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George Kunnackal John, Lin Wang, Julie Nanavati, Claire Twose, Rajdeep Singh, Gerard Mullin
Dietary alteration of the gut microbiome is an important target in the treatment of obesity. Animal and human studies have shown bidirectional weight modulation based on the probiotic formulation used. In this study, we systematically reviewed the literature and performed a meta-analysis to assess the impact of prebiotics, probiotics and synbiotics on body weight, body mass index (BMI) and fat mass in adult human subjects. We searched Medline (PubMed), Embase, the Cochrane Library and the Web of Science to identify 4721 articles, of which 41 were subjected to full-text screening, yielding 21 included studies with 33 study arms...
March 16, 2018: Genes
Bartosz Baran, Michał Krzyżowski, Mikołaj Cup, Jakub Janiec, Mateusz Grabowski, Jacek Francikowski
Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) are a group of common metabolites and semiochemicals mediating information transfer between higher organisms and bacteria, either from microbiome or external environment. VFAs commonly occur among various insect orders. There are numerous studies exploring their influence on the behavior of different insect species. In relation to the papers published by J. E. McFarlane in 1985, we assessed the effects of formic, acetic, propionic, butyric and valeric acids on the spatial preference of the lesser mealworm ( Alphitobius diaperinus ), a common pest of stored food grain products and the poultry industry...
March 16, 2018: Insects
Nadia Lombardi, Stefania Vitale, David Turrà, Massimo Reverberi, Corrado Fanelli, Francesco Vinale, Roberta Marra, Michelina Ruocco, Alberto Pascale, Giada d'Errico, Sheridan Lois Woo, Matteo Lorito
Plant roots release complex mixtures of bioactive molecules including compounds that affect the activity and modify the composition of the rhizosphere microbiome. In this work, we investigated the initial phase of the interaction between tomato and an effective biocontrol strain of Trichoderma harzianum (T22). We found that root exudates (RE), obtained from plants grown in a split root system and exposed to a choice of biotic and abiotic stress factors (wounding, salt, pathogen attack), stimulate the growth and act as chemoattractants of the biocontrol fungus...
March 16, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Rajeev Ranjan, Arra Abhinay, Monalisa Mishra
Neurodegenerative diseases, e.g., Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, etc., are serious life-threatening diseases, which involve degeneration of the neurons with time. Numerous studies have discussed the role of microbes in neurodegeneration. Oral cavity being the primary site of infection acts as a gateway for gigantic population of microbes to the human body. Oral infection is known to be associated with neurodegeneration. The current review summarizes various mechanisms due to which the oral microbiome can cause neurodegeneration...
March 2018: Neurology India
Jie Liu, Yi Song, Xiaoguang Lu, Tuo Chen, Wenxiu Guo, Zhiwei Fan, Xin Kang, Yu Wang, Yi Wang
Recently, several studies have indicated that the intestinal microbiota can be regulated by the individual attributes, and even the alternation of circadian rhythm. Inspired by this, we speculated that seasonal variation might also have some effect on the intestinal microbiota. A total of 11 Sprague-Dawley male rats, weighing 250-280 g, were divided into summer group (n = 5) and winter group (n = 6). Cages were individually ventilated at 20 ± 2 °C and 45-65% relative humidity with a circadian rhythm of 12/12 h...
March 15, 2018: Current Microbiology
Xiqi Li, Cesar A Arias, Samuel L Aitken, Jessica Galloway Peña, Diana Panesso, Michael Chang, Lorena Diaz, Rafael Rios, Yazan Numan, Sammi Ghaoui, Sruti DebRoy, Micah M Bhatti, Dawn E Simmons, Isaam Raad, Ray Hachem, Stephanie A Folan, Pranoti Sahasarabhojane, Awdhesh Kalia, Samuel A Shelburne
Background: Pathobionts, bacteria that are typically human commensals but can cause disease, contribute significantly to antimicrobial resistance. Staphylococcus epidermidis is a prototypical pathobiont as it is a ubiquitous human commensal but also a leading cause of healthcare-associated bacteremia. We sought to determine the etiology of a recent increase in invasive S. epidermidis isolates resistant to linezolid. Methods: Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was performed on 176 S...
March 12, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Tonya L Ward, Maria Gloria Dominguez-Bello, Tim Heisel, Gabriel Al-Ghalith, Dan Knights, Cheryl A Gale
With the advent of next-generation sequencing and microbial community characterization, we are beginning to understand the key factors that shape early-life microbial colonization and associated health outcomes. Studies characterizing infant microbial colonization have focused mostly on bacteria in the microbiome and have largely neglected fungi (the mycobiome), despite their relevance to mucosal infections in healthy infants. In this pilot study, we characterized the skin, oral, and anal mycobiomes of infants over the first month of life ( n = 17) and the anal and vaginal mycobiomes of mothers ( n = 16) by internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) amplicon sequencing...
