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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138254/estimating-realized-heritability-in-panmictic-populations
#1
Milan Lstibůrek, Václav Bittner, Gary R Hodge, Jan Picek, Trudy F C Mackay
Narrow sense heritability (h(2) ) is a key concept in quantitative genetics, as it expresses the proportion of the observed phenotypic variation that is transmissible from parents to offspring. h(2) determines the resemblance among relatives and the rate of response to artificial and natural selection. Classical methods for estimating h(2) use random samples of individuals with known relatedness, as well as response to artificial selection, when it is called realized heritability. Here, we present a method for estimating realized h(2) based on a simple assessment of a random-mating population with no artificial manipulation of the population structure, and derive standard errors of the estimates...
November 14, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137622/genome-wide-scan-for-runs-of-homozygosity-identifies-potential-candidate-genes-associated-with-local-adaptation-in-valle-del-belice-sheep
#2
Salvatore Mastrangelo, Marco Tolone, Maria T Sardina, Gianluca Sottile, Anna M Sutera, Rosalia Di Gerlando, Baldassare Portolano
BACKGROUND: Because very large numbers of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are now available throughout the genome, they are particularly suitable for the detection of genomic regions where a reduction in heterozygosity has occurred and they offer new opportunities to improve the accuracy of inbreeding ([Formula: see text]) estimates. Runs of homozygosity (ROH) are contiguous lengths of homozygous segments of the genome where the two haplotypes inherited from the parents are identical...
November 14, 2017: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136422/transmission-as-a-basic-process-in-microbial-biology-lwoff-award-prize-lecture
#3
Fernando Baquero
Transmission is a basic process in biology and evolution, as it communicates different biological entities within and across hierarchical levels (from genes to holobionts) both in time and space. Vertical descent, replication, is transmission of information across generations (in the time dimension), and horizontal descent is transmission of information across compartments (in the space dimension). Transmission is essentially a communication process that can be studied by analogy of the classic information theory, based on 'emitters', 'messages' and 'receivers'...
November 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136190/the-genotype-phenotype-relationships-in-the-light-of-natural-selection
#4
Han Chen, Chung-I Wu, Xionglei He
Although any genotype-phenotype relationships are a result of evolution, little is known about how natural selection and neutral drift, two distinct driving forces of evolution, operate to shape the relationships. By analysing ∼500 yeast quantitative traits we reveal a basic "supervisor-worker" gene architecture underlying a trait. Supervisors are often identified by "perturbational" approaches (such as gene deletion), while workers, which usually show small and statistically insignificant deletion effects, are tracked primarily by "observational" approaches that examine the correlation between gene activity and trait value across a number of conditions...
November 9, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134710/isolation-by-distance-not-incipient-ecological-speciation-explains-genetic-differentiation-in-an-andean-songbird-aves-furnariidae-cranioleuca-antisiensis-line-cheeked-spinetail-despite-near-three-fold-body-size-change-across-an-environmental-gradient
#5
Glenn F Seeholzer, Robb T Brumfield
During the process of ecological speciation, reproductive isolation results from divergent natural selection and leads to a positive correlation between genetic divergence and adaptive phenotypic divergence, i.e. isolation-by-adaptation (IBA). In natural populations, phenotypic differentiation is often autocorrelated with geographic distance, making IBA difficult to distinguish from the neutral expectation of isolation-by-distance (IBD). We examined these two alternatives in a dramatic case of clinal phenotypic variation in an Andean songbird, the Line-cheeked Spinetail (Cranioleuca antisiensis)...
November 13, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134627/the-evolution-of-genital-shape-variation-in-female-cetaceans
#6
Dara N Orbach, Brandon Hedrick, Bernd Würsig, Sarah L Mesnick, Patricia Lr Brennan
Male genital diversification is likely the result of sexual selection. Female genital diversification may also result from sexual selection, although it is less well studied and understood. Female genitalia are complex among whales, dolphins, and porpoises, especially compared to other vertebrates. The evolutionary factors affecting the diversity of vaginal complexity could include ontogeny, allometry, phylogeny, sexual selection, and natural selection. We quantified shape variation in female genitalia using 2-D geometric morphometric analysis, and validated the application of this method to study soft tissues...
November 14, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134064/cancer-and-intercellular-cooperation
#7
REVIEW
Marta Bertolaso, Anna Maria Dieli
The major transitions approach in evolutionary biology has shown that the intercellular cooperation that characterizes multicellular organisms would never have emerged without some kind of multilevel selection. Relying on this view, the Evolutionary Somatic view of cancer considers cancer as a breakdown of intercellular cooperation and as a loss of the balance between selection processes that take place at different levels of organization (particularly single cell and individual organism). This seems an elegant unifying framework for healthy organism, carcinogenesis, tumour proliferation, metastasis and other phenomena such as ageing...
