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candida treatment

Talia Serseg, Khedidja Benarous
Side effects of some drugs may be useful in certain cases. In this work, we studied the inhibitory effects of some medications as: Folic Acid which is taken by pregnant women, Colchicine and Febuxostat which is used as treatment of gout disease. These cases are linked to obesity, where women (BMI ≥ 30) have twice higher odds of having an NTD-affected pregnancy than the normal weight women, and the Gout disease frequently occurs in combination of a Metabolic syndrome. The risk of gout increases with the increase of the mass index...
March 18, 2018: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
Ana S Oliveira, José Martinez-de-Oliveira, Gilbert G G Donders, Rita Palmeira-de-Oliveira, Ana Palmeira-de-Oliveira
As an opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida spp. has the ability to form biofilms. The most prescribed drugs for Candida infections, azoles, have shown to be less effective when biofilms are present. In addition, increasing treatment costs and the fact that most prescribed antifungal drugs have only fungistatic activity justify the search for new treatment strategies. One promising approach is third generation antidepressants, selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs), because of their proven antifungal activity against several Candida spp...
March 19, 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Rehab M Abdel Megeed, Dalia B Fayed, Amira Abood, Mai O Kadry
Although, fluconazole is widely used in clinical treatment as an antifungal drug, it recorded potential problems as resistance and intracellular accumulation. Female albino mice were injected with single ip dose of Candida albicans (1.5 × 106 CFU) . Three weeks post treatment with fluconazole and two novel synthesized compounds [(2-(4-(Pyridin-2-yl) aminosulfonylphenylamino)-6-(naphthalen-2-yl)-4-(pyridin-2-yl) pyridine-3carbonitrile) and (2-(4-(Pyrimidin-2-yl) aminosulfonylphenylamino)-6-(naphthalen-2-yl)-4-(pyridine-2-yl)pyridine-3-carbonitrile) (13b & 14b, respectively)] in both low and high doses (50 mg/kg & 200 mg/kg), liver function and vaginal inflammation were assessed...
March 2018: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
J C Bader, E A Lakota, Shawn Flanagan, V Ong, Taylor Sandison, C M Rubino, S M Bhavnani, P G Ambrose
Rezafungin (CD101) is a novel echinocandin antifungal agent with activity against Aspergillus and Candida species, including azole- and echinocandin-resistant isolates. The objective of these analyses was to conduct pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) target attainment analyses to evaluate single and once-weekly rezafungin dosing to provide dose selection support for future clinical studies. Using a previously developed rezafungin population PK model, Monte Carlo simulations were conducted utilizing the following three IV rezafungin dosing regimens: (i) single 400-mg dose, (ii) 400 mg for Week 1 followed by 200 mg weekly for 5 weeks, and (iii) 400 mg weekly for 6 weeks...
March 19, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Elizabeth A Lakota, Voon Ong, Shawn Flanagan, Christopher M Rubino
Rezafungin (CD101) is a novel echinocandin antifungal agent currently in clinical development for the treatment of candidemia and invasive candidiasis. Rezafungin has potent in vitro activity against Candida albicans and Candida glabrata , including azole- and echinocandin-resistant isolates. The objective of this analysis was to develop a population pharmacokinetic (PK) model to characterize the disposition of rezafungin in plasma following intravenous (IV) administration. Data from two Phase 1 studies, a single-ascending-dose study and a multiple-ascending-dose study, were available...
