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pseudomonas keratitis

Debarun Dutta, Ajay K Vijay, Naresh Kumar, Mark D P Willcox
Purpose: To determine the ability of antimicrobial peptide melimine-coated contact lenses to reduce the incidence of microbial keratitis (MK) in a rabbit model of contact lens wear. Methods: In vitro antimicrobial activity of melimine-coated contact lenses was determined against Pseudomonas aeruginosa by viable count and a radiolabeled assay. The amount of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) associated with bacteria bound to melimine-coated and control lenses was determined...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Ali Kal, Mustafa Ilker Toker, Serpil Kaya
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of widely used multipurpose contact lens solutions against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, in addition to cystic and trophozoite forms of Acanthamoeba castellanii and A. polyphaga, that cause microbial keratitis. METHODS: Three multipurpose solutions were tested: SOLO-care, ReNu, and Opti-Free Express. The test solutions were challenged with P. aeruginosa (ATCC 27853) and S. aureus (ATCC 2913) based on the ISO stand-alone and regiment test procedure for disinfecting products, A...
October 13, 2016: International Ophthalmology
Yvonne T Wu, Connie Tam, Lucia S Zhu, David J Evans, Suzanne M J Fleiszig
PURPOSE: The type III secretion system (T3SS) is a significant virulence determinant for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Using a rodent model, we found that contact lens (CL)-related corneal infections were associated with lens surface biofilms. Here, we studied the impact of human tear fluid on CL-associated biofilm growth and T3SS expression. METHODS: P. aeruginosa biofilms were formed on contact lenses for up to 7 days with or without human tear fluid, then exposed to tear fluid for 5 or 24 h...
September 23, 2016: Ocular Surface
John H Hammond, Wesley P Hebert, Amanda Naimie, Kathryn Ray, Rachel D Van Gelder, Antonio DiGiandomenico, Prajna Lalitha, Muthiah Srinivasan, Nisha R Acharya, Thomas Lietman, Deborah A Hogan, Michael E Zegans
The Steroids for Corneal Ulcers Trial (SCUT) was a multicenter, international study of bacterial keratitis in which 101 Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections were treated. Twenty-two of 101 P. aeruginosa isolates collected had a colony morphology characteristic of a loss-of-function mutation in lasR, the gene encoding a quorum-sensing master regulator. Ulcers caused by these 22 strains were associated with larger areas of corneal opacification, worse vision, and a lower rate of vision recovery in response to treatment than ulcers caused by the other isolates...
September 2016: MSphere
Xia Qi, Sheng-Wei Ren, Feng Zhang, Yi-Qiang Wang
AIM: To research the two homologous predicted proline-rich protein genes, Mus musculus predicted gene 4736 (MP4) and proline-rich protein BstNI subfamily 1 (Prb1) which were significantly upregulated in cultured corneal organs when encountering fungal pathogen preparations. This study was to confirm the expression and potential functions of these two genes in ocular surface. METHODS: A Pseudomonas aeruginosa keratitis model was established in Balb/c mice. One day post infection, mRNA level of MP4 was measured using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and MP4 protein detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) or Western blot using a customized polyclonal anti-MP4 antibody preparation...
2016: International Journal of Ophthalmology
Manali Hazarika, Vijaya Pai H, Vinay Khanna, Harish Reddy, Kriti Tilak, Kiran Chawla
PURPOSE: To report a rare case of polymicrobial keratitis due to Balantidium coli and gram-negative bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae, in a soft contact lens (CL) wearer. METHODS: We report a case of CL-related keratitis due to B. coli, P. aeruginosa, and K. pneumoniae. RESULTS: The culture of the corneal scrapings, the CL cleaning solution, and the CL revealed the growth of a rare ciliated parasite, B. coli, along with gram-negative bacteria, namely, P...
August 24, 2016: Cornea
Carla Sofia Ferreira, Luis Figueira, Nuno Moreira-Gonçalves, Raúl Moreira, Luis Torrão, Fernando Falcão-Reis
OBJECTIVES: To study the microbial profile, antibiotic susceptibility pattern, risk factors, therapeutic trends, and clinical outcomes for microbial keratitis (MK) in a tertiary health care center. METHODS: All cases with suspected bacterial keratitis that were followed at consultation from September 2007 to August 2015 were included. Microbial cultures were obtained and patients were managed following an internal protocol. RESULTS: Two hundred thirty-five patients were included, with a mean age of 50...
