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"Natural selection"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790980/contrasting-patterns-of-genomic-diversity-reveal-accelerated-genetic-drift-but-reduced-directional-selection-on-x-chromosome-in-wild-and-domestic-sheep-species
#1
Ze-Hui Chen, Min Zhang, Feng-Hua Lv, Xue Ren, Wen-Rong Li, Ming-Jun Liu, Kiwoong Nam, Michael W Bruford, Meng-Hua Li
Analyses of genomic diversity along the X chromosome and of its correlation with autosomal diversity can facilitate understanding of evolutionary forces in shaping sex-linked genomic architecture. Strong selective sweeps and accelerated genetic drift on the X-chromosome have been inferred in primates and other model species, but no such insight has yet been gained in domestic animals compared with their wild relatives. Here, we analyzed X-chromosome variability in a large ovine data set, including a BeadChip array for 943 ewes from the world's sheep populations and 110 whole genomes of wild and domestic sheep...
April 1, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790924/typhoidal-salmonella-serovars-ecological-opportunity-and-the-evolution-of-a-new-pathovar
#2
Hirotaka Hiyoshi, Connor R Tiffany, Denise N Bronner, Andreas J Bäumler
Typhoid and paratyphoid fever are severe systemic infections caused by human-adapted typhoidal Salmonella serovars that are indistinguishable in their clinical presentation, but differ from human gastroenteritis caused by zoonotic non-typhoidal Salmonella serovars. Typhoidal Salmonella serovars evolved from ancestral gastrointestinal pathogens through genetic changes that supported a change in pathogen ecology. Typhoidal Salmonella serovars share virulence properties that were acquired through convergent evolution and therefore this group is not defined by the presence of shared virulence genes that are absent from non-typhoidal Salmonella serovars...
May 21, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787862/multiple-modes-of-canalization-links-between-genetic-environmental-canalizations-and-developmental-stability-and-their-trait-specificity
#3
REVIEW
Kazuo H Takahashi
The robustness of biological systems against mutational and environmental perturbations is termed canalization. Because reducing phenotypic variability under environmental and genetic perturbations can be adaptive and facilitated by natural selection, it has been suggested that once canalization mechanisms have evolved to buffer the effects of environmental perturbations, they may act to buffer any and all sources of variation. Although whether canalization mechanisms are general or specific to the types of perturbation or phenotypic traits that they buffer is often addressed, the links between different canalization mechanisms remain unclear...
May 19, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787637/fear-based-niche-shifts-in-neotropical-birds
#4
Ari E Martínez, Eliseo Parra, Oliver Muellerklein, Vance T Vredenburg
Predation is a strong ecological force that shapes animal communities through natural selection. Recent studies have shown the cascading effects of predation risk on ecosystems through changes in prey behavior. Minimizing predation risk may explain why multiple prey species associate together in space and time. For example, mixed-species flocks that have been widely documented from forest systems, often include birds that eavesdrop on sentinel species (alarm calling heterospecifics). Sentinel species may be pivotal in (1) allowing flocking species to forage in open areas within forests that otherwise incur high predation risk, and (2) influencing flock occurrence (the amount of time species spend with a flock)...
May 22, 2018: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785477/significance-of-vi-negative-isolates-of-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhi
#5
Abdul Haque
Typhoid is a major global disease. The causative agent, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) has a capsular antigen called Vi antigen which is traditionally considered to be the main cause of virulence. All the current vaccines are based on Vi antigen. However, the realization of the fact that there are S. Typhi strains which lack Vi antigen but still exist naturally and can cause disease has stirred great scientific interest. It is also interesting to note that their relative prevalence is affected by climatic conditions...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779746/art-and-brain-coevolution
#6
Camilo José Cela-Conde, Francisco J Ayala
The competence for appreciating beauty appears to be a human universal trait. This fact points out to a phylogenetically derived capacity that, somehow, evolved by means of natural selection. To detail how this evolutionary process took place is difficult to determine, because appreciating beauty is an elusive capacity, impossible to be detected in the fossil record. However, efforts have been made to understand the main characteristics of such competence, particularly by means of the advances of neuroaesthetics...
2018: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774533/analysis-of-type-2-diabetes-and-obesity-genetic-variants-in-mexican-pima-indians-marked-allelic-differentiation-among-amerindians-at-hla
#7
Wen-Chi Hsueh, Peter H Bennett, Julian Esparza-Romero, Rene Urquidez-Romero, Mauro E Valencia, Eric Ravussin, Robert C Williams, William C Knowler, Leslie J Baier, Leslie O Schulz, Robert L Hanson
Prevalence of diabetes and obesity in Mexican Pima Indians is low, while prevalence in US Pima Indians is high. Although lifestyle likely accounts for much of the difference, the role of genetic factors is not well explored. To examine this, we genotyped 359 single nucleotide polymorphisms, including established type 2 diabetes and obesity variants from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and 96 random markers, in 342 Mexican Pimas. A multimarker risk score of obesity variants was associated with body mass index (BMI; β = 0...
