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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346658/spatially-heterogeneous-selection-in-nature-favors-phenotypic-plasticity-in-anuran-larvae
#1
Josh Van Buskirk
Theory holds that adaptive phenotypic plasticity evolves under spatial or temporal variation in natural selection. I tested this prediction in a classic system of predator-induced plasticity: frog tadpoles (Rana temporaria) reacting to predaceous aquatic insects. An outdoor mesocosm experiment manipulating exposure to Aeshna dragonfly larvae revealed plasticity in most characters: growth, development, behavior, and external morphology. I measured selection by placing 1927 tadpoles into enclosures within natural ponds; photographs permitted identification of the survivors 6-9 days later...
March 27, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343090/developmental-systems-of-plasticity-and-trans-generational-epigenetic-inheritance-in-nematodes
#2
REVIEW
Vahan Serobyan, Ralf J Sommer
Several decades of research provided detailed insight into how genes control development and evolution, whereas recent studies have expanded this purely genetic perspective by presenting strong evidence for environmental and epigenetic influences. We summarize examples of phenotypic plasticity and trans-generational epigenetic inheritance in the nematode model organisms Pristionchus pacificus and Caenorhabditis elegans, which indicate that the response of developmental systems to environmental influences is hardwired into the organismś genome...
March 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341854/gliding-locomotion-of-manta-rays-killer-whales-and-swordfish-near-the-water-surface
#3
Jie-Min Zhan, Ye-Jun Gong, Tian-Zeng Li
The hydrodynamic performance of the locomotive near the water surface is impacted by its geometrical shape. For marine animals, their geometrical shape is naturally selective; thus, investigating gliding locomotion of marine animal under the water surface may be able to elucidate the influence of the geometrical shape. We investigate three marine animals with specific geometries: the killer whale is fusiform shaped; the manta ray is flat and broad-winged; and the swordfish is best streamlined. The numerical results are validated by the measured drag coefficients of the manta ray model in a towing tank...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341421/mutations-evolution-and-the-central-role-of-a-self-defined-fitness-function-in-the-initiation-and-progression-of-cancer
#4
Robert A Gatenby, Joel Brown
The origin and progression of cancer is widely viewed as "somatic evolution" driven by the accumulation of random genetic changes. This theoretical model, however, neglects fundamental conditions for evolution by natural selection, which include competition for survival and a local environmental context. Recent observations that the mutational burden in different cancers can vary by 2 orders of magnitude and that multiple mutations, some of which are "oncogenic," are observed in normal tissue suggests these neglected Darwinian dynamics may play a critical role in modifying the evolutionary consequences of molecular events...
March 21, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337988/molecular-heterogeneity-in-major-urinary-proteins-of-mus-musculus-subspecies-potential-candidates-involved-in-speciation
#5
Jane L Hurst, Robert J Beynon, Stuart D Armstrong, Amanda J Davidson, Sarah A Roberts, Guadalupe Gómez-Baena, Carole M Smadja, Guila Ganem
When hybridisation carries a cost, natural selection is predicted to favour evolution of traits that allow assortative mating (reinforcement). Incipient speciation between the two European house mouse subspecies, Mus musculus domesticus and M.m.musculus, sharing a hybrid zone, provides an opportunity to understand evolution of assortative mating at a molecular level. Mouse urine odours allow subspecific mate discrimination, with assortative preferences evident in the hybrid zone but not in allopatry. Here we assess the potential of MUPs (major urinary proteins) as candidates for signal divergence by comparing MUP expression in urine samples from the Danish hybrid zone border (contact) and from allopatric populations...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335993/biomaterials-innovation-for-next-generation-ex%C3%A2-vivo-immune-tissue-engineering
#6
REVIEW
Ankur Singh
Primary and secondary lymphoid organs are tissues that facilitate differentiation of B and T cells, leading to the induction of adaptive immune responses. These organs are present in the body from birth and are also recognized as locations where self-reactive B and T cells can be eliminated during the natural selection process. Many insights into the mechanisms that control the process of immune cell development and maturation in response to infection come from the analysis of various gene-deficient mice that lack some or all hallmark features of lymphoid tissues...
March 15, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334098/untangling-the-reticulate-history-of-species-complexes-and-horticultural-breeds-in-abelia-caprifoliaceae
#7
Sven Landrein, Sven Buerki, Hua-Feng Wang, James J Clarkson
Background and Aims: The genetic and morphological consequences of natural selection and selective breeding are explored in the genus Abelia . The genus consists of ornamental shrubs endemic to China, which have been bred to create attractive and diverse cultivars. Methods: DNA fingerprinting (AFLP) and DNA sequence data are used to investigate the genetic diversity among 46 accessions of Abelia (22 natural taxa and 24 horticultural breeds). In the cultivated varieties these data are used to explore taxon boundaries, hybridisation and backcrossing...
