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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647345/cutaneous-nod2-expression-regulates-the-skin-microbiome-and-wound-healing-in-a-murine-model
#1
Helen Williams, Rachel A Crompton, Helen A Thomason, Laura Campbell, Gurdeep Singh, Andrew J McBain, Sheena M Cruickshank, Matthew J Hardman
The skin microbiome exists in dynamic equilibrium with the host but when the skin is compromised, bacteria can colonise the wound and impair wound healing. Thus the interplay between normal skin-microbial interactions versus pathogenic-microbial interactions in wound repair is important. Bacteria are recognised by innate host pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and we previously demonstrated an important role for the PRR NOD2 (nucleotide-binding oligomerisation domains-containing protein 2) in skin wound repair...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646967/the-respiratory-microbiome-and-respiratory-infections
#2
Stefan A Unger, Debby Bogaert
Despite advances over the past ten years lower respiratory tract infections still comprise around a fifth of all deaths worldwide in children under five years of age with the majority in low- and middle-income countries. Known risk factors for severe respiratory infections and poor chronic respiratory health do not fully explain why some children become sick and others do not. The respiratory tract hosts bacteria that can cause respiratory infections but also normal commensal bacteria. Together, this microbial population is called the microbiome...
June 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646957/whither-vaccines
#3
Charlene M C Rodrigues, Marta V Pinto, Manish Sadarangani, Stanley A Plotkin
Currently used vaccines have had major effects on eliminating common infections, largely by duplicating the immune responses induced by natural infections. Now vaccinology faces more complex problems, such as waning antibody, immunosenescence, evasion of immunity by the pathogen, deviation of immunity by the microbiome, induction of inhibitory responses, and complexity of the antigens required for protection. Fortunately, vaccine development is now incorporating knowledge from immunology, structural biology, systems biology and synthetic chemistry to meet these challenges...
June 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646202/the-microbiome-of-endophytic-wood-colonizing-bacteria-from-pine-trees-as-affected-by-pine-wilt-disease
#4
Diogo Neves Proença, Romeu Francisco, Susanne Kublik, Anne Schöler, Gisle Vestergaard, Michael Schloter, Paula V Morais
Pine wilt disease (PWD) is a devastating forest disease present worldwide. In this study we analyzed the effects of the invasion of the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, the major pathogen causing PWD, on the endophytic microbiome of adult P. pinaster trees. Wood samples from trees with different degrees of PWD disease were collected at two sites (A and M) in Portugal. Endophytic bacteria were characterized based on directly extracted DNA by fingerprinting and barcoding using the 16S rRNA gene as marker...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646079/identification-of-flavin-containing-monooxygenase-5-fmo5-as-a-regulator-of-glucose-homeostasis-and-a-potential-sensor-of-gut-bacteria
#5
Flora Scott, Sandra G Gonzalez Malagon, Brett A O'Brien, Diede Fennema, Sunil Veeravalli, Clarissa R Coveney, Ian R Phillips, Elizabeth A Shephard
We have previously identified flavin-containing monooxygenase 5 (FMO5) as a regulator of metabolic ageing. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of FMO5 in glucose homeostasis and the impact of diet and gut flora on the phenotype of mice in which the Fmo5 gene has been disrupted (Fmo5(-/-) mice). In comparison with wild-type (WT) counterparts, Fmo5(-/-) mice are resistant to age-related changes in glucose homeostasis and maintain the higher glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity characteristic of young animals...
June 23, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645188/temporal-variation-of-the-microbiome-is-dependent-on-body-region-in-a-wild-mammal-tamiasciurus-hudsonicus
#6
Colleen B Bobbie, Nadia C S Mykytczuk, Albrecht I Schulte-Hostedde
Microbial communities are increasingly being recognized as important to host health in wild mammals, but how these communities are characterized can have important consequences on the results of these studies. Previous research has explored temporal variation in microbial communities in humans and lab mammals, but few have investigated how microbiomes fluctuate in wild populations and none have examined the temporal dynamics of these fluctuations in different body regions on a wild mammal. Using Illumina MiSeq sequencing of the V3-V4 16S rRNA gene regions, we characterized the buccal and gut microbiomes of wild North American red squirrels, Tamiasciurus hudsonicus, to measure changes in these two microbiomes over short (< 2 weeks), medium (2-4 weeks) and long (> 1 month) term sampling periods...
