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Alexandra E Livanos, Thomas U Greiner, Pajau Vangay, Wimal Pathmasiri, Delisha Stewart, Susan McRitchie, Huilin Li, Jennifer Chung, Jiho Sohn, Sara Kim, Zhan Gao, Cecily Barber, Joanne Kim, Sandy Ng, Arlin B Rogers, Susan Sumner, Xue-Song Zhang, Ken Cadwell, Dan Knights, Alexander Alekseyenko, Fredrik Bäckhed, Martin J Blaser
The early life microbiome plays important roles in host immunological and metabolic development. Because the incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) has been increasing substantially in recent decades, we hypothesized that early-life antibiotic use alters gut microbiota, which predisposes to disease. Using non-obese diabetic mice that are genetically susceptible to T1D, we examined the effects of exposure to either continuous low-dose antibiotics or pulsed therapeutic antibiotics (PAT) early in life, mimicking childhood exposures...
August 22, 2016: Nature Microbiology
Yang He, Qu Wen, Fangfang Yao, Dong Xu, Yuancheng Huang, Junshuai Wang
Gut microbiota interacts with host immune system in ways that influence the development of disease. Advances in respiratory immune system also broaden our knowledge of the interaction between host and microbiome in the lung. Increasing evidence indicated the intimate relationship between the gastrointestinal tract and respiratory tract. Exacerbations of chronic gut and lung disease have been shown to share key conceptual features with the disorder and dysregulation of the microbial ecosystem. In this review, we discuss the impact of gut and lung microbiota on disease exacerbation and progression, and the recent understanding of the immunological link between the gut and the lung, the gut-lung axis...
October 26, 2016: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Sandeep J Joseph, Ben Li, Robert A Petit Iii, Zhaohui S Qin, Lyndsey Darrow, Timothy D Read
In this study we developed a genome-based method for detecting Staphylococcus aureus subtypes from metagenome shotgun sequence data. We used a binomial mixture model and the coverage counts at >100,000 known S. aureus SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) sites derived from prior comparative genomic analysis to estimate the proportion of 40 subtypes in metagenome samples. We were able to obtain >87% sensitivity and >94% specificity at 0.025X coverage for S. aureus. We found that 321 and 149 metagenome samples from the Human Microbiome Project and metaSUB analysis of the New York City subway, respectively, contained S...
2016: PeerJ
Max Kolton, Ellen R Graber, Ludmila Tsehansky, Yigal Elad, Eddie Cytryn
The 'biochar effect' depicts a phenomenon in which biochar soil amendment enhances plant performance by promoting growth and suppressing disease. Although this phenomenon has been observed in numerous studies, the mode of action that explains it is currently unknown. In order to elucidate mechanisms responsible for the 'biochar effect', we comprehensively monitored tomato plant development and resistance to the foliar fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea, in biochar-amended and nonamended soils using native biochar and washed biochar, striped of labile chemical constituents...
October 25, 2016: New Phytologist
Ryan C Johnson, Michael W Ellis, Carey D Schlett, Eugene V Millar, Patrick T LaBreck, Deepika Mor, Emad M Elassal, Jeffrey B Lanier, Cassie L Redden, Tianyuan Cui, Nimfa Teneza-Mora, Danett K Bishop, Eric R Hall, Kimberly A Bishop-Lilly, D Scott Merrell
: Military trainees are at high risk for skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs). Although Staphylococcus aureus is associated with purulent SSTI, it is unclear to what degree this pathogen causes nonpurulent cellulitis. To inform effective prevention strategies and to provide novel insights into SSTI pathogenesis, we aimed to determine the etiology of SSTI in this population. We conducted a prospective observational study in US Army Infantry trainees with SSTI (cutaneous abscesses and cellulitis) from July 2012 through December 2014...
2016: PloS One
R E Frye, S Rose, J Chacko, R Wynne, S C Bennuri, J C Slattery, M Tippett, L Delhey, S Melnyk, S G Kahler, D F MacFabe
Propionic acid (PPA) is a ubiquitous short-chain fatty acid, which is a major fermentation product of the enteric microbiome. PPA is a normal intermediate of metabolism and is found in foods, either naturally or as a preservative. PPA and its derivatives have been implicated in both health and disease. Whereas PPA is an energy substrate and has many proposed beneficial effects, it is also associated with human disorders involving mitochondrial dysfunction, including propionic acidemia and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs)...
