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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774640/regulatory-roles-of-flavonoids-on-inflammasome-activation-during-inflammatory-responses
#1
REVIEW
Young-Su Yi
Inflammation is an innate immune response to noxious stimuli to protect the body from pathogens and dangers. Inflammatory responses consist of two main steps: priming and triggering. In priming, inflammatory cells increase expressions of inflammatory molecules, while in triggering, inflammasomes are activated, resulting in cell death and pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion. Inflammasomes are protein complexes comprising intracellular pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) (e.g. nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors (NLRs), absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2), and caspases-4/5/11) and pro-caspase-1 with or without a bipartite adaptor molecule ASC...
May 17, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774426/plant-physical-and-chemical-defence-variation-along-elevation-gradients-a-functional-trait-based-approach
#2
Alan Kergunteuil, Patrice Descombes, Gaetan Glauser, Loïc Pellissier, Sergio Rasmann
Predicting variation in plant functional traits related to anti-herbivore defences remains a major challenge in ecological research, considering that multiple traits have evolved in response to both abiotic and biotic conditions. Therefore, understanding variation in plant anti-herbivore defence traits requires studying their expression along steep environmental gradients, such as along elevation, where multiple biotic and abiotic factors co-vary. We expand on plant defence theory and propose a novel conceptual framework to address the sources of variations of plant resistance traits at the community level...
May 17, 2018: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774351/diversity-of-biologically-active-secondary-metabolites-from-endophytic-and-saprotrophic-fungi-of-the-ascomycete-order-xylariales
#3
REVIEW
Soleiman E Helaly, Benjarong Thongbai, Marc Stadler
Covering: up to December 2017The diversity of secondary metabolites in the fungal order Xylariales is reviewed with special emphasis on correlations between chemical diversity and biodiversity as inferred from recent taxonomic and phylogenetic studies. The Xylariales are arguably among the predominant fungal endophytes, which are the producer organisms of pharmaceutical lead compounds including the antimycotic sordarins and the antiparasitic nodulisporic acids, as well as the marketed drug, emodepside. Many Xylariales are "macromycetes", which form conspicuous fruiting bodies (stromata), and the metabolite profiles that are predominant in the stromata are often complementary to those encountered in corresponding mycelial cultures of a given species...
May 18, 2018: Natural Product Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774035/aldaulactone-an-original-phytotoxic-secondary-metabolite-involved-in-the-aggressiveness-of-alternaria-dauci-on-carrot
#4
Julia Courtial, Latifa Hamama, Jean-Jacques Helesbeux, Mickaël Lecomte, Yann Renaux, Esteban Guichard, Linda Voisine, Claire Yovanopoulos, Bruno Hamon, Laurent Ogé, Pascal Richomme, Mathilde Briard, Tristan Boureau, Séverine Gagné, Pascal Poupard, Romain Berruyer
Qualitative plant resistance mechanisms and pathogen virulence have been extensively studied since the formulation of the gene-for-gene hypothesis. The mechanisms involved in the quantitative traits of aggressiveness and plant partial resistance are less well-known. Nevertheless, they are prevalent in most plant-necrotrophic pathogen interactions, including the Daucus carota - Alternaria dauci interaction. Phytotoxic metabolite production by the pathogen plays a key role in aggressiveness in these interactions...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773129/in-vitro-acaricide-and-anticholinesterase-activities-of-digitaria-insularis-poaceae-against-rhipicephalus-boophilus-microplus
#5
Francianne Oliveira Santos, Hélimar Gonçalves Lima, Soraia de Souza Santa Rosa, Nayana Borges das Mercês, Taiane Menezes Serra, Rosângela Soares Uzeda, Isabella Mary Alves Reis, Mariana Borges Botura, Alexsandro Branco, Maria José Moreira Batatinha
Medicinal plants have been proposed as an alternative for acaricide control, aiming to develop lower-cost and eco-friendly ectoparasiticide products. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of the extracts and fractions obtained from the leaves of Digitaria insularis on the reproductive efficacy of the bovine tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Also, we investigated the possible relation with the anticholinesterase mechanism. The effect of the crude hydroethanolic (CH), hexanic (HE), ethyl acetate (EA), butanolic (BT) and residual hydroethanolic (RH) extracts, as well as four fractions of HE, were evaluated using adult immersion test...
