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prostate tumour

Ned Kinnear, Bridget Heijkoop, Lina Hua, Derek B Hennessey, Daniel Spernat
Background: To examine the effect of intra-operative cell salvage (ICS) in open radical prostatectomy. Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, all patients undergoing open radical prostatectomy for malignancy at our institution between 10/04/2013 and 10/04/2017 were enrolled. Patients were grouped and compared based on whether they received ICS. Primary outcomes were allogeneic transfusion rates, and disease recurrence. Secondary outcomes were complications and transfusion-related cost...
May 2018: Translational Andrology and Urology
Rahil Eftekhari, Stacy G de Lima, Yu Liu, Koichiro Mihara, Mahmoud Saifeddine, Farshid Noorbakhsh, Isobel A Scarisbrick, Morley D Hollenberg
We propose that in the microenvironment of inflammatory tissues, including tumours, extracellular proteinases can modulate cell signalling in part by regulating proteinaseactivated receptors (PARs). We have been exploring this mechanism in a variety of inflammation and tumour-related settings that include tumour-derived cultured cells from prostate and bladder cancer, as well as immune inflammatory cells that are involved in the pathology of inflammatory diseases including multiple sclerosis. Our work shows that proteinase signalling via the PARs affects prostate and bladder cancer-derived tumour cell behaviour and can regulate calcium signalling in human T-cell and macrophage-related inflammatory cells as well as in murine splenocytes...
June 1, 2018: Biological Chemistry
Pablo Minguez Gabina, John C Roeske, Ricardo Mínguez, Alfonso Gomez de Iturriaga, Emilia Rodeño
We performed Monte Carlo simulations in order to determine by means of microdosimetry calculations the average number of hits to the cell nucleus required to reach a tumour control probability (TCP) of 0.9, 〈n<sub>0.9</sub> 〉, for the source geometry of a nucleus embedded in a homogeneous distribution of <sup>223</sup>Ra atoms. From the results obtained and following the MIRD methodology, we determined the values of lesion absorbed doses needed to reach a TCP of 0...
June 20, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Paola Caroli, Israel Sandler, Federica Matteucci, Ugo De Giorgi, Licia Uccelli, Monica Celli, Flavia Foca, Domenico Barone, Antonino Romeo, Anna Sarnelli, Giovanni Paganelli
PURPOSE: We studied the usefulness of 68 Ga-prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) PET/CT for detecting relapse in a prospective series of patients with biochemical recurrence (BCR) of prostate cancer (PCa) after radical treatment. METHODS: Patients with BCR of PCa after radical surgery and/or radiotherapy with or without androgen-deprivation therapy were included in the study. 68 Ga-PSMA PET/CT scans performed from the top of the head to the mid-thigh 60 min after intravenous injection of 150 ± 50 MBq of 68 Ga-PSMA were interpreted by two nuclear medicine physicians...
June 19, 2018: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Alessia Cimadamore, Silvia Gasparrini, Matteo Santoni, Liang Cheng, Antonio Lopez-Beltran, Nicola Battelli, Francesco Massari, Francesca Giunchi, Michelangelo Fiorentino, Marina Scarpelli, Rodolfo Montironi
Over the last decade, the improvement in molecular techniques and the acquisition of genomic information has transformed and increased the quality of patient care and our knowledge of diseases. Areas covered: Protein expression levels in immunohistochemistry and molecular biomarkers are reported for their ability to predict recurrence, progression, development of metastases, or patient survival. In particular, for renal cell carcinoma, we take into consideration the biomarkers applicable to immunohistochemistry and with molecular and genetic analyses...
June 18, 2018: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
Cian M McCrudden, John W McBride, Joanne McCaffrey, Emma M McErlean, Nicholas J Dunne, Vicky L Kett, Jonathan A Coulter, Tracy Robson, Helen O McCarthy
Background: Recent approvals of gene therapies by the FDA and the EMA for treatment of inherited disorders have further opened the door for assessment of nucleic acid pharmaceuticals for clinical usage. Arising from the presence of damaged or inappropriate DNA, cancer is a condition particularly suitable for genetic intervention. The RALA peptide has been shown to be a potent non-viral delivery platform for nucleic acids. This study examines the use of RALA to deliver a plasmid encoding inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) as an anti-cancer treatment...