May 2018: MSystems
Colin P McNally, Alexander Eng, Cecilia Noecker, William C Gagne-Maynard, Elhanan Borenstein
The abundance of both taxonomic groups and gene categories in microbiome samples can now be easily assayed via various sequencing technologies, and visualized using a variety of software tools. However, the assemblage of taxa in the microbiome and its gene content are clearly linked, and tools for visualizing the relationship between these two facets of microbiome composition and for facilitating exploratory analysis of their co-variation are lacking. Here we introduce BURRITO , a web tool for interactive visualization of microbiome multi-omic data with paired taxonomic and functional information...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Matthias Bochtler, Danuta Mizgalska, Florian Veillard, Magdalena L Nowak, John Houston, Paul Veith, Eric C Reynolds, Jan Potempa
Bacteroidetes feature prominently in the human microbiome, as major colonizers of the gut and clinically relevant pathogens elsewhere. Here, we reveal a new Bacteroidetes specific feature in the otherwise widely conserved Sec/SPI (Sec translocase/signal peptidase I) pathway. In Bacteroidetes , but not the entire FCB group or related phyla, signal peptide cleavage exposes N-terminal glutamine residues in most SPI substrates. Reanalysis of published mass spectrometry data for five Bacteroidetes species shows that the newly exposed glutamines are cyclized to pyroglutamate (also termed 5-oxoproline) residues...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Pablo Romero-Morelos, Cindy Bandala, Julián Jiménez-Tenorio, Mariana Valdespino-Zavala, Miriam Rodríguez-Esquivel, Reyna Anaid Gama-Ríos, Artfy Bandera, Mónica Mendoza-Rodríguez, Keiko Taniguchi, Daniel Marrero-Rodríguez, Ricardo López-Romero, Eva Ramón-Gallegos, Mauricio Salcedo
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Cervical cancer is an important health problem in our country. It is known that there are several risk factors for this neoplasm, and it has been suggested that cervical microbiome alterations could play a role in the development and progress of cancer. Bacterial vaginosis associated bacteria such as Atopobium vaginae and Gardnerella vaginalis has been suggested as potential risk factor for cervical lesions and cervical cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: DNA from 177 cervical scraping samples was studied: 104 belonged to women without cytological or colposcopic alterations and 73 samples from precursor lesions with previous human papillomavirus (HPV) infection history...
March 12, 2018: Medicina Clínica
Nan Shwe Nwe Htun, Peter Odermatt, Ivan Müller, Peiling Yap, Peter Steinmann, Christian Schindler, Markus Gerber, Rosa Du Randt, Cheryl Walter, Uwe Pühse, Jürg Utzinger, Nicole Probst-Hensch
BACKGROUND: Low- and middle-income countries are facing a dual disease burden with infectious diseases (e.g., gastrointestinal tract infections) and non-communicable diseases (e.g., diabetes) being common. For instance, chronic parasite infections lead to altered immune regulatory networks, anemia, malnutrition, and diarrhea with an associated shift in the gut microbiome. These can all be pathways of potential relevance for insulin resistance and diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between common gastrointestinal tract infections and glycemia in children from non-fee paying schools in South Africa...
March 15, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Christopher John Kiely, Paul Pavli, Claire Louise O'Brien
Studies of the human intestinal microbiome in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) consistently show that there are differences (an abnormal or unbalanced microbiome, "dysbiosis") when compared to healthy subjects. We sought to describe changes in the microbiome in individual patients over time, and determine the clinical factors that are associated with significant alteration. Forty-two mucosal biopsies were collected from 20 patients that were spaced an average of 2.4 years apart. These were analysed using bacterial 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing methods...
March 15, 2018: Gut Microbes
Efrat L Amitay, Agne Krilaviciute, Hermann Brenner
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer morbidity and mortality. Dysbiosis in the gut microbiota may be associated with CRC. This systematic review focuses on differences in gut microbial community between people diagnosed with CRC or adenoma and healthy individuals using fecal samples, emphasizing non-invasive fecal microbiome models for CRC early diagnosis. Nineteen studies were identified in a systematic literature search of Pubmed, Web of Science and ScienceDirect. Several bacteria were reported to differ in abundance between CRC and adenoma cases and healthy controls, with Fusobacterium the most common...
