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Secondary metabolites

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350762/occurrence-of-ochratoxins-fumonisin-b2-aflatoxins-b1-and-b2-and-other-secondary-fungal-metabolites-in-dried-date-palm-fruits-from-egypt-a-mini-survey
#1
Mohamed F Abdallah, Rudolf Krska, Michael Sulyok
This study was conducted to investigate the natural co-occurrence of 295 fungal and bacterial metabolites in 28 samples of dried date palm fruits collected from different shops distributed in Assiut Governorate, Upper Egypt in 2016. Extraction and quantification of the target analytes were done using the "dilute and shoot" approach followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. In total, 30 toxic fungal metabolites were detected. Among these metabolites, 4 types of ochratoxins including ochratoxin type A and B were quantified in 3 samples (11%) with a contamination range from 1...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350255/nuclear-magnetic-resonance-and-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-techniques-for-the-characterization-of-bioactive-compounds-from-humulus-lupulus-l-hop
#2
Davide Bertelli, Virginia Brighenti, Lucia Marchetti, Anna Reik, Federica Pellati
Humulus lupulus L. (hop) represents one of the most cultivated crops, it being a key ingredient in the brewing process. Many health-related properties have been described for hop extracts, making this plant gain more interest in the field of pharmaceutical and nutraceutical research. Among the analytical tools available for the phytochemical characterization of plant extracts, quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (qNMR) represents a new and powerful technique. In this ambit, the present study was aimed at the development of a new, simple, and efficient qNMR method for the metabolite fingerprinting of bioactive compounds in hop cones, taking advantage of the novel ERETIC 2 tool...
January 19, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349608/comparative-transcriptomics-uncovers-differences-in-photoautotrophic-versus-photoheterotrophic-modes-of-nutrition-in-relation-to-secondary-metabolites-biosynthesis-in-swertia-chirayita
#3
Tarun Pal, Jibesh Kumar Padhan, Pawan Kumar, Hemant Sood, Rajinder S Chauhan
Swertia chirayita is a high-value medicinal herb exhibiting antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, anticancer, antiediematogenic and antipyretic properties. Scarcity of its plant material has necessitated in vitro production of therapeutic metabolites; however, their yields were low compared to field grown plants. Possible reasons for this could be differences in physiological and biochemical processes between plants grown in photoautotrophic versus photoheterotrophic modes of nutrition. Comparative transcriptomes of S...
January 18, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349493/biotic-elicitation-of-ginsenoside-metabolism-of-mutant-adventitious-root-culture-in-panax-ginseng
#4
Kim-Cuong Le, Wan-Taek Im, Kee-Yoeup Paek, So-Young Park
Biotic elicitation is an important biotechnological strategy for triggering the accumulation of secondary metabolites in adventitious root cultures. These biotic elicitors can be obtained from safe, economically important strains of bacteria found in the rhizosphere and fermented foods. Here, we assayed the effects of filtered cultures of five nitrogen-fixing bacteria and four types of fermentation bacteria on mutant adventitious Panax ginseng root cultures induced in a previous study by colchicine treatment...
January 18, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347838/bacilsubteramide-a-a-new-indole-alkaloid-from-the-deep-sea-derived-bacillus-subterraneus-11593
#5
Chun-Lan Xie, Jin-Mei Xia, Rui-Qiang Su, Jie Li, Yonghong Liu, Xian-Wen Yang, Quan Yang
From the deep-sea-derived bacterium Bacillus subterraneus 11593, a new indole alkaloid (1) was isolated along with three known compounds (2‒4). By detailed analysis of its NMR spectroscopic data, and further by the theoretical ECD calculations, the absolute configuration of the new compound was determined to be (R)-N-[2-(3-hydroxy-2-oxoindolin-3-yl)ethyl]acetamide, and named bacilsubteramide A. All four isolates were tested for anti-allergic bioactivities; however, none exhibited positive effect (IC50 > 0...
