keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

"Natural selection"

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089120/population-genetics-and-demography-unite-ecology-and-evolution
#1
REVIEW
Winsor H Lowe, Ryan P Kovach, Fred W Allendorf
The interplay of ecology and evolution has been a rich area of research for decades. A surge of interest in this area was catalyzed by the observation that evolution by natural selection can operate at the same contemporary timescales as ecological dynamics. Specifically, recent eco-evolutionary research focuses on how rapid adaptation influences ecology, and vice versa. Evolution by non-adaptive forces also occurs quickly, with ecological consequences, but understanding the full scope of ecology-evolution (eco-evo) interactions requires explicitly addressing population-level processes - genetic and demographic...
January 11, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087770/article-discoveries
#2
Anke Konrad, Owen Thompson, Robert H Waterston, Donald G Moerman, Peter D Keightley, Ulfar Bergthorsson, Vaishali Katju
Mitochondrial genomes of metazoans, given their elevated rates of evolution, have served as pivotal markers for phylogeographic studies and recent phylogenetic events. In order to determine the dynamics of spontaneous mitochondrial mutations in small populations in the absence and presence of selection, we evolved mutation accumulation (MA) lines of Caenorhabditis elegans in parallel over 409 consecutive generations at three varying population sizes of N = 1, 10 and 100 hermaphrodites. The N =1 populations should have a minimal influence of natural selection to provide the spontaneous mutation rate and the expected rate of neutral evolution, whereas larger population sizes should experience increasing intensity of selection...
January 12, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070277/distinct-patterns-of-natural-selection-in-na-h-antiporter-genes-in-populus-euphratica-and-populus-pruinosa
#3
Yuxia Wu, Kuibin Meng, Xiaohui Liang
Salt tolerance genes constitute an important class of loci in plant genomes. Little is known about the extent to which natural selection in saline environments has acted upon these loci, and what types of nucleotide diversity such selection has given rise to. Here, we surveyed genetic diversity in three types of Na(+)/H(+) antiporter gene (SOS, NhaD, and NHX, belonging to the cation/proton antiporter 1 family), which have well-characterized essential roles in plant salt tolerance. Ten Na(+)/H(+) antiporter genes and 16 neutral loci randomly selected as controls were sequenced from 17 accessions of two closely related members of the genus Populus, Populus euphratica and Populus pruinosa, section Turanga, which are native to northwest China...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069447/limiting-fitness-distributions-in-evolutionary-dynamics
#4
Matteo Smerlak, Ahmed Youssef
Natural selection works on variation in fitness, but how should we measure "variation" to predict the rate of future evolution? Fisher's fundamental theorem of natural selection provides the short-run answer: the instantaneous rate of growth of a population's mean fitness is its variance in fitness. This identity captures an important feature of the evolutionary process, but, because it does not specify how the variance itself evolves in time, it cannot be used to predict evolutionary dynamics in the long run...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068346/mutation-accumulation-in-an-asexual-relative-of-arabidopsis
#5
John T Lovell, Robert J Williamson, Stephen I Wright, John K McKay, Timothy F Sharbel
Asexual populations experience weaker responses to natural selection, which causes deleterious mutations to accumulate over time. Additionally, stochastic loss of individuals free of deleterious mutations can lead to an irreversible increase in mutational load in asexuals (the "click" in Muller's Ratchet). Here we report on the genomic divergence and distribution of mutations across eight sympatric pairs of sexual and apomictic (asexual) Boechera (Brassicaceae) genotypes. We show that apomicts harbor a greater number of derived mutations than sympatric sexual genotypes...
January 9, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067408/digest-toward-predicting-evolutionary-response-to-environmental-change-the-power-of-integrated-experimental-and-genetic-studies
#6
Øystein H Opedal
How do populations become locally adapted? Answering this requires accurate estimates of two core components of evolution: natural selection acting on phenotypic traits in natural populations, and the genetic architecture of these traits. Despite an ever-growing number of studies, our current understanding is incomplete for both components. In this issue, Ågren et al. examine the genetic basis of differences between two locally adapted populations of thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana). Their study is exemplary in jointly investigating both components of evolution in the wild, and in combining several of the most powerful experimental approaches available to students of evolution...
January 9, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063234/hadza-sleep-biology-evidence-for-flexible-sleep-wake-patterns-in-hunter-gatherers
#7
David R Samson, Alyssa N Crittenden, Ibrahim A Mabulla, Audax Z P Mabulla, Charles L Nunn
OBJECTIVES: Cross-cultural sleep research is critical to deciphering whether modern sleep expression is the product of recent selective pressures, or an example of evolutionary mismatch to ancestral sleep ecology. We worked with the Hadza, an equatorial, hunter-gatherer community in Tanzania, to better understand ancestral sleep patterns and to test hypotheses related to sleep segmentation. METHODS: We used actigraphy to analyze sleep-wake patterns in thirty-three volunteers for a total of 393 days...
