection...
May 16, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500052/exploring-the-impact-of-cleavage-and-polyadenylation-factors-on-pre-mrna-splicing-across-eukaryotes
#14
Gildas Lepennetier, Francesco Catania
In human, mouse and Drosophila, the spliceosomal complex U1 snRNP (U1) protects transcripts from premature cleavage and polyadenylation at proximal intronic polyadenylation signals (PAS). These U1-mediated effects preserve transcription integrity and are known as telescripting. The watchtower role of U1 throughout transcription is clear. What is less clear is whether cleavage and polyadenylation factors (CPFs) are simply patrolled or if they may actively antagonize U1 recruitment. In addressing this question, we found that in the introns of human, mouse and Drosophila and of 14 other eukaryotes, including multi- and single-celled species, the conserved AATAAA PAS - a major target for CPFs - is selected against...
May 12, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500051/effects-of-the-ordering-of-natural-selection-and-population-regulation-mechanisms-on-wright-fisher-models
#15
Zhangyi He, Mark Beaumont, Feng Yu
We explore the effect of different mechanisms of natural selection on the evolution of populations for one- and two-locus systems. We compare the effect of viability and fecundity selection in the context of the Wright-Fisher model with selection under the assumption of multiplicative fitness. We show that these two modes of natural selection correspond to different orderings of the processes of population regulation and natural selection in the Wright-Fisher model. We find that under the Wright-Fisher model these two different orderings can affect the distribution of trajectories of haplotype frequencies evolving with genetic recombination...
May 12, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496210/the-caterpillar-fungus-ophiocordyceps-sinensis-genome-provides-insights-into-highland-adaptation-of-fungal-pathogenicity
#16
En-Hua Xia, Da-Rong Yang, Jian-Jun Jiang, Qun-Jie Zhang, Yuan Liu, Yun-Long Liu, Yun Zhang, Hai-Bin Zhang, Cong Shi, Yan Tong, Changhoon Kim, Hua Chen, Yan-Qiong Peng, Yue Yu, Wei Zhang, Evan E Eichler, Li-Zhi Gao
To understand the potential genetic basis of highland adaptation of fungal pathogenicity, we present here the ~116 Mb de novo assembled high-quality genome of Ophiocordyceps sinensis endemic to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Compared with other plain-dwelling fungi, we find about 3.4-fold inflation of the O. sinensis genome due to a rapid amplification of long terminal repeat retrotransposons that occurred ~38 million years ago in concert with the uplift of the plateau. We also observe massive removal of thousands of genes related to the transport process and energy metabolism...
May 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495874/cranking-up-the-heat-relationships-between-energetically-costly-song-features-and-the-increase-in-thorax-temperature-in-male-crickets-and-katydids
#17
B Erregger, H Kovac, A Stabentheiner, M Hartbauer, H Römer, A K D Schmidt
Sexual displays of acoustically signalling insects are used in the context of mate attraction and mate choice. While energetic investment in sound production can increase the reproductive success of the sender, this entails metabolic costs. Resource allocation into sexually selected, reproductive traits can trade off against allocation to naturally selected traits (e.g., growth, immunity) when individuals' energy budgets are limited. Estimating the magnitude of the costs invested in acoustic signalling is necessary to understand this trade-off and its influence on fitness and life-history...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495706/in-a-first-natural-selection-defeats-a-biocontrol-insect
#18
Elizabeth Pennisi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 12, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486572/evaluation-of-mc1r-high-throughput-nucleotide-sequencing-data-generated-by-the-1000-genomes-project
#19
Leonardo Arduino Marano, Letícia Marcorin, Erick da Cruz Castelli, Celso Teixeira Mendes-Junior
The advent of next-generation sequencing allows simultaneous processing of several genomic regions/individuals, increasing the availability and accuracy of whole-genome data. However, these new approaches may present some errors and bias due to alignment, genotype calling, and imputation methods. Despite these flaws, data obtained by next-generation sequencing can be valuable for population and evolutionary studies of specific genes, such as genes related to how pigmentation evolved among populations, one of the main topics in human evolutionary biology...
May 8, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485820/comparative-tests-of-the-species-genetic-diversity-correlation-at-neutral-and-non-neutral-loci-in-four-species-of-stream-insect
#20
Kozo Watanabe, Michael T Monaghan
A fundamental question linking population genetics and community ecology is how adaptive processes (e.g., natural selection) and neutral processes (e.g., drift-migration equilibrium) underpin the species-genetic diversity correlation (SGDC). Here we combine genome scans and outlier loci detection with community analysis to separately test for neutral and non-neutral SGDCs in four species of stream insect. We sampled 60 localities in Japan and examined the relationships among population AFLP band richness (Br), taxon richness of the total community (S) and of the trophic guild (Str ), and 15 habitat parameters that could potentially drive adaptation and influence richness...
May 9, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
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