May 17, 2018: Annals of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774232/multiple-origins-of-green-blood-in-new-guinea-lizards
#8
Zachary B Rodriguez, Susan L Perkins, Christopher C Austin
Several species of lizards from the megadiverse island of New Guinea have evolved green blood. An unusually high concentration of the green bile pigment biliverdin in the circulatory system of these lizards makes the blood, muscles, bones, tongue, and mucosal tissues bright green in color, eclipsing the crimson color from their red blood cells. This is a remarkable physiological feature because bile pigments are toxic physiological waste products of red blood cell catabolism and, when chronically elevated, cause jaundice in humans and all other vertebrates...
May 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773558/genetic-analyses-of-elys-mutations-in-drosophila-show-maternal-effect-lethality-and-interactions-with-nucleoporin-genes
#9
Kazuyuki Hirai, Zhuo Wang, Kohei Miura, Takaaki Hayashi, Takeshi Awasaki, Moe Wada, Yoko Keira, Hiroyuki O Ishikawa, Kyoichi Sawamura
ELYS determines the subcellular localizations of Nucleoporins (Nups) during interphase and mitosis. We made loss-of-function mutations of Elys in Drosophila melanogaster and found that ELYS is dispensable for zygotic viability and male fertility but the maternal supply is necessary for embryonic development. Subsequent to fertilization, mitotic progression of the embryos produced by the mutant females is severely disrupted at the first cleavage division, accompanied by irregular behavior of mitotic centrosomes...
May 18, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771167/transcript-free-energy-positively-correlates-with-codon-usage-bias-in-mitochondrial-genes-of-calypogeia-species-calypogeiaceae-marchantiophyta
#10
Sudipa Das, Arif Uddin, Debjyoti Bhattacharyya, Supriyo Chakraborty
The present study attempts to focus on the pattern of codon usage bias (CUB) in mitochondrial genes among four species of Calypogeia viz. C. arguta, C. integristipula, C. neogaea and C. suecica along with the factors influencing their CUB as no work was reported yet. The four taxa exhibit noticeable difference in their morphological features, habitat preference and growth forms. To understand the patterns of codon usage in Calypogeia mitochondrial genomes, we used bioinformatic tools to analyze the mitochondrial protein-coding sequences of four Calypogeia...
May 17, 2018: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769608/rapid-parallel-evolution-overcomes-global-honey-bee-parasite
#11
Melissa Oddie, Ralph Büchler, Bjørn Dahle, Marin Kovacic, Yves Le Conte, Barbara Locke, Joachim R de Miranda, Fanny Mondet, Peter Neumann
In eusocial insect colonies nestmates cooperate to combat parasites, a trait called social immunity. However, social immunity failed for Western honey bees (Apis mellifera) when the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor switched hosts from Eastern honey bees (Apis cerana). This mite has since become the most severe threat to A. mellifera world-wide. Despite this, some isolated A. mellifera populations are known to survive infestations by means of natural selection, largely by supressing mite reproduction, but the underlying mechanisms of this are poorly understood...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769361/convergence-of-biannual-moulting-strategies-across-birds-and-mammals
#12
REVIEW
Roxanne S Beltran, Jennifer M Burns, Greg A Breed
Birds and mammals have developed numerous strategies for replacing worn feathers and hair. Moulting usually occurs on an annual basis; however, moults that take place twice per year (biannual moults) also occur. Here, we review the forces driving the evolution of various moult strategies, focusing on the special case of the complete biannual moult as a convergence of selection pressures across birds and mammals. Current evidence suggests that harsh environmental conditions or seasonality (e.g. larger variation in temperatures) drive evolution of a biannual moult...
May 16, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769319/repeated-exposure-of-epithelial-cells-to-apoptotic-cells-induces-the-specific-selection-of-an-adaptive-phenotype-implications-for-tumorigenesis
#13
Lanfei Feng, Snezana Vujicic, Michael E Dietrich, Natalia Litbarg, Suman Setty, Angelika Antoni, Joyce Rauch, Jerrold S Levine
The consequences of apoptosis extend beyond mere death of the cell. We have shown that receptor-mediated recognition of apoptotic target cells by viable kidney proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTECs) inhibits PTEC proliferation, growth, and survival. Here we tested the hypothesis that continual exposure to apoptotic targets can induce a phenotypic change in responding PTECs, as in other instances of natural selection. In particular, we demonstrate that repeated exposure to apoptotic targets leads to emergence of a PTEC line (denoted BU...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765696/behavioural-divergence-during-biological-invasions-a-study-of-cane-toads-rhinella-marina-from-contrasting-environments-in-hawai-i
#14
Jodie Gruber, Gregory Brown, Martin J Whiting, Richard Shine
Invasive species must deal with novel challenges, both from the alien environment and from pressures arising from range expansion per se (e.g. spatial sorting). Those conditions can create geographical variation in behaviour across the invaded range, as has been documented across regions of Australia invaded by cane toads; range-edge toads are more exploratory and willing to take risks than are conspecifics from the range-core. That behavioural divergence might be a response to range expansion and invasion per se , or to the different environments encountered...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763671/searching-for-signals-of-recent-natural-selection-in-genes-of-the-innate-immune-response-ancient-dna-study
#15
Magda Lewandowska, Krystyna Jędrychowska-Dańska, Tomasz Płoszaj, Piotr Witas, Alicja Zamerska, Hanna Mańkowska-Pliszka, Henryk W Witas
The last decade has seen sharp progress in the field of human evolutionary genetics and a great amount of genetic evidence of natural selection has been provided so far. Since host-pathogen co-evolution is difficult to trace due to the polygenic nature of human susceptibility to microbial diseases, of particular interest is any signal of natural selection in response to the strong selective pressure exerted by pathogens. Analysis of ancient DNA allows for the direct insight into changes of a gene pool content over time and enables monitoring allele frequency fluctuations...
