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Secondary metabolites

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453782/sempi-a-genome-based-secondary-metabolite-prediction-and-identification-web-server
#1
Paul F Zierep, Natàlia Padilla, Dimitar G Yonchev, Kiran K Telukunta, Dennis Klementz, Stefan Günther
The secondary metabolism of bacteria, fungi and plants yields a vast number of bioactive substances. The constantly increasing amount of published genomic data provides the opportunity for an efficient identification of gene clusters by genome mining. Conversely, for many natural products with resolved structures, the encoding gene clusters have not been identified yet. Even though genome mining tools have become significantly more efficient in the identification of biosynthetic gene clusters, structural elucidation of the actual secondary metabolite is still challenging, especially due to as yet unpredictable post-modifications...
April 27, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453536/rtfa-controls-development-secondary-metabolism-and-virulence-in-aspergillus-fumigatus
#2
Ryan R Myers, Timothy D Smith, Sherine F Elsawa, Olivier Puel, Souraia Tadrist, Ana M Calvo
Invasive aspergillosis by Aspergillus fumigatus is a leading cause of infection-related mortality in immune-compromised patients. In order to discover potential genetic targets to control A. fumigatus infections we characterized rtfA, a gene encoding a putative RNA polymerase II transcription elongation factor-like protein. Our recent work has shown that the rtfA ortholog in the model fungus Aspergillus nidulans regulates morphogenesis and secondary metabolism. The present study on the opportunistic pathogen A...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448144/a-maldiisotopic-approach-to-discover-natural-products-cryptomaldamide-a-hybrid-tripeptide-from-the-marine-cyanobacterium-moorea-producens
#3
Robin B Kinnel, Eduardo Esquenazi, Tiago Leao, Nathan Moss, Emily Mevers, Alban R Pereira, Emily A Monroe, Anton Korobeynikov, Thomas F Murray, David Sherman, Lena Gerwick, Pieter C Dorrestein, William H Gerwick
Genome sequencing of microorganisms has revealed a greatly increased capacity for natural products biosynthesis than was previously recognized from compound isolation efforts alone. Hence, new methods are needed for the discovery and description of this hidden secondary metabolite potential. Here we show that provision of heavy nitrogen (15)N-nitrate to marine cyanobacterial cultures followed by single-filament MALDI analysis over a period of days was highly effective in identifying a new natural product with an exceptionally high nitrogen content...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448137/profiling-the-phenolic-compounds-of-the-four-major-seed-coat-types-and-their-relation-to-color-genes-in-lentil
#4
Mahla Mirali, Randy W Purves, Albert Vandenberg
Phenolic compounds can provide antioxidant health benefits for humans, and foods such as lentils can be valuable dietary sources of different subclasses of these secondary metabolites. This study used LC-MS analyses to compare the phenolic profiles of lentil genotypes with four seed coat background colors (green, gray, tan, and brown) and two cotyledon colors (red and yellow) grown at two locations. The mean area ratio per mg sample (MARS) values of various phenolic compounds in lentil seeds varied with the different seed coat colors conferred by specific genotypes...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447887/cyclopiazonic-acid-is-a-pathogenicity-factor-for-aspergillus-flavus-and-a-promising-target-for-screening-germplasm-for-ear-rot-resistance
#5
Subbaiah C Chalivendra, Catherine DeRobertis, Perng-Kuang Chang, Kenneth E Damann
Aspergillus flavus, an opportunistic pathogen, contaminates maize and other key crops with carcinogenic aflatoxins (AFs). Besides AFs, A. flavus makes many more secondary metabolites (SMs) whose toxicity in insects or vertebrates has been studied. However, the role of SMs in the invasion of plant hosts by A. flavus remains to be investigated. Cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), a neurotoxic SM made by A. flavus, is a nanomolar inhibitor of endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPases (ECAs) and a potent inducer of cell death in plants...
