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"Natural selection"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223979/broadcast-spawning-coral-mussismilia-hispida-can-vertically-transfer-its-associated-bacterial-core
#1
Deborah C A Leite, Pedro Leão, Amana G Garrido, Ulysses Lins, Henrique F Santos, Débora O Pires, Clovis B Castro, Jan D van Elsas, Carla Zilberberg, Alexandre S Rosado, Raquel S Peixoto
The hologenome theory of evolution (HTE), which is under fierce debate, presupposes that parts of the microbiome are transmitted from one generation to the next [vertical transmission (VT)], which may also influence the evolution of the holobiont. Even though bacteria have previously been described in early life stages of corals, these early life stages (larvae) could have been inoculated in the water and not inside the parental colony (through gametes) carrying the parental microbiome. How Symbiodinium is transmitted to offspring is also not clear, as only one study has described this mechanism in spawners...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222354/modelling-with-words-narrative-and-natural-selection
#2
Dominic K Dimech
I argue that verbal models should be included in a philosophical account of the scientific practice of modelling. Weisberg (2013) has directly opposed this thesis on the grounds that verbal structures, if they are used in science, only merely describe models. I look at examples from Darwin's On the Origin of Species (1859) of verbally constructed narratives that I claim model the general phenomenon of evolution by natural selection. In each of the cases I look at, a particular scenario is described that involves at least some fictitious elements but represents the salient causal components of natural selection...
February 18, 2017: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221830/from-individual-to-group-territoriality-competitive-environments-promote-the-evolution-of-sociality
#3
Markus Port, Oliver Schülke, Julia Ostner
In many animal species individuals compete for the sole possession of a breeding territory, whereas in other species communal territories are shared among same-sex conspecifics. Under what conditions does natural selection favor the evolution of individual territoriality, and under what conditions does it favor the evolution of sociality? We develop a self-consistent game-theoretic model that allows for feedbacks between evolutionary and population dynamics. In this model, nonresident floaters can chose between three strategies: they can wait for a territory vacancy to arise, they can try to forcefully take over an already-occupied territory, or they can share a territory with an established resident...
March 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220109/temporal-stability-and-the-effect-of-transgenerational-transfer-on-fecal-microbiota-structure-in-a-long-distance-migratory-bird
#4
Jakub Kreisinger, Lucie Kropáčková, Adéla Petrželková, Marie Adámková, Oldřich Tomášek, Jean-François Martin, Romana Michálková, Tomáš Albrecht
Animal bodies are inhabited by a taxonomically and functionally diverse community of symbiotic and commensal microorganisms. From an ecological and evolutionary perspective, inter-individual variation in host-associated microbiota contributes to physiological and immune system variation. As such, host-associated microbiota may be considered an integral part of the host's phenotype, serving as a substrate for natural selection. This assumes that host-associated microbiota exhibits high temporal stability, however, and that its composition is shaped by trans-generational transfer or heritable host-associated microbiota modulators encoded by the host genome...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209121/evolution-of-toll-like-receptors-in-the-context-of-terrestrial-ungulates-and-cetaceans-diversification
#5
Edson Ishengoma, Morris Agaba
BACKGROUND: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are the frontline actors in the innate immune response to various pathogens and are expected to be targets of natural selection in species adapted to habitats with contrasting pathogen burdens. The recent publication of genome sequences of giraffe and okapi together afforded the opportunity to examine the evolution of selected TLRs in broad range of terrestrial ungulates and cetaceans during their complex habitat diversification. Through direct sequence comparisons and standard evolutionary approaches, the extent of nucleotide and protein sequence diversity in seven Toll-like receptors (TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR5, TLR7, TLR9 and TLR10) between giraffe and closely related species was determined...
February 16, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202806/signals-cues-and-the-nature-of-mimicry
#6
REVIEW
Gabriel A Jamie
'Mimicry' is used in the evolutionary and ecological literature to describe diverse phenomena. Many are textbook examples of natural selection's power to produce stunning adaptations. However, there remains a lack of clarity over how mimetic resemblances are conceptually related to each other. The result is that categories denoting the traditional subdivisions of mimicry are applied inconsistently across studies, hindering attempts at conceptual unification. This review critically examines the logic by which mimicry can be conceptually organized and analysed...
February 22, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202731/microfluidic-droplet-platform-for-ultrahigh-throughput-single-cell-screening-of-biodiversity
#7
Stanislav S Terekhov, Ivan V Smirnov, Anastasiya V Stepanova, Tatyana V Bobik, Yuliana A Mokrushina, Natalia A Ponomarenko, Alexey A Belogurov, Maria P Rubtsova, Olga V Kartseva, Marina O Gomzikova, Alexey A Moskovtsev, Anton S Bukatin, Michael V Dubina, Elena S Kostryukova, Vladislav V Babenko, Maria T Vakhitova, Alexander I Manolov, Maja V Malakhova, Maria A Kornienko, Alexander V Tyakht, Anna A Vanyushkina, Elena N Ilina, Patrick Masson, Alexander G Gabibov, Sidney Altman
Ultrahigh-throughput screening (uHTS) techniques can identify unique functionality from millions of variants. To mimic the natural selection mechanisms that occur by compartmentalization in vivo, we developed a technique based on single-cell encapsulation in droplets of a monodisperse microfluidic double water-in-oil-in-water emulsion (MDE). Biocompatible MDE enables in-droplet cultivation of different living species. The combination of droplet-generating machinery with FACS followed by next-generation sequencing and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the secretomes of encapsulated organisms yielded detailed genotype/phenotype descriptions...
