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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240004/gut-microbiota-and-pancreatic-diseases
#1
Marianna Signoretti, Roberta Roggiolani, Caterina Stornello, Gianfranco Delle Fave, Gabriele Capurso
Changes in diet, lifestyle and exposition to environmental risk factors account for the increased incidence of pancreatic disorders, including acute and chronic pancreatitis, and pancreatic cancer. The role of the microbiome in the development of pancreatic disorders is increasingly recognized. The translocation of gut bacteria and endotoxins following gut barrier failure is a key event contributing to the severity of acute pancreatitis, while small intestine bacterial overgrowth is common in patients with chronic pancreatitis and further worsens their symptoms and malnutrition...
February 24, 2017: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239927/gut-microbiome-transmission-in-lizards
#2
Timothy J Colston
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239609/application-of-taxonomic-modeling-to-microbiota-data-mining-for-detection-of-helminth-infection-in-global-populations
#3
Mahbaneh Eshaghzadeh Torbati, Makedonka Mitreva, Vanathi Gopalakrishnan
Human microbiome data from genomic sequencing technologies is fast accumulating, giving us insights into bacterial taxa that contribute to health and disease. The predictive modeling of such microbiota count data for the classification of human infection from parasitic worms, such as helminths, can help in the detection and management across global populations. Real-world datasets of microbiome experiments are typically sparse, containing hundreds of measurements for bacterial species, of which only a few are detected in the bio-specimens that are analyzed...
December 2016: Data (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239408/the-effects-of-probiotics-on-depressive-symptoms-in-humans-a-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
Caroline J K Wallace, Roumen Milev
BACKGROUND: Patients suffering from depression experience significant mood, anxiety, and cognitive symptoms. Currently, most antidepressants work by altering neurotransmitter activity in the brain to improve these symptoms. However, in the last decade, research has revealed an extensive bidirectional communication network between the gastrointestinal tract and the central nervous system, referred to as the "gut-brain axis." Advances in this field have linked psychiatric disorders to changes in the microbiome, making it a potential target for novel antidepressant treatments...
2017: Annals of General Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239039/bacterial-community-in-the-rumen-of-tibetan-sheep-and-gansu-alpine-fine-wool-sheep-grazing-on-the-qinghai-tibetan-plateau-china
#5
Jinqiang Huang, Yongjuan Li, Yuzhu Luo
The rumen microbiome plays a vital role in ruminant nutrition and health, and its community is affected by environmental factors. However, little is known about the rumen bacterial community of ruminants living in the special ecological environment of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) of China. The objectives of this study were to investigate the rumen bacterial community of the typical plateau sheep (Tibetan sheep, TS, and Gansu alpine fine-wool sheep, GS) grazing on the QTP, using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and to evaluate the relationship between the rumen bacterial community and the QTP environment...
February 24, 2017: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239038/effect-of-ageratina-adenophora-invasion-on-the-composition-and-diversity-of-soil-microbiome
#6
Yunhong Kong, James Kong, Dingkang Wang, Heping Huang, Kaiyou Geng, Yonxia Wang, Yun Xia
In the present study, high throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to investigate soil invaded by the aggressive weed Ageratina adenophora to determine its effect on the species composition, distribution, and biodiversity of the bacterial communities. Soil samples from 12 micro-sites containing a monoculture of A. adenophora plants, mixtures of A. adenophora and different native plant species, and native species alone were studied. We found that the invasion of this weed resulted in a selection of bacteria belonging to phyla Acidobacteria and Verrucomicrobia and the lack of bacteria belonging to phyla Actinobacteria and Planctomycetes, but did not affect significantly the percentage abundances of members of other phyla...
February 24, 2017: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236572/comparison-of-bacterial-16s-rrna-variable-regions-for-microbiome-surveys-of-ticks
#7
Janet L Sperling, K L Silva-Brandão, M M Brandão, V K Lloyd, S Dang, C S Davis, F A H Sperling, K E Magor
Ticks vector diverse pathogenic bacteria that are important to identify in public health and veterinary contexts. Technological advances in high throughput sequencing have given an unprecedented opportunity to comprehensively characterize bacterial associates of ticks, but recent studies have used different 16S rRNA variable regions and sequence read lengths with little consideration of whether they reveal the same bacterial diversity. We compare the effectiveness of bacterial surveys using three library preparations across nine 16S variable regions and a set of 12 tick specimens (Acari: Ixodidae)...
