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prostate tumour

Sofia Sousa, Jorma Määttä
This overview addresses the recent research developments in the role of tumour-associated macrophages (TAM) in bone metastasis biology and management of breast and prostate cancer as well as in primary and lung metastatic osteosarcoma. Immunosuppressive M2-type TAMs have been shown to associate with poor prognosis. Throughout their life cycle, macrophages (Macs) can adapt to environmental cues and influence the surroundings by secreting different cytokines and enzymes crucial to matrix remodelling, infection fighting, immune regulation and/or inflammation...
September 2016: Journal of Bone Oncology
B S Holst
During the last decade, analysis of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), highly conserved between mammalian species, has contributed to new information in reproductive endocrinology, due to clinically available diagnostic assays. AMH is produced solely in the gonads, in the Sertoli cells of testes and granulosa cells of the ovary, and thus offers possibilities to diagnose physiologic and pathologic conditions involving these organs. This article reviews indications for AMH analysis in cats and dogs, including diagnosing the presence of gonads, and granulosa or Sertoli cell tumours...
October 18, 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Daniel Nava Rodrigues, Gunther Boysen, Semini Sumanasuriya, George Seed, Angelo M De Marzo, Johann de Bono
Prostate cancer (PCa) is a clinically heterogeneous disease and current treatment strategies are based largely on anatomical and pathological parameters. In the recent past, several DNA sequencing studies of primary and advanced PCa have revealed recurrent patterns of genomic aberrations that expose mechanisms of resistance to available therapies and potential new drug targets. Suppression of androgen receptor (AR) signalling is the cornerstone of advanced prostate cancer treatment. Genomic aberrations of the androgen receptor or alternative splicing of its mRNA are increasingly recognized as biomarkers of resistance to AR-targeted therapy such as abiraterone or enzalutamide...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Pathology
Zoraida Andreu, Renan Otta Oshiro, Alberto Redruello, Soraya López-Martín, Cristina Gutiérrez-Vázquez, Esperanza Morato, Ana Isabel Marina, Carlos Olivier Gómez, María Yáñez-Mó
Bladder cancer is the second most frequent malignancy of the urinary tract after prostate cancer. Current diagnostic techniques, such as cystoscopy and biopsies are highly invasive and accompanied of undesirable side effects. Moreover, there are no suitable biomarkers for relapse or progression prognosis. We analysed whether the specific composition of microRNAs (miRNAs) and proteins of extracellular vesicles (EVs) that urothelial tumor cells of bladder mucosa release into the urine, could reflect their pathologic condition...
October 14, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
V J Gnanapragasam, K Burling, A George, S Stearn, A Warren, T Barrett, B Koo, F A Gallagher, A Doble, C Kastner, R A Parker
Both multi-parametric MRI (mpMRI) and the Prostate Health Index (PHI) have shown promise in predicting a positive biopsy in men with suspected prostate cancer. Here we investigated the value of combining both tests in men requiring a repeat biopsy. PHI scores were measured in men undergoing re-biopsy with an mpMRI image-guided transperineal approach (n = 279, 94 with negative mpMRIs). The PHI was assessed for ability to add value to mpMRI in predicting all or only significant cancers (Gleason ≥7). In this study adding PHI to mpMRI improved overall and significant cancer prediction (AUC 0...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
Shuang G Zhao, S Laura Chang, Daniel E Spratt, Nicholas Erho, Menggang Yu, Hussam Al-Deen Ashab, Mohammed Alshalalfa, Corey Speers, Scott A Tomlins, Elai Davicioni, Adam P Dicker, Peter R Carroll, Matthew R Cooperberg, Stephen J Freedland, R Jeffrey Karnes, Ashley E Ross, Edward M Schaeffer, Robert B Den, Paul L Nguyen, Felix Y Feng
BACKGROUND: Postoperative radiotherapy has an important role in the treatment of prostate cancer, but personalised patient selection could improve outcomes and spare unnecessary toxicity. We aimed to develop and validate a gene expression signature to predict which patients would benefit most from postoperative radiotherapy. METHODS: Patients were eligible for this matched, retrospective study if they were included in one of five published US studies (cohort, case-cohort, and case-control studies) of patients with prostate adenocarcinoma who had radical prostatectomy (with or without postoperative radiotherapy) and had gene expression analysis of the tumour, with long-term follow-up and complete clinicopathological data...
