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Theodore Gouliouris, Ben Warne, Edward J P Cartwright, Luke Bedford, Chathika K Weerasuriya, Kathy E Raven, Nick M Brown, M Estée Török, Direk Limmathurotsakul, Sharon J Peacock
Background: VRE bacteraemia has a high mortality and continues to defy control. Antibiotic risk factors for VRE bacteraemia have not been adequately defined. We aimed to determine the risk factors for VRE bacteraemia focusing on duration of antibiotic exposure. Methods: A retrospective matched nested case-control study was conducted amongst hospitalized patients at Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (CUH) from 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2012...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Luke Mease, Reema Sikka, Randall Rhees
Introduction: To analyze the effectiveness and suitability of pupillometer use in military and occupational medicine, specifically when pupil size is measured as part of medical surveillance. Pupil size is the most sensitive physical exam finding in vapor exposure to substances that inhibit acetylcholinesterase, such as nerve agent (chemical warfare) and organophosphates (used in agriculture). Pupillometer use permits real-time, accurate pupil measurements, which are of significant value in occupational setting where exposure to organophosphates is suspected and in dynamic military settings where it may be unclear if service members were exposed to nerve agent or not...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Elianny Domínguez-Tejo, Graciela Metternicht, Emma L Johnston, Luke Hedge
Sandy beaches are unique ecosystems increasingly exposed to human-induced pressures. Consistent with emerging frameworks promoting this holistic approach towards beach management, is the need to improve the integration of social data into management practices. This paper aims to increase understanding of links between demographics and community values and preferred beach activities, as key components of the social dimension of the beach environment. A mixed method approach was adopted to elucidate users' opinions on beach preferences and community values through a survey carried out in Manly Local Government Area in Sydney Harbour, Australia...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Olivier Landon-Cardinal, Luke C G Govia, Aashish A Clerk
We present a continuous variable tomography scheme that reconstructs the Husimi Q function (Wigner function) by Lagrange interpolation, using measurements of the Q function (Wigner function) at the Padua points, conjectured to be optimal sampling points for two dimensional reconstruction. Our approach drastically reduces the number of measurements required compared to using equidistant points on a regular grid, although reanalysis of such experiments is possible. The reconstruction algorithm produces a reconstructed function with exponentially decreasing error and quasilinear runtime in the number of Padua points...
March 2, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Luke Gerges, Dorota Popiolek, Andrew B Rosenkrantz
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to assess the utility of texture analysis of multiple MRI sequences for the differentiation of uterine leiomyomas and leiomyosarcomas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventeen leiomyosarcomas and 51 leiomyomas undergoing MRI before resection were included. Whole-lesion volumes of interest were placed on T2-weighted images, contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images, and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps. The diagnostic performance of histogram metrics was assessed...
March 16, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Mark Waldron, Luke Waldron, Craig Lawlor, Adrian Gray, Jamie Highton
PURPOSE: We investigated the effects of an acute 24-h nitrate-rich beetroot juice supplement (BR) on the energy cost, exercise efficiency and blood pressure responses to intermittent walking at different gradients. METHODS: In a double-blind, cross-over design, eight participants were provided with a total of 350 ml of nitrate-rich (~ 20.5 mmol nitrate) BR or placebo (PLA) across 24 h before completing intermittent walking at 3 km/h on treadmill at gradients of 1, 5, 10, 15 and 20%...
March 15, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Luke MacMillan, Garrett Tingley, Sara K Young, Kathy A Clow, Edward W Randell, Margaret E Brosnan, John T Brosnan
Background: Formate is produced in mitochondria via the catabolism of serine, glycine, dimethylglycine, and sarcosine. Formate produced by mitochondria may be incorporated into the cytosolic folate pool where it can be used for important biosynthetic reactions. Previous studies from our lab have shown that cobalamin deficiency results in increased plasma formate concentrations. Objective: Our goal was to determine the basis for elevated formate in vitamin B-12 deficiency...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Daniel Sutherland, Luke Kinsman, Stuart M Angiolini, Georgina M Rosair, Ai-Lan Lee
Hydroarylation of enantioenriched 1,3-disubstituted allenes has the potential to proceed with axial-to-point chirality transfer to yield enantioenriched allylated (hetero)aryl compounds. However, the gold-catalysed intermolecular reaction was previously reported to occur with no chirality transfer, due to competing allene racemisation. In this full article, we describe the development of the first intermolecular hydroarylations of allenes to proceed with efficient chirality transfer, and summarise some of the key criteria for achieving high regio- and stereoselectivities...
