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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223166/efficacy-of-photochemical-internalisation-using-disulfonated-chlorin-and-porphyrin-photosensitisers-an-in-vitro-study-in-2d-and-3d-prostate-cancer-models
#1
Alejandra Martinez de Pinillos Bayona, Josephine H Woodhams, Hayley Pye, Rifat A Hamoudi, Caroline M Moore, Alexander J MacRobert
This study shows the therapeutic outcome of Photochemical Internalisation (PCI) in prostate cancer in vitro surpasses that of Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) and could improve prostate PDT in the clinic, whilst avoiding chemotherapeutics side effects. In addition, the study assesses the potential of PCI with two different photosensitisers (TPCS2a and TPPS2a) in prostate cancer cells (human PC3 and rat MatLyLu) using standard 2D monolayer culture and 3D biomimetic model. Photosensitisers were used alone for photodynamic therapy (PDT) or with the cytotoxin saporin (PCI)...
February 18, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222630/association-of-vdr-polymorphisms-taq-i-and-bsm-i-with-prostate-cancer-a-new-meta-analysis
#2
Sheng Liu, Hairong Cai, Weisong Cheng, Haitao Zhang, Zhengbo Pan, Dongguo Wang
Objective Prostate cancer is a malignant tumour that poses a serious risk to human health. Epidemiological studies suggest that it may be associated with vitamin D receptor gene ( VDR) polymorphisms. Previous work investigated potential risks between Taq I (rs731236) and Bsm I (rs1544410) VDR polymorphisms with prostate cancer in humans; however, results are inconsistent. Methods We conducted a meta-analysis to retrieve genetic association analyses of rs731236 and rs1544410 polymorphisms with prostate cancer from studies published between 2006-2016...
February 2017: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209968/activating-akt1-mutations-alter-dna-double-strand-break-repair-and-radiosensitivity
#3
S Oeck, K Al-Refae, H Riffkin, G Wiel, R Handrick, D Klein, G Iliakis, V Jendrossek
The survival kinase Akt has clinical relevance to radioresistance. However, its contributions to the DNA damage response, DNA double strand break (DSB) repair and apoptosis remain poorly defined and often contradictory. We used a genetic approach to explore the consequences of genetic alterations of Akt1 for the cellular radiation response. While two activation-associated mutants with prominent nuclear access, the phospho-mimicking Akt1-TDSD and the clinically relevant PH-domain mutation Akt1-E17K, accelerated DSB repair and improved survival of irradiated Tramp-C1 murine prostate cancer cells and Akt1-knockout murine embryonic fibroblasts in vitro, the classical constitutively active membrane-targeted myrAkt1 mutant had the opposite effects...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197764/new-frontiers-in-prostate-cancer-imaging-clinical-utility-of-prostate-specific-membrane-antigen-positron-emission-tomography
#4
REVIEW
Asim Afaq, Deepak Batura, Jamshed Bomanji
Prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography (PSMA PET) is a relatively new method of imaging prostate cancer that increases diagnostic accuracy in detecting and guiding management in various stages of the disease pathway. Gallium-68-labelled PSMA PET has increased the sensitivity of detection of disease recurrence at low PSA levels, thus allowing an optimal window for salvage treatment. Apart from its use in disease recurrence, PSMA PET has the potential for increasing sensitivity and specificity for primary tumour localisation and in detecting lymph node disease, leading to a more accurate initial staging of the condition...
February 14, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196367/clinical-factors-predicting-tumour-upgrading-in-patients-under-active-surveillance-and-elected-to-active-treatment-after-disease-reclassification-or-progression
#5
Antonio Benito Porcaro, Francesca Cavicchioli, Nicolò De Luyk, Daniele Mattevi, Paolo Corsi, Marco Sebben, Alessandro Tafuri, Tania Processali, Davide Inverardi, Giovanni Cacciamani, Davide De Marchi, Matteo Balzarro, Maria A Cerruto, Matteo Brunelli, Giovanni Novella, Salvatore Siracusano, Walter Artibani
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate clinical factors associated with tumour upgrading (UPG) in low-intermediate risk patients who progressed while under active surveillance (AS) and underwent delayed radical prostatectomy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The evaluated factors included prostate specific antigen (PSA), prostate volume, PSA density and number of biopsy positive cores (BPC). Multivariate logistic regression by the forward step Wald procedure was used. RESULTS: The study evaluated 24 patients who had UPG in 13 cases (54...
