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Secondary metabolites

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906500/phylogenetic-studies-gene-cluster-analysis-and-enzymatic-reaction-support-anthrahydroquinone-reduction-as-the-physiological-function-of-fungal-17%C3%AE-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase
#1
Leon Fürtges, David Conradt, Michael A Schätzle, Shailesh Kumar Singh, Nada Kraševec, Tea Lanišnik Rižner, Michael Müller, Syed Masood Husain
17β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSDcl) from the filamentous fungus Curvularia lunata (teleomorph Cochliobolus lunatus) catalyzes NADP(H)-dependent oxidoreductions of androgens and estrogens. Despite detailed biochemical and structural characterization of 17β-HSDcl, its physiological function remains unknown. On the basis of amino acid sequence alignment, phylogenetic studies, and the recent identification of the physiological substrates of the homologous MdpC from Aspergillus nidulans and AflM from Aspergillus parasiticus, we propose an anthrahydroquinone as the physiological substrate of 17β-HSDcl...
December 1, 2016: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906133/the-plastid-genome-of-some-eustigmatophyte-algae-harbours-a-bacteria-derived-six-gene-cluster-for-biosynthesis-of-a-novel-secondary-metabolite
#2
Tatiana Yurchenko, Tereza Ševčíková, Hynek Strnad, Anzhelika Butenko, Marek Eliáš
Acquisition of genes by plastid genomes (plastomes) via horizontal gene transfer (HGT) seems to be a rare phenomenon. Here, we report an interesting case of HGT revealed by sequencing the plastomes of the eustigmatophyte algae Monodopsis sp. MarTras21 and Vischeria sp. CAUP Q 202. These plastomes proved to harbour a unique cluster of six genes, most probably acquired from a bacterium of the phylum Bacteroidetes, with homologues in various bacteria, typically organized in a conserved uncharacterized putative operon...
November 2016: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905873/comparative-genomics-of-beauveria-bassiana-uncovering-signatures-of-virulence-against-mosquitoes
#3
Claudio A Valero-Jiménez, Luigi Faino, Daphne Spring In't Veld, Sandra Smit, Bas J Zwaan, Jan A L van Kan
BACKGROUND: Entomopathogenic fungi such as Beauveria bassiana are promising biological agents for control of malaria mosquitoes. Indeed, infection with B. bassiana reduces the lifespan of mosquitoes in the laboratory and in the field. Natural isolates of B. bassiana show up to 10-fold differences in virulence between the most and the least virulent isolate. In this study, we sequenced the genomes of five isolates representing the extremes of low/high virulence and three RNA libraries, and applied a genome comparison approach to uncover genetic mechanisms underpinning virulence...
December 1, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904811/legionella-shows-a-diverse-secondary-metabolism-dependent-on-a-broad-spectrum-sfp-type-phosphopantetheinyl-transferase
#4
Nicholas J Tobias, Tilman Ahrendt, Ursula Schell, Melissa Miltenberger, Hubert Hilbi, Helge B Bode
Several members of the genus Legionella cause Legionnaires' disease, a potentially debilitating form of pneumonia. Studies frequently focus on the abundant number of virulence factors present in this genus. However, what is often overlooked is the role of secondary metabolites from Legionella. Following whole genome sequencing, we assembled and annotated the Legionella parisiensis DSM 19216 genome. Together with 14 other members of the Legionella, we performed comparative genomics and analysed the secondary metabolite potential of each strain...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904413/influence-of-yellow-light-emitting-diodes-at-590-nm-on-storage-of-apple-tomato-and-bell-pepper-fruit
#5
Doris Kokalj, Janez Hribar, Blaž Cigić, Emil Zlatić, Lea Demšar, Lovro Sinkovič, Helena Šircelj, Grega Bizjak, Rajko Vidrih
The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of irradiation from light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on several fruits during storage. To improve storage and increase the contents of some bioactive compounds, apple, tomato and red bell pepper fruits were exposed to yellow light emitted from the diodes at 590 nm. The contents of ascorbic acid, total phenolics, total flavonoids and several pigments were investigated, along with the antioxidant potential. The colour parameters (L*, a* and b*) and firmness of the fruit were also determined...