January 18, 2018: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346329/anti-phytopathogenic-and-cytotoxic-activities-of-crude-extracts-and-secondary-metabolites-of-marine-derived-fungi
#6
Dong-Lin Zhao, Dan Wang, Xue-Ying Tian, Fei Cao, Yi-Qiang Li, Cheng-Sheng Zhang
Thirty-one isolates belonging to eight genera in seven orders were identified from 141 strains that were isolated from several marine plants. Alternaria sp. and Fusarium sp. were found to be the predominant fungi. Evaluation of the anti-phytopathogenic bacterial and fungal activities, as well as the cytotoxicity of these 31 extracts, revealed that most of them displayed different levels of bioactivities. Due to their interesting bioactivities, two fungal strains-Fusarium equiseti (P18) and Alternaria sp. (P8)-were selected for chemical investigation and compounds 1-4 were obtained...
January 18, 2018: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342353/synthesis-and-computational-studies-demonstrate-the-utility-of-an-intramolecular-styryl-diels-alder-reaction-and-bht-assisted-1-3-shift-to-construct-anticancer-dl-deoxypodophyllotoxin
#7
Diana I Saavedra, Benjamin D Rencher, Doo-Hyun Kwon, Stacey J Smith, Daniel H Ess, Merritt B Andrus
Deoxypodophyllotoxin is a secondary metabolite lignan possessing potent anticancer activity with potential as a precursor for known anticancer drugs, but its use is limited by scarcity from natural sources. We here report the total synthesis of racemic deoxypodophyllotoxin (DPT) in seven steps using an intramolecular styryl Diels-Alder reaction (ISDA) strategy uniquely suited to assemble the deoxypodophyllotoxin core. Computational studies are also reported for this reaction that demonstrate the ability to overcome the limitations of slow reactivity and electronic mismatch of the diene and dieneophile...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342073/structure-elucidation-of-unknown-metabolites-in-metabolomics-by-combined-nmr-and-ms-ms-prediction
#8
Rene M Boiteau, David W Hoyt, Carrie D Nicora, Hannah A Kinmonth-Schultz, Joy K Ward, Kerem Bingol
We introduce a cheminformatics approach that combines highly selective and orthogonal structure elucidation parameters; accurate mass, MS/MS (MS²), and NMR into a single analysis platform to accurately identify unknown metabolites in untargeted studies. The approach starts with an unknown LC-MS feature, and then combines the experimental MS/MS and NMR information of the unknown to effectively filter out the false positive candidate structures based on their predicted MS/MS and NMR spectra. We demonstrate the approach on a model mixture, and then we identify an uncatalogued secondary metabolite in Arabidopsis thaliana...
January 17, 2018: Metabolites
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341893/targeting-bdnf-modulation-by-plant-glycosides-as-a-novel-therapeutic-strategy-in-the-treatment-of-depression
#9
REVIEW
Haroon Khan, Surriya Amin, Seema Patel
Current therapies in clinical practice face strong criticism regarding their efficacy, and side effects, which forced the neuro-researchers to discover novel agents with different mechanistic insights. Glycosides are naturally-occurring plant secondary metabolites with significant medicinal potential and clinical scope as antidepressant. The aim of this review is to focus on the antidepressant effects of glycosides in preclinical studies, with an emphasis on the possible mechanisms. The literature search revealed that only a few phytoglycosides have been evaluated for their relevance in depression alleviation...
January 13, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339425/secondary-metabolism-and-interspecific-competition-affect-accumulation-of-spontaneous-mutants-in-the-gacs-gaca-regulatory-system-in-pseudomonas-protegens
#10
Qing Yan, Lucas D Lopes, Brenda T Shaffer, Teresa A Kidarsa, Oliver Vining, Benjamin Philmus, Chunxu Song, Virginia O Stockwell, Jos M Raaijmakers, Kerry L McPhail, Fernando D Andreote, Jeff H Chang, Joyce E Loper
Secondary metabolites are synthesized by many microorganisms and provide a fitness benefit in the presence of competitors and predators. Secondary metabolism also can be costly, as it shunts energy and intermediates from primary metabolism. In Pseudomonas spp., secondary metabolism is controlled by the GacS-GacA global regulatory system. Intriguingly, spontaneous mutations in gacS or gacA (Gac- mutants) are commonly observed in laboratory cultures. Here we investigated the role of secondary metabolism in the accumulation of Gac- mutants in Pseudomonas protegens strain Pf-5...