February 20, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332253/sex-and-ancestry-determine-the-free-running-circadian-period
#8
Charmane I Eastman, Victoria A Tomaka, Stephanie J Crowley
The endogenous, free-running circadian period (τ) determines the phase relationship that an organism assumes when entrained to the 24-h day. We found a shorter circadian period in African Americans compared to non-Hispanic European Americans (24.07 versus 24.33 h). We speculate that a short circadian period, closer to 24 h, was advantageous to humans living around the equator, but when humans migrated North out of Africa, where the photoperiod changes with seasons, natural selection favoured people with longer circadian periods...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331588/why-the-short-face-developmental-disintegration-of-the-neurocranium-drives-convergent-evolution-in-neotropical-electric-fishes
#9
Kory M Evans, Brandon Waltz, Victor Tagliacollo, Prosanta Chakrabarty, James S Albert
Convergent evolution is widely viewed as strong evidence for the influence of natural selection on the origin of phenotypic design. However, the emerging evo-devo synthesis has highlighted other processes that may bias and direct phenotypic evolution in the presence of environmental and genetic variation. Developmental biases on the production of phenotypic variation may channel the evolution of convergent forms by limiting the range of phenotypes produced during ontogeny. Here, we study the evolution and convergence of brachycephalic and dolichocephalic skull shapes among 133 species of Neotropical electric fishes (Gymnotiformes: Teleostei) and identify potential developmental biases on phenotypic evolution...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330987/architecture-and-mechanism-of-the-central-gear-in-an-ancient-molecular-timer
#10
REVIEW
Martin Egli
Molecular clocks are the product of natural selection in organisms from bacteria to human and their appearance early in evolution such as in the prokaryotic cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus suggests that these timers served a crucial role in genetic fitness. Thus, a clock allows cyanobacteria relying on photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation to temporally space the two processes and avoid exposure of nitrogenase carrying out fixation to high levels of oxygen produced during photosynthesis. Fascinating properties of molecular clocks are the long time constant, their precision and temperature compensation...
March 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330728/a-cross-sectional-study-of-the-relationship-between-nutrition-label-use-and-food-selection-servings-and-consumption-in-a%C3%A2-university-dining-setting
#11
Mary J Christoph, Brenna Ellison
BACKGROUND: Nutrition labels at the point of purchase are recommended to improve food choice, yet food choice does not always translate into food consumption. It is important to understand the relationship between label use, food selection, servings, and consumption. Previous research, which has relied on self-reported intake or inferred label use or intake based on sales data, has not adequately answered this question. OBJECTIVE: To combine survey and meal photographic data to compare food selection, servings, and consumption between label users and nonusers...
March 16, 2017: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325688/current-and-emerging-molecular-tests-for-human-papillomavirus-related-neoplasia-in-the-genomic-era
#12
REVIEW
Sixto M Leal, Margaret L Gulley
Laboratory tests have a key role in preventing human papillomavirus (HPV)-driven carcinomas and in guiding therapeutic interventions. An understanding of the virology, immunology, and carcinogenesis of HPV is essential for choosing appropriate diagnostic test modalities and developing new and even more effective cancer prevention strategies. HPV infects basal epithelial cells on multiple surfaces and induces carcinoma primarily in the cervix and the oropharynx. HPV types are stratified as high risk or low risk based on their carcinogenic potential, driven largely by viral interference with cell cycle regulation and the DNA damage response to promote continuous cell division while thwarting apoptosis, which enables mutation accumulation...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Molecular Diagnostics: JMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325372/is-predominant-clonal-evolution-a-common-evolutionary-adaptation-to-parasitism-in-pathogenic-parasitic-protozoa-fungi-bacteria-and-viruses
#13
M Tibayrenc, F J Ayala
We propose that predominant clonal evolution (PCE) in microbial pathogens be defined as restrained recombination on an evolutionary scale, with genetic exchange scarce enough to not break the prevalent pattern of clonal population structure. The main features of PCE are (1) strong linkage disequilibrium, (2) the widespread occurrence of stable genetic clusters blurred by occasional bouts of genetic exchange ('near-clades'), (3) the existence of a "clonality threshold", beyond which recombination is efficiently countered by PCE, and near-clades irreversibly diverge...
2017: Advances in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324177/a-detailed-analysis-of-codon-usage-patterns-and-influencing-factors-in-zika-virus
#14
Niraj K Singh, Anuj Tyagi
Recent outbreaks of Zika virus (ZIKV) in Africa, Latin America, Europe, and Southeast Asia have resulted in serious health concerns. To understand more about evolution and transmission of ZIKV, detailed codon usage analysis was performed for all available strains. A high effective number of codons (ENC) value indicated the presence of low codon usage bias in ZIKV. The effect of mutational pressure on codon usage bias was confirmed by significant correlations between nucleotide compositions at third codon positions and ENCs...