October 25, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
Matthew C Choy, Kumar Visvanathan, Peter De Cruz
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are thought to develop as a result of complex interactions between host genetics, the immune system and the environment including the gut microbiome. Although an improved knowledge of the immunopathogenesis of IBDs has led to great advances in therapy such as the highly effective anti-tumor necrosis factor class of medications, a significant proportion of patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis do not respond to anti-tumor necrosis factor antibodies. Further understanding of the different immune pathways involved in the genesis of chronic intestinal inflammation is required to help find effective treatments for IBDs...
October 21, 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Anne Julie Overgaard, Simranjeet Kaur, Flemming Pociot
Metabolomics is the snapshot of all detectable metabolites and lipids in biological materials and has potential in reflecting genetic and environmental factors contributing to the development of complex diseases, such as type 1 diabetes. The progression to seroconversion to development of type 1 diabetes has been studied using this technique, although in relatively small cohorts and at limited time points. Overall, three observations have been consistently reported; phospholipids at birth are lower in children developing type 1 diabetes early in childhood, methionine levels are lower in children at seroconversion, and triglycerides are increased at seroconversion and associated to microbiome diversity, indicating an association between the metabolome and microbiome in type 1 diabetes progression...
December 2016: Current Diabetes Reports
Zilong Wu, Glen Kelp, Maruthi Nagavalli Yogeesh, Wei Li, Kyle M McNicholas, Andrew Briggs, Bharath Bangalore Rajeeva, Deji Akinwande, Seth R Bank, Gennady Shvets, Yuebing Zheng
There has been strong interest in developing multi-band plasmonic metasurfaces for multiple optical functions on single platforms. Herein, we developed Au moiré metasurface patches (AMMP), which leverage the tunable multi-band responses of Au moiré metasurfaces and the additional field enhancements of the metal-insulator-metal configuration to achieve dual-band plasmon resonance modes in near-infrared and mid-infrared regimes with high field enhancement. Furthermore, we demonstrate the multifunctional applications of AMMP, including surface-enhanced infrared spectroscopy, optical capture and patterning of bacteria, and photothermal denaturation of proteins...
October 25, 2016: Nanoscale
Yuji Nadatani, Xiaofang Huo, Xi Zhang, Chunhua Yu, Edaire Cheng, Qiuyang Zhang, Kerry B Dunbar, Arianne Theiss, Thai H Pham, David H Wang, Toshio Watanabe, Yasuhiro Fujiwara, Tetsuo Arakawa, Stuart J Spechler, Rhonda F Souza
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Microbial molecular products incite intestinal inflammation by activating Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and inflammasomes of the innate immune system. This system's contribution to esophageal inflammation is not known. Gram-negative bacteria, which dominate the esophageal microbiome in reflux esophagitis, produce lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a TLR4 ligand. TLR4 signaling produces pro-interleukin (IL)1β, pro-IL18, and NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3), which prime the NLRP3 inflammasome...
