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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457293/ginsenoside-rh2-inhibits-prostate-cancer-cell-growth-through-suppression-of-microrna-4295-that-activates-cdkn1a
#1
Qiruo Gao, Junhua Zheng
OBJECTIVES: Ginsenoside Rh2 (GRh2) has demonstrative therapeutic effects on a variety of diseases, including some tumours. However, the effects of GRh2 on prostate cancer (PC) cell growth remain unknown, and were, thus, addressed in the present study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PC3 and DU145 PC cell lines were exposed to GRh2. Cell proliferation was assessed in an MTT assay and by BrdU incorporation. Apoptosis of the cells were assessed by TUNEL staining. Total RNA was assessed by RT-qPCR...
February 19, 2018: Cell Proliferation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448999/quantitative-perineural-invasion-is-a-prognostic-marker-in-prostate-cancer
#2
Sabine Lubig, Thore Thiesler, Stefan Müller, Roland Vorreuther, Norbert Leipner, Glen Kristiansen
This study aimed to investigate the prognostic value of a quantitative, detailed, yet practical analysis of perineural invasion in radical prostatectomy specimens in a high-risk prostate cancer cohort. A total of 114 patients with prostate cancer who underwent radical prostatectomy between 2000 and 2013 were analysed. Using S100 protein immunohistochemistry assisted in the detection of nerves. In the area of closest proximity of the tumour to the dorso-lateral margins, nerves were counted and the infiltration of nerves was categorised (0-3)...
February 12, 2018: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447642/is-it-just-a-psoriasiform-dermatitis
#3
Olalla Figueroa-Silva, Martina Espasandín-Arias, Francisco Javier García-Martínez, Virginia Fernández-Redondo, Jaime Toribio
Bazex syndrome (BS) is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome most frequently associated with squamous cell carcinomas of the upper aerodigestive tractand other tumours. Characteristically, cutaneous lesions precede the diagnosis of malignancy. We report a 72-year-old patient with 1-year history of acral dermatitis. The diagnosis of BS was based on the presence of psoriasiform acral dermatitis and the evidence of two simultaneous tumors (prostate adenocarcinoma and undifferentiated carcinoma ofthe submandibular gland)...
November 15, 2017: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444163/the-effect-of-nutramiltm-complex-food-for-special-medical-purpose-on-breast-and-prostate-carcinoma-cells
#4
Aneta A Koronowicz, Mariola Drozdowska, Barbara Wielgos, Ewelina Piasna-Słupecka, Dominik Domagała, Joanna Dulińska-Litewka, Teresa Leszczyńska
NutramilTM Complex is a multicomponent food product that meets the requirements of a food for special medical purpose. As a complete, high-energy diet it consists of properly balanced nutrients, vitamins and minerals. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of NutramilTM Complex on breast and prostate carcinoma cells. Our results showed that NutramilTM Complex reduced the viability and proliferation of breast and prostate cancer cells and that this process was associated with the induction of apoptosis via activation of caspase signalling...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438723/discovery-and-development-of-odm-204-a-novel-nonsteroidal-compound-for-the-treatment-of-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-by-blocking-the-androgen-receptor-and-inhibiting-cyp17a1
#5
REVIEW
Riikka Oksala, Anu Moilanen, Reetta Riikonen, Petteri Rummakko, Arja Karjalainen, Mikko Passiniemi, Gerd Wohlfahrt, Päivi Taavitsainen, Chira Malmström, Meri Ramela, Hanna-Maija Metsänkylä, Riikka Huhtaniemi, Pekka J Kallio, Mika Vj Mustonen
We report the discovery of a novel nonsteroidal dual-action compound, ODM-204, that holds promise for treating patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), an advanced form of prostate cancer characterised by high androgen receptor (AR) expression and persistent activation of the AR signaling axis by residual tissue androgens. For ODM-204, has a dual mechanism of action. The compound is anticipated to efficiently dampen androgenic stimuli in the body by inhibiting CYP17A1, the prerequisite enzyme for the formation of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and testosterone (T), and by blocking AR with high affinity and specificity...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437041/preoperative-exercise-halves-the-postoperative-complication-rate-in-patients-with-lung-cancer-a-systematic-review-of-the-effect-of-exercise-on-complications-length-of-stay-and-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-cancer
#6
REVIEW
Daniel Steffens, Paula R Beckenkamp, Mark Hancock, Michael Solomon, Jane Young
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effectiveness of preoperative exercises interventions in patients undergoing oncological surgery, on postoperative complications, length of hospital stay and quality of life. DESIGN: Intervention systematic review with meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, Embase and PEDro. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING STUDIES: Trials investigating the effectiveness of preoperative exercise for any oncological patient undergoing surgery were included...
