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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102109/epigenetic-regulation-of-rgs2-regulator-of-g-protein-signaling-2-in-chemoresistant-ovarian-cancer-cells
#1
Ercan Cacan
Regulator of G-protein signaling 2 (RGS2) is a GTPase-activating protein functioning as an inhibitor of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). RGS2 dysregulation was implicated in solid tumour development and RGS2 downregulation has been reported in prostate and ovarian cancer progression. However, the molecular mechanism by which RGS2 expression is suppressed in ovarian cancer remains unknown. The expression and epigenetic regulation of RGS2 in chemosensitive and chemoresistant ovarian cancer cells were determined by qRT-PCR and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, respectively...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101126/characterisation-of-microbial-communities-within-aggressive-prostate-cancer-tissues
#2
Melissa A Yow, Sepehr N Tabrizi, Gianluca Severi, Damien M Bolton, John Pedersen, Graham G Giles, Melissa C Southey
BACKGROUND: An infectious aetiology for prostate cancer has been conjectured for decades but the evidence gained from questionnaire-based and sero-epidemiological studies is weak and inconsistent, and a causal association with any infectious agent is not established. We describe and evaluate the application of new technology to detect bacterial and viral agents in high-grade prostate cancer tissues. The potential of targeted 16S rRNA gene sequencing and total RNA sequencing was evaluated in terms of its utility to characterise microbial communities within high-grade prostate tumours...
2017: Infectious Agents and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100576/perioperative-management-of-a-large-late-presenting-phaeochromocytoma
#3
Duncan Macrosson, Andrew Love
A 77-year-old man presenting to the emergency department with an acute coronary syndrome was later found to have a phaeochromocytoma. The lateness of this presentation was likely due to the protective α blocking effects of long-term terazosin therapy for his prostatism. α blockers such as terazosin are a well-recognised medical therapy in the perioperative optimisation of phaeochromocytoma because they treat the adrenergic effects of catecholamine release from the tumour such as hypertension. This patient was diagnosed with an ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI)...
January 18, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100242/intraoperative-radiotherapy-in-gynaecological-and-genito-urinary-malignancies-focus-on-endometrial-cervical-renal-bladder-and-prostate-cancers
#4
REVIEW
Marco Krengli, Carla Pisani, Letizia Deantonio, Daniela Surico, Alessandro Volpe, Nicola Surico, Carlo Terrone
Intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) refers to the delivery of a single radiation dose to a limited volume of tissue during a surgical procedure. A literature review was performed to analyze the role of IORT in gynaecological and genito-urinary cancer including endometrial, cervical, renal, bladder and prostate cancers.Literature search was performed by Pubmed and Scopus, using the words "intraoperative radiotherapy/IORT", "gynaecological cancer", "uterine/endometrial cancer", "cervical/cervix cancer", "renal/kidney cancer", "bladder cancer" and "prostate cancer"...
January 19, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096925/penile-metastasis-from-primary-transitional-cell-carcinoma-of-the-bladder-sparing-the-urethra
#5
Justin D Oake, Douglas N Drover
Metastatic involvement of the penis is relatively infrequent. Metastasis of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is extremely rare. We report a case of bladder TCC with metastases to the penis that spares the urethra - a finding that, to the best of our knowledge, has not been previously reported. Of the documented mechanisms of metastatic transmission to the penis, we suspect the cause was retrograde lymphatic spread. In our case, a 59-year-old male presented to our clinic initially with phimosis and later developed gross hematuria...
November 2016: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096922/relationship-between-gleason-score-and-apparent-diffusion-coefficients-of-diffusion-weighted-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-prostate-cancer-patients
#6
Tae Heon Kim, Chan Kyo Kim, Byung Kwan Park, Hwang Gyun Jeon, Byung Chang Jeong, Seong Il Seo, Hyun Moo Lee, Han Yong Choi, Seong Soo Jeon
INTRODUCTION: We assessed the correlation between the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and pathological Gleason score (GS) of prostate cancer patients. METHODS: A total of 125 patients who underwent multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging before radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer were included in this study. ADC values were compared with different GS. We used receiver operating characteristic analysis and determined the ADC cutoff value to differentiate tumours with a GS of 6 from those with a GS ≥7...
