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Secondary metabolites

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140397/progress-in-the-understanding-of-the-pathology-of-allergic-asthma-and-the-potential-of-fruit-proanthocyanidins-as-modulators-of-airway-inflammation
#1
REVIEW
Sara L Coleman, Odette M Shaw
Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory lung disease characterized by sensitization of the airways, and the development of immunoglobulin E antibodies, to benign antigens. The established pathophysiology of asthma includes recurrent lung epithelial inflammation, excessive mucus production, bronchial smooth muscle hyperreactivity, and chronic lung tissue remodeling, resulting in reversible airflow restriction. Immune cells, including eosinophils and the recently characterized type 2 innate lymphoid cells, infiltrate into the lung tissue as part of the inflammatory response in allergic asthma...
November 15, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140086/applications-of-oxygenases-in-the-chemoenzymatic-total-synthesis-of-complex-natural-products
#2
Emma King-Smith, Christian R Zwick, Hans Renata
Nature has evolved a diverse range of oxygenases for the modification of secondary metabolites with selectivity profiles that are unmatched by conventional man-made catalysts. In the past two decades, organic chemists have begun to harness the synthetic potential of these biocatalysts to develop efficient chemoenzymatic synthesis of complex natural products. Judicious combination of synthetic and enzymatic transformations in multi-step synthesis can often result in powerful disconnections that compare favorably with contemporary chemical strategies to access the target natural products, while at the same time, presenting opportunities to innovate...
November 15, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139263/-next-generation-sequencing-and-transcriptome-analysis-of-root-bark-from-paeonia-suffruticosa-cv-feng-dan
#3
Dong-Mei Xie, Nian-Jun Yu, Lu-Qi Huang, Dai-Yin Peng, Cong-Bin Liu, Yue-Jian Zhu, Hao Huang
Moutan Cortex is an important traditional Chinese medicine, "Fengdan Pi" was known as Dao-di herbs from the root bark of Paeonia suffruticosa cv. Feng Dan for its extracted various active components. However, the genetic basis for their activity is virtually unknown. The transcriptome of the root bark from "Fengdan" was sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq 4000 sequencing platform. The clean reads were then de novo assembled into 72 997 unigenes. Among them, the number of unigenes which could been annotated by dataset Nr and GO was 41 139 and 34 592...
August 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139262/-effect-of-different-fertilization-treatments-on-yield-and-secondary-metabolites-of-codonopsis-pilosula
#4
Jia-Dong Hu, Ge Mao, Zhi-Wei Zhang, Cun-de Ma, Zong-Suo Liang, Guang-Dong Xia, Juan-E Dong
The research studies the effect of different fertilization treatments on yield and accumulation of secondary metabolites of Codonopsis pilosula by using single factor randomized block design, in order to ensure reasonable harvesting time and fertilization ratio, and provide the basis for standardized cultivation of C. pilosula. According to the clustering results, the nitrogen fertilizer benefitted for the improvement of root diameter and biomass of C. pilosula. The phosphate fertilizer could promote the content of C...
August 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139257/-reviews-on-%C3%AE-glucosidase-inhibitor-from-plant-secondary-metabolites
#5
REVIEW
Hui Chen, Lei Xiong, Wen-Jun Wang
α-Glucosidase inhibitor was a new type of antidiabetics which was developed in the late 1970s. By reducing the postprandial blood sugar concentration, it could effectively control the blood sugar levels, thereby reducing the occurrence of diabetic complications. Studies have shown that plant secondary metabolites have important biological functions such as hpyerglycemic, anti-hyperlipidemia, immunomodulatory, and antitumor effects. In this paper, the sources of plant secondary metabolites which are able to inhibit α-glucosidase and their inhibition mechanism would be reviewed to provide references for seeking more safe and efficient plant secondary metabolites of α-glucosidase inhibitors...