October 12, 2016: Lancet Oncology
O R Brouwer, H G van der Poel, R F Bevers, E J van Gennep, S Horenblas
This review aims to discuss the current state-of-the-art of sentinel node (SN) mapping in urological malignancies. The principles and methodological aspects of lymphatic mapping and SN biopsy in urological malignancies are reviewed. Literature search was restricted to English language. The references of the retrieved articles were examined to identify additional articles. The review also includes meta-analyses published in the past 5 years. SN biopsy for penile cancer is recommended by the European Association of Urology as the preferred staging tool for clinically node-negative patients with at least T1G2 tumours (level of evidence 2a, Grade B)...
2016: Clinical and Translational Imaging: Reviews in Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Hongwen Cao, Yigeng Feng, Lei Chen
As the main component of realgar, arsenic sulfide (As4 S4 ) contains anti-tumour activity by repressing cancer cell proliferation and migration in many tumours. However, the detailed mechanism of these processes is not clear yet. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) can function as tumour suppressor or oncogene based on their target mRNAs in different tumour tissues. Here, we found that As4 S4 could repress the over-expression of microRNA-372 (miR-372) in two prostate cancer cell lines and its over-expression promoted cell proliferation and migration...
October 12, 2016: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
P De Visschere, N Lumen, P Ost, K Decaestecker, E Pattyn, G Villeirs
AIM: To determine the added value of dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging (DCE) over T2-weighted imaging (T2-WI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for detection of clinically significant prostate cancer (csPC) in patients with elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Two hundred and forty-five patients with elevated PSA underwent multiparametric (mp) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the prostate before biopsy. mpMRI was performed using a 3 T MRI system without an endorectal coil...
October 7, 2016: Clinical Radiology
Bhumika Wadhwa, Rashmi Dumbre
Prostate (CaP) cancer is the second-leading cause of cancer-related mortality in men in Western societies. Androgen receptor (AR) signaling is a critical survival pathway for prostate cancer cells, and androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) remains the principal treatment for patients with locally advanced and metastatic disease. Although a majority of patients initially respond to ADT, most will eventually develop castrate resistance. The recent discovery that AR signaling persists during systemic castration via intratumoral production of androgens led to the development of novel anti-androgen therapies...
October 6, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
H Mochizuki, M Breen
Recent discovery of the BRAF V595E mutation in a variety of canine cancers indicates that mutant BRAF may represent a novel therapeutic target. Presence of RAS mutations is associated with poor tumour response to BRAF inhibition but has not been investigated in BRAF-mutated canine cancers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mutational status of three RAS genes (HRAS, KRAS and NRAS) in four types of canine carcinoma with and without the BRAF V595E mutation. Novel HRAS mutations were identified in 18% (3/17) of oral squamous cell carcinoma, whereas 17% (3/18) of pulmonary carcinoma carried KRAS or NRAS mutations...
October 6, 2016: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
Stian Knappskog, Beryl Leirvaag, Liv B Gansmo, Pål Romundstad, Kristian Hveem, Lars Vatten, Per E Lønning
BACKGROUND: While germline CHEK2 mutations have been linked to a moderately elevated cancer risk, to date, a limited number of such mutations have been identified. Recently, we reported a germline nonsense mutation (C283T; R95*), introducing an early stop-codon, in two Norwegian patients diagnosed with locally advanced breast cancer. Both patients were resistant to anthracycline therapy, resembling what has been observed for TP53 mutations. METHODS: In the present study, we screened a large population based sample, including 3748 non-cancer individuals and 7081 incident cancer cases (breast cancer, n = 1717; prostate cancer n = 2501, lung cancer n = 1331 and colorectal cancer n = 1532), for the distribution of CHEK2 R95*...
2016: Hereditary Cancer in Clinical Practice
Young A Yoo, Meejeon Roh, Anum F Naseem, Barbara Lysy, Mohamed M Desouki, Kenji Unno, Sarki A Abdulkadir
Identification of defined cell populations with stem/progenitor properties is key for understanding prostate development and tumorigenesis. Here we show that the polycomb repressor protein Bmi1 marks a population of castration-resistant luminal epithelial cells enriched in the mouse proximal prostate. We employ lineage tracing to show that these castration-resistant Bmi1-expressing cells (or CARBs) are capable of tissue regeneration and self-renewal. Notably, CARBs are distinct from the previously described luminal castration-resistant Nkx3...