February 9, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235986/-fecal-microbiota-transplantation
#8
C Lübbert, B Salzberger, J Mössner
The human intestinal microbiome has important metabolic and immunological functions for the host and is part of the defense against pathogens in the gastrointestinal tract. Antibiotics, probiotics, dietary measures, such as prebiotics, and the relatively newly established method of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT, also known as fecal microbiome transfer) all influence the intestinal microbiome. The FMT procedure comprises the transmission of fecal microorganisms from a healthy donor into the gastrointestinal tract of a patient...
February 24, 2017: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235879/experimental-manipulation-shows-a-greater-influence-of-population-than-dietary-perturbation-on-the-microbiome-of-tyrophagus-putrescentiae
#9
Tomas Erban, Ondrej Ledvinka, Marta Nesvorna, Jan Hubert
Tyrophagus putrescentiae (TP) is inhabited by bacteria that differ among mite populations (strains) and diets. Here, we investigated how the microbiome and fitness of TP are altered by dietary perturbations and mite populations. Four TP populations, referred to as Dog, Koppert, Laboratory and Phillips, underwent a perturbation, i.e., a dietary switch from a rearing diet to two experimental diets. The microbiome was investigated by sequencing the V1-V3 portion of the 16S rRNA gene, and selected bacterial taxa were quantified by qPCR using group/taxa-specific primers...
February 24, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235871/metatranscriptomic-profiling-reveals-linkages-between-the-active-rumen-microbiome-and-feed-efficiency-in-beef-cattle
#10
Fuyong Li, Le Luo Guan
Exploring compositional and functional characteristics of the rumen microbiome can improve the understanding of its role in rumen function and feed efficiency. In this study, we applied metatranscriptomics to characterize the active rumen microbiomes of beef cattle with different feed efficiencies (efficient, n=10; inefficient, n=10) using total RNA sequencing. Active bacterial and archaeal compositions were estimated based on 16S rRNAs, and active microbial metabolic functions including carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) were assessed based on mRNAs from the same metatranscriptomic datasets...
February 24, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235585/omics-in-fish-mucosal-immunity
#11
Salinas Irene, Susana Magadán
The mucosal immune system of fish is a complex network of immune cells and molecules that are constantly surveilling the environment and protecting the host from infection. A number of "omics" tools are now available and utilized to understand the complexity of mucosal immune systems in non-traditional animal models. This review summarizes recent advances in the implementation of "omics" tools pertaining to the four mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues in teleosts. Genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and "omics" in microbiome research require interdisciplinary collaboration and careful experimental design...
February 21, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231697/the-fecal-microbiota-composition-of-boar-duroc-yorkshire-landrace-and-hampshire-pigs
#12
Yingping Xiao, Kaifeng Li, Yun Xiang, Weidong Zhou, Guohong Gui, Hua Yang
To investigate the effect of host genetics on gut microbial diversity, we performed a structural survey of the fecal microbiota of four purebred boar pig lines: Duroc, Landrace, Hampshire and Yorkshire. The V3-V4 regions of the 16S rRNA genes were amplified and sequenced. A total of 783 OTUs were shared by all breeds, whereas other OTUs were breed-specific. Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes dominated the majority of the fecal microbiota; Clostridia, Bacilli and Bacteroidia were the major classes. Nine predominant genera were observed in all breeds and eight of them can produce short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs)...
February 23, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231575/individual-biomarkers-using-molecular-personalized-medicine-approaches
#13
Hans P Zenner
Molecular personalized medicine tries to generate individual predictive biomarkers to assist doctors in their decision making. These are thought to improve the efficacy and lower the toxicity of a treatment. The molecular basis of the desired high-precision prediction is modern "omex" technologies providing high-throughput bioanalytical methods. These include genomics and epigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, microbiomics, imaging, and functional analyses. In most cases, producing big data also requires a complex biomathematical analysis...
2017: ORL; Journal for Oto-rhino-laryngology and its related Specialties
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230723/bifidobacterium-adolescentis-exerts-strain-specific-effects-on-constipation-induced-by-loperamide-in-balb-c-mice
#14
Linlin Wang, Lujun Hu, Qi Xu, Boxing Yin, Dongsheng Fang, Gang Wang, Jianxin Zhao, Hao Zhang, Wei Chen
Constipation is one of the most common gastrointestinal complaints worldwide. This study was performed to determine whether Bifidobacterium adolescentis exerts inter-strain differences in alleviating constipation induced by loperamide in BALB/c mice and to analyze the main reasons for these differences. BALB/c mice underwent gavage with B. adolescentis (CCFM 626, 667, and 669) once per day for 17 days. The primary outcome measures included related constipation indicators, and the secondary outcome measures were the basic biological characteristics of the strains, the concentration changes of short-chain fatty acids in feces, and the changes in the fecal flora...