March 21, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323327/an-explicit-model-for-the-inbreeding-load-in-the-evolutionary-analysis-of-selfing
#15
Aurora García-Dorado
I present analytical predictions for the equilibrium inbreeding load expected in a population under mutation, selection and a regular mating system, for any population size and for any magnitude and recessivity of the deleterious effects. Using this prediction, I deduce the relative fitness of mutant alleles with small effect on selfing, to explore the situations where selfing or outcrossing are expected to evolve. The results obtained are in agreement with previous literature, showing that natural selection is expected to lead to stable equilibria where populations show either complete outcrossing or complete selfing, and that selfing is promoted by large deleterious mutation rates...
March 21, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321529/the-cumulative-dose-of-gonadotropins-used-for-controlled-ovarian-stimulation-does-not-influence-the-odds-of-embryonic-aneuploidy-in-patients-with-normal-ovarian-response
#16
Lucky Sekhon, Kathryn Shaia, Anthony Santistevan, Karen Hunter Cohn, Joseph A Lee, Piraye Yurttas Beim, Alan B Copperman
OBJECTIVE: Controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) promotes multifollicular growth, increasing the chance of obtaining euploid embryos that will successfully implant. Whether aneuploidy is increased from COH with exogenous gonadotropins interfering with natural selection of dominant follicles is a concern. This study evaluates the association between gonadotropin exposure and aneuploidy. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of 828 patients that underwent 1122 IVF cycles involving controlled ovarian stimulation and trophectoderm biopsy for preimplantation genetic screening (PGS), from 2010 to 2015...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321369/developmental-and-loco-like-effects-of-a-swainsonine-induced-inhibition-of-%C3%AE-mannosidase-in-the-honey-bee-apis-mellifera
#17
Laura Wedd, Regan Ashby, Sylvain Foret, Ryszard Maleszka
BACKGROUND: Deficiencies in lysosomal a-mannosidase (LAM) activity in animals, caused either by mutations or by consuming toxic alkaloids, lead to severe phenotypic and behavioural consequences. Yet, epialleles adversely affecting LAM expression exist in the honey bee population suggesting that they might be beneficial in certain contexts and cannot be eliminated by natural selection. METHODS: We have used a combination of enzymology, molecular biology and metabolomics to characterise the catalytic properties of honey bee LAM (AmLAM) and then used an indolizidine alkaloid swainsonine to inhibit its activity in vitro and in vivo...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318293/yawning-and-social-styles-different-functions-in-tolerant-and-despotic-macaques-macaca-tonkeana-and-macaca-fuscata
#18
Alessandra Zannella, Roscoe Stanyon, Elisabetta Palagi
Yawning is a multifunctional behavior with a role in social communication. In Old World monkeys, the "tension yawn" is often used as a threat, allowing individuals to completely expose their canines. To explore the role of this phenomenon, we selected 2 closely related species-Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) and Tonkean macaques (M. tonkeana)-which differ primarily in terms of their tolerance levels. Japanese macaques are classified as despotic; Tonkean macaques are classified as tolerant. Both species live in multimale-multifemale societies, show a high level of sexual dimorphism, and have comparable yawning repertoires that include displaying a covered teeth yawn and an uncovered gums yawn...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Comparative Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306729/a-cooperative-function-for-multisensory-stimuli-in-the-induction-of-approach-behavior-of-a-potential-mate
#19
Anders Ågmo, Eelke M S Snoeren
Intrasexual competition is an important element of natural selection in which the most attractive conspecific has a considerable reproductive advantage over the others. The conspecifics that are approached first often become the preferred mate partners, and could thus from a biological perspective have a reproductive advantage. This underlines the importance of the initial approach and raises the question of what induces this approach, or what makes a conspecific attractive. Identification of the sensory modalities crucial for the activation of approach is necessary for elucidating the central nervous processes involved in the activation of sexual motivation and eventually copulatory behavior...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306172/genetic-divergence-with-ongoing-gene-flow-is-maintained-by-the-use-of-different-hosts-in-phytophagous-ladybird-beetles-genus-henosepilachna
#20
Kei W Matsubayashi, Tetsuo I Kohyama, Norio Kobayashi, Satoko Yamasaki, Masakazu Kuwajima, Haruo Katakura
Adaptation to different environments can promote population divergence via natural selection even in the presence of gene flow-a phenomenon that typically occurs during ecological speciation. To elucidate how natural selection promotes and maintains population divergence during speciation, we investigated the population genetic structure, degree of gene flow and heterogeneous genomic divergence in three closely related Japanese phytophagous ladybird beetles: Henosepilachna pustulosa, H. niponica and H. yasutomii...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
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