June 2016: Food Technology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904060/causative-agents-of-aspergillosis-including-cryptic-aspergillus-species-and-a-fumigatus
#6
Takahito Toyotome
Aspergillosis is an important deep mycosis. The causative agents are Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, and Aspergillus terreus, of which A. fumigatus is the most prevalent. Cryptic Aspergillus spp., which morphologically resemble representative species of each Aspergillus section, also cause aspergillosis. Most of the cryptic species reveal different susceptibility patterns and/or different secondary metabolite profiles, also called exometabolome in this manuscript, from those representative species...
2016: Medical Mycology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903896/img-abc-new-features-for-bacterial-secondary-metabolism-analysis-and-targeted-biosynthetic-gene-cluster-discovery-in-thousands-of-microbial-genomes
#7
Michalis Hadjithomas, I-Min A Chen, Ken Chu, Jinghua Huang, Anna Ratner, Krishna Palaniappan, Evan Andersen, Victor Markowitz, Nikos C Kyrpides, Natalia N Ivanova
Secondary metabolites produced by microbes have diverse biological functions, which makes them a great potential source of biotechnologically relevant compounds with antimicrobial, anti-cancer and other activities. The proteins needed to synthesize these natural products are often encoded by clusters of co-located genes called biosynthetic gene clusters (BCs). In order to advance the exploration of microbial secondary metabolism, we developed the largest publically available database of experimentally verified and predicted BCs, the Integrated Microbial Genomes Atlas of Biosynthetic gene Clusters (IMG-ABC) (https://img...
November 29, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902921/complete-genome-sequence-of-fictibacillus-arsenicus-g25-54-a-strain-with-toxicity-to-nematodes
#8
Ziqiang Zheng, Jinshui Zheng, Donghai Peng, Ming Sun
Root-knot nematodes (RKNs) can infect almost all crops and cause huge economic losses in agriculture worldwide. An in-depth understanding of bacteria with nematicidal activity is essential for an effective and environmentally friendly control of RKNs. Fictibacillus arsenicus G25-54, a gram-positive and spore-forming bacterium isolated from a submerged sand bank, shows nematicidal activity against free-living Caenorhabditis elegans and RKNs. Here, we report the complete genome of F. arsenicus G25-54, which contains a circular chromosome and encodes ten potential nematicidal factors with twelve secondary metabolite gene clusters...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902875/who-s-the-boss-here-the-post-transcriptional-global-regulator-hfq-takes-over-control-of-secondary-metabolite-production-in-the-nematode-symbiont-photorhabdus-luminiscens
#9
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902426/unravelling-the-biosynthesis-of-pyriculol-in-the-rice-blast-fungus-magnaporthe-oryzae
#10
Stefan Jacob, Thomas Grötsch, Andrew J Foster, Anja Schüffler, Patrick H Rieger, Louis P Sandjo, Johannes C Liermann, Till Opatz, Eckhard Thines
Pyriculol was isolated from the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae and found to induce lesion formation on rice leaves. These findings suggest that it could be involved in virulence. The gene MoPKS19 was identified to encode a polyketide synthase essential for the production of the polyketide pyriculol in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. The transcript abundance of MoPKS19 correlates with the biosynthesis rate of pyriculol in a time-dependent manner. Furthermore, gene inactivation of MoPKS19 resulted in a mutant unable to produce pyriculol, pyriculariol and their dihydro derivatives...