March 15, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Alexander Raven, Wei-Yu Lu, Tak Yung Man, Sofia Ferreira-Gonzalez, Eoghan O'Duibhir, Benjamin J Dwyer, John P Thomson, Richard R Meehan, Roman Bogorad, Victor Koteliansky, Yuri Kotelevtsev, Charles Ffrench-Constant, Luke Boulter, Stuart J Forbes
This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/nature23015.
March 14, 2018: Nature
Luke S Howard
Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is a relatively common cardiopulmonary emergency that is a major cause of hospitalization and morbidity and is the primary cause of mortality associated with venous thromboembolism (VTE). During the last decade, one of the biggest changes in the management of PE has been the approval of four non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs; apixaban, dabigatran, edoxaban and rivaroxaban) for the treatment of PE and deep vein thrombosis and secondary prevention of VTE. Areas covered: This article reviews the evolving management of PE in the NOAC era and addresses three fundamental questions: who should receive NOACs over conventional heparin/vitamin K antagonist regimens for the treatment of acute PE; whether patients should be treated as inpatients or outpatients; and how long patients should be treated to reduce the risk of recurrence? Expert commentary: The management of PE is changing...
March 15, 2018: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
Jared T Feyko, Peter Zmijewski, Cara Lyle, Allison Wilson, Luke Marone
We describe a 36-year-old woman who presented to our facility after sustaining a gunshot wound to the epigastric region. The gunshot resulted in injury to the left lobe of the liver and the twelfth thoracic vertebral body as well as in a through-and-through injury to the abdominal aorta at the level of the celiac axis. The vascular injury was managed successfully by placement of a thoracic stent graft with coverage of the celiac axis. This case demonstrates the feasibility of managing this uncommon injury with endovascular techniques...
March 2018: Journal of Vascular Surgery Cases and Innovative Techniques
Sophie Kobuch, Azharuddin Fazalbhoy, Rachael Brown, Vaughan G Macefield, Luke A Henderson
Introduction: Long-lasting experimental muscle pain elicits divergent muscle sympathetic responses, with some individuals exhibiting a persistent increase in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), and others a decrease. These divergent responses are thought to result from sustained functional changes in specific brain regions that modulate the cardiovascular responses to pain. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate brain regions that are functionally coupled to the generation of an MSNA burst at rest and to determine their behavior during tonic muscle pain...
March 2018: Brain and Behavior
Gabriel DeVela, J Michael Taylor, Bin Zhang, Luke L Linscott, Alan M Chen, Kunal B Karani, Andrew Furthmiller, James L Leach, Sudhakar Vadivelu, Todd Abruzzo
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Quantitative arterial tortuosity (QAT) is a ratio of vessel length between 2 points to the shortest linear distance between same points. QAT has been reported as an imaging biomarker of arteriopathy in pediatric arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) because of dissection and transient cerebral arteriopathy. We sought to determine whether QAT abnormalities are present in other subtypes of pediatric AIS. METHODS: Children with AIS-absent conventional biomarkers of arteriopathy and case-controls who underwent magnetic resonance angiography were classified by stroke mechanism...
March 14, 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Christopher Schafer, Zachary T Young, Catherine A Makarewich, Abdallah Elnwasany, Caroline S Kinter, Michael Kinter, Luke I Szweda
Cardiac energy is produced primarily by oxidation of fatty acids and glucose, with the relative contributions of each nutrient being sensitive to changes in substrate availability and energetic demand. A major contributor to cardiac metabolic flexibility is pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) which converts glucose-derived pyruvate to acetyl-CoA within the mitochondria. PDH is inhibited by phosphorylation dependent on the competing activities of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases (PDK1-4) and phosphatases (PDP1-2). A single high-fat meal increases cardiac PDK4 content and subsequently inhibits PDH activity, reducing pyruvate utilization when abundant fatty acids are available...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Justine Lebeau, Jaclyn M Saunders, Vivian W R Moraes, Aparajita Madhavan, Nicole Madrazo, Mary C Anthony, R Luke Wiseman
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is transmitted to mitochondria and is associated with pathologic mitochondrial dysfunction in diverse diseases. The PERK arm of the unfolded protein response (UPR) protects mitochondria during ER stress through the transcriptional and translational remodeling of mitochondrial molecular quality control pathways. Here, we show that ER stress also induces dynamic remodeling of mitochondrial morphology by promoting protective stress-induced mitochondrial hyperfusion (SIMH). ER-stress-associated SIMH is regulated by the PERK arm of the UPR and activated by eIF2α phosphorylation-dependent translation attenuation...
