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"Natural selection"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920783/genomic-tools-in-pearl-millet-breeding-for-drought-tolerance-status-and-prospects
#1
REVIEW
Desalegn D Serba, Rattan S Yadav
Pearl millet [Penisetum glaucum (L) R. Br.] is a hardy cereal crop grown in the arid and semiarid tropics where other cereals are likely to fail to produce economic yields due to drought and heat stresses. Adaptive evolution, a form of natural selection shaped the crop to grow and yield satisfactorily with limited moisture supply or under periodic water deficits in the soil. Drought tolerance is a complex polygenic trait that various morphological and physiological responses are controlled by 100s of genes and significantly influenced by the environment...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920376/invasions-and-extinctions-through-the-looking-glass-of-evolutionary-ecology
#2
REVIEW
Robert I Colautti, Jake M Alexander, Katrina M Dlugosch, Stephen R Keller, Sonia E Sultan
Invasive and endangered species reflect opposite ends of a spectrum of ecological success, yet they experience many similar eco-evolutionary challenges including demographic bottlenecks, hybridization and novel environments. Despite these similarities, important differences exist. Demographic bottlenecks are more transient in invasive species, which (i) maintains ecologically relevant genetic variation, (ii) reduces mutation load, and (iii) increases the efficiency of natural selection relative to genetic drift...
January 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917480/evolutionary-processes-and-its-environmental-correlates-in-the-cranial-morphology-of-western-chipmunks-tamias
#3
Ana Paula A Assis, Daniela M Rossoni, James L Patton, Gabriel Marroig
The importance of the environment in shaping phenotypic evolution lies at the core of evolutionary biology. Chipmunks of the genus Tamias (subgenus Neotamias) are part of a very recent radiation, occupying a wide range of environments with marked niche partitioning among species. One open question is if and how those differences in environments affected phenotypic evolution in this lineage. Herein we examine the relative importance of genetic drift versus natural selection in the origin of cranial diversity exhibited by clade members...
December 5, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914930/biological-fitness-and-natural-selection-of-amantadine-resistant-variants-of-avian-influenza-h5n1-viruses
#4
E M Abdelwhab, Jutta Veits, Thomas C Mettenleiter
Outbreaks caused by the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus (A/H5N1) devastated the poultry industry in several countries and posed a significant pandemic threat. In addition to culling of infected poultry and vaccination, amantadine has been applied in poultry in some countries to control the spread of the virus. The prevalence of the amantadine resistance marker at position 31 (Ser31Asn) of the M2 protein increased over time. However, little is known about the biological fitness and selection of H5N1 amantadine resistant strains over their sensitive counterparts...
November 30, 2016: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910006/william-d-hamilton-s-brazilian-lectures-and-his-unpublished-model-regarding-wynne-edwards-s-idea-of-natural-selection-with-a-note-on-pluralism-and-different-philosophical-approaches-to-evolution
#5
Emanuele Coco
In 1975, the English evolutionist William Donald Hamilton (1936-2000) held in Brazil a series of lectures entitled "Population genetics and social behaviour". The unpublished notes of these conferences-written by Hamilton and recently discovered at the British Library-offer an opportunity to reflect on some of the author's ideas about evolution. The year of the conference is particularly significant, as it took place shortly after the applications of the Price equation with which Hamilton was able to build a model that included several levels of selection...
December 2016: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907095/phenotypic-plasticity-epigenetic-or-genetic-modifications-in-relation-to-the-duration-of-cd-exposure-within-a-microevolution-time-range-in-the-beet-armyworm
#6
Maria Augustyniak, Anna Płachetka-Bożek, Alina Kafel, Agnieszka Babczyńska, Monika Tarnawska, Agnieszka Janiak, Anna Loba, Marta Dziewięcka, Julia Karpeta-Kaczmarek, Agnieszka Zawisza-Raszka
In the case of the pests inhabiting metal polluted or fields where the use of pesticides is common, a natural selection of resistant individuals can occur. This may pose serious problems for humans, agriculture, as well as the economies of many countries. In this study, the hypothesis that multigenerational (120 generations) exposure to cadmium of a beet armyworm population could be a selecting factor toward a more efficient DNA protection was verified. The hemocytes of individuals from two culture strains (control and Cd-exposed) were treated with H2O2 (a DNA-damaging agent) or PBS (reference)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905874/are-sexually-selected-traits-affected-by-a-poor-environment-early-in-life
#7
Regina Vega-Trejo, Michael D Jennions, Megan L Head
BACKGROUND: Challenging conditions experienced early in life, such as a restricted diet, can detrimentally affect key life-history traits. Individuals can reduce these costs by delaying their sexual maturation, albeit at the price of the later onset of breeding, to eventually reach the same adult size as individuals that grow up in a benevolent environment. Delayed maturation can, however, still lead to other detrimental morphological and physiological changes that become apparent later in adulthood (e...