October 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133443/the-thermodynamic-efficiency-of-computations-made-in-cells-across-the-range-of-life
#8
Christopher P Kempes, David Wolpert, Zachary Cohen, Juan Pérez-Mercader
Biological organisms must perform computation as they grow, reproduce and evolve. Moreover, ever since Landauer's bound was proposed, it has been known that all computation has some thermodynamic cost-and that the same computation can be achieved with greater or smaller thermodynamic cost depending on how it is implemented. Accordingly an important issue concerning the evolution of life is assessing the thermodynamic efficiency of the computations performed by organisms. This issue is interesting both from the perspective of how close life has come to maximally efficient computation (presumably under the pressure of natural selection), and from the practical perspective of what efficiencies we might hope that engineered biological computers might achieve, especially in comparison with current computational systems...
December 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129317/the-genetic-legacy-of-the-indian-ocean-slave-trade-recent-admixture-and-post-admixture-selection-in-the-makranis-of-pakistan
#9
Romuald Laso-Jadart, Christine Harmant, Hélène Quach, Nora Zidane, Chris Tyler-Smith, Qasim Mehdi, Qasim Ayub, Lluis Quintana-Murci, Etienne Patin
From the eighth century onward, the Indian Ocean was the scene of extensive trade of sub-Saharan African slaves via sea routes controlled by Muslim Arab and Swahili traders. Several populations in present-day Pakistan and India are thought to be the descendants of such slaves, yet their history of admixture and natural selection remains largely undefined. Here, we studied the genome-wide diversity of the African-descent Makranis, who reside on the Arabian Sea coast of Pakistan, as well that of four neighboring Pakistani populations, to investigate the genetic legacy, population dynamics, and tempo of the Indian Ocean slave trade...
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125186/evolutionary-dynamics-of-interactions-between-plants-and-their-enemies-comparison-of-herbivorous-insects-and-pathogens
#10
REVIEW
Kerry Wininger, Nathan Rank
Plants colonized land over 400 million years ago. Shortly thereafter, organisms began to consume terrestrial plant tissue as a nutritional resource. Most plant enemies are plant pathogens or herbivores, and they impose natural selection for plants to evolve defenses. These traits generate selection pressures on enemies. Coevolution between terrestrial plants and their enemies is an important element of the evolutionary history of both groups. However, coevolutionary studies of plant-pathogen interactions have tended to focus on different research topics than plant-herbivore interactions...
November 10, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122026/are-sentiments-subject-to-selection-pressures-the-case-of-oxytocin
#11
Chelsea D Christie, Frances S Chen
We argue that natural selection operates on emotional and cognitive capacities supporting the subjective experience of sentiments, rather than on discrete sentiments themselves. We support this argument by examining the case of oxytocin in relation to the sentiment of love. We also explore future directions for health psychology research that includes "cold" aspects of contempt in conjunction with "hot" aspects.
January 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118130/what-have-humans-done-for-evolutionary-biology-contributions-from-genes-to-populations
#12
REVIEW
Michael Briga, Robert M Griffin, Vérane Berger, Jenni E Pettay, Virpi Lummaa
Many fundamental concepts in evolutionary biology were discovered using non-human study systems. Humans are poorly suited to key study designs used to advance this field, and are subject to cultural, technological, and medical influences often considered to restrict the pertinence of human studies to other species and general contexts. Whether studies using current and recent human populations provide insights that have broader biological relevance in evolutionary biology is, therefore, frequently questioned...
November 15, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116373/the-fundamental-theorem-of-natural-selection-with-mutations
#13
William F Basener, John C Sanford
The mutation-selection process is the most fundamental mechanism of evolution. In 1935, R. A. Fisher proved his fundamental theorem of natural selection, providing a model in which the rate of change of mean fitness is equal to the genetic variance of a species. Fisher did not include mutations in his model, but believed that mutations would provide a continual supply of variance resulting in perpetual increase in mean fitness, thus providing a foundation for neo-Darwinian theory. In this paper we re-examine Fisher's Theorem, showing that because it disregards mutations, and because it is invalid beyond one instant in time, it has limited biological relevance...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116078/tracing-the-origin-and-evolution-of-supergene-mimicry-in-butterflies
#14
Wei Zhang, Erica Westerman, Eyal Nitzany, Stephanie Palmer, Marcus R Kronforst
Supergene mimicry is a striking phenomenon but we know little about the evolution of this trait in any species. Here, by studying genomes of butterflies from a recent radiation in which supergene mimicry has been isolated to the gene doublesex, we show that sexually dimorphic mimicry and female-limited polymorphism are evolutionarily related as a result of ancient balancing selection combined with independent origins of similar morphs in different lineages and secondary loss of polymorphism in other lineages...