March 13, 2018: Cell Reports
Stephen Clark, Alysa Nash, Mark Shasti, Luke Brown, Julio J Jauregui, Katherine Mistretta, Eugene Koh, Kelley Banagan, Steven Ludwig, Daniel Gelb
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study OBJECTIVE.: To assess 30-day and one-year mortality rates as well as the most common complications associated with posterior C1-2 fusion in an octogenarian cohort. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Treatment of unstable type II odontoid fractures in elderly patients can present challenges. Recent evidence indicates in patients older than 80 years, posterior C1-2 fusion results in improved survival as compared to other modes of treatment...
March 13, 2018: Spine
E M Kithsiri Wijeratne, Maria C F Oliveira, Jair Mafezoli, Ya-Ming Xu, Sandro Minguzzi, Pedro H J Batista, Otília D L Pessoa, Luke Whitesell, A A Leslie Gunatilaka
Withanolides constitute a valuable class of bioactive natural products because some members of the class are known to exhibit cytotoxic activity and also induce a cytoprotective heat-shock response. In order to understand the relationship between their structures and these dual bioactivities of the withanolide scaffold, we obtained 25 analogues of withaferin A (WA) and withanolide D (WD) including 17 new compounds by semisynthesis involving chemical and microbial transformations. Hitherto unknown 16β-hydroxy analogues of WA and WD were prepared by their reaction with triphenylphosphine/iodine, providing unexpected 5β-hydroxy-6α-iodo analogues (iodohydrins) followed by microbial biotransformation with Cunninghamella echinulata and base-catalyzed cyclization of the resulting 16β-hydroxy iodohydrins...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Natural Products
Luke Kaplan, Athena Ierokomos, Praveen Chowdary, Zev Bryant, Bianxiao Cui
Long-distance axonal transport is critical to the maintenance and function of neurons. Robust transport is ensured by the coordinated activities of multiple molecular motors acting in a team. Conventional live-cell imaging techniques used in axonal transport studies detect this activity by visualizing the translational dynamics of a cargo. However, translational measurements are insensitive to torques induced by motor activities. By using gold nanorods and multichannel polarization microscopy, we simultaneously measure the rotational and translational dynamics for thousands of axonally transported endosomes...
March 2018: Science Advances
Carlo Pappone, Giuseppe Ciconte, Gabriele Vicedomini, Jan O Mangual, Wenwen Li, Manuel Conti, Luigi Giannelli, Felicia Lipartiti, Luke McSpadden, Kyungmoo Ryu, Marco Guazzi, Lorenzo Menicanti, Vincenzo Santinelli
BACKGROUND: Clinical outcomes after ablation of persistent atrial fibrillation remain suboptimal. Identification of AF drivers using a novel integrated mapping technique may be crucial to ameliorate the clinical outcome. METHODS AND RESULTS: Persistent AF patients were prospectively enrolled to undergo high-density electrophysiological mapping to identify repetitive-regular activities (RRas) before modified circumferential pulmonary vein (PV) ablation. They have been randomly assigned (1:1 ratio) to ablation of RRa followed by modified circumferential PV ablation (mapping group; n=41) or modified circumferential PV ablation alone (control group; n=40)...
March 2018: Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
Joseph B Sweeney, Anthony Ball, Luke Smith
A 'totally catalytic' nickel(0)-mediated method for base-free direct alkylation of allyl alcohols and allyl amines is reported. The reaction is selective for monoallylation, uses an inexpensive Ni(II) precatalyst system, and requires no activating reagents to be present.
March 13, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
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