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"Natural selection"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338715/landscape-genomics-natural-selection-drives-the-evolution-of-mitogenome-in-penguins
#1
Barbara Ramos, Daniel González-Acuña, David E Loyola, Warren E Johnson, Patricia G Parker, Melanie Massaro, Gisele P M Dantas, Marcelo D Miranda, Juliana A Vianna
BACKGROUND: Mitochondria play a key role in the balance of energy and heat production, and therefore the mitochondrial genome is under natural selection by environmental temperature and food availability, since starvation can generate more efficient coupling of energy production. However, selection over mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genes has usually been evaluated at the population level. We sequenced by NGS 12 mitogenomes and with four published genomes, assessed genetic variation in ten penguin species distributed from the equator to Antarctica...
January 16, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337354/current-spring-warming-as-a-driver-of-selection-on-reproductive-timing-in-a-wild-passerine
#2
Pascal Marrot, Anne Charmantier, Jacques Blondel, Dany Garant
1.Evolutionary adaptation as a response to climate change is expected for fitness-related traits affected by climate and exhibiting genetic variance. Although the relationship between warmer spring temperature and earlier timing of reproduction is well documented, quantifications and predictions of the impact of global warming on natural selection acting on phenology in wild populations remain rare. If global warming affects fitness in a similar way across individuals within a population, or if fitness consequences are independent of phenotypic variation in key-adaptive traits, then no evolutionary response is expected for these traits...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330422/seabirds-fighting-for-land-phenotypic-consequences-of-breeding-area-constraints-at-a-small-remote-archipelago
#3
Guilherme Tavares Nunes, Sophie Bertrand, Leandro Bugoni
Identifying associations between phenotypes and environmental parameters is crucial for understanding how natural selection acts at the individual level. In this context, genetically isolated populations can be useful models for identifying the forces selecting fitness-related traits. Here, we use a comprehensive dataset on a genetically and ecologically isolated population of the strictly marine bird, the brown booby Sula leucogaster, at the tropical and remote Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago, mid-Atlantic Ocean, in order to detect phenotypic adjustments from interindividual differences in diet, foraging behaviour, and nest quality...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321589/comparative-analysis-of-low-complexity-regions-in-plasmodia
#4
S R Chaudhry, N Lwin, D Phelan, A A Escalante, F U Battistuzzi
Low complexity regions (LCRs) are a common feature shared by many genomes, but their evolutionary and functional significance remains mostly unknown. At the core of the uncertainty is a poor understanding of the mechanisms that regulate their retention in genomes, whether driven by natural selection or neutral evolution. Applying a comparative approach of LCRs to multiple strains and species is a powerful approach to identify patterns of conservation in these regions. Using this method, we investigate the evolutionary history of LCRs in the genus Plasmodium based on orthologous protein coding genes shared by 11 species and strains from primate and rodent-infecting pathogens...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321355/genetic-diversity-phylogeographic-structure-and-effect-of-selection-at-the-mitochondrial-hypervariable-region-of-nigerian-chicken-populations
#5
Abdulhakeem B Ajibike, Oluwagbemiga O Adeleye, Babatunde M Ilori, Damilola A Osinbowale, Omolola A Adeniyi, Samuel O Durosaro, Adeyinka J Sanda, Oluwafunmilayo A Adebambo, Ayotunde O Adebambo
In this study, the maternal genetic diversity, phylogenetic relationship and effect of natural selection on indigenous chickens from Nigeria were assessed. A total of 397-bp fragment of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop region of 171 indigenous chickens from four populations of Nigeria and four commercial egg line strains (two Anak titan, one Giriraja and one Yaffa) as out-groups were analysed. Thirty-one haplotypes (28 from Nigerian chickens and three from commercial strains) and 34 polymorphic sites were identified...
December 2017: Journal of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321003/a-prototypical-non-malignant-epithelial-model-to-study-genome-dynamics-and-concurrently-monitor-micro-rnas-and-proteins-in-situ-during-oncogene-induced-senescence
#6
Eirini-Stavroula Komseli, Ioannis S Pateras, Thorbjørn Krejsgaard, Konrad Stawiski, Sophia V Rizou, Alexander Polyzos, Fani-Marlen Roumelioti, Maria Chiourea, Ioanna Mourkioti, Eleni Paparouna, Christos P Zampetidis, Sentiljana Gumeni, Ioannis P Trougakos, Dafni-Eleftheria Pefani, Eric O'Neill, Sarantis Gagos, Aristides G Eliopoulos, Wojciech Fendler, Dipanjan Chowdhury, Jiri Bartek, Vassilis G Gorgoulis
BACKGROUND: Senescence is a fundamental biological process implicated in various pathologies, including cancer. Regarding carcinogenesis, senescence signifies, at least in its initial phases, an anti-tumor response that needs to be circumvented for cancer to progress. Micro-RNAs, a subclass of regulatory, non-coding RNAs, participate in senescence regulation. At the subcellular level micro-RNAs, similar to proteins, have been shown to traffic between organelles influencing cellular behavior...