February 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202655/constraints-in-cancer-evolution
#8
REVIEW
Subramanian Venkatesan, Nicolai J Birkbak, Charles Swanton
Next-generation deep genome sequencing has only recently allowed us to quantitatively dissect the extent of heterogeneity within a tumour, resolving patterns of cancer evolution. Intratumour heterogeneity and natural selection contribute to resistance to anticancer therapies in the advanced setting. Recent evidence has also revealed that cancer evolution might be constrained. In this review, we discuss the origins of intratumour heterogeneity and subsequently focus on constraints imposed upon cancer evolution...
February 8, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202600/neoteny-prolongation-of-youth-from-naked-mole-rats-to-naked-apes-humans
#9
REVIEW
Vladimir P Skulachev, Susanne Holtze, Mikhail Y Vyssokikh, Lora E Bakeeva, Maxim V Skulachev, Alexander V Markov, Thomas B Hildebrandt, Viktor A Sadovnichii
It has been suggested that highly social mammals, such as naked mole rats and humans, are long-lived due to neoteny (the prolongation of youth). In both species, aging cannot operate as a mechanism facilitating natural selection because the pressure of this selection is strongly reduced due to 1) a specific social structure where only the "queen" and her "husband(s)" are involved in reproduction (naked mole rats) or 2) substituting fast technological progress for slow biological evolution (humans). Lists of numerous traits of youth that do not disappear with age in naked mole rats and humans are presented and discussed...
April 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198917/environmental-drivers-on-leaf-phenology-of-ironstone-outcrops-species-under-seasonal-climate
#10
Letícia C Garcia, Fernanda V Barros, José P Lemos-Filho
Banded iron formations (BIF) have a particular vegetation type and provide a good model system for testing theories related to leaf phenology, due to unique stressful environmental conditions. As a consequence of the stressful conditions of BIF environment, we hypothesize that most species would retain at least some significant canopy cover, even at the end of the dry season, independently of growth form - trees, shrubs, and sub-shrubs. Considering the strong seasonality, we also hypothesize that photoperiod and rainfall act as triggers for leaf fall and leaf flushing in these environments...
February 9, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193867/genetic-signature-of-natural-selection-in-first-americans
#11
Carlos Eduardo G Amorim, Kelly Nunes, Diogo Meyer, David Comas, Maria Cátira Bortolini, Francisco Mauro Salzano, Tábita Hünemeier
When humans moved from Asia toward the Americas over 18,000 y ago and eventually peopled the New World they encountered a new environment with extreme climate conditions and distinct dietary resources. These environmental and dietary pressures may have led to instances of genetic adaptation with the potential to influence the phenotypic variation in extant Native American populations. An example of such an event is the evolution of the fatty acid desaturases (FADS) genes, which have been claimed to harbor signals of positive selection in Inuit populations due to adaptation to the cold Greenland Arctic climate and to a protein-rich diet...
February 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193458/inactivation-of-the-olfactory-marker-protein-omp-gene-in-river-dolphins-and-other-odontocete-cetaceans
#12
Mark S Springer, John Gatesy
Various toothed whales (Odontoceti) are unique among mammals in lacking olfactory bulbs as adults and are thought to be anosmic (lacking the olfactory sense). At the molecular level, toothed whales have high percentages of pseudogenic olfactory receptor genes, but species that have been investigated to date retain an intact copy of the olfactory marker protein gene (OMP), which is highly expressed in olfactory receptor neurons and may regulate the temporal resolution of olfactory responses. One hypothesis for the retention of intact OMP in diverse odontocete lineages is that this gene is pleiotropic with additional functions that are unrelated to olfaction...
February 10, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190678/a-unique-natural-selective-kappa-opioid-receptor-agonist-salvinorin-a-and-its-roles-in-human-therapeutics
#13
André Cruz, Sara Domingos, Eugenia Gallardo, Ana Martinho
Until the mid-60s, only the Mazatecs, an indigenous group from Oaxaca, Mexico, used Salvia Divinorum (S. divinorum) due to its hallucinogen properties. Later it was found that the hallucinogen effects of this plant were caused by the presence of a neoclerodane diterpene Salvinorin A (salvinorin A), which is a highly selective agonist of kappa-opioid receptor (KOR) that cause more intense hallucinations than the common hallucinogens as lysergic acid, mushrooms, ecstasy and others. In fact, smoking of only 200-500 μg of S...