February 1, 2018: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434366/potentiating-prostate-cancer-immunotherapy-with-oncolytic-viruses
#7
REVIEW
Patrick Lee, Shashi Gujar
The clinical effectiveness of immunotherapies for prostate cancer remains subpar compared with that for other cancers. The goal of most immunotherapies is the activation of immune effectors, such as T cells and natural killer cells, as the presence of these activated mediators positively correlates with patient outcomes. Clinical evidence shows that prostate cancer is immunogenic, accessible to the immune system, and can be targeted by antitumour immune responses. However, owing to the detrimental effects of prostate-cancer-associated immunosuppression, even the newest immunotherapeutic approaches fail to initiate the clinically desired antitumour immune reaction...
February 13, 2018: Nature Reviews. Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413967/fatty-acid-profile-in-peri-prostatic-adipose-tissue-and-prostate-cancer-aggressiveness-in-african-caribbean-and-caucasian-patients
#8
Sandy Figiel, Michelle Pinault, Isabelle Domingo, Cyrille Guimaraes, Roseline Guibon, Pierre Besson, Elsa Tavernier, Pascal Blanchet, Luc Multigner, Franck Bruyère, Olivier Haillot, Romain Mathieu, Sebastien Vincendeau, Nathalie Rioux-Leclercq, Souhil Lebdai, Abdel-Rahmene Azzouzi, Marie-Aimee Perrouin-Verbe, Georges Fournier, Laurent Doucet, Jerome Rigaud, Karine Renaudin, Karine Mahéo, Gaëlle Fromont
BACKGROUND: Genetic and nutritional factors have been linked to the risk of aggressive prostate cancer (PCa). The fatty acid (FA) composition of peri-prostatic adipose tissue (PPAT), which reflects the past FA intake, is potentially involved in PCa progression. We analysed the FA composition of PPAT, in correlation with the ethno-geographical origin of the patients and markers of tumour aggressiveness. METHODS: From a cohort of 1000 men treated for PCa by radical prostatectomy, FA composition of PPAT was analysed in 156 patients (106 Caucasians and 50 African-Caribbeans), 78 with an indolent tumour (ISUP group 1 + pT2 + PSA <10 ng/mL) and 78 with an aggressive tumour (ISUP group 4-5 + pT3)...
March 2018: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410498/knockdown-of-spry4-and-spry4-it1-inhibits-cell-growth-and-phosphorylation-of-akt-in-human-testicular-germ-cell-tumours
#9
Mrinal K Das, Kari Furu, Herman F Evensen, Øyvind P Haugen, Trine B Haugen
Testicular germ cell tumour (TGCT) is the most common cancer in young men in large parts of the world, but the aetiology is mainly unknown. Genome-wide association studies have so far identified about 50 susceptibility loci associated with TGCT, including SPRY4. SPRY4 has shown tumour suppressor activity in several cancer cells, such as lung and prostate, while it was found to act as an oncogene in ovarian cancer. An intronic region within the SPRY4 gene produces a long non-coding RNA, SPRY4-IT1, which has been reported to act as an oncogene in melanoma, breast cancer, and colorectal cancer, and as a tumour suppressor in lung cancer...
February 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402961/itgb1-dependent-upregulation-of-caveolin-1-switches-tgf%C3%AE-signalling-from-tumour-suppressive-to-oncogenic-in-prostate-cancer
#10
Teijo Pellinen, Sami Blom, Sara Sánchez, Katja Välimäki, John-Patrick Mpindi, Hind Azegrouz, Raffaele Strippoli, Raquel Nieto, Mariano Vitón, Irene Palacios, Riku Turkki, Yinhai Wang, Miguel Sánchez-Alvarez, Stig Nordling, Anna Bützow, Tuomas Mirtti, Antti Rannikko, María C Montoya, Olli Kallioniemi, Miguel A Del Pozo
Caveolin-1 (CAV1) is over-expressed in prostate cancer (PCa) and is associated with adverse prognosis, but the molecular mechanisms linking CAV1 expression to disease progression are poorly understood. Extensive gene expression correlation analysis, quantitative multiplex imaging of clinical samples, and analysis of the CAV1-dependent transcriptome, supported that CAV1 re-programmes TGFβ signalling from tumour suppressive to oncogenic (i.e. induction of SLUG, PAI-1 and suppression of CDH1, DSP, CDKN1A). Supporting such a role, CAV1 knockdown led to growth arrest and inhibition of cell invasion in prostate cancer cell lines...