April 24, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446918/microrna-and-transcription-factor-key-players-in-plant-regulatory-network
#6
REVIEW
Abdul F A Samad, Muhammad Sajad, Nazaruddin Nazaruddin, Izzat A Fauzi, Abdul M A Murad, Zamri Zainal, Ismanizan Ismail
Recent achievements in plant microRNA (miRNA), a large class of small and non-coding RNAs, are very exciting. A wide array of techniques involving forward genetic, molecular cloning, bioinformatic analysis, and the latest technology, deep sequencing have greatly advanced miRNA discovery. A tiny miRNA sequence has the ability to target single/multiple mRNA targets. Most of the miRNA targets are transcription factors (TFs) which have paramount importance in regulating the plant growth and development. Various families of TFs, which have regulated a range of regulatory networks, may assist plants to grow under normal and stress environmental conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446915/pruning-system-and-foliar-application-of-mgso-4-alter-yield-and-secondary-metabolite-profile-of-rosa-damascena-under-rainfed-acidic-conditions
#7
Probir K Pal, Mitali Mahajan
Damask rose (Rosa damascena Mill.) is one of the most high-value essential oil-bearing plants in the world. However, the flower yield and quality of essential oil of R. damascena are largely influenced by the pruning practices and balanced supply of plant nutrition. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis whether the pruning system and foliar fertilization of MgSO4 would influence the flower yield, growth and secondary metabolites profile of R. damascena. A field experiment of 10 treatment combinations comprising two pruning systems (complete and partial) and five levels of MgSO4 (water spray, MgSO4 @ 5...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446914/constructing-integrated-networks-for-identifying-new-secondary-metabolic-pathway-regulators-in-grapevine-recent-applications-and-future-opportunities
#8
Darren C J Wong, José Tomás Matus
Representing large biological data as networks is becoming increasingly adopted for predicting gene function while elucidating the multifaceted organization of life processes. In grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.), network analyses have been mostly adopted to contribute to the understanding of the regulatory mechanisms that control berry composition. Whereas, some studies have used gene co-expression networks to find common pathways and putative targets for transcription factors related to development and metabolism, others have defined networks of primary and secondary metabolites for characterizing the main metabolic differences between cultivars throughout fruit ripening...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446828/preliminary-pharmacognostic-and-phytochemical-investigation-of-blepharis-sindica-t-anders-seeds
#9
Apurva Priyadarshi, Rajesh Kumari, Anil Kumar Sharma, Mohal Lal Jaiswal
BACKGROUND: Blepharis sindica - T. Anders of family Acanthaceae is an important medicinal plant which is mainly used as an invigorating tonic, given to cattle to increase milk production and its roots are used for urinary discharge and dysmenorrhea. It is commonly known as "Bhaṅgārī". It is extensively used traditionally as Vājīkāraka and Vṛṣya (Aphrodisiac) by vaidyas of Rajasthan and Gujarat. The seeds of Blepharis sindica T. Anders are the parts of the plant valued for their medicinal value...
October 2016: Ancient Science of Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446521/comparison-of-ticagrelor-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-in-stemi-and-nstemi-patients-pinpoint-protocol-for-a-prospective-observational-single-centre-study
#10
Piotr Adamski, Małgorzata Ostrowska, Joanna Sikora, Karolina Obońska, Katarzyna Buszko, Magdalena Krintus, Grażyna Sypniewska, Michał Piotr Marszałł, Marek Koziński, Jacek Kubica
INTRODUCTION: The most common classification of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is based on electrocardiographic findings and distinguishes ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). Both types of AMI differ concerning their epidemiology, clinical approach and early outcomes. Ticagrelor is a P2Y12 receptor inhibitor, constituting the first-line treatment for STEMI and NSTEMI. According to available data, STEMI may be associated with lower plasma concentration of ticagrelor in the first hours of AMI, but currently there are no studies directly comparing ticagrelor pharmacokinetics or antiplatelet effect in patients with STEMI versus NSTEMI...