November 17, 2016: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902408/sequencing-rare-marine-actinomycete-genomes-reveals-high-density-of-unique-natural-product-biosynthetic-gene-clusters
#11
Michelle Antoinette Schorn, Mohammad M Alanjary, Kristen Aguinaldo, Anton Korobeynikov, Sheila Podell, Nastassia V Patin, Tommie Lincecum, Paul R Jensen, Nadine Ziemert, Bradley S Moore
Traditional natural product discovery methods have nearly exhausted the accessible diversity of microbial chemicals, making new sources and techniques paramount in the search for new molecules. Marine actinomycete bacteria have recently come into the spotlight as fruitful producers of structurally diverse secondary metabolites, and remain relatively untapped. In this study we sequenced twenty-one marine-derived actinomycete strains, rarely studied for their secondary metabolite potential and underrepresented in current genomic databases...
October 27, 2016: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900698/mining-microbial-signals-for-enhanced-biodiscovery-of-secondary-metabolites
#12
F Jerry Reen, Jose A Gutiérrez-Barranquero, Fergal O'Gara
The advent of metagenomics based biodiscovery has provided researchers with previously unforeseen access to the rich tapestry of natural bioactivity that exists in the biosphere. Unhindered by the "culturable bottleneck" that has severely limited the translation of the genetic potential that undoubtedly exists in nature, metagenomics nonetheless requires ongoing technological developments to maximize its efficacy and applicability to the discovery of new chemical entities.Here we describe methodologies for the detection and isolation of quorum sensing (QS) signal molecules from metagenomics libraries...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900693/screening-glycosyltransferases-for-polyphenol-modifications
#13
Nele Ilmberger, Ulrich Rabausch
Glycosyltransferases offer the opportunity to glycosylate a variety of substrates including health beneficial molecules like flavonoids in a regiospecific manner. Flavonoids are plant secondary metabolites that have antimicrobial, antioxidative, and health beneficial effects. Glycosylation often has impact on these properties and furthermore enhances the water solubility, the stability, and the bioavailability of the molecules. To detect flavonoid glycosylating enzymes we established a metagenome screen for the discovery of modifying clones...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899334/complete-genome-sequence-of-bacillus-velezensis-m75-a-biocontrol-agent-against-fungal-plant-pathogens-isolated-from-cotton-waste
#14
Sang Yoon Kim, Sang Yeob Lee, Hang-Yeon Weon, Mee Kyung Sang, Jaekyeong Song
Bacillus species have been widely used as biological control agents in agricultural fields due to their ability to suppress plant pathogens. Bacillus velezensis M75 was isolated from cotton waste used for mushroom cultivation in Korea, and was found to be antagonistic to fungal plant pathogens. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of the M75 strain, which has a 4,007,450-bp single circular chromosome with 3,921 genes and a G+C content of 46.60%. The genome contained operons encoding various non-ribosomal peptide synthetases and polyketide synthases, which are responsible for the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites...
November 26, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898308/emerging-biopharmaceuticals-from-marine-actinobacteria
#15
REVIEW
Syed Shams Ul Hassan, Komal Anjum, Syed Qamar Abbas, Najeeb Akhter, Bibi Ibtesam Shagufta, Sayed Asmat Ali Shah, Umber Tasneem
Actinobacteria are quotidian microorganisms in the marine world, playing a crucial ecological role in the recycling of refractory biomaterials and producing novel secondary metabolites with pharmaceutical applications. Actinobacteria have been isolated from the huge area of marine organisms including sponges, tunicates, corals, mollusks, crabs, mangroves and seaweeds. Natural products investigation of the marine actinobacteria revealed that they can synthesize numerous natural products including alkaloids, polyketides, peptides, isoprenoids, phenazines, sterols, and others...