May 12, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761300/natural-selection-and-drift-as-individual-level-causes-of-evolution
#16
Pierrick Bourrat
In this paper I critically evaluate Reisman and Forber's (Philos Sci 72(5):1113-1123, 2005) arguments that drift and natural selection are population-level causes of evolution based on what they call the manipulation condition. Although I agree that this condition is an important step for identifying causes for evolutionary change, it is insufficient. Following Woodward, I argue that the invariance of a relationship is another crucial parameter to take into consideration for causal explanations. Starting from Reisman and Forber's example on drift and after having briefly presented the criterion of invariance, I show that once both the manipulation condition and the criterion of invariance are taken into account, drift, in this example, should better be understood as an individual-level rather than a population-level cause...
May 14, 2018: Acta Biotheoretica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761210/biochemical-properties-of-bacterial-reverse-transcriptase-related-rvt-gene-products-multimerization-protein-priming-and-nucleotide-preference
#17
Irina A Yushenova, Irina R Arkhipova
Cellular reverse transcriptase-related (rvt) genes represent a novel class of reverse transcriptases (RTs), which are only distantly related to RTs of retrotransposons and retroviruses, but, similarly to telomerase RTs, are immobilized in the genome as single-copy genes. They have been preserved by natural selection throughout the evolutionary history of large taxonomic groups, including most fungi, a few plants and invertebrates, and even certain bacteria, being the only RTs present across different domains of life...
May 14, 2018: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760892/effects-of-female-preference-intensity-on-the-permissiveness-of-sexual-trait-polymorphisms
#18
Aditya Ponkshe, John A Endler
Recent developments in sexual selection theory suggest that on their own, mate preferences can promote the maintenance of sexual trait diversity. However, how mate preferences constrain the permissiveness of sexual trait diversity in different environmental regimes remains an open question. Here, we examine how a range of mate choice parameters affect the permissiveness of sexual trait polymorphism under several selection regimes. We use the null model of sexual selection and show that environments with strong assortative mating significantly increase the permissiveness of sexual trait polymorphism...
May 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760457/global-genetic-differentiation-of-complex-traits-shaped-by-natural-selection-in-humans
#19
Jing Guo, Yang Wu, Zhihong Zhu, Zhili Zheng, Maciej Trzaskowski, Jian Zeng, Matthew R Robinson, Peter M Visscher, Jian Yang
There are mean differences in complex traits among global human populations. We hypothesize that part of the phenotypic differentiation is due to natural selection. To address this hypothesis, we assess the differentiation in allele frequencies of trait-associated SNPs among African, Eastern Asian, and European populations for ten complex traits using data of large sample size (up to ~405,000). We show that SNPs associated with height ([Formula: see text]), waist-to-hip ratio ([Formula: see text]), and schizophrenia ([Formula: see text]) are significantly more differentiated among populations than matched "control" SNPs, suggesting that these trait-associated SNPs have undergone natural selection...
May 14, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760453/evolutionary-instability-of-cug-leu-in-the-genetic-code-of-budding-yeasts
#20
Tadeusz Krassowski, Aisling Y Coughlan, Xing-Xing Shen, Xiaofan Zhou, Jacek Kominek, Dana A Opulente, Robert Riley, Igor V Grigoriev, Nikunj Maheshwari, Denis C Shields, Cletus P Kurtzman, Chris Todd Hittinger, Antonis Rokas, Kenneth H Wolfe
The genetic code used in nuclear genes is almost universal, but here we report that it changed three times in parallel during the evolution of budding yeasts. All three changes were reassignments of the codon CUG, which is translated as serine (in 2 yeast clades), alanine (1 clade), or the 'universal' leucine (2 clades). The newly discovered Ser2 clade is in the final stages of a genetic code transition. Most species in this clade have genes for both a novel tRNASer (CAG) and an ancestral tRNALeu (CAG) to read CUG, but only tRNASer (CAG) is used in standard growth conditions...
May 14, 2018: Nature Communications
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