October 5, 2016: Nature Communications
Heather Nesbitt, Niall Maurice Byrne, Nicole Williams, Louise Ming, Jenny Worthington, Rachel J Errington, Laurence H Patterson, Paul Smith, Stephanie R McKeown, Declan J McKenna
Purpose To understand the role of hypoxia in prostate tumor progression, and to evaluate the ability of the novel unidirectional hypoxia-activated prodrug OCT1002 to enhance the anti-tumor effect of bicalutamide. Experimental Design The effect of OCT1002 on prostate cancer cells (LNCaP, 22Rv1, PC3) was measured in normoxia and hypoxia in vitro. In vivo, tumor growth and lung metastases were measured in mice treated with bicalutamide, OCT1002, or a combination. Dorsal skin fold chambers were used to image tumor vasculature in vivo...
October 3, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Silvin P Knight, Jacinta E Browne, James F Meaney, David S Smith, Andrew J Fagan
A novel anthropomorphic flow phantom device has been developed, which can be used for quantitatively assessing the ability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners to accurately measure signal/concentration time-intensity curves (CTCs) associated with dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI. Modelling of the complex pharmacokinetics of contrast agents as they perfuse through the tumour capillary network has shown great promise for cancer diagnosis and therapy monitoring. However, clinical adoption has been hindered by methodological problems, resulting in a lack of consensus regarding the most appropriate acquisition and modelling methodology to use and a consequent wide discrepancy in published data...
October 3, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
E Onjukka, J Uzan, C Baker, L Howard, A Nahum, I Syndikus
AIMS: For patients with high-risk, locally bulky prostate cancer, an intra-prostatic boost to tumour volumes (dose-painting) offers a risk-adapted dose escalation. We evaluated the feasibility of hypofractionated dose-painting radiotherapy and the associated toxicity. The possibility to streamline a radiobiologically optimised planning protocol was also investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-eight patients were treated using a dose-painting approach; boost volumes were identified with functional magnetic resonance imaging scans...
September 29, 2016: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
W V Vogel, M G E H Lam, F A Pameijer, U A van der Heide, J B van de Kamer, M E Philippens, M van Vulpen, M Verheij
AIMS: Functional imaging with positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and multiparametric magnetic resonance (mpMR) is increasingly applied for radiotherapy purposes. However, evidence and experience are still limited, and this may lead to clinically relevant differences in accessibility, interpretation and decision making. We investigated the current patterns of care in functional imaging for radiotherapy in the Netherlands in a care evaluation study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The availability of functional imaging in radiotherapy centres in the Netherlands was evaluated; features available in >80% of academic and >80% of non-academic centres were considered standard of care...
September 27, 2016: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
Eamon P Mulvaney, Christine Shilling, Sarah B Eivers, Antoinette S Perry, Anders Bjartell, Elaine W Kay, R William Watson, B Therese Kinsella
The prostanoid thromboxane (TX)A2 plays a central role in haemostasis and is increasingly implicated in cancer progression. TXA2 signals through two T Prostanoid receptor (TP) isoforms termed TPα and TPβ, with both encoded by the TBXA2R gene. Despite exhibiting several functional and regulatory differences, the role of the individual TP isoforms in neoplastic diseases is largely unknown.This study evaluated expression of the TPα and TPβ isoforms in tumour microarrays of the benign prostate and different pathological (Gleason) grades of prostate cancer (PCa)...
September 26, 2016: Oncotarget
Z E Zhou, W G Yan, Y Zhou, Z G Ji, H Z Li
Prostate cancer is currently diagnosed by prostate biopsy performed by the transrectal ultrasound-guided technique. However, overdetection of clinical insignificant tumours and missed detection of clinical significant tumours have become problematic. MRI of the prostate, particularly if performed with multiparametric imaging, is capable of detecting clinical significant prostate cancer, which has brought the opportunity to use those images as targets for needle biopsy. Three methods of fusing MRI for targeted biopsy have been recently described: MRI-ultrasound fusion, MRI-MRI fusion ('in-bore' biopsy) and cognitive fusion...
October 1, 2016: Zhonghua Wai Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Surgery]
C Coyle, F H Cafferty, C Vale, R E Langley
BACKGROUND: Metformin use has been associated with a reduced risk of developing cancer and an improvement in overall cancer survival rates in meta-analyses, but, to date, evidence to support the use of metformin as an adjuvant therapy in individual cancer types has not been presented. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We systematically searched research databases, conference abstracts and trial registries for any studies reporting cancer outcomes for individual tumour types in metformin users compared with non-users, and extracted data on patients with early-stage cancer...
September 28, 2016: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
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