February 9, 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187286/endogenous-dna-damage-as-a-source-of-genomic-instability-in-cancer
#14
REVIEW
Anthony Tubbs, André Nussenzweig
Genome instability, defined as higher than normal rates of mutation, is a double-edged sword. As a source of genetic diversity and natural selection, mutations are beneficial for evolution. On the other hand, genomic instability can have catastrophic consequences for age-related diseases such as cancer. Mutations arise either from inactivation of DNA repair pathways or in a repair-competent background due to genotoxic stress from celluar processes such as transcription and replication that overwhelm high-fidelity DNA repair...
February 9, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187187/widespread-signatures-of-positive-selection-in-common-risk-alleles-associated-to-autism-spectrum-disorder
#15
Renato Polimanti, Joel Gelernter
The human brain is the outcome of innumerable evolutionary processes; the systems genetics of psychiatric disorders could bear their signatures. On this basis, we analyzed five psychiatric disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, and schizophrenia (SCZ), using GWAS summary statistics from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. Machine learning-derived scores were used to investigate two natural-selection scenarios: complete selection (loci where a selected allele reached fixation) and incomplete selection (loci where a selected allele has not yet reached fixation)...
February 10, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183831/ecological-and-evolutionary-consequences-of-tri-trophic-interactions-spatial-variation-and-effects-of-plant-density
#16
Luis Abdala-Roberts, Víctor Parra-Tabla, Xoaquín Moreira, José Ramos-Zapata
PREMISE OF STUDY: The factors driving variation in species interactions are often unknown, and few studies have made a link between changes in interactions and the strength of selection. METHODS: We report on spatial variation in functional responses by a seed predator (SP) and its parasitic wasps associated with the herb Ruellia nudiflora. We assessed the influence of plant density on consumer responses and determined whether density effects and spatial variation in functional responses altered natural selection by these consumers on the plant...
February 9, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183280/whole-genome-scan-reveals-the-genetic-signature-of-african-ankole-cattle-breed-and-potential-for-higher-quality-beef
#17
Mengistie Taye, Jaemin Kim, Sook Hee Yoon, Wonseok Lee, Olivier Hanotte, Tadelle Dessie, Stephen Kemp, Okeyo Ally Mwai, Kelsey Caetano-Anolles, Seoae Cho, Sung Jong Oh, Hak-Kyo Lee, Heebal Kim
BACKGROUND: Africa is home to numerous cattle breeds whose diversity has been shaped by subtle combinations of human and natural selection. African Sanga cattle are an intermediate type of cattle resulting from interbreeding between Bos taurus and Bos indicus subspecies. Recently, research has asserted the potential of Sanga breeds for commercial beef production with better meat quality as compared to Bos indicus breeds. Here, we identified meat quality related gene regions that are positively selected in Ankole (Sanga) cattle breeds as compared to indicus (Boran, Ogaden, and Kenana) breeds using cross-population (XP-EHH and XP-CLR) statistical methods...
February 9, 2017: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179515/the-magnitude-of-innovation-and-its-evolution-in-social-animals
#18
Michal Arbilly, Kevin N Laland
Innovative behaviour in animals, ranging from invertebrates to humans, is increasingly recognized as an important topic for investigation by behavioural researchers. However, what constitutes an innovation remains controversial, and difficult to quantify. Drawing on a broad definition whereby any behaviour with a new component to it is an innovation, we propose a quantitative measure, which we call the magnitude of innovation, to describe the extent to which an innovative behaviour is novel. This allows us to distinguish between innovations that are a slight change to existing behaviours (low magnitude), and innovations that are substantially different (high magnitude)...
February 8, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179141/understanding-evolutionary-variation-in-basal-metabolic-rate-an-analysis-in-subterranean-rodents
#19
Facundo Luna, Hugo Naya, Daniel E Naya
Understanding how evolutionary variation in energetic metabolism arises is central to several theories in animal biology. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) -i.e., the minimum rate of energy necessary to maintain thermal homeostasis in endotherms- is a highly informative measure to increase our understanding, because it is determined under highly standardized conditions. In this study we evaluate the relationship between taxa- and mass-independent (residual) BMR and ten environmental factors for 34 subterranean rodent species...
February 4, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179109/mechanisms-of-defense-against-products-of-cysteine-catabolism-in-the-nematode-caenorhabditis-elegans
#20
Leonid Livshits, Arijit Kumar Chatterjee, Netanel Karbian, Rachel Abergel, Zohar Abergel, Einav Gross
Cysteine catabolism presents cells with a double-edged sword. On the one hand, cysteine degradation provides cells with essential molecules such as taurine and sulfide. The formation of sulfide in cells is thought to regulate important and diverse physiological processes including blood circulation, synaptic activity and inflammation. On the other hand, the catabolism of cysteine by gut microbiota can release high levels of sulfide that may underlie the development or relapse of ulcerative colitis, an inflammatory bowel disease affecting millions of people worldwide...
February 4, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
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