January 10, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316927/global-sequence-diversity-of-the-lactate-dehydrogenase-gene-in-plasmodium-falciparum
#7
Phumin Simpalipan, Sittiporn Pattaradilokrat, Pongchai Harnyuttanakorn
BACKGROUND: Antigen-detecting rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) have been recommended by the World Health Organization for use in remote areas to improve malaria case management. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) of Plasmodium falciparum is one of the main parasite antigens employed by various commercial RDTs. It has been hypothesized that the poor detection of LDH-based RDTs is attributed in part to the sequence diversity of the gene. To test this, the present study aimed to investigate the genetic diversity of the P...
January 9, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312830/developmental-effects-of-environmental-light-on-male-nuptial-coloration-in-lake-victoria-cichlid-fish
#8
Daniel Shane Wright, Emma Rietveld, Martine E Maan
Background: Efficient communication requires that signals are well transmitted and perceived in a given environment. Natural selection therefore drives the evolution of different signals in different environments. In addition, environmental heterogeneity at small spatial or temporal scales may favour phenotypic plasticity in signaling traits, as plasticity may allow rapid adjustment of signal expression to optimize transmission. In this study, we explore signal plasticity in the nuptial coloration of Lake Victoria cichlids, Pundamilia pundamilia and Pundamilia nyererei...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311333/ecological-and-evolutionary-dynamics-of-interconnectedness-and-modularity
#9
Jan M Nordbotten, Simon A Levin, Eörs Szathmáry, Nils C Stenseth
In this contribution, we develop a theoretical framework for linking microprocesses (i.e., population dynamics and evolution through natural selection) with macrophenomena (such as interconnectedness and modularity within an ecological system). This is achieved by developing a measure of interconnectedness for population distributions defined on a trait space (generalizing the notion of modularity on graphs), in combination with an evolution equation for the population distribution. With this contribution, we provide a platform for understanding under what environmental, ecological, and evolutionary conditions ecosystems evolve toward being more or less modular...
January 8, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307030/the-neurobiology-of-climate-change
#10
Sean O'Donnell
Directional climate change (global warming) is causing rapid alterations in animals' environments. Because the nervous system is at the forefront of animals' interactions with the environment, the neurobiological implications of climate change are central to understanding how individuals, and ultimately populations, will respond to global warming. Evidence is accumulating for individual level, mechanistic effects of climate change on nervous system development and performance. Climate change can also alter sensory stimuli, changing the effectiveness of sensory and cognitive systems for achieving biological fitness...
January 6, 2018: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304819/heavy-metal-exposure-and-nasal-staphylococcus-aureus-colonization-analysis-of-the-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-nhanes
#11
Shoshannah Eggers, Nasia Safdar, Kristen Mc Malecki
BACKGROUND: Heavy metals including lead and cadmium can disrupt the immune system and the human microbiota. and are increasingly of concern with respect to the propogation of antibiotic-resistence. Infection by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major cause of global morbidity and mortality. Heavy metal exposure may be associated with increased MRSA colonization and infection, and a decrease in methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) through co-selection mechanisms and natural selection of antibiotic resistance in the presence of heavy metals...
January 5, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301967/demography-and-mating-system-shape-the-genome-wide-impact-of-purifying-selection-in-arabis-alpina
#12
Benjamin Laenen, Andrew Tedder, Michael D Nowak, Per Toräng, Jörg Wunder, Stefan Wötzel, Kim A Steige, Yiannis Kourmpetis, Thomas Odong, Andreas D Drouzas, Marco C A M Bink, Jon Ågren, George Coupland, Tanja Slotte
Plant mating systems have profound effects on levels and structuring of genetic variation and can affect the impact of natural selection. Although theory predicts that intermediate outcrossing rates may allow plants to prevent accumulation of deleterious alleles, few studies have empirically tested this prediction using genomic data. Here, we study the effect of mating system on purifying selection by conducting population-genomic analyses on whole-genome resequencing data from 38 European individuals of the arctic-alpine crucifer Arabis alpina We find that outcrossing and mixed-mating populations maintain genetic diversity at similar levels, whereas highly self-fertilizing Scandinavian A...
January 4, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301490/molecular-characterization-of-larval-development-from-fertilization-to-metamorphosis-in-a-reef-building-coral
#13
Marie E Strader, Galina V Aglyamova, Mikhail V Matz
BACKGROUND: Molecular mechanisms underlying coral larval competence, the ability of larvae to respond to settlement cues, determine their dispersal potential and are potential targets of natural selection. Here, we profiled competence, fluorescence and genome-wide gene expression in embryos and larvae of the reef-building coral Acropora millepora daily throughout 12 days post-fertilization. RESULTS: Gene expression associated with competence was positively correlated with transcriptomic response to the natural settlement cue, confirming that mature coral larvae are "primed" for settlement...