December 1, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902691/do-vascular-networks-branch-optimally-or-randomly-across-spatial-scales
#8
Elif Tekin, David Hunt, Mitchell G Newberry, Van M Savage
Modern models that derive allometric relationships between metabolic rate and body mass are based on the architectural design of the cardiovascular system and presume sibling vessels are symmetric in terms of radius, length, flow rate, and pressure. Here, we study the cardiovascular structure of the human head and torso and of a mouse lung based on three-dimensional images processed via our software Angicart. In contrast to modern allometric theories, we find systematic patterns of asymmetry in vascular branching, potentially explaining previously documented mismatches between predictions (power-law or concave curvature) and observed empirical data (convex curvature) for the allometric scaling of metabolic rate...
November 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900850/hybridization-between-pollination-syndromes-as-an-ecological-and-evolutionary-resource
#9
Quentin Cronk, Ji Yong Yang
In plants, pollination syndromes (the correlated presence of many features of relevance to pollination mode, for instance pollination by a particular animal clade) are a striking feature of plant biodiversity, providing great floral phenotypic diversity (Fenster et al. ). Adaptation to a particular animal pollinator provides an explanation for why recently diverged plants can have such extreme differentiation in floral form. One might expect such elaborate adaptations to provide a high degree of pollinator specificity and hence reproductive isolation, but there are many cases where substantial gene flow exists between extreme floral morphs (see Table 1), and the resulting hybrids may be highly fertile...
December 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899135/analysis-of-pvama1-genes-from-china-myanmar-border-reveals-little-regional-genetic-differentiation-of-plasmodium-vivax-populations
#10
Xiaotong Zhu, Pan Zhao, Si Wang, Fei Liu, Jun Liu, Jian Wang, Zhaoqing Yang, Guiyun Yan, Qi Fan, Yaming Cao, Liwang Cui
BACKGROUND: With the premise of diminishing parasite genetic diversity following the reduction of malaria incidence, the analysis of polymorphic antigenic markers may provide important information about the impact of malaria control on local parasite populations. Here we evaluated the genetic diversity of Plasmodium vivax apical membrane antigen 1 (Pvama1) gene in a parasite population from the China-Myanmar border and compared it with global P. vivax populations. METHODS: We performed evolutionary analysis to examine the genetic diversity, natural selection, and population differentiation of 73 Pvama1 sequences acquired from the China-Myanmar border as well as 615 publically available Pvama1 sequences from seven global P...
November 29, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896727/measuring-natural-selection
#11
Anders Gonçalves da Silva
In this chapter, I review the basic algorithm underlying the CODEML model implemented in the software package PAML. This is intended as a companion to the software's manual, and a primer to the extensive literature available on CODEML. At the end of this chapter, I hope that you will be able to understand enough of how CODEML operates to plan your own analyses.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895897/ancestral-population-reconstitution-from-isofemale-lines-as-a-tool-for-experimental-evolution
#12
Pierre Nouhaud, Ray Tobler, Viola Nolte, Christian Schlötterer
Experimental evolution is a powerful tool to study adaptation under controlled conditions. Laboratory natural selection experiments mimic adaptation in the wild with better-adapted genotypes having more offspring. Because the selected traits are frequently not known, adaptation is typically measured as fitness increase by comparing evolved populations against an unselected reference population maintained in a laboratory environment. With adaptation to the laboratory conditions and genetic drift, however, it is not clear to what extent such comparisons provide unbiased estimates of adaptation...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891216/evolution-of-the-elaborate-male-intromittent-organ-of-xiphophorus-fishes
#13
Julia C Jones, Carmelo Fruciano, Anja Keller, Manfred Schartl, Axel Meyer
Internally fertilizing animals show a remarkable diversity in male genital morphology that is associated with sexual selection, and these traits are thought to be evolving particularly rapidly. Male fish in some internally fertilizing species have "gonopodia," highly modified anal fins that are putatively important for sexual selection. However, our understanding of the evolution of genital diversity remains incomplete. Contrary to the prediction that male genital traits evolve more rapidly than other traits, here we show that gonopodial traits and other nongonopodial traits exhibit similar evolutionary rates of trait change and also follow similar evolutionary models in an iconic genus of poeciliid fish (Xiphophorus spp...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889410/multiple-states-of-environmental-regulation-in-well-mixed-model-biospheres
#14
Arwen E Nicholson, David M Wilkinson, Hywel T P Williams, Timothy M Lenton
The Gaia hypothesis postulates that life influences Earth's feedback mechanisms to form a self regulating system. This provokes the question: how can global self-regulation evolve? Most models demonstrating environmental regulation involving life have relied on alignment between local selection and global regulation. In these models environment-improving individuals or communities spread to outcompete environment degrading individuals/communities, leading to global regulation, but this depends on local differences in environmental conditions...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885570/neo-darwinists-and-neo-aristotelians-how-to-talk-about-natural-purpose
#15
Peter Woodford
This paper examines the points of disagreement between Neo-Darwinian and recent Neo-Aristotelian discussions of the status of purposive language in biology. I discuss recent Neo-Darwinian "evolutionary" treatments and distinguish three ways to deal with the philosophical status of teleological language of purpose: teleological error theory, methodological teleology, and Darwinian teleological realism. I then show how "non-evolutionary" Neo-Aristotelian approaches in the work of Michael Thompson and Philippa Foot differ from these by offering a view of purposiveness grounded in life-cycle patterns, rather than in long-term evolutionary processes or natural selection...
