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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644819/quantifying-the-accuracy-and-precision-of-a-novel-real-time-6-degree-of-freedom-kilovoltage-intrafraction-monitoring-kim-target-tracking-system
#1
J-H Kim, D T Nguyen, C-Y Huang, T Fuangrod, V Caillet, R O'Brien, P Poulsen, J Booth, P Keall
Target rotation can considerably impact the delivered radiotherapy dose depending on the tumour shape. More accurate tumour pose during radiotherapy treatment can be acquired through tracking in 6 degrees-of-freedom (6 DoF) rather than in translation only. A novel real-time 6 DoF kilovoltage intrafraction monitoring (KIM) target tracking system has recently been developed. In this study, we experimentally evaluated the accuracy and precision of the 6 DoF KIM implementation. Real-time 6 DoF KIM motion measurements were compared against the ground truth motion retrospectively derived from kV/MV triangulation for a range of lung and prostate tumour motion trajectories as well as for various static poses using a phantom...
June 23, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630592/the-role-of-different-pi-rads-versions-in-prostate-multiparametric-magnetic-resonance-tomography-assessment
#2
Paulius Aliukonis, Tadas Letauta, Rūta Briedienė, Ieva Naruševičiūtė, Simona Letautienė
Background. Standardised Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) guidelines for the assessment of prostate alterations were designed for the assessment of prostate pathology. Published by the ESUR in 2012, PI-RADS v1 was based on the total score of different MRI sequences with subsequent calculation. PI-RADS v2 was published by the American College of Radiology in 2015 and featured different assessment criteria for prostate peripheral and transitory zones. Aim. To assess the correlations of PI-RADS v1 and PI-RADS v2 with Gleason score values and to define their predictive values of the diagnosis of prostate cancer...
2017: Acta medica Lituanica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625534/predictors-of-urinary-and-rectal-toxicity-after-external-conformed-radiation-therapy-in-prostate-cancer-correlation-between-clinical-tumour-and-dosimetric-parameters-and-radical-and-postoperative-radiation-therapy
#3
C M Martínez-Arribas, C González-San Segundo, P Cuesta-Álvaro, F A Calvo-Manuel
OBJECTIVE: To determine rectal and urinary toxicity after external beam radiation therapy (EBRT), assessing the results of patients who undergo radical or postoperative therapy for prostate cancer (pancreatic cancer) and their correlation with potential risk factors. METHOD: A total of 333 patients were treated with EBRT. Of these, 285 underwent radical therapy and 48 underwent postoperative therapy (39 cases of rescue and 9 of adjuvant therapy). We collected clinical, tumour and dosimetric variable to correlate with toxicity parameters...
June 15, 2017: Actas Urologicas Españolas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622965/tumour-derived-human-growth-hormone-as-a-therapeutic-target-in-oncology
#4
REVIEW
Jo K Perry, Zheng-Sheng Wu, Hichem C Mertani, Tao Zhu, Peter E Lobie
The growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) axis is the key regulator of longitudinal growth, promoting postnatal bone and muscle growth. The available data suggest that GH expression by tumour cells is associated with the aetiology and progression of various cancers such as endometrial, breast, liver, prostate, and colon cancer. Accordingly there has been increased interest in targeting GH-mediated signal transduction in a therapeutic setting. Because GH has endocrine, autocrine, and paracrine actions, therapeutic strategies will need to take into account systemic and local functions...
June 13, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622443/mir-2909-regulates-isgylation-system-via-stat1-signalling-through-negative-regulation-of-socs3-in-prostate-cancer
#5
Shiekh Gazalla Ayub, Deepak Kaul
One of the well-document strategies adopted by tumour cells for progression is to evade immune surveillance mechanisms. An understanding of the tight interaction between immunity and progression of cancer can provide novel treatment options for different malignancies including prostate cancer (PCa). Here, we have shown that AATF genome encoded miR-2909, known to play role both in immunity and cancer upregulates various interferon stimulating genes (ISGs) including ISGylation system through STAT1. Our results revealed that miR-2909 up-regulates STAT1 through negative regulation of SOCS3 and not through up-regulation of Type 1 interferon (IFN) production...