February 14, 2017: Urologia Internationalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195060/pathophysiology-and-clinical-characteristics-of-pain-in-most-common-locations-in-cancer-patients
#6
W Leppert, R Zajaczkowska, J Wordliczek, J Dobrogowski, J Woron, M Krzakowski
Pain is one of the most common symptoms in cancer patients, especially in advanced disease. However, pain also accompanies a significant percentage of patients during diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. In some patients pain may be the first symptom of the disease. The causes of pain in cancer patients are often multifactorial including direct and indirect cancer effects, anticancer therapy and co-morbidities. Moreover, pain in cancer patients often has mixed pathophysiology including both nociceptive and neuropathic components, especially in patients with bone metastases...
December 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188816/a-chemical-genomics-approach-to-drug-reprofiling-in-oncology-antipsychotic-drug-risperidone-as-a-potential-adenocarcinoma-treatment
#7
Suzanne J Dilly, Andrew J Clark, Andrew Marsh, Daniel A Mitchell, Ricky Cain, Colin W G Fishwick, Paul C Taylor
Drug reprofiling is emerging as an effective paradigm for discovery of cancer treatments. Herein, an antipsychotic drug is immobilised using the Magic Tag(®) chemical genomics tool and screened against a T7 bacteriophage displayed library of polypeptides from Drosophila melanogaster, as a whole genome model, to uncover an interaction with a section of 17-β-HSD10, a proposed prostate cancer target. A computational study and enzyme inhibition assay with full length human 17-β-HSD10 identifies risperidone as a drug reprofiling candidate...
February 8, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183253/optimal-management-of-prostate-cancer-based-on-its-natural-clinical-history
#8
Gaetano Facchini, Francesco Perri, Gabriella Misso, Carmine D Aniello, Giuseppina Della Vittoria Scarpati, Sabrina Rossetti, Chiara Della Pepa, Salvatore Pisconti, Gerhard Unteregger, Alessia Cossu, Michele Caraglia, Massimiliano Berretta, Carla Cavaliere
Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in males and, despite a marked improvement in diagnostic techniques, a not small percentage of prostate tumours is still diagnosed in advanced stage. It is now clear that prostate cancer passes through distinct phases during its natural history, starting from an initial phase, in which the disease has a locoregional extent, until a very late phase when it becomes refractory to hormone therapy. It is important to distinguish between local disease, in which tumor may be considered localized in the gland and a systemic disease characterized by high tumor burden and/or dissemination of circulating tumour cells...
February 8, 2017: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181495/expression-of-%C3%AE-globin-by-cancer-cells-promotes-cell-survival-during-blood-borne-dissemination
#9
Yu Zheng, David T Miyamoto, Ben S Wittner, James P Sullivan, Nicola Aceto, Nicole Vincent Jordan, Min Yu, Nezihi Murat Karabacak, Valentine Comaills, Robert Morris, Rushil Desai, Niyati Desai, Erin Emmons, John D Milner, Richard J Lee, Chin-Lee Wu, Lecia V Sequist, Wilhelm Haas, David T Ting, Mehmet Toner, Sridhar Ramaswamy, Shyamala Maheswaran, Daniel A Haber
Metastasis-competent circulating tumour cells (CTCs) experience oxidative stress in the bloodstream, but their survival mechanisms are not well defined. Here, comparing single-cell RNA-Seq profiles of CTCs from breast, prostate and lung cancers, we observe consistent induction of β-globin (HBB), but not its partner α-globin (HBA). The tumour-specific origin of HBB is confirmed by sequence polymorphisms within human xenograft-derived CTCs in mouse models. Increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cultured breast CTCs triggers HBB induction, mediated through the transcriptional regulator KLF4...
February 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177203/biology-and-insights-into-the-role-of-cohesin-protease-separase-in-human-malignancies
#10
Nenggang Zhang, Debananda Pati
Separase, an enzyme that resolves sister chromatid cohesion during the metaphase-to-anaphase transition, plays a pivotal role in chromosomal segregation and cell division. Separase protein, encoded by the extra spindle pole bodies like 1 (ESPL1) gene, is overexpressed in numerous human cancers including breast, bone, brain, and prostate. Separase is oncogenic, and its overexpression is sufficient to induce mammary tumours in mice. Either acute or chronic overexpression of separase in mouse mammary glands leads to aneuploidy and tumorigenesis, and inhibition of separase enzymatic activity decreases the growth of human breast tumour xenografts in mice...