April 26, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446500/protective-effect-of-homovanillyl-alcohol-on-cardiovascular-disease-and-total-mortality-virgin-olive-oil-wine-and-catechol-methylathion
#11
Rafael De la Torre, Dolores Corella, Olga Castañer, Miguel A Martínez-González, Jordi Salas-Salvador, Joan Vila, Ramón Estruch, José V Sorli, Fernando Arós, Miquel Fiol, Emili Ros, Lluís Serra-Majem, Xavier Pintó, Enrique Gómez-Gracia, José Lapetra, Miguel Ruiz-Canela, José Basora, Eva Maria Asensio, Maria Isabel Covas, Montserrat Fitó
Background: Hydroxytyrosol is a phenolic compound that is present in virgin olive oil (VOO) and wine. Hydroxytyrosol-related foods have been shown to protect against cardiovascular disease (CVD).Objective: We investigated the associations between hydroxytyrosol and its biological metabolite, 3-O-methyl-hydroxytyrosol, also known as homovanillyl alcohol (HVAL), with CVD and total mortality.Design: We included 1851 men and women with a mean ± SD age of 66.8 ± 6 y at high risk of CVD from prospective cohort data...
April 26, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446328/combined-gc-and-uhplc-hr-ms-based-metabolomics-to-analyze-durable-anti-fungal-resistance-processes-in-cereals
#12
Rahel Bucher, Daniel Veyel, Lothar Willmitzer, Simon Krattinger, Beat Keller, Laurent Biglera
Introduction of durable resistance genes in crops is an important strategy to prevent yield loss caused by pathogens. The durable multi-pathogen resistance gene Lr34 originating from wheat is widely used in breeding, and is functionally transferable to barley and rice. The molecular resistance mechanism of Lr34, encoding for an adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter, is not known yet. To understand the molecular function and the defense response of durable disease resistance in cereals, the metabolic response of Lr34 was investigated in, except for the Lr34 gene, genetically identical lines of barley, rice and wheat...
April 26, 2017: Chimia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445526/biosynthesis-of-the-oxygenated-diterpene-nezukol-in-the-medicinal-plant-isodon-rubescens-is-catalyzed-by-a-pair-of-diterpene-synthases
#13
Kyle A Pelot, David M Hagelthorn, J Bennett Addison, Philipp Zerbe
Plants produce an immense diversity of natural products (i.e. secondary or specialized metabolites) that offer a rich source of known and potentially new pharmaceuticals and other desirable bioproducts. The Traditional Chinese Medicinal plant Isodon rubescens (Lamiaceae) contains an array of bioactive labdane-related diterpenoid natural products. Of these, the ent-kauranoid oridonin is the most prominent specialized metabolite that has been extensively studied for its potent antimicrobial and anticancer efficacy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444904/a-bell-pepper-cultivar-tolerant-to-chilling-enhanced-nitrogen-allocation-and-stress-related-metabolite-accumulation-in-the-roots-in-response-to-low-root-zone-temperature
#14
Moses Kwame Aidoo, Tal Sherman, Naftali Lazarovitch, Aaron Fait, Shimon Rachmilevitch
Two bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) cultivars, differing in their response to chilling, were exposed to three levels of root zone temperatures. Gas exchange, shoot and root phenology, and the pattern of change of the central metabolites and secondary metabolites caffeate and benzoate in the leaves and roots were profiled. Low root zone temperature significantly inhibited gaseous exchange, with a greater effect on the sensitive commercial pepper hybrid (Canon) than on the new hybrid bred to enhance abiotic stress tolerant (S103)...