January 4, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301006/datamonkey-2-0-a-modern-web-application-for-characterizing-selective-and-other-evolutionary-processes
#14
Steven Weaver, Stephen D Shank, Stephanie J Spielman, Michael Li, Spencer V Muse, Sergei L Kosakovsky Pond
Inference of how evolutionary forces have shaped extant genetic diversity is a cornerstone of modern comparative sequence analysis. Advances in sequence generation and increased statistical sophistication of relevant methods now allow researchers to extract ever more evolutionary signal from the data, albeit at an increased computational cost. Here, we announce the release of Datamonkey 2.0, a completely re-engineered version of the Datamonkey web-server for analyzing evolutionary signatures in sequence data...
January 2, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300816/phylogeographic-analysis-of-the-east-asian-goldenrod-solidago-virgaurea-complex-asteraceae-reveals-hidden-ecological-diversification-with-recurrent-formation-of-ecotypes
#15
Shota Sakaguchi, Takuma Kimura, Ryuta Kyan, Masayuki Maki, Takako Nishino, Naoko Ishikawa, Atsushi J Nagano, Mie N Honjo, Masaki Yasugi, Hiroshi Kudoh, Pan Li, Hyeok Jae Choi, Olga A Chernyagina, Motomi Ito
Background and Aims: The processes and mechanisms underlying lineage diversification are major topics in evolutionary biology. Eurasian goldenrod species of the Solidago virgaurea complex show remarkable morphological and ecological diversity in the Japanese Archipelago, with ecotypic taxa well adapted to specific environments (climate, edaphic conditions and disturbance regimes). The species complex is a suitable model to investigate the evolutionary processes of actively speciating plant groups, due to its ability to evolve in relation to environmental adaptation and its historical population dynamics...
December 29, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299255/evolution-of-a-complex-phenotype-with-biphasic-ontogeny-contribution-of-development-versus-function-and-climatic-variation-to-skull-modularity-in-toads
#16
Monique Nouailhetas Simon, Gabriel Marroig
The theory of morphological integration and modularity predicts that if functional correlations among traits are relevant to mean population fitness, the genetic basis of development will be molded by stabilizing selection to match functional patterns. Yet, how much functional interactions actually shape the fitness landscape is still an open question. We used the anuran skull as a model of a complex phenotype for which we can separate developmental and functional modularity. We hypothesized that functional modularity associated to functional demands of the adult skull would overcome developmental modularity associated to bone origin at the larval phase because metamorphosis would erase the developmental signal...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299151/analysis-of-the-codon-usage-pattern-in-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus
#17
Ye Chen, Quanming Xu, Xiaomin Yuan, Xinxin Li, Ting Zhu, Yanmei Ma, Ji-Long Chen
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV), which first broken out in Jeddah in 2012, causes a severe acute respiratory illness with a high mortality rate. To better understand the molecular characteristics of isolated MERS-CoV genomes, we first analysed the codon usage pattern of the zoonotic MERS-CoV strains comprehensively to gain an insight into the mechanism of cross-species transmission. We found that MERS human/camel isolates showed a low codon usage bias. Both mutation and nature selection pressure have contributed to this low codon usage bias, with the former being the main determining factor...
December 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291054/errors-in-mutagenesis-and-the-benefit-of-cell-to-cell-signalling-in-the-evolution-of-stress-induced-mutagenesis
#18
Eynat Dellus-Gur, Yoav Ram, Lilach Hadany
Stress-induced mutagenesis is a widely observed phenomenon. Theoretical models have shown that stress-induced mutagenesis can be favoured by natural selection due to the beneficial mutations it generates. These models, however, assumed an error-free regulation of mutation rate in response to stress. Here, we explore the effects of errors in the regulation of mutagenesis on the evolution of stress-induced mutagenesis, and consider the role of cell-to-cell signalling. Using theoretical models, we show (i) that stress-induced mutagenesis can be disadvantageous if errors are common; and (ii) that cell-to-cell signalling can allow stress-induced mutagenesis to be favoured by selection even when error rates are high...
November 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284184/disparate-patterns-of-thermal-adaptation-between-life-stages-in-temperate-vs-tropical-drosophila-melanogaster
#19
Brent L Lockwood, Tarun Gupta, Rosemary Scavotto
Many terrestrial ectothermic species exhibit limited variation in upper thermal tolerance across latitude. However, these trends may not signify limited adaptive capacity to increase thermal tolerance in the face of climate change. Instead, thermal tolerance may be similar among populations because behavioral thermoregulation by mobile organisms or life stages may buffer natural selection for thermal tolerance. We compared thermal tolerance of adults and embryos among natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster from a broad range of thermal habitats around the globe to assess natural variation of thermal tolerance in mobile vs...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282821/experimental-evolution-of-infectious-behaviour-in-a-facultative-ectoparasite
#20
Emily S Durkin, Lien T Luong
Parasitic lifestyles have evolved many times in animals, but how such life-history strategies evolved from free-living ancestors remains a great puzzle. Transitional symbiotic strategies, such as facultative parasitism, are hypothesized evolutionary stepping-stones towards obligate parasitism. However, to consider this hypothesis, heritable genetic variation in infectious behaviour of transitional symbiotic strategies must exist. In this study, we experimentally evolved infectivity and estimated the additive genetic variation in a facultative parasite...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
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