August 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139256/-correlative-analysis-advance-of-chemical-constituents-of-polyporus-umbellatus-and-armillaria-mellea
#6
REVIEW
Jing-Wen Huang, Chang-Jiang-Sheng Lai, Yuan Yuan, Min Zhang, Jun-Hui Zhou, Lu-Qi Huang
Medicinal Polyporus umbellatus is the dry sclerotia of P. umbellatus, with the effect of diuresis; Armillaria mellea is a parasitic fungus which can infect plants up to 300 genera, with sedative, anticonvulsant and some other biological activities. As the medicinal value of P. umbellatus and A. mellea is increasingly wide concerned, the market quantity demanded of them is gradually increased and the demand outstrips the supply. The symbiotic A. mellea and P. umbellatus are both the medicinal and edible fungi with diverse activities, including hypoglycemic action, improve immunity and antitumor and so on...
August 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139179/involvement-of-lemrp-an-atp-binding-cassette-transporter-in-shikonin-transport-and-biosynthesis-in-lithospermum-erythrorhizon
#7
Yu Zhu, Shu-Juan Chu, Yue-Lin Luo, Jiang-Yan Fu, Cheng-Yi Tang, Gui-Hua Lu, Yan-Jun Pang, Xiao-Ming Wang, Rong-Wu Yang, Jin-Liang Qi, Yong-Hua Yang
·Shikonin and its derivatives are important medicinal secondary metabolites accumulating in the roots of Lithospermum erythrorhizon. Although some membrane proteins have been identified as transporters of secondary metabolites, the mechanisms underlying shikonin transport and accumulation in L. erythrorhizon cells still remain largely unknown. ·In this study, we isolated a cDNA encoding LeMRP, an ATP-binding cassette transporter from L. erythrorhizon and further investigated its functions in the transport and biosynthesis of shikonin with the yeast transformation and transgenic hairy root method, respectively...
November 15, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138909/improvement-of-biosynthesis-and-accumulation-of-bioactive-compounds-by-elicitation-in-adventitious-root-cultures-of-polygonum-multiflorum
#8
Thanh-Tam Ho, Jong-Du Lee, Cheol-Seung Jeong, Kee-Yoeup Paek, So-Young Park
We examined the effects of abiotic (methyl jasmonate [MeJA] and salicylic acid [SA]) and biotic (yeast extract and chitosan) elicitors for improvement of bioactive compounds production on adventitious root cultures in Polygonum multiflorum. The application of yeast extract resulted in significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher dry root biomass (9.98 g/L) and relative growth rate versus the control. Cultures treated with abiotic elicitors showed higher percentage of dry weight than the other samples. Low concentrations of all elicitors (50 μM MeJA and SA, and 50 mg/L yeast extract) improved secondary metabolite production except for chitosan, whose performance was worse than that of the control...
November 14, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138643/interactions-of-desmethoxyyangonin-a-secondary-metabolite-from-renealmia-alpinia-with-human-monoamine-oxidase-a-and-oxidase-b
#9
Narayan D Chaurasiya, Francisco León, Yuanqing Ding, Isabel Gómez-Betancur, Dora Benjumea, Larry A Walker, Stephen J Cutler, Babu L Tekwani
Renealmia alpinia (Zingiberaceae), a medicinal plant of tropical rainforests, is used to treat snakebites and other injuries and also as a febrifuge, analgesic, antiemetic, antiulcer, and anticonvulsant. The dichloromethane extract of R. alpinia leaves showed potent inhibition of human monoamine oxidases- (MAOs-) A and B. Phytochemical studies yielded six known compounds, including pinostrobin 1, 4'-methyl ether sakuranetin 2, sakuranetin 3, pinostrobin chalcone 4, yashabushidiol A 5, and desmethoxyyangonin 6...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137648/lesr-is-a-novel-upstream-regulator-that-controls-downstream-clp-expression-to-modulate-antibiotic-hsaf-biosynthesis-and-cell-aggregation-in-lysobacter-enzymogenes-oh11
#10
Huiyong Xu, Ruping Wang, Yangyang Zhao, Zheng Qing Fu, Guoliang Qian, Fengquan Liu
BACKGROUND: Heat-stable antifungal factor (HSAF) is a polycyclic tetramate macrolactam secondary metabolite that exhibits broad-spectrum inhibitory activities against filamentous fungal pathogens. The native yield of this chemical is low. It is also a great challenge to synthesize HSAF artificially, due to its complex structure. Understanding the regulatory mechanism underlying HSAF biosynthesis could provide genetic basis for engineering high HSAF-producing strain. The transcription factor Clp is a global regulator that controls bacterial pathogenicity and the expression of one hundred related genes in the phytopathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv...