February 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402700/chromatin-organisation-and-cancer-prognosis-a-pan-cancer-study
#11
Andreas Kleppe, Fritz Albregtsen, Ljiljana Vlatkovic, Manohar Pradhan, Birgitte Nielsen, Tarjei S Hveem, Hanne A Askautrud, Gunnar B Kristensen, Arild Nesbakken, Jone Trovik, Håkon Wæhre, Ian Tomlinson, Neil A Shepherd, Marco Novelli, David J Kerr, Håvard E Danielsen
BACKGROUND: Chromatin organisation affects gene expression and regional mutation frequencies and contributes to carcinogenesis. Aberrant organisation of DNA has been correlated with cancer prognosis in analyses of the chromatin component of tumour cell nuclei using image texture analysis. As yet, the methodology has not been sufficiently validated to permit its clinical application. We aimed to define and validate a novel prognostic biomarker for the automatic detection of heterogeneous chromatin organisation...
February 2, 2018: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398263/expression-of-androgen-receptor-splice-variant-7-or-9-in-whole-blood-does-not-predict-response-to-androgen-axis-targeting-agents-in-metastatic-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer
#12
Sarah Q To, Edmond M Kwan, Heidi C Fettke, Andrew Mant, Maria M Docanto, Luciano Martelotto, Patricia Bukczynska, Nicole Ng, Lisa-Jane K Graham, Phillip Parente, Carmel Pezaro, Kate Mahon, Lisa Horvath, Tilman Todenhöfer, Arun A Azad
In 2014, a landmark study was published demonstrating that the expression of androgen receptor splice variant (AR-V) 7 was a negative predictive biomarker for response to abiraterone acetate and enzalutamide in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients. However, these results were not supported by the recently reported ARMOR3-SV phase III clinical trial, which employed an identical circulating tumour cell assay to assess AR-V7 expression. Therefore, the predictive utility of AR-V7 expression in mCRPC remains uncertain, as does any potential association between other AR-Vs and treatment response...
February 2, 2018: European Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397734/unique-features-of-metformin-a-combined-experimental-theoretical-and-simulation-study-of-its-structure-dynamics-and-interaction-energetics-with-dna-grooves
#13
Sayantan Mondal, Rudra Narayan Samajdar, Saumyak Mukherjee, Aninda Jiban Bhattacharyya, Biman Bagchi
There are certain small molecules that exhibit extraordinarily diverse biological activities. Metformin is one of them. It is widely used as anti-diabetic drug for type-two diabetes. Recent evidences of its role in anti-tumour activities and increasing the survival rates of cancer patients (namely colorectal, breast, pancreas and prostate cancer) are emerging. However, theoretical studies of structure and dynamics of metformin have not yet been fully explored. In this work, we investigate the characteristic structural and dynamical features of three mono-protonated forms of metformin hydrochloride with the help of experiments, quantum chemical calculations and atomistic molecular dynamics simulations...
February 3, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396636/imaging-%C3%AE-v%C3%AE-3-integrin-expression-in-skeletal-metastases-with-99mtc-maraciclatide-single-photon-emission-computed-tomography-detection-and-therapy-response-assessment
#14
Gary J R Cook, Gurdip K Azad, Benjamin P Taylor, Eugene Lee, Matthew S Morrison, Simon Hughes, Stephen Morris, Sarah Rudman, Simon Chowdhury, Vicky Goh
PURPOSE: Osteoclast activity is an important factor in the pathogenesis of skeletal metastases and is a potential therapeutic target. This study aimed to determine if selective uptake of 99mTc-maraciclatide, a radiopharmaceutical targeting αvβ3 integrin, occurs in prostate cancer (PCa) bone metastases and to observe the changes following systemic therapy. METHODS: The study group comprised 17 men with bone-predominant metastatic PCa who underwent whole-body planar and single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) imaging with 99mTc-maraciclatide before (n = 17) and 12 weeks after (n = 11) starting treatment with abiraterone...
February 2, 2018: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395502/docetaxel-versus-surveillance-after-radical-prostatectomy-for-high-risk-prostate-cancer-results-from-the-prospective-randomised-open-label-phase-3-scandinavian-prostate-cancer-group-12-trial
#15
Göran M Ahlgren, Per Flodgren, Teuvo L J Tammela, Pirkko Kellokumpu-Lehtinen, Michael Borre, Anders Angelsen, Jon Reidar Iversen, Asgerdur Sverrisdottir, Eirikur Jonsson, Lisa Sengelov
BACKGROUND: Adjuvant chemotherapy is standard treatment for other solid tumours, but to date has not proven effective in prostate cancer. OBJECTIVE: o evaluate whether six cycles of docetaxel alone improve biochemical disease-free survival after radical prostatectomy for high-risk prostate cancer. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Open-label, randomised multinational phase 3 trial. Enrolment of 459 patients after prostatectomy. INCLUSION CRITERIA: high-risk pT2 margin positive or pT3a Gleason score ≥4+3, pT3b, or lymph node positive disease Gleason score ≥3+4...