May 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772645/anticancer-activity-of-euplotin-c-isolated-from-the-marine-ciliate-euplotes-crassus-against-human-melanoma-cells
#6
Sara Carpi, Beatrice Polini, Giulio Poli, Gabriela Alcantara Barata, Stefano Fogli, Antonella Romanini, Tiziano Tuccinardi, Graziano Guella, Francesco Paolo Frontini, Paola Nieri, Graziano Di Giuseppe
Cutaneous melanoma is the most serious type of skin cancer, so new cytotoxic weapons against novel targets in melanoma are of great interest. Euplotin C (EC), a cytotoxic secondary metabolite of the marine ciliate Euplotes crassus , was evaluated in the present study on human cutaneous melanoma cells to explore its anti-melanoma activity and to gain more insight into its mechanism of action. EC exerted a marked cytotoxic effect against three different human melanoma cell lines (A375, 501Mel and MeWo) with a potency about 30-fold higher than that observed in non-cancer cells (HDFa cells)...
May 16, 2018: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772507/novel-insight-of-carotenoid-and-lipid-biosynthesis-and-their-roles-in-storage-carbon-metabolism-in-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii
#7
Han Sun, Xuemei Mao, Tao Wu, Yuanyuan Ren, Feng Chen, Bin Liu
Revenues of carotenoid and lipid biosynthesis under excess light and nitrogen starvation were firstly analyzed for the increased biomass value through carbon metabolism analysis. The results suggested excess light and nitrogen starvation resulted in carbon partitioning among protein, starch, lipid and carotenoid. Nitrogen starvation promoted more cellular lipid content than excess light, while excess light promoted carotenoid and polyunsaturated fatty acid accumulation. In the molecular level, the stresses redirected carbon skeletons into the central metabolite of pyruvate and oriented into starch and lipid as the primary and secondary carbon storage, respectively...
May 10, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772268/determination-and-regulation-of-hepatotoxic-pyrrolizidine-alkaloids-in-food-a-critical-review-of-recent-research
#8
Chuanhui Ma, Yang Liu, Lin Zhu, Hong Ji, Xun Song, Hui Guo, Tao Yi
Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are secondary metabolites of plants. PAs have been reported to be hepatotoxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic; they are a significant group of natural toxins affecting livestock, wildlife, and humans. To date, over 10,000 PAs poisoning cases have been reported worldwide. In recent years, many articles have reported the detection of PAs in various foods, including honey, milk, meat, eggs, tea and salad. This review summarized the contamination of PAs in foods, state of the art detection methods and regulations by different countries and authorities, hoping to propose effective solutions to minimize the consumption of PAs in food...
May 14, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772116/bioassay-guided-isolation-of-antifungal-compounds-from-disporopsis-aspera-engl-against-pseudoperonospora-cubensis-and-phytophthora-infestans
#9
Feng Zhu, Chengshan Yuan, Fangli Gang, Chaofu Yang, Wenjun Wu, Jiwen Zhang
Oomycetes are one type of the most highly destructive of the diseases that cause damage to some important crop plants, such as potato late blight, cucumber downy mildew and grape downy mildew. As main approach of the ongoing search for new botanical fungicide from plant, the secondary metabolites of D. aspera were investigated. Through efficient bioassay-guided isolation, two new (1, 2), twelve known compounds (3-14) were isolated, and their structures were determined via extensive NMR, HR-ESI-MS, IR. They were isolated from this genus for the first time except for compounds 11, 12...
May 17, 2018: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771352/de-novo-biosynthesis-of-anthocyanins-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#10
Michael Eichenberger, Anders Hansson, David Fischer, Lara Dürr, Michael Naesby
Anthocyanins (ACNs) are plant secondary metabolites responsible for most of the red, purple and blue colors of flowers, fruits and vegetables. They are increasingly used in the food and beverage industry as natural alternative to artificial colorants. Production of these compounds by fermentation of microorganisms would provide an attractive alternative. In this study, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was engineered for de novo production of the three basic anthocyanins, as well as the three main trans-flavan-3-ols...