March 15, 2018: Gut Microbes
Elizabeth Copeland, Katherine Leonard, Richard Carney, Justin Kong, Martin Forer, Yuresh Naidoo, Brian G G Oliver, Justin R Seymour, Stephen Woodcock, Catherine M Burke, Nicholas W Stow
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is an inflammatory condition that affects up to 12% of the human population in developed countries. Previous studies examining the potential role of the sinus bacterial microbiota within CRS infections have found inconsistent results, possibly because of inconsistencies in sampling strategies. The aim of this study was to determine whether the sinus microbiome is altered in CRS and additionally if the middle meatus is a suitable representative site for sampling the sinus microbiome...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Guangli Feng, Bernadine M Flanagan, Deirdre Mikkelsen, Barbara A Williams, Wenwen Yu, Robert G Gilbert, Michael J Gidley
Recent studies show that a single or small number of intestinal microbes can completely degrade complex carbohydrates. This suggests a drive towards competitive utilisation of dietary complex carbohydrates resulting in limited microbial diversity, at odds with the health benefits associated with a diverse microbiome. This study investigates the enzymatic metabolism of wheat and rye arabinoxylans (AX) using in vitro fermentation, with a porcine faecal inoculum. Through studying the activity of AX-degrading enzymes and the structural changes of residual AX during fermentation, we show that the AX-degrading enzymes are mainly cell-associated, which enables the microbes to utilise the AX competitively...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jianping Quan, Gengyuan Cai, Jian Ye, Ming Yang, Rongrong Ding, Xingwang Wang, Enqin Zheng, Disheng Fu, Shaoyun Li, Shenping Zhou, Dewu Liu, Jie Yang, Zhenfang Wu
In an attempt to increase profits and sustainability in the swine industry, the gut microbiome has become a focus of much research. In this study, we performed a comparative analysis of the gut microbiome in the ileum, cecum, and colon of Duroc × (Landrace × Yorkshire) (DLY) pigs showing two extreme feed conversion ratios (FCRs) using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The results revealed that the microbial community in the cecum and colon had significantly higher alpha diversity than the ileum. We further identified 11, 55, and 55 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) with significantly different relative abundances between the high and low FCR pigs among the three gut locations, respectively...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Hong Wang, Xiao-Bin Ji, Bei Mao, Cheng-Wei Li, Hai-Wen Lu, Jin-Fu Xu
OBJECTIVES: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) occupies an important niche in the pathogenic microbiome of bronchiectasis. The objective of this study is to evaluate the clinical characteristics and prognostic value of P. aeruginosa in Chinese adult patients with bronchiectasis. METHODS: This retrospective and follow-up study enrolled 1188 patients diagnosed with bronchiectasis at Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital between January 2011 and December 2012. The patients' clinical data including anthropometry, clinical symptoms, serum biomarkers, radiographic manifestations and lung function indices were reviewed...
March 14, 2018: BMJ Open
Ronald J Maughan, Louise M Burke, Jiri Dvorak, D Enette Larson-Meyer, Peter Peeling, Stuart M Phillips, Eric S Rawson, Neil P Walsh, Ina Garthe, Hans Geyer, Romain Meeusen, Lucas J C van Loon, Susan M Shirreffs, Lawrence L Spriet, Mark Stuart, Alan Vernec, Kevin Currell, Vidya M Ali, Richard Gm Budgett, Arne Ljungqvist, Margo Mountjoy, Yannis P Pitsiladis, Torbjørn Soligard, Uğur Erdener, Lars Engebretsen
Nutrition usually makes a small but potentially valuable contribution to successful performance in elite athletes, and dietary supplements can make a minor contribution to this nutrition programme. Nonetheless, supplement use is widespread at all levels of sport. Products described as supplements target different issues, including (1) the management of micronutrient deficiencies, (2) supply of convenient forms of energy and macronutrients, and (3) provision of direct benefits to performance or (4) indirect benefits such as supporting intense training regimens...
March 14, 2018: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Sandra Infante Villamil, Roger Huerlimann, Christina Morianos, Zoltan Sarnyai, Gregory E Maes
Obesity and other lifestyle diseases in modern society can be related to historical dietary changes from diets balanced in omega-6 and omega-3 to the unbalanced "Western-type" diet. It is recognized that diet influences the murine and human gut microbiome, and most research indicates that microbial diversity and composition are altered by high-fat diets (HFDs). However, good knowledge about the effects of early exposure to HFD on the maturation and structure of the bacterial community is limited. Using mice as model, we hypothesized that an HFD alters the early dynamic of the gut bacterial community toward an unstable/unhealthy state...
February 2018: Nutrition Research
Jennifer Kranz, Stefanie Schmidt, Cordula Lebert, Laila Schneidewind, Falitsa Mandraka, Mirjam Kunze, Sina Helbig, Winfried Vahlensieck, Kurt Naber, Guido Schmiemann, Florian M Wagenlehner
BACKGROUND: We aimed to update the 2010 evidence- and consensus-based national clinical guideline on the diagnosis and management of uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTIs) in adult patients. Results are published in 2 parts. Part 1 covers methods, the definition of patient groups, and diagnostics. This second publication focuses on treatment of acute episodes of cystitis and pyelonephritis as well as on prophylaxis of recurrent UTIs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An interdisciplinary group consisting of 17 representatives of 12 medical societies and a patient representative was formed...
March 14, 2018: Urologia Internationalis
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