July 12, 2016: Eye & Contact Lens
Mahesh K Bandara, Simin Masoudi, Hua Zhu, Rani Bandara, Mark D P Willcox
PURPOSE: To investigate the ability of protamine, alone or in combination with other antimicrobial agents, to kill bacteria and fungi associated with contact lens-related keratitis. METHODS: The International Organization for Standardization 14729:2001 procedure was used to test the antimicrobial activity of solutions of protamine (23-228 μM) with and without polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) and ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA). The recommended ISO panel of microbes along with six clinical isolates was tested...
August 17, 2016: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
Takaaki Furusawa, Hidetomo Iwano, Yutaro Hiyashimizu, Kazuki Matsubara, Hidetoshi Higuchi, Hajime Nagahata, Hidekazu Niwa, Yoshinari Katayama, Yuta Kinoshita, Katsuro Hagiwara, Tomohito Iwasaki, Yasunori Tanji, Hiroshi Yokota, Yutaka Tamura
UNLABELLED: Bacterial keratitis of the horse is mainly caused by staphylococci, streptococci, and pseudomonads. Of these bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa sometimes causes rapid corneal corruption and, in some cases, blindness. Antimicrobial resistance can make treatment very difficult. Therefore, new strategies to control bacterial infection are required. A bacteriophage (phage) is a virus that specifically infects and kills bacteria. Since phage often can lyse antibiotic-resistant bacteria because the killing mechanism is different, we examined the use of phage to treat horse bacterial keratitis...
September 1, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Bertha Ayi
This chapter is unique in its focus on infections that are acquired in water. For those who like to swim and spend time in water parks and pools, the exposure to water and therefore the risk of infection is higher. Recreational water illnesses are illnesses related to recreation in water. Of these recreational water illnesses, infections are the most common because water laden with microorganisms or contaminated by human activity gains access to healthy tissue through the skin and body orifices. Infection occurs by inhalation, ingestion, or direct invasion of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract...
December 2015: Microbiology Spectrum
S Marasini, S Swift, S J Dean, S E Ormonde, J P Craig
Background. The bacteria isolated from severe cases of keratitis and their antibiotic sensitivity are recognised to vary geographically and over time. Objectives. To identify the most commonly isolated bacteria in keratitis cases admitted over a 24-month period to a public hospital in Auckland, New Zealand, and to investigate in vitro sensitivity to antibiotics. Methods. Hospital admissions for culture-proven bacterial keratitis between January 2013 and December 2014 were identified. Laboratory records of 89 culture positive cases were retrospectively reviewed and antibiotic sensitivity patterns compared with previous studies from other NZ centres...
2016: Journal of Ophthalmology
Mehrdad Mohammadpour, Fatemeh Alsadat Sabet
PURPOSE: To report the anatomical and visual outcomes of double layered amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT) in eyes with advanced Pseudomonas keratitis leading to Descemetocele formation. METHODS: This prospective interventional case series included 6 eyes of 6 female patients with pseudomonas keratitis caused by contact lens-induced infection who underwent double layered AMT. Surgery was performed after the ulcers were found to be poorly responsive to antibiotics, and severe thinning or Descemetocele had developed...
January 2016: Journal of Ophthalmic & Vision Research
M Fleming, S Bexton
Ocular pathology is relatively common in stranded seals admitted to wildlife rehabilitation hospitals. Some have pre-existing problems, while others develop eye problems in captivity, and in particular ulcerative keratitis, due to factors such as large prominent eyes, suboptimal water quality, trauma and infighting. Despite treatment, corneal ulcerations can rapidly progress to 'melting' ulcers with subsequent rupture of the globe. In this case series, 32 grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) had conjunctival swabs taken on admission to a UK wildlife hospital to identify ocular bacterial flora and nine had subsequent swabs taken after four weeks to see if this changed in captivity...