November 14, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136771/a-review-on-the-chemotherapeutic-potential-of-fisetin-in-vitro-evidences
#11
REVIEW
Kiruthika Sundarraj, Azhwar Raghunath, Ekambaram Perumal
During the past five decades, cancer cell lines are being successfully used as an in vitro model to discover the anti-cancer potential of plant secondary metabolites. Fisetin - the most popular polyphenol from fruits and vegetables, exhibits a repertoire of promising pharmacological features. Such versatile properties make fisetin an excellent anticancer agent and its efficacy as a chemotherapeutic agent against tumor heterogeneity from in vitro studies are encouraging. Fisetin is like a Pandora's box, as more research studies are being carried out, it reveals its new molecules within the cancer cells as therapeutic targets...
November 7, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136552/development-and-validation-of-modified-quechers-method-coupled-with-lc-ms-ms-for-simultaneous-determination-of-cymiazole-fipronil-coumaphos-fluvalinate-amitraz-and-its-metabolite-in-various-types-of-honey-and-royal-jelly
#12
Weijia Zheng, Jin-A Park, A M Abd El-Aty, Seong-Kwan Kim, Sang-Hyun Cho, Jeong-Min Choi, Hee Yi, Soo-Min Cho, Amer Ramadan, Ji Hoon Jeong, Jae-Han Shim, Ho-Chul Shin
Over the past few decades, honey products have been polluted by different contaminants, such as pesticides, which are widely applied in agriculture. In this work, a modified EN - quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) extraction method was developed for the simultaneous quantification of pesticide residues, including cymiazole, fipronil, coumaphos, fluvalinate, amitraz, and its metabolite 2,4-dimethylaniline (2,4-DMA), in four types of honey (acacia, wild, chestnut, and manuka) and royal jelly...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133056/therapeutic-potential-of-songorine-a-diterpenoid-alkaloid-of-the-genus-aconitum
#13
REVIEW
Haroon Khan, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi, Antoni Sureda, Nikolay Mehterov, Diana Gulei, Ioana Berindan-Neagoe, Hiroaki Taniguchi, Atanas G Atanasov
Alkaloids are well-studied secondary metabolites, with recent preclinical studies evidencing that many of them exhibit anti-cancer, anti-depressant, anti-nociceptive, anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic, anti-platelet, anti-oxidant, and anti-bacterial properties. Aconitum is a genus rich of diverse alkaloids. More than 450 alkaloids have been identified in a variety of species. Songorine is a C20 diterpenoid alkaloid and 12-keto analog of napelline, isolated from Aconitum soongaricum and was associated with a heterogeneous panel of biological functions...
November 10, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132307/involvement-of-lemdr-an-atp-binding-cassette-protein-gene-in-shikonin-transport-and-biosynthesis-in-lithospermum-erythrorhizon
#14
Yu Zhu, Gui-Hua Lu, Zhuo-Wu Bian, Feng-Yao Wu, Yan-Jun Pang, Xiao-Ming Wang, Rong-Wu Yang, Cheng-Yi Tang, Jin-Liang Qi, Yong-Hua Yang
BACKGROUND: Shikonin is a naphthoquinone secondary metabolite with important medicinal value and is found in Lithospermum erythrorhizon. Considering the limited knowledge on the membrane transport mechanism of shikonin, this study investigated such molecular mechanism. RESULTS: We successfully isolated an ATP-binding cassette protein gene, LeMDR, from L. erythrorhizon. LeMDR is predominantly expressed in L. erythrorhizon roots, where shikonin accumulated. Functional analysis of LeMDR by using the yeast cell expression system revealed that LeMDR is possibly involved in the shikonin efflux transport...
November 13, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132306/rna-seq-analysis-of-resistant-and-susceptible-sub-tropical-maize-lines-reveals-a-role-for-kauralexins-in-resistance-to-grey-leaf-spot-disease-caused-by-cercospora-zeina
#15
Jacqueline Meyer, Dave K Berger, Shawn A Christensen, Shane L Murray
BACKGROUND: Cercospora zeina is a foliar pathogen responsible for maize grey leaf spot in southern Africa that negatively impacts maize production. Plants use a variety of chemical and structural mechanisms to defend themselves against invading pathogens such as C. zeina, including the production of secondary metabolites with antimicrobial properties. In maize, a variety of biotic and abiotic stressors induce the accumulation of the terpenoid phytoalexins, zealexins and kauralexins. RESULTS: C...