November 2016: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096917/assessment-of-histopathological-features-of-needle-biopsy-in-recurrent-prostate-cancer-following-salvage-high-intensity-focused-ultrasound
#7
Michele Billia, Khurram M Siddiqui, Susanne Chan, Fan Li, Ali Al-Zahrani, Jose A Gomez, Joseph L Chin
INTRODUCTION: Local recurrence of prostate cancer (PCa) following radiotherapy may be treated with curative intent using salvage high-intensity focused ultrasound (s-HIFU). The interpretation of needle core biopsy specimens following s-HIFU is a daunting task, even for experienced pathologists. We describe various histopathological features encountered in biopsy specimens following whole-gland s-HIFU in one of the largest descriptive studies to date. METHODS: Fifty-five patients with biopsy-proven localized radio-recurrent PCa underwent s-HIFU and transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostatic needle biopsies at 180 days post-treatment...
November 2016: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096238/activation-of-trpa1-channel-by-antibacterial-agent-triclosan-induces-vegf-secretion-in-human-prostate-cancer-stromal-cells
#8
Sandra Derouiche, Pascal Mariot, Marine Warnier, Eric Vancauwenberghe, Gabriel Bidaux, Pierre Gosset, Brigitte Mauroy, Jean-Louis Bonnal, Christian Slomianny, Philippe Delcourt, Etienne Dewailly, Natalia Prevarskaya, Morad Roudbaraki
Accruing evidence indicates that exposure to environmental compounds may adversely impact human health and promote carcinogenesis. Triclosan (TCS), an antimicrobial agent widely used as a preservative in personal care products, has been shown to act as an endocrine disruptor in hormone-dependent tissues. Here we demonstrate a new molecular mechanism by which TCS stimulates the secretion by human prostate cancer stromal cells of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), a factor known to promote tumour growth...
January 17, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095711/systemic-alkalinisation-delays-prostate-cancer-cell-progression-in-tramp-mice
#9
Simonetta Astigiano, Andrea Puglisi, Luca Mastracci, Stefano Fais, Ottavia Barbieri
The microenvironment of solid tumours is extremely acidic and this condition arises since the precancerous stage. This acidic milieu could therefore provide a useful target for both prophylactic and therapeutic approaches. In TRAMP transgenic mice, an in vivo model of prostate adenocarcinoma (AC), oral administration of alkaline water was devoid of unwanted side effects, and when started from an early age was as effective as NaHCO3 in significantly delaying tumour progression, while when started when prostate tumours were already present, a nonstatistically significant trend in the same direction was detected...
December 2017: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094783/a-novel-spontaneous-model-of-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-emt-using-a-primary-prostate-cancer-derived-cell-line-demonstrating-distinct-stem-like-characteristics
#10
Naomi Harner-Foreman, Jayakumar Vadakekolathu, Stéphanie A Laversin, Morgan G Mathieu, Stephen Reeder, A Graham Pockley, Robert C Rees, David J Boocock
Cells acquire the invasive and migratory properties necessary for the invasion-metastasis cascade and the establishment of aggressive, metastatic disease by reactivating a latent embryonic programme: epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Herein, we report the development of a new, spontaneous model of EMT which involves four phenotypically distinct clones derived from a primary tumour-derived human prostate cancer cell line (OPCT-1), and its use to explore relationships between EMT and the generation of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in prostate cancer...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089230/metastatic-fractures-of-long-limb-bones
#11
REVIEW
P Anract, D Biau, P Boudou-Rouquette
The diagnosis of pathological fracture should be considered routinely in patients with long limb-bone fractures. Investigations must be performed to establish the diagnosis of pathological fracture then to determine that the bone lesion is a metastasis. In over 85% of cases, the clinical evaluation combined with a detailed analysis of the radiographs is sufficient to determine that the fracture occurred at a tumour site. Aetiological investigations establish that the tumour is a metastasis. In some patients, the diagnosis of metastatic cancer antedates the fracture...