January 27, 2018: European Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395269/global-surveillance-of-trends-in-cancer-survival-2000-14-concord-3-analysis-of-individual-records-for-37%C3%A2-513%C3%A2-025-patients-diagnosed-with-one-of-18-cancers-from-322-population-based-registries-in-71-countries
#16
Claudia Allemani, Tomohiro Matsuda, Veronica Di Carlo, Rhea Harewood, Melissa Matz, Maja Nikšić, Audrey Bonaventure, Mikhail Valkov, Christopher J Johnson, Jacques Estève, Olufemi J Ogunbiyi, Gulnar Azevedo E Silva, Wan-Qing Chen, Sultan Eser, Gerda Engholm, Charles A Stiller, Alain Monnereau, Ryan R Woods, Otto Visser, Gek Hsiang Lim, Joanne Aitken, Hannah K Weir, Michel P Coleman
BACKGROUND: In 2015, the second cycle of the CONCORD programme established global surveillance of cancer survival as a metric of the effectiveness of health systems and to inform global policy on cancer control. CONCORD-3 updates the worldwide surveillance of cancer survival to 2014. METHODS: CONCORD-3 includes individual records for 37·5 million patients diagnosed with cancer during the 15-year period 2000-14. Data were provided by 322 population-based cancer registries in 71 countries and territories, 47 of which provided data with 100% population coverage...
January 30, 2018: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393268/integrated-68gallium-labelled-prostate-specific-membrane-antigen-11-positron-emission-tomography-magnetic-resonance-imaging-enhances-discriminatory-power-of-multi-parametric-prostate-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#17
Mohammad Al-Bayati, Johannes Grueneisen, Susanne Lütje, Lino M Sawicki, Saravanabavaan Suntharalingam, Stephan Tschirdewahn, Michael Forsting, Herbert Rübben, Ken Herrmann, Lale Umutlu, Axel Wetter
PURPOSE: To evaluate diagnostic accuracy of integrated 68Gallium labelled prostate-specific membrane antigen (68Ga-PSMA)-11 positron emission tomography (PET)/MRI in patients with primary prostate cancer (PCa) as compared to multi-parametric MRI. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 22 patients with recently diagnosed primary PCa underwent clinically indicated 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT for initial staging followed by integrated 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/MRI. Images of multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI), PET and PET/MRI were evaluated separately by applying Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PIRADSv2) for mpMRI and a 5-point Likert scale for PET and PET/MRI...
January 25, 2018: Urologia Internationalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391368/predicting-prostate-cancer-progression-protocol-for-a-retrospective-cohort-study-to-identify-prognostic-factors-for-prostate-cancer-outcomes-using-routine-primary-care-data
#18
Samuel W D Merriel, Margaret T May, Richard M Martin
INTRODUCTION: Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men in the UK, with nearly 40 000 diagnosed in 2014; and it is the second most common cause of male cancer-related mortality. The clinical conundrum is that most men live with prostate cancer rather than die from it, while existing treatments have significant associated morbidity. Recent studies have shown very low mortality rates (1% after a median of 10-year follow-up) and no treatment-related reductions in mortality, in men with localised prostate cancer...
January 31, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390981/selective-oestrogen-receptor-antagonists-inhibit-oesophageal-cancer-cell-proliferation-in-vitro
#19
Waleed Al-Khyatt, Cristina Tufarelli, Raheela Khan, Syed Yousef Iftikhar
BACKGROUND: Oestrogen receptors (ER) have a well-established role to the initiation, progression and regulation of responses to treatment of breast, prostate, and lung cancers. Previous data indicates altered ER expression in oesophageal cancers (OC). However the role of ER subtypes and ER specific inhibitors in the regulation of OC progression remains unclear. This study sought to assess levels of ERα and ERβ in OC. The effects of highly selective ER antagonists on cell proliferation and apoptosis in two OC adenocarcinoma cell lines was also studied...
February 1, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385093/regulation-of-cancer-stem-cell-metabolism-by-secreted-frizzled-related-protein-4-sfrp4
#20
Abhijeet Deshmukh, Frank Arfuso, Philip Newsholme, Arun Dharmarajan
Tumours contain a small number of treatment-resistant cancer stem cells (CSCs), and it is through these that tumour regrowth originates at secondary sites, thus rendering CSCs an attractive target for treatment. Cancer cells adapt cellular metabolism for aggressive proliferation. Tumour cells use less efficient glycolysis for the production of ATP and increasing tumour mass, instead of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). CSCs show distinct metabolic shift and, depending on the cancer type, can be highly glycolytic or OXPHOS dependent...
January 31, 2018: Cancers
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