November 22, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897248/comprehensive-investigation-of-tobacco-leaves-during-natural-early-senescence-via-multi-platform-metabolomics-analyses
#16
Lili Li, Jieyu Zhao, Yanni Zhao, Xin Lu, Zhihui Zhou, Chunxia Zhao, Guowang Xu
Senescence is the final stage of leaf growth and development. Many different physiological activities occur during this process. A comprehensive metabolomics analysis of tobacco middle leaves at 5 different developmental stages was implemented through multi-platform methods based on liquid chromatography, capillary electrophoresis and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. In total, 412 metabolites were identified, including pigments, sterols, lipids, amino acids, polyamines, sugars and secondary metabolites...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896581/secondary-metabolites-of-endophytic-xylaria-species-with-potential-applications-in-medicine-and-agriculture
#17
REVIEW
Martha Lydia Macías-Rubalcava, Rosa Elvira Sánchez-Fernández
Fungal endophytes are important sources of bioactive secondary metabolites. The genus Xylaria Hill (ex Schrank, 1789, Xylariaceae) comprises various endophytic species associated to both vascular and non vascular plants. The secondary metabolites produced by Xylaria species include a variety of volatile and non-volatile compounds. Examples of the former are sesquiterpenoids, esters, and alcohols, among others; and of the latter we find terpenoids, cytochalasins, mellein, alkaloids, polyketides, and aromatic compounds...
January 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896020/identification-of-phenolic-secondary-metabolites-from-schotia-brachypetala-sond-fabaceae-and-demonstration-of-their-antioxidant-activities-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#18
Mansour Sobeh, Esraa ElHawary, Herbenya Peixoto, Rola M Labib, Heba Handoussa, Noha Swilam, Ahmed H El-Khatib, Farukh Sharapov, Tamer Mohamed, Sonja Krstin, Michael W Linscheid, Abdel Nasser Singab, Michael Wink, Nahla Ayoub
BACKGROUND: Schotia brachypetala Sond. (Fabaceae) is an endemic tree of Southern Africa whose phytochemistry and pharmacology were slightly studied. The present work aimed at profiling the major phenolics compounds present in the hydro-alcohol extract from S. brachypetala leaves (SBE) using LC/HRESI/MS/MS and NMR and prove their antioxidant capabilities using novel methods. METHODS: In vitro assays; DPPH, TEAC persulfate decolorizing kinetic and FRAP assays, and in vivo assays: Caenorhabditis elegans strains maintenance, Intracellular ROS in C...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895659/hbmads4-a-mads-box-transcription-factor-from-hevea-brasiliensis-negatively-regulates-hbsrpp
#19
Hui-Liang Li, Li-Ran Wei, Dong Guo, Ying Wang, Jia-Hong Zhu, Xiong-Ting Chen, Shi-Qing Peng
In plants MADS-box transcription factors (TFs) play important roles in growth and development. However, no plant MADS-box gene has been identified to have a function related to secondary metabolites regulation. Here, a MADS-box TF gene, designated as HbMADS4, was isolated from Hevea brasiliensis by the yeast one-hybrid experiment to screen the latex cDNA library using the promoter of the gene encoding H. brasiliensis small rubber particle protein (HbSRPP) as bait. HbMADS4 was 984-bp containing 633-bp open reading frame encoding a deduced protein of 230 amino acid residues with a typical conserved MADS-box motif at the N terminus...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894019/elucidating-a-chemical-defense-mechanism-of-antarctic-sponges-a-computational-study
#20
Sai Lakshmana Vankayala, Fiona L Kearns, Bill J Baker, Joseph D Larkin, H Lee Woodcock
In 2000, a novel secondary metabolite (erebusinone, Ereb) was isolated from the Antarctic sea sponge, Isodictya erinacea. The bioactivity of Ereb was investigated, and it was found to inhibit molting when fed to the arthropod species Orchomene plebs. Xanthurenic acid (XA) is a known endogenous molt regulator present in arthropods. Experimental studies have confirmed that XA inhibits molting by binding to either (or both) of two P450 enzymes (CYP315a1 or CYP314a1) that are responsible for the final two hydroxylations in the production of the molt-inducing hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E)...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
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