January 11, 2017: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087967/periampullary-carcinoma-with-penile-metastasis
#12
W C Pui, N A Nik Azim
Periampullary carcinoma metastases are usually located at regional nodes, adjacent organs, liver or lung. On the other hand, metastatic penile cancer is uncommon. Penile metastasis usually originates from pelvic region with prostate and bladder being the most frequent primary location. We present a very rare case of periampullary carcinoma with penile metastasis in a 49-year-old man. He initially presented with early ampullary type periampullary carcinoma and had pyloric preserving pancreatoduodenectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy...
December 2016: Medical Journal of Malaysia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087510/effectiveness-of-flexible-sigmoidoscopy-screening-in-men-and-women-and-different-age-groups-pooled-analysis-of-randomised-trials
#13
Øyvind Holme, Robert E Schoen, Carlo Senore, Nereo Segnan, Geir Hoff, Magnus Løberg, Michael Bretthauer, Hans-Olov Adami, Mette Kalager
OBJECTIVE:  To compare the effectiveness of flexible sigmoidoscopy in screening for colorectal cancer by patient sex and age. DESIGN:  Pooled analysis of randomised trials (the US Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian cancer screening trial (PLCO), the Italian Screening for Colon and Rectum trial (SCORE), and the Norwegian Colorectal Cancer Prevention trial (NORCCAP)). DATA SOURCES:  Aggregated data were pooled from each randomised trial on incidence of colorectal cancer and mortality stratified by sex, age at screening, and colon subsite (distal v proximal)...
January 13, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081573/-prostate-carcinoma-mimics-lung-carcinoma-a-case-report
#14
Konstantinos Drosos, Klaus Höfner
A PSA-negative, advanced adenocarcinoma of the prostate is a rare finding. Expression of thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) in the tumour in combination with a previous medical history of lung adenocarcinoma could complicate the final diagnosis. To the best of our knowledge, we present the second case of a TTF-1-positive, acinar adenocarcinoma of the prostate.We present the case of a 65-year-old male with surgically treated lung adenocarcinoma; 3 years later we diagnosed adenocarcinoma of the bladder and prostate...
January 12, 2017: Aktuelle Urologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078478/hypercalcaemia-and-hypocalcaemia-finding-the-balance
#15
REVIEW
Jean-Jacques Body, Daniela Niepel, Giuseppe Tonini
CALCIUM METABOLISM IN CANCER AND HYPERCALCAEMIA OF MALIGNANCY: The balance between bone formation and resorption may be disrupted in patients with cancer, leading either to increased bone resorption, calcium release, and possibly hypercalcaemia, or to increased bone formation, sequestration of calcium, and possibly hypocalcaemia. In adults, hypercalcaemia of malignancy is most common in patients with tumours that produce factors that induce osteoclast activation and enhance bone resorption...
January 12, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074400/peculiarities-of-the-obese-patient-with-cancer-a-national-consensus-statement-by-the-spanish-society-for-the-study-of-obesity-and-the-spanish-society-of-medical-oncology
#16
P Pérez-Segura, J E Palacio, L Vázquez, S Monereo, R de Las Peñas, P Martínez de Icaya, C Grávalos, A Lecube, A Blasco, J M García-Almeida, I Barneto, A Goday
The relationship between obesity and cancer is clear and is present at all times during course of the disease. The importance of obesity in increasing the risk of developing cancer is well known, and some of the most prevalent tumours (breast, colorectal, and prostate) are directly related to this risk increase. However, there is less information available on the role that obesity plays when the patient has already been diagnosed with cancer. Certain data demonstrate that in some types of cancer, obese patients tolerate the treatments more poorly...
January 10, 2017: Clinical & Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074210/diagnostic-value-of-additional-68-ga-psma-pet-before-223-ra-dichloride-therapy-in-patients-with-metastatic-prostate-carcinoma
#17
Axel Bräuer, Kambiz Rahbar, Julia Konnert, Martin Bögemann, Lars Stegger
PURPOSE: Medical imaging plays an important role in selecting patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer for (223)Ra-dichloride therapy of bone metastases. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether (68)Ga-PSMA-PET has incremental value over conventional imaging for selecting patients suitable for (223)Ra-dichloride therapy. METHODS: In 27 consecutive patients referred for (223)Ra-dichloride therapy additional (68)Ga-PSMA-PET/CT was performed and tracer distribution was evaluated systematically with respect to the detection of visceral metastases and bone metastases with inadequate uptake on bone scintigraphy...