July 23, 2016: Veterinary Record
Tewelde Tesfaye Gebremariam
BACKGROUND: In East Africa, particularly in Ethiopia, bacterial keratitis is a major cause of blindness. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to identify risk factors of bacterial keratitis and the spectrum of bacterial etiologies, and to assess the in-vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of these bacterial isolates at Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia. METHODS: A prospective study was employed from January 2012 to June 2012 from which a total of 24 patients with bacterial keratitis were included in the study...
October 2015: Ethiopian Medical Journal
Takaaki Furusawa, Hidetomo Iwano, Hidetoshi Higuchi, Masaru Usui, Fumito Maruyama, Ichiro Nakagawa, Hiroshi Yokota, Yutaka Tamura
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important cause of racehorse keratitis. Bacteriophage therapy has the potential to aid in the prevention and treatment of diseases caused by P. aeruginosa We present here the complete genome sequences of two phages, ΦR18 and ΦS12-1, which exhibit infectivity for a broad range of P. aeruginosa isolates.
2016: Genome Announcements
Leo Lin, Janie Kim, Hope Chen, Regis Kowalski, Victor Nizet
More than 125 million people wear contact lenses worldwide, and contact lens use is the single greatest risk factor for developing microbial keratitis. We tested the antibacterial activity of multipurpose contact lens solutions and their individual component preservatives against the two most common pathogens causing bacterial keratitis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus The in vitro antibacterial activity of five multipurpose contact lens solutions (Opti-Free GP, Boston Simplus, Boston Advance, Menicare GP, and Lobob) was assayed by the standard broth dilution method...
July 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Prajna Lalitha, Geetha Manoharan, Rajaram Karpagam, Namperumalsamy V Prajna, Muthiah Srinivasan, Jeena Mascarenhas, Manoranjan Das, Travis C Porco, Thomas M Lietman, Vicky Cevallos, Jeremy D Keenan
AIMS: To report trends in antibiotic resistance in cases of bacterial keratitis from a large eye hospital in South India. METHODS: In this retrospective cross-sectional study, the microbiology laboratory records of patients with infectious keratitis diagnosed at an eye hospital in South India from 2002 to 2013 were reviewed to determine the proportion with antibiotic non-susceptibility. RESULTS: 3685 bacterial isolates had susceptibility testing performed over the 12-year period...
April 29, 2016: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Thiago Dos Santos Gomes, Angela Magnet, Fernando Izquierdo, Lucianna Vaccaro, Fernando Redondo, Sara Bueno, Maria Luisa Sánchez, Santiago Angulo, Soledad Fenoy, Carolina Hurtado, Carmen Del Aguila
PURPOSE: Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is a painful and potentially blinding corneal infection caused by Acanthamoeba spp. In Madrid, environmental studies have demonstrated a high presence of these free-living amoebae in tap water. Since most of AK cases occur in contact lenses (CL) wearers with inadequate hygiene habits, the presence of Acanthamoeba in discarded CL has been studied and compared with other common etiological agents of keratitis, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus...
2016: PloS One
Nina Ni, Muthiah Srinivasan, Stephen D McLeod, Nisha R Acharya, Thomas M Lietman, Jennifer Rose-Nussbaumer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Topical corticosteroid use in the setting of infectious keratitis has been a controversial issue. The aim of this review is to provide an update on the evidence for use of topical corticosteroids in addition to antibiotics in bacterial keratitis. RECENT FINDINGS: Judicious use of steroids is postulated to limit the inflammatory component of bacterial keratitis, but can theoretically retard healing. Three small randomized controlled trials and one large-scale trial, the Steroids for Corneal Ulcers Trial, have provided the most recent evidence to address this debate...
July 2016: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
Huda S Al-Dhaheri, Mashael D Al-Tamimi, Rajiv B Khandekar, Mohammed Khan, Donald U Stone
BACKGROUND: To investigate prevalence and in vitro susceptibility trends of bacteria isolated from patients with bacterial keratitis from 2011 to 2014 in a tertiary care eye hospital in Saudi Arabia. METHODS: Retrospective review of bacterial isolates from corneal scraping of eyes with microbial keratitis. The most common isolates and their antibiotic resistance profiles were identified; trend analysis was performed over the study period. RESULTS: A total of 2037 bacterial isolates met inclusion criteria during the study period...
June 2016: Cornea
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