June 16, 2017: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618431/tumour-heterogeneity-poses-a-significant-challenge-to-cancer-biomarker-research
#6
Karolina Cyll, Elin Ersvær, Ljiljana Vlatkovic, Manohar Pradhan, Wanja Kildal, Marte Avranden Kjær, Andreas Kleppe, Tarjei S Hveem, Birgitte Carlsen, Silje Gill, Sven Löffeler, Erik Skaaheim Haug, Håkon Wæhre, Prasanna Sooriakumaran, Håvard E Danielsen
BACKGROUND: The high degree of genomic diversity in cancer represents a challenge for identifying objective prognostic markers. We aimed to examine the extent of tumour heterogeneity and its effect on the evaluation of a selected prognostic marker using prostate cancer as a model. METHODS: We assessed Gleason Score (GS), DNA ploidy status and phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) expression in radical prostatectomy specimens (RP) from 304 patients followed for a median of 10 years (interquartile range 6-12)...
June 15, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617683/estimation-of-population-based-cancer-specific-potential-years-of-life-lost-in-belgium
#7
Geert Silversmit, Evelien Vaes, Liesbet van Eycken
The potential years of life lost (PYLL) observed in a cohort of cancer patients cannot be fully assigned to the cancer as both cancer-related and non-cancer-related deaths contribute. A method is presented to decompose the observed all-cause PYLL into cancer mortality and population background mortality fractions when cause of death information is not available. Furthermore, the association of cancer-specific PYLL with cancer-specific mortality and mean age at diagnosis is explored and the impact of the follow-up window length is examined...
June 14, 2017: European Journal of Cancer Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615679/combination-of-rad001-everolimus-and-docetaxel-reduces-prostate-and-breast-cancer-cell-vegf-production-and-tumour-vascularisation-independently-of-sphingosine-kinase-1
#8
Heba Alshaker, Qi Wang, Torsten Böhler, Robert Mills, Mathias Winkler, Tawfiq Arafat, Yoshiaki Kawano, Dmitri Pchejetski
Resistance to docetaxel is a key problem in current prostate and breast cancer management. We have recently discovered a new molecular mechanism of prostate cancer docetaxel chemoresistance mediated by the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/sphingosine-kinase-1 (SK1) pathway. Here we investigated the influence of this pathway on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production and tumour vascularisation in hormone resistant prostate and breast cancer models. Immunofluorescent staining of tumour sections from human oestrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer patients showed a strong correlation between phosphorylated P70S6 kinase (mTOR downstream target), VEGF and SK1 protein expression...
June 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614972/anti-inflammatory-effects-of-a-traditional-korean-medicine-ojayeonjonghwan
#9
Sun-Young Nam, Kyu-Yeob Kim, Mi Hye Kim, Jae-Bum Jang, So-Young Rah, Hee Jeong Chae, Jin-Man Lee, Hyung-Min Kim, Hyun-Ja Jeong
OBJECTIVE: To study the anti-inflammatory properties of OJ. CONTEXT: Ojayeonjonghwan (OJ) is a traditional Korean prescription, which has been widely used for the treatment of prostatitis. However, no scientific study has been performed of the anti-inflammatory effects of OJ. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Peritoneal macrophages were isolated 3-4 days after injecting a C57BL/6J mouse with thioglycollate. They were then treated with OJ water extract (0...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614300/pten-counteracts-fbxl2-to-promote-ip3r3-and-ca-2-mediated-apoptosis-limiting-tumour-growth
#10
Shafi Kuchay, Carlotta Giorgi, Daniele Simoneschi, Julia Pagan, Sonia Missiroli, Anita Saraf, Laurence Florens, Michael P Washburn, Ana Collazo-Lorduy, Mireia Castillo-Martin, Carlos Cordon-Cardo, Said M Sebti, Paolo Pinton, Michele Pagano
In response to environmental cues that promote IP3 (inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate) generation, IP3 receptors (IP3Rs) located on the endoplasmic reticulum allow the 'quasisynaptical' feeding of calcium to the mitochondria to promote oxidative phosphorylation. However, persistent Ca(2+) release results in mitochondrial Ca(2+) overload and consequent apoptosis. Among the three mammalian IP3Rs, IP3R3 appears to be the major player in Ca(2+)-dependent apoptosis. Here we show that the F-box protein FBXL2 (the receptor subunit of one of 69 human SCF (SKP1, CUL1, F-box protein) ubiquitin ligase complexes) binds IP3R3 and targets it for ubiquitin-, p97- and proteasome-mediated degradation to limit Ca(2+) influx into mitochondria...