June 1, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768240/green-synthesis-and-characterisation-of-silver-nanoparticles-and-their-effects-on-antimicrobial-efficacy-and-biochemical-profiling-in-citrus-reticulata
#11
Mubashir Hussain, Naveed Iqbal Raja, Zia-Ur-Rehman Mashwani, Farah Naz, Muhammad Iqbal, Sumaira Aslam
The synthesis of nanoparticles by utilising plant extract has revolutionised the field of nanotechnology. In the present study, AgNPs were synthesised by utilising the leaves of Moringa oleifera as reducing and stabilising agent. UV-visible spectroscopy showed characteristic surface plasmon band in the range of 413-420 nm. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) elucidated rectangular segments fused together. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the crystalline nature of AgNPs and presence of metallic silver ions was confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray (EDX)...
June 2018: IET Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767975/cytotoxic-anthracycline-metabolites-from-a-recombinant-streptomyces
#12
Chun Gui, Jie Yuan, Xuhua Mo, Hongbo Huang, Shanwen Zhang, Yu-Cheng Gu, Jianhua Ju
The C7 (C9 or C10)- O-l-rhodosamine-bearing anthracycline antibiotic cytorhodins and their biosynthetic intermediates were recently isolated from Streptomyces sp. SCSIO 1666. Cosmid p17C4 from the Streptomyces lydicus genomic library, which harbors both the biosynthetic genes for l-rhodinose (or 2-deoxy-l-fucose) and its glycosyltransferase (encoded by slgG), was introduced into SCSIO 1666 to yield the recombinant strain Streptomyces sp. SCSIO 1666/17C4. Chemical investigations of this strain's secondary metabolic potential revealed the production of different anthracyclines featuring C7- O-l-rhodinose (or 2-deoxy-l-fucose) instead of the typically observed l-rhodosamine...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767961/real-time-monitoring-of-tricarboxylic-acid-metabolites-in-exhaled-breath
#13
Alberto Tejero Rioseras, Kapil Dev Singh, Nora Nowak, Martin T Gaugg, Tobias Bruderer, Renato Zenobi, Pablo M-L Sinues
The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is one of the most important metabolic pathway for cellular respiration in aerobic organisms. It provides and collects intermediates for many other interconnecting pathways and acts as a hub connecting metabolism of carbohydrates, fatty acids, and amino acids. Alteration in intracellular levels of its intermediates has been linked with a wide range of illnesses ranging from cancer to cellular necrosis or liver cirrhosis. Therefore, there exists an intrinsic interest in monitoring such metabolites...
May 16, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766811/p2x7-receptor-associated-programmed-cell-death-in-the-pathophysiology-of-hemorrhagic-stroke
#14
Hengli Zhao, Yujie Chen, Hua Feng
Hemorrhagic stroke is a life-threatening disease characterized by a sudden rupture of cerebral blood vessels, and cell death is widely believed to occur after exposure to blood metabolites or subsequently damaged cells. Recently, programmed cell death, such as apoptosis, autophagy, necroptosis, pyroptosis, and ferroptosis, has been demonstrated to play crucial roles in the pathophysiology of stroke. However, the detailed mechanisms of these novel kinds of cell death are still unclear. The P2X7 receptor, previously known for its cytotoxic activity, is an ATP-gated, non-selective cation channel that belongs to the family of ionotropic P2X receptors...
May 15, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766796/biological-and-in-silico-studies-on-synthetic-analogues-of-tyrosine-betaine-as-inhibitors-of-neprilysin-a-drug-target-for-the-treatment-of-heart-failure
#15
Daniel Fabio Kawano, Marcelo Rodrigues de Carvalho, Mauricio Ferreira Marcondes Machado, Adriana Karaoglanovic Carmona, Gilberto Ubida Leite Braga, Ivone Carvalho
BACKGROUND: Fungal secondary metabolites are important sources for the discovery of new pharmaceuticals, as exemplified by penicillin, lovastatin and cyclosporine. Searching for secondary metabolites of the fungi Metarhizium ssp., we previously identified tyrosine betaine as a major constituent. METHODS: Because of the structural similarity with other inhibitors of neprilysin (NEP), an enzyme explored for the treatment of heart failure, we devised the synthesis of tyrosine betaine and three analogues to be subjected to in vitro NEP inhibition assays and to molecular modeling studies...