January 11, 2017: Nuklearmedizin. Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073170/loss-of-hsef-promotes-metastasis-through-up-regulation-of-emt-in-prostate-cancer
#18
S Hori, K Wadhwa, V Pisupati, V Zecchini, A Ramos-Montoya, A Y Warren, D E Neal, V J Gnanapragasam
We have previously reported that the negative regulator Similar Expression to FGF (hSef) is down-regulated in prostate cancer and its loss is associated with clinical metastasis. Here, we explored the mechanistic basis of this finding. We first confirmed our clinical observation by testing hSef manipulation in an in vivo metastasis model. hSef stable expressing cells (PC3M-hSef) or empty vector controls (PC3M-EV) were injected subcutaneously into the lateral thoracic walls of NOD-SCID gamma mice and lungs were harvested at autopsy...
January 10, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072762/giving-axl-the-axe-targeting-axl-in-human-malignancy
#19
Carl M Gay, Kavitha Balaji, Lauren Averett Byers
The receptor tyrosine kinase AXL, activated by a complex interaction between its ligand growth arrest-specific protein 6 and phosphatidylserine, regulates various vital cellular processes, including proliferation, survival, motility, and immunologic response. Although not implicated as an oncogenic driver itself, AXL, a member of the TYRO3, AXL, and MERTK family of receptor tyrosine kinases, is overexpressed in several haematologic and solid malignancies, including acute myeloid leukaemia, non-small cell lung cancer, gastric and colorectal adenocarcinomas, and breast and prostate cancers...
January 10, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068672/genomic-hallmarks-of-localized-non-indolent-prostate-cancer
#20
Michael Fraser, Veronica Y Sabelnykova, Takafumi N Yamaguchi, Lawrence E Heisler, Julie Livingstone, Vincent Huang, Yu-Jia Shiah, Fouad Yousif, Xihui Lin, Andre P Masella, Natalie S Fox, Michael Xie, Stephenie D Prokopec, Alejandro Berlin, Emilie Lalonde, Musaddeque Ahmed, Dominique Trudel, Xuemei Luo, Timothy A Beck, Alice Meng, Junyan Zhang, Alister D'Costa, Robert E Denroche, Haiying Kong, Shadrielle Melijah G Espiritu, Melvin L K Chua, Ada Wong, Taryne Chong, Michelle Sam, Jeremy Johns, Lee Timms, Nicholas B Buchner, Michèle Orain, Valérie Picard, Helène Hovington, Alexander Murison, Ken Kron, Nicholas J Harding, Christine P'ng, Kathleen E Houlahan, Kenneth C Chu, Bryan Lo, Francis Nguyen, Constance H Li, Ren X Sun, Richard de Borja, Christopher I Cooper, Julia F Hopkins, Shaylan K Govind, Clement Fung, Daryl Waggott, Jeffrey Green, Syed Haider, Michelle A Chan-Seng-Yue, Esther Jung, Zhiyuan Wang, Alain Bergeron, Alan Dal Pra, Louis Lacombe, Colin C Collins, Cenk Sahinalp, Mathieu Lupien, Neil E Fleshner, Housheng H He, Yves Fradet, Bernard Tetu, Theodorus van der Kwast, John D McPherson, Robert G Bristow, Paul C Boutros
Prostate tumours are highly variable in their response to therapies, but clinically available prognostic factors can explain only a fraction of this heterogeneity. Here we analysed 200 whole-genome sequences and 277 additional whole-exome sequences from localized, non-indolent prostate tumours with similar clinical risk profiles, and carried out RNA and methylation analyses in a subset. These tumours had a paucity of clinically actionable single nucleotide variants, unlike those seen in metastatic disease. Rather, a significant proportion of tumours harboured recurrent non-coding aberrations, large-scale genomic rearrangements, and alterations in which an inversion repressed transcription within its boundaries...
January 19, 2017: Nature
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