February 8, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169991/a-spatiotemporal-hypothesis-for-the-regulation-role-and-targeting-of-ampk-in-prostate-cancer
#11
REVIEW
Ayesha S Khan, Daniel E Frigo
The 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a master regulator of cellular homeostasis. Despite AMPK's known function in physiology, its role in pathological processes such as prostate cancer is enigmatic. However, emerging evidence is now beginning to decode the paradoxical role of AMPK in cancer and, therefore, inform clinicians if - and how - AMPK could be therapeutically targeted. Spatiotemporal regulation of AMPK complexes could be one of the mechanisms that governs this kinase's role in cancer. We hypothesize that different upstream stimuli will activate select subcellular AMPK complexes...
February 1, 2017: Nature Reviews. Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166537/synthetic-essentiality-of-chromatin-remodelling-factor-chd1-in-pten-deficient-cancer
#12
Di Zhao, Xin Lu, Guocan Wang, Zhengdao Lan, Wenting Liao, Jun Li, Xin Liang, Jasper Robin Chen, Sagar Shah, Xiaoying Shang, Ming Tang, Pingna Deng, Prasenjit Dey, Deepavali Chakravarti, Peiwen Chen, Denise J Spring, Nora M Navone, Patricia Troncoso, Jianhua Zhang, Y Alan Wang, Ronald A DePinho
Synthetic lethality and collateral lethality are two well-validated conceptual strategies for identifying therapeutic targets in cancers with tumour-suppressor gene deletions. Here, we explore an approach to identify potential synthetic-lethal interactions by screening mutually exclusive deletion patterns in cancer genomes. We sought to identify 'synthetic-essential' genes: those that are occasionally deleted in some cancers but are almost always retained in the context of a specific tumour-suppressor deficiency...
February 6, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163102/the-peritumoural-adipose-tissue-microenvironment-and-cancer-the-roles-of-fatty-acid-binding-protein-4-and-fatty-acid-binding-protein-5
#13
S Guaita-Esteruelas, J Gumà, L Masana, J Borràs
The adipose tissue microenvironment plays a key role in tumour initiation and progression because it provides fatty acids and adipokines to tumour cells. The fatty acid-binding protein (FABP) family is a group of small proteins that act as intracellular fatty acid transporters. Adipose-derived FABPs include FABP4 and FABP5. Both have an important role in lipid-related metabolic processes and overexpressed in many cancers, such as breast, prostate, colorectal and ovarian. Moreover, their expression in peritumoural adipose tissue is deregulated, and their circulating levels are upregulated in some tumours...
February 3, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157066/multiparametric-mri-in-detection-and-staging-of-prostate-cancer
#14
Lars Boesen
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality and the most frequently diagnosed male malignant disease among men in the Nordic countries. The manifestation of PCa ranges from indolent to highly aggressive disease and due to this high variation in PCa progression, the diagnosis and subsequent treatment planning can be challenging. The current diagnostic approach with PSA testing and digital rectal examination followed by transrectal ultrasound biopsies (TRUS-bx) lack in both sensitivity and specificity in PCa detection and offers limited information about the aggressiveness and stage of the cancer...
February 2017: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152543/asporin-is-a-stromally-expressed-marker-associated-with-prostate-cancer-progression
#15
Annie Rochette, Nadia Boufaied, Eleonora Scarlata, Lucie Hamel, Fadi Brimo, Hayley C Whitaker, Antonio Ramos-Montoya, David E Neal, Alice Dragomir, Armen Aprikian, Simone Chevalier, Axel A Thomson
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer shows considerable heterogeneity in disease progression and we propose that markers expressed in tumour stroma may be reliable predictors of aggressive tumour subtypes. METHODS: We have used Kaplan-Meier, univariate and multivariate analysis to correlate the expression of Asporin (ASPN) mRNA and protein with prostate cancer progression in independent cohorts. We used immunohistochemistry and H scoring to document stromal localisation of ASPN in a tissue microarray and mouse prostate cancer model, and correlated expression with reactive stroma, defined using Masson Trichrome staining...