March 19, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Caitlin R Rausch, Dimitrios P Kontoyiannis
Voriconazole is a triazole antifungal with activity against a number of yeast and mold species including Candida, Aspergillosis, Fusarium, and Coccidioides. Invasive fungal infections are associated with high morbidity and mortality, prolonged treatment courses, and occasionally lifelong suppressive therapy. Voriconazole therapy can result in a number of acute toxicities that clinicians are frequently aware of including hepatotoxicity, visual disturbances, and hallucinations; however, there is limited experience with extended durations of voriconazole therapy...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice
Nafiseh Saghafi, Maryam Karjalian, Masumeh Ghazanfarpour, Imaneh Khorsand, Hassan Rakhshandeh, Masumeh Mirteimouri, Masoudeh Babakhanian, Talat Khadivzadeh, Mohammad Javad Najafzadeh, Ahmad Ghorbani, Leila Pourali, Sara Bahman
The goal of this study was to compare the effect of Anethum graveolens (dill) vaginal suppositories and 100 mg clotrimazole vaginal tablets on vulvovaginal Candidiasis. This study was a single centre, single-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial, in which 60 women with microbiology-confirmed vulvovaginal candidiasis were randomly assigned to dill and clotrimazole groups. At the end of the study, the estimated prevalence of leucorrhoea, burning, and itching was 23%, 23% and 20% in dill users, respectively...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Siew Mei Samantha Ng, Jia Mao Yap, Qiu Ying Lau, Fui Mee Ng, Esther Hong Qian Ong, Timothy Barkham, Jeanette Woon Pei Teo, Mohammad Alfatah, Kiat Whye Kong, Shawn Hoon, Prakash Arumugam, Jeffrey Hill, Cheng San Brian Chia
Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is a genital fungal infection afflicting approximately 75% of women globally and is primarily caused by the yeast Candida albicans. The extensive use of fluconazole, the first-line antifungal drug of choice, has led to the emergence of fluconazole-resistant C. albicans, creating a global clinical concern. This, coupled to the lack of new antifungal drugs entering the market over the past decade, has made it imperative for the introduction of new antifungal drug classes. Peptides with antifungal properties are deemed potential drug candidates due to their rapid membrane-disrupting mechanism of action...
March 9, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
O Sy, K Diongue, C B Ahmed, O Ba, F C Moulay, B Lo, D Ndiaye
AIM: To determine the prevalence and the associated risk factors of vulvovaginal candidiasis in pregnant women in Mauritania. PATIENTS AND METHOD: The study was carried out at the laboratory of the Mère et Enfant Center in Nouakchott, from November 1, 2016 to February 5, 2017. It concerned all pregnant women in the third trimester that came to the natal consultation at the gynecology service. These women must have given their informed consent in written form. After completing the survey to collect epidemiological and clinical data, a sample was collected to perform fresh direct examination and culture on Sabouraud-Chloramphenicol media...
March 13, 2018: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
Johannes Stein, Stefan Latz, Jörg Ellinger, Guido Fechner, Maher Safi, Philipp Krausewitz, Simone Müller, Karin Weyer, Stefan C Müller
BACKGROUND: Renal fungal bezoars are remarkably rare and mostly occur in immunodeficient patients. Only a small number of cases with immunocompetent patients have been published so far. The published treatment approaches comprised systemic antimycotic therapy and surgical or minimal invasive removal of the fungal balls. In some cases irrigation of the renal duct system with amphotericin B was performed. By obstruction of the urinary tract bezoars can lead to infected hydronephrosis and severe urosepsis with high lethality...
March 16, 2018: BMC Urology
Adilia Warris
The newly recognised and emerging fungal species, Candida auris , has caused worldwide invasive infections and has been implicated in difficult to control hospital outbreaks. Challenges are encountered in the correct identification of this fungus as commonly used phenotypic and biochemical methods fail to differentiate C. auris from other Candida species. Its resistance profile, over 90% of isolates are fluconazole resistant and 35% are resistant to amphotericin, confronts clinicians with the restricted arsenal of antifungals and concerns about optimal treatment...
March 15, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Amit Shivajirao Waghmare, Shivaji Sandu Pandit, Dayanand M Suryawanshi
AIM AND OBJECTIVE: 4H-pyran is one of the most well-known groups of synthetic heterocyclic compounds and it has attracted considerable attention of chemists in recent years because of their extensive range of biological and pharmaceutical activities. These compounds are used as antibacterial, anticancer agents, anti-coagulants, spasmolytics and anti-anaphylactic. 4H-pyran derivatives are utilized in cosmetics, pigments, biodegradable agrochemicals as well as photoactive materials. In addition, 4H-pyrans are also helpful as cognitive enhancers for the treatment of neuro degenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, as well as for the treatment of schizophrenia and myoclonus...
March 14, 2018: Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening
Flavia De Bernardis, Sofia Graziani, Flavio Tirelli, Stavroula Antonopoulou
Vulvovaginal candidiasis is a common mucosal infection affecting a large proportion of women with some of them affected by recurrent often intractable forms of the disease. Thus, there is an increasing interest in understanding the pathogenesis of this disease. The aim of our work was to characterize, in animal models of vaginal candidiasis, the components of the host-fungus interaction at the mucosal level.The evidence of an immune response in the vaginal compartment was very encouraging to identify the proper targets for new strategies for vaccination or immunotherapy of vaginal candidiasis...