January 16, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339182/interrelationship-among-annual-cycles-of-sex-steroids-corticosterone-and-body-condition-in-nyctibatrachus-humayuni
#11
A M Joshi, E J Narayan, N P Gramapurohit
Synergism between extrinsic and intrinsic factors is crucial for the seasonality of reproduction. Environmental factors such as photoperiod and temperature activate the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis leading to the secretion of steroid hormones that are crucial for reproduction. Sex steroids are not only essential for the maturation of gonads, but also for development of secondary sexual characters in males and reproductive behaviour of both the sexes. In the present study, we quantified the urinary testosterone (UTM) and corticosterone (UCM) metabolites in males and urinary estradiol metabolites (UEM) and UCM in females of Nyctibatrachus humayuni for two consecutive years to determine annual and seasonal variation in the levels of sex steroids, corticosterone and body condition index (BCI)...
January 12, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338668/simultaneous-determination-of-afidopyropen-and-its-metabolite-in-vegetables-fruit-and-soil-using-uhplc-ms-ms
#12
Kaiying Chen, Xingang Liu, Xiaohu Wu, Fengshou Dong, Jun Xu, Yongquan Zheng
A new analytical method using the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) procedure for simultaneous determination of afidopyropen and its metabolite M440I007 residues in tomato, watermelon, pepper, cucumber, pear, grape, cabbage and soil samples was developed using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The target compound was determined in less than 5.0 min using an electrospray ionisation source in positive mode (ESI+). The limit of quantification was 1 μg kg-1 in different matrices...
January 17, 2018: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338236/detection-of-the-cytotoxic-penitrems-a-f-in-cheese-from-the-european-single-market-eu-by-hplc-ms-ms
#13
Svetlana Kalinina, Annika Jagels, Sebastian Hickert, Lucas Maciel Mauriz Marques, Benedikt Cramer, Hans-Ulrich Humpf
Penitrems are fungal indole diterpene derived tremorgenic secondary metabolites, which are mainly produced by Penicillium spp. Several cases of intoxications with penitrems and subsequent occurrences of penitrem A in foodstuff underline the need for reliable quantitation methods for the detection of these mycotoxins in food. In this study, a simple and fast HPLC-MS/MS method for the quantitative analysis of penitrems A-F in cheese was developed. Therefore, penitrems A-F were isolated from Penicillium crustosum as analytical reference standards...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337927/the-plant-growth-promoting-fungus-pgpf-alternaria-sp-a13-markedly-enhances-salvia-miltiorrhiza-root-growth-and-active-ingredient-accumulation-under-greenhouse-and-field-conditions
#14
Li Si Zhou, Kun Tang, Shun Xing Guo
Plant growth-promoting fungi (PGPF) have attracted considerable interest as bio-fertilisers due to their multiple beneficial effects on plant quantity and quality and their positive relationship with the ecological environment. Advancements in the development of PGPF for crops and economic plant cultivation applications have been achieved, but such improvements for the use of PGPF with popular medicinal herbs, such as Salvia miltiorrhiza, are rare. In this study, we collected S. miltiorrhiza specimens inhabiting wild, semi-wild, farmland and pot-cultured areas in the Henan province of China and isolated endophytes from the roots, shoots and leaves of these samples...
January 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337925/plant-secondary-metabolites-as-anticancer-agents-successes-in-clinical-trials-and-therapeutic-application
#15
REVIEW
Ana M L Seca, Diana C G A Pinto
Cancer is a multistage process resulting in an uncontrolled and abrupt division of cells and is one of the leading causes of mortality. The cases reported and the predictions for the near future are unthinkable. Food and Drug Administration data showed that 40% of the approved molecules are natural compounds or inspired by them, from which, 74% are used in anticancer therapy. In fact, natural products are viewed as more biologically friendly, that is less toxic to normal cells. In this review, the most recent and successful cases of secondary metabolites, including alkaloid, diterpene, triterpene and polyphenolic type compounds, with great anticancer potential are discussed...