January 7, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062892/a-bifurcation-theorem-for-evolutionary-matrix-models-with-multiple-traits
#8
J M Cushing, F Martins, A A Pinto, Amy Veprauskas
One fundamental question in biology is population extinction and persistence, i.e., stability/instability of the extinction equilibrium and of non-extinction equilibria. In the case of nonlinear matrix models for structured populations, a bifurcation theorem answers this question when the projection matrix is primitive by showing the existence of a continuum of positive equilibria that bifurcates from the extinction equilibrium as the inherent population growth rate passes through 1. This theorem also characterizes the stability properties of the bifurcating equilibria by relating them to the direction of bifurcation, which is forward (backward) if, near the bifurcation point, the positive equilibria exist for inherent growth rates greater (less) than 1...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062753/standard-codon-substitution-models-overestimate-purifying-selection-for-non-stationary-data
#9
Benjamin D Kaehler, Von Bing Yap, Gavin A Huttley
Estimation of natural selection on protein-coding sequences is a key comparative genomics approach for de novo prediction of lineage-specific adaptations. Selective pressure is measured on a per-gene basis by comparing the rate of non-synonymous substitutions to the rate of synonymous substitutions. All published codon substitution models have been time-reversible and thus assume that sequence composition does not change over time. We previously demonstrated that if time-reversible DNA substitution models are applied in the presence of changing sequence composition, the number of substitutions is systematically biased towards overestimation...
January 5, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057445/plasticity-vs-mutation-the-role-of-micrornas-in-human-adaptation
#10
REVIEW
Konstantinos Voskarides
The variability potential of a phenotype, on the background of the same genotype, is termed "phenotypic plasticity". This is considered by some scientists as a more important evolutionary procedure than mutation based natural selection. In this review, I discuss the fact that microRNAs have the potential to determine significantly the spectrum of phenotypic plasticity by regulating translation rate. MicroRNAs constitute a complicate network that can adjust at a variety of external environmental stimuli. They can also rebalance genome's function after genomic duplication events...
January 3, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055179/a-non-natural-protein-rescues-cells-deleted-for-a-key-enzyme-in-central-metabolism
#11
Katherine M Digianantonio, Maria Korolev, Michael H Hecht
An important goal of synthetic biology is to create novel proteins that provide life-sustaining functions in living organisms. Recent attempts to produce novel proteins have focused largely on rational design involving significant computational efforts. In contrast, nature does not design sequences a priori. Instead, nature relies on Darwinian evolution to select biologically functional sequences from non-designed sequence space. To mimic natural selection in the laboratory, we combed through libraries of novel sequences and selected proteins that rescue E...
January 5, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053058/mouthpart-conduit-sizes-of-fluid-feeding-insects-determine-the-ability-to-feed-from-pores
#12
Matthew S Lehnert, Andrew Bennett, Kristen E Reiter, Patrick D Gerard, Qi-Huo Wei, Miranda Byler, Huan Yan, Wah-Keat Lee
Fluid-feeding insects, such as butterflies, moths and flies (20% of all animal species), are faced with the common selection pressure of having to remove and feed on trace amounts of fluids from porous surfaces. Insects able to acquire fluids that are confined to pores during drought conditions would have an adaptive advantage and increased fitness over other individuals. Here, we performed feeding trials using solutions with magnetic nanoparticles to show that butterflies and flies have mouthparts adapted to pull liquids from porous surfaces using capillary action as the governing principle...
January 11, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052396/distinct-genecological-patterns-in-seedlings-of-norway-spruce-and-silver-fir-from-a-mountainous-landscape
#13
Aline Frank, Christoph Sperisen, Glenn Thomas Howe, Peter Brang, Lorenz Walthert, John Bradley St Clair, Caroline Heiri
Understanding the genecology of forest trees is critical for gene conservation, for predicting the effects of climate change and climate change adaptation, and for successful reforestation. Although common genecological patterns have emerged, species-specific details are also important. Which species are most vulnerable to climate change? Which are the most important adaptive traits and environmental drivers of natural selection? Even though species have been classified as adaptive specialists vs. adaptive generalists, large-scale studies comparing different species in the same experiment are rare...