April 26, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444868/an-ecological-approach-to-discover-new-bioactive-extracts-and-products-the-case-of-extremophile-plants
#15
Ramla Sahli, Céline Rivière, Christel Neut, Joanne Bero, Marie-Emmanuelle Sahuc, Abderrazak Smaoui, Claire Beaufay, Vincent Roumy, Thierry Hennebelle, Yves Rouillé, Joëlle Quetin-Leclercq, Karin Séron, Riadh Ksouri, Sevser Sahpaz
OBJECTIVES: Eight extremophile plants from Tunisia were screened to find natural products with benefits in human health. METHODS: These plants were collected in different areas in Tunisia. Their methanolic extracts were evaluated for their total phenolic content and for their antiradical (DPPH), antimicrobial (on 35 bacteria and one yeast), antiviral (hepatitis C virus, HCV) and cytotoxic activity (against WI38 and J774 cell lines). The most active species were subjected to a bioguided fractionation...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444602/bioactive-guided-fractionation-of-diols-from-streptomyces-sp-msl
#16
Raja Hima Bindhu Madasu, Vijayalakshmi Muvva, Rajesh Kumar Munaganti, Kumar Reddy Dorigondla, Venkateswarlu Yenamandra
An actinomycete strain with a great potential to produce bioactive compounds isolated from a laterite soil was identified as Streptomyces sp. MSL based on 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Secondary metabolites produced by the strain in optimized nutrient broth were extracted and analyzed by chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. Among the different fractions, four diols, viz., (1) (2R,3R)-2,3-Butanediol, (2) (2R,3S)-2,3-Butanediol, (3) 2,3-dimethyl-2,3-butanediol (Pinacol), and (4) (3R)-1,3-Butanediol exhibited good antimicrobial activity...
May 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443519/atranorin-an-interesting-lichen-secondary-metabolite
#17
Elżbieta Studzińska-Sroka, Agnieszka Galanty, Wiesława Bylka
Atranorin, the compound with the depside structure, is one of the most common lichen secondary metabolites, characteristic for numerous lichen families but rarely found in some mosses and higher plants. Over the years various biological properties of atranorin were examined. This review summarises the studies on atranorin, focusing on a number of biological activities in different fields. The literature describes anti-inflammatory, analgesic, as well as wound healing, antibacterial, antifungal, cytotoxic, antioxidant, antiviral, and immunomodulatory activities of the depside...
April 24, 2017: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442892/bioequivalence-study-of-a-new-sildenafil-100-mg-orodispersible-film-compared-to-the-conventional-film-coated-100-mg-tablet-administered-to-healthy-male-volunteers
#18
Milko Radicioni, Chiara Castiglioni, Andrea Giori, Irma Cupone, Valeria Frangione, Stefano Rovati
A new orodispersible film formulation of the phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor, sildenafil, has been developed to examine the advantages of an orally disintegrating film formulation and provide an alternative to the current marketed products for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. The pharmacokinetics of the sildenafil 100 mg orodispersible film (IBSA) was compared to that of the conventional marketed 100 mg film-coated tablet (Viagra(®)) after single-dose administration to 53 healthy male volunteers (aged 18-51 years) in a randomized, open, two-way crossover bioequivalence study...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442735/novel-antibiotic-screening-methods-to-awaken-silent-or-cryptic-secondary-metabolic-pathways-in-actinomycetes
#19
REVIEW
Hiroyasu Onaka
Streptomyces have the potential to produce more than 30 secondary metabolites; however, the expression of most metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters is cryptic or silent. Indeed, the expression of these genes is conditional and dependent on culture conditions. To activate such gene clusters, many methods have been developed. In this review, I describe two activation approaches developed in my laboratory: use of the activation mediator goadsporin and combined-culture. Goadsporin is a chemical substance isolated from Streptomyces sp...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442441/aspergillus-flavus-aswa-a-gene-homolog-of-aspergillus-nidulans-oefc-regulates-sclerotial-development-and-biosynthesis-of-sclerotium-associated-secondary-metabolites
#20
Perng-Kuang Chang, Leslie L Scharfenstein, Robert W Li, Natalia Arroyo-Manzanares, Sarah De Saeger, José Diana Di Mavungu
Aspergillus flavus aswA (AFLA_085170) is a gene encoding a Zn(II)2Cys6 DNA-binding domain and a transcriptional activation domain, DUF3468. Disruption of aswA yielded strains that made a truncated gene transcript and generated a fungus that produced a greatly increased number of sclerotia. These sclerotia were odd-shaped and non-pigmented (white) and different from oval and pigmented (dark brown to black) mature sclerotia. Transcriptomic analysis of the ΔaswA strain grown on potato dextrose agar plates and Wickerham agar plates showed that expression of clustering genes involved in the biosynthesis of three sclerotium-associated secondary metabolites was down-regulated...
April 22, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
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