April 1, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Jing Zhang, Huihui Wu, Dan Jiang, Yongan Yang, Wenjian Tang, Kehan Xu
To identify the natural antifungal agents, the antifungal activities of Melaleuca leucadendra (L.) L. essential oil (ML-EO) from Fujian Province of China were assayed. Treatment of ML-EO in combination with the front-line using antibiotics against Candida led to synergistic effects. Electron microscopy analysis on the oil treated C. albicans cells revealed the formation of mesosome-like structures, suggesting well the membrane damage caused by the essential oil. The Griess assay by monitoring NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW264...
March 14, 2018: Natural Product Research
Jitendra Keshri, Yaira Chen, Riky Pinto, Yulia Kroupitski, Zwi G Weinberg, Shlomo Sela Saldinger
Microbial population dynamics associated with corn silage, with and without Lactobacillus plantarum treatment, was studied. Whole crop corn was ensiled using laboratory silos and sampled at different times, up to 3 months. The dominant bacteria, before ensiling, were Acinetobacter (38.5%) and Klebsiella (16.3%), while the dominant fungi were Meyerozyma (53.5%) and Candida (27.7%). During ensiling, the microbial population shifted considerably, and Lactobacillus (> 94%) and Candida (> 74%) became the most dominant microbial genera in both treated and untreated silages...
March 13, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Ilias Kounatidis, Lauren Ames, Rupal Mistry, Hsueh-Lui Ho, Ken Haynes, Petros Ligoxygakis
Candida glabrata ( C. glabrata ) forms part of the normal human gut microbiota but can cause life-threatening invasive infections in immune-compromised individuals. C. glabrata displays high resistance to common azole antifungals, which necessitates new treatments. In this investigation, we identified five C. glabrata deletion mutants ( Δada2 , Δbas1 , Δhir3, Δino2 and Δmet31 ) from a library of 196 transcription factor mutants that were unable to grow and activate an immune response in Drosophila larvae...
March 13, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
J Denis, M-P Ledoux, Y Nivoix, R Herbrecht
Triazoles compounds are first-line agents for the treatment of invasive fungal diseases. Isavuconazole is the most recent triazole compound, approved in 2015 by the FDA and the EMA to treat invasive aspergillosis and mucormycosis. We reviewed here the in vitro activity of isavuconazole against a vast spectrum of species. Isavuconazole MICs were evaluated using CLSI, EUCAST or Etest methods, with no significant differences between the technics. Low MIC50 and MIC90 (<1μg/mL) were described for isavuconazole against the majority of Candida spp...
March 10, 2018: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
Elerson Gaetti-Jardim, Ellen Cristina Gaetti Jardim, Christiane Marie Schweitzer, Júlio Cesar Leite da Silva, Murilo Moura Oliveira, Danilo Chizzolini Masocatto, Cauê Monteiro Dos Santos
OBJECTIVE: This case-control study aimed to evaluate the effects of conventional radiotherapy (RT) on the prevalence and populations of oral microorganisms in head and neck cancer patients who did not receive adequate preventive dental care. It was hypothesized that side effects of radiotherapy could be associated with radiation dose, microbiological aspects, and socioeconomic conditions of the patients. DESIGN: Twenty-eight dentate patients with head and neck cancer submitted to RT were included in the study...
January 8, 2018: Archives of Oral Biology
Qingdi Quentin Li, Huei-Fung Tsai, Ajeet Mandal, Bryan A Walker, Jason A Noble, Yuichi Fukuda, John E Bennett
Pathogenic fungi, including Candida glabrata, develop strategies to grow and survive both in vitro and in vivo under azole stress. However, the mechanisms by which yeast cells counteract the inhibitory effects of azoles are not completely understood. In the current study, it was demonstrated that the expression of the ergosterol biosynthetic genes ERG2, ERG3, ERG4, ERG10, and ERG11 was significantly upregulated in C. glabrata following fluconazole treatment. Inhibiting ergosterol biosynthesis using fluconazole also increased the expression of the sterol influx transporter AUS1 and the sterol metabolism regulators SUT1 and UPC2 in fungal cells...
March 9, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
A Almståhl, C Finizia, A Carlén, B Fagerberg-Mohlin, T Alstad
OBJECTIVE: To analyse mucosal and major salivary secretion rates, caries and plaque microflora in connection with treatment for cancer in the head and neck region. METHODS: Thirty-three patients were included and the number of teeth, filled surfaces and caries lesions registered. The labial and buccal gland secretion and stimulated whole salivary secretion rates were determined. Supragingival plaque microflora was analysed using cultivation technique. Data were collected pretreatment, during treatment and 6 months, 1 year and 2 years post-treatment...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Dental Hygiene
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