February 2, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139641/reconstructing-metastatic-seeding-patterns-of-human-cancers
#16
Johannes G Reiter, Alvin P Makohon-Moore, Jeffrey M Gerold, Ivana Bozic, Krishnendu Chatterjee, Christine A Iacobuzio-Donahue, Bert Vogelstein, Martin A Nowak
Reconstructing the evolutionary history of metastases is critical for understanding their basic biological principles and has profound clinical implications. Genome-wide sequencing data has enabled modern phylogenomic methods to accurately dissect subclones and their phylogenies from noisy and impure bulk tumour samples at unprecedented depth. However, existing methods are not designed to infer metastatic seeding patterns. Here we develop a tool, called Treeomics, to reconstruct the phylogeny of metastases and map subclones to their anatomic locations...
January 31, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138747/-68-ga-psma-11-pet-ct-in-primary-staging-of-prostate-cancer-psa-and-gleason-score-predict-the-intensity-of-tracer-accumulation-in-the-primary-tumour
#17
Christian Uprimny, Alexander Stephan Kroiss, Clemens Decristoforo, Josef Fritz, Elisabeth von Guggenberg, Dorota Kendler, Lorenza Scarpa, Gianpaolo di Santo, Llanos Geraldo Roig, Johanna Maffey-Steffan, Wolfgang Horninger, Irene Johanna Virgolini
PURPOSE: Prostate cancer (PC) cells typically show increased expression of prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), which can be visualized by (68)Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT. The aim of this study was to assess the intensity of (68)Ga-PSMA-11 uptake in the primary tumour and metastases in patients with biopsy-proven PC prior to therapy, and to determine whether a correlation exists between the primary tumour-related (68)Ga-PSMA-11 accumulation and the Gleason score (GS) or prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level...
January 31, 2017: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138401/t-cadherin-in-prostate-cancer-relationship-with-cancer-progression-differentiation-and-drug-resistance
#18
Boris Dasen, Tatjana Vlajnic, Chantal Mengus, Christian Ruiz, Lukas Bubendorf, Giulio Spagnoli, Stephen Wyler, Paul Erne, Thérèse J Resink, Maria Philippova
Prostate cancer represents the second leading cause of cancer-related death in men. T-cadherin (CDH13) is an atypical GPI-anchored member of the cadherin family of adhesion molecules. Its gene was reported to be downregulated in a small series of prostate tumours. T-cadherin protein expression/localisation in prostate tissue has never been investigated. The purpose of our study was to analyse CDH13 gene and protein levels in large sets of healthy and cancer prostate tissue specimens and evaluate CDH13 effects on the sensitivity of prostate cancer cells to chemotherapy...
January 2017: Journal of Pathology. Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134934/ck2-abrogates-the-inhibitory-effects-of-prh-hhex-on-prostate-cancer-cell-migration-and-invasion-and-acts-through-prh-to-control-cell-proliferation
#19
Y H Siddiqui, R M Kershaw, E H Humphreys, E M Assis Junior, S Chaudhri, P-S Jayaraman, K Gaston
PRH/HHEX (proline-rich homeodomain protein/haematopoietically expressed homeobox protein) is a transcription factor that controls cell proliferation, cell differentiation and cell migration. Our previous work has shown that in haematopoietic cells, Protein Kinase CK2-dependent phosphorylation of PRH results in the inhibition of PRH DNA-binding activity, increased cleavage of PRH by the proteasome and the misregulation of PRH target genes. Here we show that PRH and hyper-phosphorylated PRH are present in normal prostate epithelial cells, and that hyper-phosphorylated PRH levels are elevated in benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostatic adenocarcinoma, and prostate cancer cell lines...
January 30, 2017: Oncogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133913/the-role-of-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-drivers-zeb1-and-zeb2-in-mediating-docetaxel-resistant-prostate-cancer
#20
Karen Hanrahan, Amanda O'Neill, Maria Prencipe, Jane Bugler, Lisa Murphy, Aurelie Fabre, Martin Puhr, Zoran Culig, Keefe Murphy, R William Watson
Docetaxel is the main treatment for advanced castration-resistant prostate cancer; however, resistance eventually occurs. The development of intratumoral drug-resistant subpopulations possessing a cancer stem cell (CSC) morphology is an emerging mechanism of docetaxel resistance, a process driven by epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). This study characterised EMT in docetaxel-resistant sublines through increased invasion, MMP-1 production and ZEB1 and ZEB2 expression. We also present evidence for differential EMT across PC-3 and DU145 in vitro resistance models as characterised by differential migration, cell colony scattering and susceptibility to the CSC inhibitor salinomycin...
December 19, 2016: Molecular Oncology
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