2018: Cancer Nanotechnology
Joshua S Brzozowski, Danielle R Bond, Helen Jankowski, Belinda J Goldie, Rachel Burchell, Crystal Naudin, Nathan D Smith, Christopher J Scarlett, Martin R Larsen, Matthew D Dun, Kathryn A Skelding, Judith Weidenhofer
To facilitate intercellular communication, cells release nano-sized, extracellular vesicles (EVs) to transfer biological cargo to both local and distant sites. EVs are enriched in tetraspanins, two of which (CD9 and CD151) have altered expression patterns in many solid tumours, including prostate cancer, as they advance toward metastasis. We aimed to determine whether EVs from prostate cells with altered CD9 and CD151 expression could influence cellular behaviour and increase the metastatic capabilities of non-tumourigenic prostate cells...
June 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ying Zhao, Ling Wang, Xueying Zhai, Tao Cui, Guijiang Wang, Qijun Pang
Biochanin A has been reported to be associated to tumour cell proliferation, apoptosis and drug resistance in hepatocellular carcinoma, prostate cancer, and colorectal cancer, etc, while the relation of biochanin A on osteosarcoma is not clear. Hence, in this study, we examined the effects of biochanin A treatment on osteosarcoma cell lines MG63 and U2OS on proliferation, apoptosis, invasion and migration. We then investigated the involved molecular mechanism and found a time- and dose-dependent inhibition of cell viability in MG63 and U2OS cells with biochanin A treatment...
June 1, 2018: Die Pharmazie
Makoto Sakama, Nobuyuki Kanematsu
In light ion therapy, the dose concentration is highly sensitive to setup and range errors. Here we propose a method for evaluating the effects of these errors by using the correlation between fractions on tumour control probability (TCP) in carbon-ion therapy. This method incorporates the concept of equivalent stochastic dose (Cranmer-Sargison and Zavgorodni 2005), which was defined as a dose that gives the mean expected survival fraction (SF) for the stochastically variable dose. The mean expected SFs were calculated while considering the correlation between fractions for setup and range errors...
June 4, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Sameer Saleem, Sabah Patel, Adnan Ahmed, Nasir Saleem
Denosumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody that is being increasingly used for the treatment of osteoporosis and prevention of skeletal-related events (SREs) in bone metastases from primary tumours. It has improved efficacy, better tolerability and convenient administration via subcutaneous route, in comparison with bisphosphonates; however, it has been reported to cause severe hypocalcaemia in certain high-risk individuals. We report the case of a 71-year-old man with a history of haemodialysis-dependent end-stage renal disease who developed severe hypocalcaemia with electrocardiographic changes after being started on denosumab for prevention of SREs from a recently diagnosed metastatic prostate cancer...
May 30, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Liran Domachevsky, Natalia Goldberg, Hanna Bernstine, Meital Nidam, David Groshar
OBJECTIVES: To quantitatively characterize clinically significant intra-prostatic cancer (IPC) by prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) expression and cell density on PSMA-11 positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance (PET/MR). METHODS: Retrospective study approved by the institutional review board with informed written consent obtained. Patients with a solitary, biopsy-proven prostate cancer, Gleason score (GS) ≥7, presenting for initial evaluation by PET/computerised tomography (PET/CT), underwent early prostate PET/MR immediately after PSMA-11 tracer injection...
May 30, 2018: European Radiology
S Drápela, R Fedr, P Khirsariya, K Paruch, M Svoboda, K Souček
BACKGROUND: Nucleoside analogues represent a relevant class of antimetabolites used for therapy of various types of cancer. However, their effectivity is limited by drug resistance. The nucleoside transport capability of tumour cells is considered to be a determinant of the clinical outcome of treatment regimens using antimetabolites. Due to hydrophilic properties of antimetabolites, their transport across the plasma membrane is mediated by two families of transmembrane proteins, the SLC28 family of cation-linked concentrative nucleoside transporters (hCNTs) and SLC29 family of energy-independent equilibrative nucleoside transporters (hENTs)...
2018: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
S Ravicini, S J Baines, A Taylor, I Amores-Fuster, S L Mason, E Treggiari
Literature describing medical treatment of canine prostatic carcinoma (PC) is sparse. The aims of this study were to assess outcomes, including time to progression (TTP) and median survival time (MST), of canine PC treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and/or chemotherapy, and to identify prognostic factors. Records from 8 institutions were searched for dogs with cytologically or histologically confirmed PC without bladder involvement: 67 dogs were included. Presenting signs were urinary (25), gastrointestinal ([GI], 11) and systemic (3); 16 dogs had GI and urinary signs, 7 dogs had systemic signs with concurrent GI or urinary signs and in 5 dogs the tumour was an incidental finding...