June 14, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614298/erf-mutations-reveal-a-balance-of-ets-factors-controlling-prostate-oncogenesis
#11
Rohit Bose, Wouter R Karthaus, Joshua Armenia, Wassim Abida, Phillip J Iaquinta, Zeda Zhang, John Wongvipat, Elizabeth V Wasmuth, Neel Shah, Patrick S Sullivan, Michael G Doran, Ping Wang, Anna Patruno, Yilin Zhao, Deyou Zheng, Nikolaus Schultz, Charles L Sawyers
Half of all prostate cancers are caused by the TMPRSS2-ERG gene-fusion, which enables androgens to drive expression of the normally silent E26 transformation-specific (ETS) transcription factor ERG in prostate cells. Recent genomic landscape studies of such cancers have reported recurrent point mutations and focal deletions of another ETS member, the ETS2 repressor factor ERF. Here we show these ERF mutations cause decreased protein stability and mostly occur in tumours without ERG upregulation. ERF loss recapitulates the morphological and phenotypic features of ERG gain in normal mouse prostate cells, including expansion of the androgen receptor transcriptional repertoire, and ERF has tumour suppressor activity in the same genetic background of Pten loss that yields oncogenic activity by ERG...
June 14, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607544/analysis-of-fascin-1-in-relation-to-gleason-risk-classification-and-nuclear-ets-related-gene-status-of-human-prostate-carcinomas-an-immunohistochemical-study-of-clinically-annotated-tumours-from-the-wales-cancer-bank
#12
Matthew T Jefferies, Christopher S Pope, Howard G Kynaston, Alan R Clarke, Richard M Martin, Josephine C Adams
Although prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing can identify early-stage prostate cancers, additional biomarkers are needed for risk stratification. In one study, high levels of the actin-bundling protein, fascin-1, were correlated with lethal-phase, hormone-refractory prostate cancer. Analyses of independent samples are needed to establish the value of fascin-1 as a possible biomarker. We examined fascin-1 by immunohistochemistry in tumour specimens from the Wales Cancer Bank in comparison with nuclear-located ETS-related gene (ERG), an emerging marker for aggressive prostate cancer...
2017: Biomarkers in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607123/plasma-levels-of-intact-and-cleaved-urokinase-plasminogen-activator-receptor-upar-in-men-with-clinically-localised-prostate-cancer
#13
Gitte Kristensen, Kasper Drimer Berg, Solvej Lippert, Ib Jarle Christensen, Klaus Brasso, Gunilla Høyer-Hansen, Martin Andreas Røder
AIMS: Lymph node metastasis (N1) is an adverse prognostic factor for men with clinically localised prostate cancer (PCa), but the prediction of N1 disease remains difficult. Urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) plays an important role in angiogenesis and tumorigenesis. We analysed whether plasma levels of the soluble uPAR forms uPAR(I-III), uPAR(II-III) and uPAR(I) were associated with the risk of N1 disease in men with clinically localised PCa. METHODS: The present study includes all men (n=518) who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP) for clinically localised PCa, 29 of whom had N1 disease...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605401/comparison-of-pre-processing-methods-for-infinium-humanmethylation450-beadchip-array
#14
Yu-Jia Shiah, Michael Fraser, Robert G Bristow, Paul C Boutros
Motivation: Microarrays are widely used to quantify DNA methylation because they are economical, require only small quantities of input DNA and focus on well-characterized regions of the genome. However, pre-processing of methylation microarray data is challenging because of confounding factors that include background fluorescence, dye bias and the impact of germline polymorphisms. Therefore, we present valuable insights and a framework for those seeking the most optimal pre-processing method through a data-driven approach...
June 10, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599295/inhibition-of-the-pi3k-akt-mtor-pathway-activates-autophagy-and-compensatory-ras-raf-mek-erk-signalling-in-prostate-cancer
#15
Dominika E Butler, Christopher Marlein, Hannah F Walker, Fiona M Frame, Vincent M Mann, Matthew S Simms, Barry R Davies, Anne T Collins, Norman J Maitland
The PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway is frequently activated in advanced prostate cancer, due to loss of the tumour suppressor PTEN, and is an important axis for drug development. We have assessed the molecular and functional consequences of pathway blockade by inhibiting AKT and mTOR kinases either in combination or as individual drug treatments. In established prostate cancer cell lines, a decrease in cell viability and in phospho-biomarker expression was observed. Although apoptosis was not induced, a G1 growth arrest was observed in PTEN null LNCaP cells, but not in BPH1 or PC3 cells...