November 13, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131162/the-3d-orbisims-label-free-metabolic-imaging-with-subcellular-lateral-resolution-and-high-mass-resolving-power
#16
Melissa K Passarelli, Alexander Pirkl, Rudolf Moellers, Dmitry Grinfeld, Felix Kollmer, Rasmus Havelund, Carla F Newman, Peter S Marshall, Henrik Arlinghaus, Morgan R Alexander, Andy West, Stevan Horning, Ewald Niehuis, Alexander Makarov, Colin T Dollery, Ian S Gilmore
We report the development of a 3D OrbiSIMS instrument for label-free biomedical imaging. It combines the high spatial resolution of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS; under 200 nm for inorganic species and under 2 μm for biomolecules) with the high mass-resolving power of an Orbitrap (>240,000 at m/z 200). This allows exogenous and endogenous metabolites to be visualized in 3D with subcellular resolution. We imaged the distribution of neurotransmitters-gamma-aminobutyric acid, dopamine and serotonin-with high spectroscopic confidence in the mouse hippocampus...
November 13, 2017: Nature Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131106/gut-microbiota-dependent-modulation-of-energy-metabolism
#17
Christina N Heiss, Louise E Olofsson
The gut microbiota has emerged as an environmental factor that modulates the host's energy balance. It increases the host's ability to harvest energy from the digested food, and produces metabolites and microbial products such as short-chain fatty acids, secondary bile acids, and lipopolysaccharides. These metabolites and microbial products act as signaling molecules that modulate appetite, gut motility, energy uptake and storage, and energy expenditure. Several findings suggest that the gut microbiota can affect the development of obesity...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130336/antiproliferative-and-cytotoxic-secondary-metabolites-from-fruits-of-leplaea-mayombensis
#18
Sidjui Sidjui Lazare, Soh Désiré, Dameue Tegang Joel Ebenezer, Happi Tchakounté Brice, Toghueo Kouipou Rufin Marie, Wembe Ngouonpe Alain, Shaiq Ali Muhammad, Folefoc Ngosong Gabriel
Two new seco-lanostane-type triterpenes, named mayomlactones A (1) and B (2) were isolated from the fruits of Leplaea mayombensis together with 10 known compounds (3-12). Structures of the new compounds were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic studies. Except compounds 11 and 12, all the other chemical compounds are newly reported from Leplaea genus. From the results of this investigation, compounds 1-10 were examined for antiproliferative activity against HeLa cells as well as cytotoxicity against 3T3 cell line...
November 13, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129944/verbenanone-an-octahydro-5h-chromen-5-one-from-a-hawaiian-plant-associated-fungus-ft431
#19
Chunshun Li, Ariel M Sarotti, James Turkson, Shugeng Cao
A new secondary metabolite verbenanone (1) with a unique (4aS,8aS)-octahydro-5H-chromen-5-one moiety has been obtained from the endophytic fungus FT431, which was isolated from the native Hawaiian plant Verbena sp. The structure of compound 1 was characterized based on NMR and MS spectroscopic analysis. The absolute configuration (AC) of compound 1 was determined by Mosher acids. Compound 1 was tested against A2780 and A2780cisR, but it was inactive.
June 7, 2017: Tetrahedron Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129857/estimation-of-retention-time-in-gc-ms-of-volatile-metabolites-in-fragrant-rice-using-principle-components-of-molecular-descriptors
#20
Nataporn Wijit, Sukon Prasitwattanaseree, Sugunya Mahatheeranont, Peter Wolschann, Supat Jiranusornkul, Piyarat Nimmanpipug
A quantitative structure-retention relationship (QSRR) study was applied for an estimation of retention times of secondary volatile metabolites in Thai jasmine rice. In this study, chemical components in rice seed were extracted using solvent extraction, then separated and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A set of molecular descriptors was generated for these substances obtained from GC-MS analysis to numerically represent the molecular structure of such compounds. Principal component analysis (PCA) and principal component regression analysis (PCR) were used to model the retention times of these compounds as a function of the theoretically derived descriptors...
2017: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
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