May 27, 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
Emily Jungmin Her, Hayley M Reynolds, Christopher Mears, Scott Williams, Clare Moorehouse, Jeremy L Millar, Martin Andrew Ebert, Annette Haworth
To provide recommendations for the selection of radiobiological parameters for prostate cancer treatment planning. Recommendations were based on validation of the previously published values, parameter estimation and a consideration of their sensitivity within a tumour control probability (TCP) model using clinical outcomes data from low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy.
 Methods: The proposed TCP model incorporated radiosensitivity (α) heterogeneity and a non-uniform distribution of clonogens. The clinical outcomes data included 849 prostate cancer patients treated with LDR brachytherapy at four Australian centres between 1995 and 2012...
May 25, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Christian Mair, Boris Warwitz, Katharina Fink, Lorenza Scarpa, Bernhard Nilica, Johanna Maffey-Steffan, Sabine Buxbaum, Irene J Virgolini
PURPOSE: As radionuclide therapy is gaining importance in palliative treatment of patients suffering from neuroendocrine tumour (NET) as well as castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), the radiation protection of patients, staff, family members and the general public is of increasing interest. Here, we determine patient discharge dates according to European guidelines. METHODS: In 40 patients with NET and 25 patients with CRPC organ and tumour doses based on the MIRD concept were calculated from data obtained during the first therapy cycle...
May 23, 2018: Annals of Nuclear Medicine
Eman Mosaad, Karen Chambers, Kathryn Futrega, Judith Clements, Michael Robert Doran
BACKGROUND: There is increasing appreciation that non-cancer cells within the tumour microenvironment influence cancer progression and anti-cancer drug efficacy. For metastatic prostate cancer (PCa), the bone marrow microenvironment influences metastasis, drug response, and possibly drug resistance. METHODS: Using a novel microwell platform, the Microwell-mesh, we manufactured hundreds of 3D co-culture microtissues formed from PCa cells and bone marrow stromal cells...
May 24, 2018: BMC Cancer
Kyle Scarberry, Lee Ponsky, Edward Cherullo, William Larchian, Donald Bodner, Matthew Cooney, Rodney Ellis, Gregory Maclennan, Ben Johnson, William Tabayoyong, Robert Abouassaly
INTRODUCTION: We sought to prospectively evaluate the effectiveness of the multidisciplinary tumour board (MTB) on altering treatment plans for genitourinary (GU) cancer patients. METHODS: All GU cancer patients seen at our tertiary care hospital are discussed at MTB. We prospectively collected data on adult patients discussed over a continuous, 20-month period. Physicians completed a survey prior to MTB to document their opinion on the likelihood of change in their patient's treatment plan...
May 14, 2018: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
Omar Alonso, Gerardo Dos Santos, Margarita García Fontes, Henia Balter, Henry Engler
Background: The aim of this study was to prospectively compare the detection rate of 68 Ga-PSMA versus 11 C-Choline in men with prostate cancer with biochemical recurrence and to demonstrate the added value of a tri-modality PET/CT-MRI system. Methods: We analysed 36 patients who underwent both 11 C-Choline PET/CT and 68 Ga-PSMA PET/CT scanning within a time window of 1-2 weeks. Additionally, for the 68 Ga-PSMA scan, we used a PET/CT-MRI (3.0 T) system with a dedicated shuttle, acquiring MRI images of the pelvis...
2018: European journal of hybrid imaging
Ahmed Hussein Zedan, Torben Frøstrup Hansen, Jannie Assenholt, Mindaugas Pleckaitis, Jonna Skov Madsen, Palle Jörn Sloth Osther
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men in the western world. Clinical practice is continuously challenged by the pitfalls of the available diagnostic tools. microRNAs may represent promising biomarkers in many types of human cancers, including prostate cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate microRNA expression in tumour tissue and matched plasma in a cohort of patients with primary metastatic prostate cancer. The relative expression of 12 microRNAs was assessed in diagnostic needle biopsies from the prostate and matched plasma samples in two prospective cohorts (screening cohorts) comprising 21 patients with metastatic prostate cancer and 25 control patients...
May 2018: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
Pablo Fernández-Navarro, Jose-Miguel Sanz-Anquela, Angel Sánchez Pinilla, Rosario Arenas Mayorga, Carmen Salido-Campos, Gonzalo López-Abente
The feasibility of the Minimum Basic Data Set (MBDS) as a tool in cancer research was explored monitoring its incidence through the detection of spatial clusters. Case-control studies based on MBDS and marked point process were carried out with the focus on the residence of patients from the Prince of Asturias University Hospital in Alcalá de Henares (Madrid, Spain). Patients older than 39 years with diagnoses of stomach, colorectal, lung, breast, prostate, bladder and kidney cancer, melanoma and haematological tumours were selected...
May 7, 2018: Geospatial Health
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