December 2016: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881753/how-can-we-estimate-natural-selection-on-endocrine-traits-lessons-from-evolutionary-biology
#16
REVIEW
Frances Bonier, Paul R Martin
An evolutionary perspective can enrich almost any endeavour in biology, providing a deeper understanding of the variation we see in nature. To this end, evolutionary endocrinologists seek to describe the fitness consequences of variation in endocrine traits. Much of the recent work in our field, however, follows a flawed approach to the study of how selection shapes endocrine traits. Briefly, this approach relies on among-individual correlations between endocrine phenotypes (often circulating hormone levels) and fitness metrics to estimate selection on those endocrine traits...
November 30, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881749/vive-la-r%C3%A3-sistance-genome-wide-selection-against-introduced-alleles-in-invasive-hybrid-zones
#17
Ryan P Kovach, Brian K Hand, Paul A Hohenlohe, Ted F Cosart, Matthew C Boyer, Helen H Neville, Clint C Muhlfeld, Stephen J Amish, Kellie Carim, Shawn R Narum, Winsor H Lowe, Fred W Allendorf, Gordon Luikart
Evolutionary and ecological consequences of hybridization between native and invasive species are notoriously complicated because patterns of selection acting on non-native alleles can vary throughout the genome and across environments. Rapid advances in genomics now make it feasible to assess locus-specific and genome-wide patterns of natural selection acting on invasive introgression within and among natural populations occupying diverse environments. We quantified genome-wide patterns of admixture across multiple independent hybrid zones of native westslope cutthroat trout and invasive rainbow trout, the world's most widely introduced fish, by genotyping 339 individuals from 21 populations using 9380 species-diagnostic loci...
November 30, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878434/regional-selection-of-the-brain-size-regulating-gene-casc5-provides-new-insight-into-human-brain-evolution
#18
Lei Shi, Enzhi Hu, Zhenbo Wang, Jiewei Liu, Jin Li, Ming Li, Hua Chen, Chunshui Yu, Tianzi Jiang, Bing Su
Human evolution is marked by a continued enlargement of the brain. Previous studies on human brain evolution focused on identifying sequence divergences of brain size regulating genes between humans and nonhuman primates. However, the evolutionary pattern of the brain size regulating genes during recent human evolution is largely unknown. We conducted a comprehensive analysis of the brain size regulating gene CASC5 and found that in recent human evolution, CASC5 has accumulated many modern human specific amino acid changes, including two fixed changes and six polymorphic changes...
November 22, 2016: Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878069/both-natural-selection-and-isolation-by-distance-explain-phenotypic-divergence-in-bill-size-and-body-mass-between-south-australian-little-penguin-colonies
#19
Diane Colombelli-Négrel
Morphological variation between populations of the same species can arise as a response to genetic variation, local environmental conditions, or a combination of both. In this study, I examined small-scale geographic variation in bill size and body mass in little penguins (Eudyptula minor) across five breeding colonies in South Australia separated by <150 km. To help understand patterns driving the differences, I investigated these variations in relation to environmental parameters (air temperature, sea surface temperature, and water depth) and geographic distances between the colonies...
November 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870345/betwixt-and-between-intracranial-perspective-on-zygomatic-arch-plasticity-and-function-in-mammals
#20
Erin M Franks, Nathan E Holton, Jeremiah E Scott, Kevin R McAbee, Jason T Rink, Kazune C Pax, Adam C Pasquinelly, Joseph P Scollan, Meghan M Eastman, Matthew J Ravosa
The zygomatic arch is morphologically complex, providing a key interface between the viscerocranium and neurocranium. It also serves as an attachment site for masticatory muscles, thereby linking it to the feeding apparatus. Though morphological variation related to differential loading is well known for many craniomandibular elements, the adaptive osteogenic response of the zygomatic arch remains to be investigated. Here, experimental data are presented that address the naturalistic influence of masticatory loading on the postweaning development of the zygoma and other cranial elements...
December 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
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