January 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052323/complex-dynamics-underlie-the-evolution-of-imperfect-wing-pattern-convergence-in-butterflies
#14
Susan D Finkbeiner, Adriana D Briscoe, Sean P Mullen
Adaptive radiation is characterized by rapid diversification that is strongly associated with ecological specialization. However, understanding the evolutionary mechanisms fueling adaptive diversification requires a detailed knowledge of how natural selection acts at multiple life-history stages. Butterflies within the genus Adelpha represent one of the largest and most diverse butterfly lineages in the Neotropics. Although Adelpha species feed on an extraordinary diversity of larval hosts, convergent evolution is widespread in this group suggesting that selection for mimicry may contribute to adaptive divergence among species...
January 4, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051132/determining-the-migration-duration-of-rice-leaf-folder-cnaphalocrocis-medinalis-guen%C3%A3-e-moths-using-a-trajectory-analytical-approach
#15
Feng-Ying Wang, Fan Yang, Ming-Hong Lu, Shan-Yu Luo, Bao-Ping Zhai, Ka-Sing Lim, Caitríona E McInerney, Gao Hu
Many moths finish their long distance migration after consecutive nights, but little is known about migration duration and distance. This information is key to predicting migration pathways and understanding their evolution. Tethered flight experiments have shown that ovarian development of rice leaf folder (Cnaphalocrocis medinalis [Guenée]) moths was accelerated and synchronized by flight in the first three nights, whereby most females were then matured for mating and reproduction. Thus, it was supposed that this moth might fly three nights to complete its migration...
January 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049516/genetic-clustering-and-polymorphism-of-the-merozoite-surface-protein-3-of-plasmodium-knowlesi-clinical-isolates-from-peninsular-malaysia
#16
Jeremy Ryan De Silva, Yee Ling Lau, Mun Yik Fong
BACKGROUND: The simian malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi has been reported to cause significant numbers of human infection in South East Asia. Its merozoite surface protein-3 (MSP3) is a protein that belongs to a multi-gene family of proteins first found in Plasmodium falciparum. Several studies have evaluated the potential of P. falciparum MSP3 as a potential vaccine candidate. However, to date no detailed studies have been carried out on P. knowlesi MSP3 gene (pkmsp3). The present study investigates the genetic diversity, and haplotypes groups of pkmsp3 in P...
January 3, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046117/extremely-rare-polymorphisms-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-allow-inference-of-the-mutational-spectrum
#17
Yuan O Zhu, Gavin Sherlock, Dmitri A Petrov
The characterization of mutational spectra is usually carried out in one of three ways-by direct observation through mutation accumulation (MA) experiments, through parent-offspring sequencing, or by indirect inference from sequence data. Direct observations of spontaneous mutations with MA experiments are limited, given (i) the rarity of spontaneous mutations, (ii) applicability only to laboratory model species with short generation times, and (iii) the possibility that mutational spectra under lab conditions might be different from those observed in nature...
January 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044971/-innate-immunity-and-human-diseases-from-archaic-introgression-to-natural-selection
#18
Matthieu Deschamps, Lluís Quintana-Murci
Throughout evolution, humans have had to face strong variation in environmental conditions, with pathogens being among the strongest threats that our species has encountered. The use of population genetic approaches provides novel insights into how natural selection imposed by pathogen pressures, in its different forms and intensities, has shaped the patterns of diversity of the human genome at the population level. These studies help to distinguish genes playing essential, non-redundant functions in host defence from genes variation in which has conferred selective advantages to specific human populations and/or has been acquired through admixture with archaic hominins, such as Neandertals...
December 2016: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040863/male-spider-mites-use-chemical-cues-but-not-the-female-mating-interval-to-choose-between-mates
#19
Leonor R Rodrigues, Alexandre R T Figueiredo, Susana A M Varela, Isabelle Olivieri, Sara Magalhães
The choice of the partner an individual will mate with is expected to strongly impact its fitness. Hence, natural selection has favoured the evolution of cues to distinguish among mates that will provide different fitness benefits to the individual that is choosing. In species with first-male sperm precedence, this is particularly important for males, as mating with mated females will result in no offspring. In the spider mite Tetranychus urticae only the first mating is effective, except if the interval between first and second copulations is shorter than 24 h...
December 31, 2016: Experimental & Applied Acarology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036136/maternal-source-of-variability-in-the-embryo-development-of-an-annual-killifish
#20
M Polačik, C Smith, M Reichard
Organisms inhabiting unpredictable environments often evolve diversified reproductive bet-hedging strategies, expressed as production of multiple offspring phenotypes, thereby avoiding complete reproductive failure. To cope with unpredictable rainfall, African annual killifish from temporary savannah pools lay drought-resistant eggs that vary widely in the duration of embryo development. We examined the sources of variability in the duration of individual embryo development, egg production and fertilization rate in Nothobranchius furzeri...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
keyword
keyword
93612
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"