February 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230180/assessment-of-chicken-carcass-microbiome-responses-during-processing-in-the-presence-of-commercial-antimicrobials-using-a-next-generation-sequencing-approach
#15
Sun Ae Kim, Si Hong Park, Sang In Lee, Casey M Owens, Steven C Ricke
The purpose of this study was to 1) identify microbial compositional changes on chicken carcasses during processing, 2) determine the antimicrobial efficacy of peracetic acid (PAA) and Amplon (blend of sulfuric acid and sodium sulfate) at a poultry processing pilot plant scale, and 3) compare microbial communities between chicken carcass rinsates and recovered bacteria from media. Birds were collected from each processing step and rinsates were applied to estimate aerobic plate count (APC) and Campylobacter as well as Salmonella prevalence...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230078/unravelling-the-metabolic-impact-of-sbs-associated-microbial-dysbiosis-insights-from-the-piglet-short-bowel-syndrome-model
#16
Prue M Pereira-Fantini, Sean G Byars, James Pitt, Susan Lapthorne, Fiona Fouhy, Paul D Cotter, Julie E Bines
Liver disease is a major source of morbidity and mortality in children with short bowel syndrome (SBS). SBS-associated microbial dysbiosis has recently been implicated in the development of SBS-associated liver disease (SBS-ALD), however the pathological implications of this association have not been explored. In this study high-throughput sequencing of colonic content from the well-validated piglet SBS-ALD model was examined to determine alterations in microbial communities, and concurrent metabolic alterations identified in urine samples via targeted mass spectrometry approaches (GC-MS, LC-MS, FIA-MS) further uncovered impacts of microbial disturbance on metabolic outcomes in SBS-ALD...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230052/unraveling-the-processes-shaping-mammalian-gut-microbiomes-over-evolutionary-time
#17
Mathieu Groussin, Florent Mazel, Jon G Sanders, Chris S Smillie, Sébastien Lavergne, Wilfried Thuiller, Eric J Alm
Whether mammal-microbiome interactions are persistent and specific over evolutionary time is controversial. Here we show that host phylogeny and major dietary shifts have affected the distribution of different gut bacterial lineages and did so on vastly different bacterial phylogenetic resolutions. Diet mostly influences the acquisition of ancient and large microbial lineages. Conversely, correlation with host phylogeny is mostly seen among more recently diverged bacterial lineages, consistent with processes operating at similar timescales to host evolution...
February 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229543/developmental-trajectories-of-amphibian-microbiota-response-to-bacterial-therapy-depends-on-initial-community-structure
#18
Leyla R Davis, Laurent Bigler, Douglas C Woodhams
Improving host health through microbial manipulation requires untangling factors that shape the microbiome. There is currently little understanding of how initial community structure may drive the microbiota trajectory across host development or influence bacterial therapy. Probiotic baths of surface symbionts, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Flavobacterium johnsoniae were administered to 240 tadpoles of the midwife toad, Alytes obstetricans in semi-natural outdoor mesocosms originating from geographically and genetically distinct populations in Switzerland...
February 22, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229218/microbial-flora-and-resistance-in-ophthalmology-a-review
#19
REVIEW
Andrzej Grzybowski, Piotr Brona, Stephen Jae Kim
Antibiotic resistance in systemic infection is well-researched and well-publicized. Much less information is available on the resistance of normal ocular microbiome and that of ophthalmic infections. An understanding of the distribution of ocular microorganisms may help us in tailoring our empiric treatment, as well as in choosing effective pre-, peri- and postoperative management, to achieve the best results for patients. This study aims to summarize and review the available literature on the subject of normal ocular flora and its resistance, as well as the broader topic of antibiotic resistance in ophthalmology...
February 22, 2017: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229114/the-trier-social-stress-test-principles-and-practice
#20
REVIEW
Andrew P Allen, Paul J Kennedy, Samantha Dockray, John F Cryan, Timothy G Dinan, Gerard Clarke
Researchers interested in the neurobiology of the acute stress response in humans require a valid and reliable acute stressor that can be used under experimental conditions. The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) provides such a testing platform. It induces stress by requiring participants to make an interview-style presentation, followed by a surprise mental arithmetic test, in front of an interview panel who do not provide feedback or encouragement. In this review, we outline the methodology of the TSST, and discuss key findings under conditions of health and stress-related disorder...
February 2017: Neurobiology of Stress
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