May 14, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765461/anticancer-properties-of-essential-oils-and-other-natural-products
#16
REVIEW
K Blowman, M Magalhães, M F L Lemos, C Cabral, I M Pires
Essential oils are secondary metabolites with a key-role in plants protection, consisting primarily of terpenes with a volatile nature and a diverse array of chemical structures. Essential oils exhibit a wide range of bioactivities, especially antimicrobial activity, and have long been utilized for treating various human ailments and diseases. Cancer cell prevention and cytotoxicity are exhibited through a wide range of mechanisms of action, with more recent research focusing on synergistic and antagonistic activity between specific essential oils major and minor components...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764657/does-host-plant-adaptation-lead-to-pesticide-resistance-in-generalist-herbivores
#17
REVIEW
Wannes Dermauw, Adam Pym, Chris Bass, Thomas Van Leeuwen, René Feyereisen
Most herbivorous arthropods feed on one or a few closely related plant species; however, certain insect and mite species have a greatly expanded host range. Several of these generalists also show a remarkable propensity to evolve resistance to chemical pesticides. In this review, we ask if the evolution of mechanisms to tolerate the diversity of plant secondary metabolites that generalist herbivores encounter, has pre-adapted them to resist synthetic pesticides. Critical examination of the evidence suggests that a generalist life-style per se is not a predictor of rapid resistance evolution to pesticides...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763675/efficient-genome-editing-in-fusarium-oxysporum-based-on-crispr-cas9-ribonucleoprotein-complexes
#18
Qiang Wang, Paul A Cobine, Jeffrey J Coleman
The Fusarium oxysporum species complex (FOSC) is an economically important group of pathogenic filamentous fungi that are able to infect both animals and plants. Reverse genetic techniques, including gene disruption/deletion methods, to study these fungi are available although limitations exist resulting in decreased efficiency. Herein we describe a gene editing system developed using a F. oxysporum-optimized Cas9 ribonucleoprotein (RNP) and protoplast transformation method. The Cas9 protein and sgRNA were assembled to form a stable RNP in vitro and this complex was transferred into fungal protoplasts for gene editing with PEG-mediated transformation...
May 12, 2018: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763421/discovery-of-chitin-in-skeletons-of-non-verongiid-red-sea-demosponges
#19
Hermann Ehrlich, Lamiaa A Shaala, Diaa T A Youssef, Sonia Żółtowska-Aksamitowska, Mikhail Tsurkan, Roberta Galli, Heike Meissner, Marcin Wysokowski, Iaroslav Petrenko, Konstantin R Tabachnick, Viatcheslav N Ivanenko, Nicole Bechmann, Yvonne Joseph, Teofil Jesionowski
Marine demosponges (Porifera: Demospongiae) are recognized as first metazoans which have developed over millions of years of evolution effective survival strategies based on unique metabolic pathways to produce both biologically active secondary metabolites and biopolymer-based stiff skeletons with 3D architecture. Up to date, among marine demosponges, only representatives of the Verongiida order have been known to synthetize biologically active substances as well as skeletons made of structural polysaccharide chitin...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762631/aqueous-extracts-of-walnut-juglans-regia-l-leaves-quantitative-analyses-of-hydroxycinnamic-and-chlorogenic-acids
#20
Anggy Lusanna Gutiérrez Ortiz, Federico Berti, Luciano Navarini, Paola Crisafulli, Silvia Colomban, Cristina Forzato
Identification of both hydroxycinnamic and chlorogenic acids present in aqueous extracts of walnut leaves (Juglans regia L.) were carried out by using, for the first time, standard compounds not commercially available for qualitative identification. In particular, in addition to caffeic, ferulic, p-coumaric and sinapic acids, cis and trans mono-caffeoylquinic, dicaffeoylquinic, mono-feruloylquinic and cis and trans mono-p-coumaroylquinic acid isomers were detected and quantified by Ultra High Pressure Liquid Chromatography and the seasonal variations of these secondary metabolites were investigated...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Chromatographic Science
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