January 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337409/engineering-of-purple-embryo-maize-with-a-multigene-expression-system-derived-from-a-bidirectional-promoter-and-self-cleaving-2a-peptides
#16
Xiaoqing Liu, Wenzhu Yang, Bona Mu, Suzhen Li, Ye Li, Xiaojin Zhou, Chunyi Zhang, Yunliu Fan, Rumei Chen
Anthocyanins are polyhydroxy and polymethoxy 2-phenylbenzopyrylium glucosides that belong to a large group of plant secondary metabolites termed flavonoids. The most common anthocyanidins (anthocyanin aglycones) in higher plants are cyanidin, pelargonidin, peonidin, delphinidin, petunidin and malvidin. Flavonoid biosynthesis has been suggested to occur on the cytoplasmic face of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where sequential enzymes of the pathway loosely form a metabolon (Winkel-Shirley, 1999). Known structural genes along the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway in maize include chalcone synthase (CHS), chalcone isomerase (CHI), flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H), flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H), dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR), anthocyanidin synthase (ANS), flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (3UFGT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST)...
January 16, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336725/adaptability-of-mitosporic-stage-in-sphaerodes-mycoparasitica-towards-its-mycoparasitic-polyphagous-lifestyle
#17
Vladimir Vujanovic, Seon Hwa Kim
Sphaerodes mycoparasitica Vuj. is a Fusarium-specific mycoparasite. Some recent discoveries recognize its biotrophic polyphagous lifestyle as an interesting biocontrol property against a broad spectrum of mycotoxigenic Fusarium hosts. Secondary metabolites such as mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp. may play an important role in the signaling process, allowing an early mycoparasite-host recognition. A multiple-paper-disc assay has been conducted to test S. mycoparasitica hyphal adaptability to filtrates of 12 Fusarium spp...
November 17, 2017: Mycologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335070/cell-proliferation-and-migration-mechanism-of-caffeoylserotonin-and-serotonin-via-serotonin-2b-receptor-in-human-keratinocyte-hacat-cells
#18
Hye-Eun Kim, Hyejoung Cho, Atsushi Ishihara, Byungkuk Kim, Okjoon Kim
Caffeoylserotonin (CaS), one derivative of serotonin (5-HT), is a secondary metabolite produced in pepper fruits with strong antioxidant activities. In this study, we investigated the effect of CaS on proliferation and migration of human keratinocyte HaCaT cells compared to that of 5-HT. CaS enhanced keratinocyte proliferation even under serum deficient condition. This effect of CaS was mediated by serotonin 2B receptor (5-HT2BR) related to the cell proliferation effect of 5-HT. We also confirmed that both CaS and 5-HT induced G1 progression via 5-HT2BR/ERK pathway in HaCaT cells...
January 16, 2018: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334625/light-quality-affects-flavonoid-production-and-related-gene-expression-in-cyclocarya-paliurus
#19
Yang Liu, Shengzuo Fang, Wanxia Yang, Xulan Shang, Xiangxiang Fu
Understanding the responses of plant growth and secondary metabolites to differential light conditions is very important to optimize cultivation conditions of medicinal woody plants. As a highly valued and multiple function tree species, Cyclocarya paliurus is planted and managed for timber production and medical use. In this study, LED-based light including white light (WL), blue light (BL), red light (RL), and green light (GL) were used to affect leaf biomass production, flavonoid accumulation and related gene expression of one-year C...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334256/differential-content-of-secondary-metabolites-in-diploid-and-tetraploid-cytotypes-of-siegesbeckia-orientalis-l
#20
Saroj Kumar Pradhan, Raghbir Chand Gupta, Rajesh Kumar Goel
Siegesbeckia orientalis L. is an annual herb widely distributed throughout the world and has many medicinal properties. In Chinese traditional system, it is popularly known as Xi-Xian and used for its anti-inflammatory properties. In the present study, two cytotypes (diploid and tetraploid) have been investigated for their secondary metabolites. The different plant parts have been explored in terms of total phenolics, total flavonoids, DPPH radical scavenging acitivity and total antioxidant capacity. Out of different plant parts, leaves have the maximum amount of secondary metabolites and antioxidant potential...
January 15, 2018: Natural Product Research
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