May 23, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593860/evolving-adoptive-cellular-therapies-in-urological-malignancies
#16
REVIEW
Yien Ning Sophia Wong, Kroopa Joshi, Martin Pule, Karl S Peggs, Charles Swanton, Sergio A Quezada, Mark Linch
Immunotherapies have long been used to treat urological cancers but rarely lead to cure. In the past 5 years, success of immune checkpoint inhibition has led to a resurgence of enthusiasm for immunotherapy in the treatment of solid tumours. Increased understanding of tumour immune biology, technological advancements of gene transfer and cell culture, and improved clinical infrastructures for routine delivery of cell products, has made cell-based immunotherapeutics a real prospect for cancer therapy. These scientific and clinical activities, attempting to exploit the innate and adaptive immune systems for therapeutic gain, are well exemplified by the urological malignancies of renal, bladder, prostate, and penile cancer, a group of anatomically localised diseases, each with a distinct biology and different immunotherapeutic challenges...
June 2017: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593386/prostate-specific-membrane-antigen-pet-imaging-and-immunohistochemistry-in-adenoid-cystic-carcinoma-%C3%AF-a-preliminary-analysis
#17
Thomas J W Klein Nulent, Robert J J van Es, Gerard C Krijger, Remco de Bree, Stefan M Willems, Bart de Keizer
BACKGROUND: Adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC) of the head and neck is an uncommon malignant epithelial tumour of the secretory glands. Many patients develop slowly growing local recurrence and/or distant metastasis, for which treatment options are limited. A retrospective analysis of 9 AdCC patients was conducted to analyse the visualization of AdCC on PSMA PET/CT and to investigate the expression of PSMA on primary, recurrent and metastatic AdCC tumour tissue using immunohistochemistry...
June 7, 2017: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591719/stable-and-high-expression-of-galectin-8-tightly-controls-metastatic-progression-of-prostate-cancer
#18
Lucas Daniel Gentilini, Felipe Martín Jaworski, Carolina Tiraboschi, Ignacio González Pérez, Monica Lidia Kotler, Anne Chauchereau, Diego Jose Laderach, Daniel Compagno
Two decades ago, Galectin-8 was described as a prostate carcinoma biomarker since it is only expressed in the neoplastic prostate, but not in the healthy tissue. To date, no biological function has been attributed to Galectin-8 that could explain this differential expression. In this study we silenced Galectin-8 in two human prostate cancer cell lines, PC3 and IGR-CaP1, and designed a pre-clinical experimental model that allows monitoring the pathology from its early steps to the long-term metastatic stages...
May 18, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590274/survival-from-cancer-in-the-north-region-of-portugal-results-from-the-first-decade-of-the-millennium
#19
Luís Antunes, Lúcio L Santos, Maria José Bento
The aim of this study was to evaluate net survival from cancer diagnosed during the period 2001/2010 in the north region of Portugal to identify the tumours that need actions to improve the outcomes. Data were retrieved from the North Region Cancer Registry of Portugal database. The top 20 cancer sites in adults were considered: oesophagus, stomach, colon, rectum, pancreas, liver, larynx, lung, skin melanoma, breast, cervix, corpus uteri, ovary, prostate, kidney, bladder, brain and central nervous system, thyroid, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and multiple myeloma...
June 5, 2017: European Journal of Cancer Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590268/ar-v7-liquid-biopsy-for-treatment-stratification-in-prostate-cancer-how-close-are-we
#20
Claire Fletcher
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent clinical introduction of the novel antiandrogen, Enzalutamide (Enza), CYP17 inhibitor, Abiraterone (Abi), and the second-generation chemotherapeutic, Cabazitaxel, has increased survival of patients with advanced, metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). However, de novo and acquired resistance rates are high. A liquid biopsy that can rapidly, sensitively and robustly identify which patients will respond to treatment in a minimally invasive manner is urgently required to permit switch to a potentially more efficacious drug regimen, thus increasing survival whilst avoiding debilitating side effects associated with unnecessary treatment...
June 5, 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
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