July 2016: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Shuaihua Pu, Hamidreza Khazanehei, Peter J Jones, Ehsan Khafipour
Long-term dietary fatty acid intake is believed to induce changes in the human gut microbiome which might be associated with human health or obesity status; however, considerable debate remains regarding the most favorable ratios of fatty acids to optimize these processes. The objective of this sub-study of a double-blinded randomized crossover clinical study, the canola oil multi-center intervention trial, was to investigate effects of five different novel oil blends fed for 30 days each on the intestinal microbiota in 25 volunteers with risk of metabolic syndrome...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Anna Heintz-Buschart, Patrick May, Cédric C Laczny, Laura A Lebrun, Camille Bellora, Abhimanyu Krishna, Linda Wampach, Jochen G Schneider, Angela Hogan, Carine de Beaufort, Paul Wilmes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 24, 2016: Nature Microbiology
Marie E Jetté, Kimberly A Dill-McFarland, Alissa S Hanshew, Garret Suen, Susan L Thibeault
Prolonged diffuse laryngeal inflammation from smoking and/or reflux is commonly diagnosed as chronic laryngitis and treated empirically with expensive drugs that have not proven effective. Shifts in microbiota have been associated with many inflammatory diseases, though little is known about how resident microbes may contribute to chronic laryngitis. We sought to characterize the core microbiota of disease-free human laryngeal tissue and to investigate shifts in microbial community membership associated with exposure to cigarette smoke and reflux...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
John Slattery, Derrick F MacFabe, Richard E Frye
Recent studies have highlighted the fact that the enteric microbiome, the trillions of microbes that inhabit the human digestive tract, has a significant effect on health and disease. Methods for manipulating the enteric microbiome, particularly through probiotics and microbial ecosystem transplantation, have undergone some study in clinical trials. We review some of the evidence for microbiome alteration in relation to childhood disease and discuss the clinical trials that have examined the manipulation of the microbiome in an effort to prevent or treat childhood disease with a primary focus on probiotics, prebiotics, and/or synbiotics (ie, probiotics + prebiotics)...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Pediatrics
Stephanie Seneff, Nancy L Swanson, Gerald Koenig, Chen Li
Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ), a rare side effect of bisphosphonate therapy, is a debilitating disorder with a poorly understood etiology. FDA's Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) provides the opportunity to investigate this disease. Our goals were to analyze FAERS data to discover possible relationships between ONJ and specific conditions and drugs and then to consult the scientific literature to deduce biological explanations. Our methodology revealed a very strong association between gastroesophageal reflux and bisphosphonate-induced ONJ, suggesting acidosis as a key factor...
2016: Disease Markers
Helen E Vuong, Elaine Y Hsiao
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a serious neurodevelopmental disorder that affects one in 45 children in the United States, with a similarly striking prevalence in countries around the world. However, mechanisms underlying its etiology and manifestations remain poorly understood. Although ASD is diagnosed based on the presence and severity of impaired social communication and repetitive behavior, immune dysregulation and gastrointestinal issues are common comorbidities. The microbiome is an integral part of human physiology; recent studies show that changes in the gut microbiota can modulate gastrointestinal physiology, immune function, and even behavior...
August 26, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
Ivan J Oresnik, Lisette Mascarenhas, Christopher K Yost
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Lee E Morrow, Paul Wischmeyer
Clinicians have traditionally dichotomized bacteria as friendly commensals or harmful pathogens. However, the line separating the two has become blurred with the recognition that the intestinal microbiome is a complex entity wherein species can shift sides - from friend to foe and back again - based on crucial factors in their local environment. Significant disruptions in the homeostasis of the microbiome, a phenomenon called 'dysbiosis,' is increasingly associated with a host of untoward effects. Intensive care unit patients are at high risk for dysbiosis given high rates of antibiotic use, acute changes in diet, and the stress of critical illness...
October 19, 2016: Chest
Mor Shlezinger, Yael Houri-Haddad, Shunit Coppenhagen-Glazer, Grégory Resch, Yok-Ai Que, Shaul Beyth, Elisheva Dorfman, Ronen Hazan, Nurit Beyth
Dental diseases are perhaps the most prevalent infection-related diseases in humans. Biofilm is involved in almost every infectious disease compromising oral health, notably caries, periodontal disease, gingivitis, endodontic infections and peri-implantitis. Current therapies of biofilm-derived oral infections lack sensitivity; they are not species-specific and kill pathogenic species as well as commensal species, which are protective against the formation of pathogenic biofilms. Moreover, antibiotics have a limited effect on biofilm and are almost unused in oral diseases...
September 30, 2016: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
S Navarro-Torre, J M Barcia-Piedras, E Mateos-Naranjo, S Redondo-Gómez, M Camacho, M A Caviedes, E Pajuelo, I D Rodríguez-Llorente
There is an increasing interest to use halophytes for revegetation of salt affected ecosystems, as well as in understanding their mechanisms of salt tolerance. We hypothesized that bacteria from the phyllosphere of these plants might play a key role in its high tolerance to excessive salinity. 8 endophytic bacteria belonging to Bacillus and closely related genera were isolated from phyllosphere of the halophyte Arthrocnemum macrostachyum growing in salty agricultural soils. The presence of plant-growth promoting (PGP) properties, enzymatic activities and tolerance towards NaCl was determined...
October 22, 2016: Plant Biology
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