November 7, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112749/pgg-population-a-database-for-understanding-the-genomic-diversity-and-genetic-ancestry-of-human-populations
#15
Chao Zhang, Yang Gao, Jiaojiao Liu, Zhe Xue, Yan Lu, Lian Deng, Lei Tian, Qidi Feng, Shuhua Xu
There are a growing number of studies focusing on delineating genetic variations that are associated with complex human traits and diseases due to recent advances in next-generation sequencing technologies. However, identifying and prioritizing disease-associated causal variants relies on understanding the distribution of genetic variations within and among populations. The PGG.Population database documents 7122 genomes representing 356 global populations from 107 countries and provides essential information for researchers to understand human genomic diversity and genetic ancestry...
November 3, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108008/insights-into-the-molecular-evolution-of-peptidase-inhibitors-in-arthropods
#16
Joaquin Alonso, Manuel Martinez
Peptidase inhibitors are key proteins involved in the control of peptidases. In arthropods, peptidase inhibitors modulate the activity of peptidases involved in endogenous physiological processes and peptidases of the organisms with which they interact. Exploring available arthropod genomic sequences is a powerful way to obtain the repertoire of peptidase inhibitors in every arthropod species and to understand the evolutionary mechanisms involved in the diversification of this kind of proteins. A genomic comparative analysis of peptidase inhibitors in species belonging to different arthropod taxonomic groups was performed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103262/genetic-diversity-and-natural-selection-in-42-kda-region-of-plasmodium-vivax-merozoite-surface-protein-1-from-china-myanmar-endemic-border
#17
Xia Zhou, Ernest Tambo, Jing Su, Qiang Fang, Wei Ruan, Jun-Hu Chen, Ming-Bo Yin, Xiao-Nong Zhou
Plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein-1 (PvMSP1) gene codes for a major malaria vaccine candidate antigen. However, its polymorphic nature represents an obstacle to the design of a protective vaccine. In this study, we analyzed the genetic polymorphism and natural selection of the C-terminal 42 kDa fragment within PvMSP1 gene (Pv MSP142) from 77 P. vivax isolates, collected from imported cases of China-Myanmar border (CMB) areas in Yunnan province and the inland cases from Anhui, Yunnan, and Zhejiang province in China during 2009-2012...
October 2017: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100088/natural-selection-on-genes-related-to-cardiovascular-health-in-high-altitude-adapted-andeans
#18
Jacob E Crawford, Ricardo Amaru, Jihyun Song, Colleen G Julian, Fernando Racimo, Jade Yu Cheng, Xiuqing Guo, Jie Yao, Bharath Ambale-Venkatesh, João A Lima, Jerome I Rotter, Josef Stehlik, Lorna G Moore, Josef T Prchal, Rasmus Nielsen
The increase in red blood cell mass (polycythemia) due to the reduced oxygen availability (hypoxia) of residence at high altitude or other conditions is generally thought to be beneficial in terms of increasing tissue oxygen supply. However, the extreme polycythemia and accompanying increased mortality due to heart failure in chronic mountain sickness most likely reduces fitness. Tibetan highlanders have adapted to high altitude, possibly in part via the selection of genetic variants associated with reduced polycythemic response to hypoxia...
November 2, 2017: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099315/alternative-mrna-processing-sites-decrease-genetic-variability-while-increasing-functional-diversity
#19
Didier Auboeuf
Recent large-scale RNA sequencing efforts have revealed the extensive diversity of mRNA molecules produced from most eukaryotic coding genes, which arises from the usage of alternative, cryptic or non-canonical splicing and intronic polyadenylation sites. The prevailing view regarding the tremendous diversity of coding gene transcripts is that mRNA processing is a flexible and more-or-less noisy process leading to a diversity of proteins on which natural selection can act depending on protein-mediated cellular functions...
November 3, 2017: Transcription
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097405/the-evolution-of-gene-specific-transcriptional-noise-is-driven-by-selection-at-the-pathway-level
#20
Gustavo Valadares Barroso, Natasa Puzovic, Julien Y Dutheil
Biochemical reactions within individual cells result from the interactions of molecules, typically in small numbers. Consequently, the inherent stochasticity of binding and diffusion processes generate noise along the cascade that leads to the synthesis of a protein from its encoding gene. As a result, isogenic cell populations display phenotypic variability even in homogeneous environments. The extent and consequences of this stochastic gene expression have only recently been assessed on a genome-wide scale, in particular owing to the advent of single cell transcriptomics...
November 2, 2017: Genetics
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