June 22, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645180/alcohol-metabolism-and-oesophageal-cancer-a-systematic-review-of-the-evidence
#7
Marco Matejcic, M J Gunter, Pietro Ferrari
Alcohol is a major risk factor for oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), the most prevalent histological subtype of oesophageal cancer (OC) worldwide. The metabolism of alcohol is regulated by specific enzymes whose activity and expression is influenced by genetic polymorphisms. We conducted a systematic review of current epidemiological evidence of the relationship between alcohol intake and OC risk, including the role of tobacco smoking and functional polymorphisms of dehydrogenases (ADHs) and aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs)...
June 22, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644475/post-translational-modification-of-ribosomally-synthesized-peptides-by-a-radical-sam-epimerase-in-bacillus-subtilis
#8
Alhosna Benjdia, Alain Guillot, Pauline Ruffié, Jérôme Leprince, Olivier Berteau
Ribosomally synthesized peptides are built out of L-amino acids, whereas D-amino acids are generally the hallmark of non-ribosomal synthetic processes. Here we show that the model bacterium Bacillus subtilis is able to produce a novel type of ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptide that contains D-amino acids, and which we propose to call epipeptides. We demonstrate that a two [4Fe-4S]-cluster radical S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) enzyme converts L-amino acids into their D-counterparts by catalysing Cα-hydrogen-atom abstraction and using a critical cysteine residue as the hydrogen-atom donor...
July 2017: Nature Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644287/1-5-ce-test-hours-health-and-the-human-microbiome-a-primer-for-nurses
#9
Emily Contrada
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: American Journal of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644126/extensive-horizontal-gene-transfer-in-cheese-associated-bacteria
#10
Kevin S Bonham, Benjamin E Wolfe, Rachel J Dutton
Acquisition of genes through horizontal gene transfer (HGT) allows microbes to rapidly gain new capabilities and adapt to new or changing environments. Identifying widespread HGT regions within multispecies microbiomes can pinpoint the molecular mechanisms that play key roles in microbiome assembly. We sought to identify horizontally transferred genes within a model microbiome, the cheese rind. Comparing 31 newly-sequenced and 134 previously sequenced bacterial isolates from cheese rinds, we identified over 200 putative horizontally transferred genomic regions containing 4,844 protein coding genes...
June 23, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643880/effects-of-discrete-bioactive-microbial-volatiles-on-plants-and-fungi
#11
REVIEW
Birgit Piechulla, Marie-Chantal Lemfack, Marco Kai
Plants live in association with microorganisms, which are well known as a rich source of specialized metabolits, including volatile compounds. The increasing numbers of described plant microbiomes allowed manifold phylogenetic tree deductions, but less emphasis is presently put on the metabolic capacities of plant-associated microorganisms. With the focus on small volatile metabolites we summarize i) the knowledge of prominent bacteria of plant microbiomes, ii) present the state-of-the-art of individual (discrete) microbial organic and inorganic volatiles affecting plants and fungi, and iii) emphasize the high potential of microbial volatiles in mediating microbe-plant interactions...
June 23, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643622/lung-microbiota-and-its-impact-on-the-mucosal-immune-phenotype
#12
Benjamin G Wu, Leopoldo N Segal
The use of culture-independent techniques has allowed us to appreciate that the upper and lower respiratory tract contain a diverse community of microbes in health and disease. Research has only recently explored the effects of the microbiome on the host immune response. The exposure of the human body to the bacterial environment is an important factor for immunological development; thus, the interaction between the microbiome and its host is critical to understanding the pathogenesis of disease. In this article, we discuss the mechanisms that determine the composition of the airway microbiome and its effects on the host immune response...
June 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643618/heat-stabilised-rice-bran-consumption-by-colorectal-cancer-survivors-modulates-stool-metabolite-profiles-and-metabolic-networks-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#13
Dustin G Brown, Erica C Borresen, Regina J Brown, Elizabeth P Ryan
Rice bran (RB) consumption has been shown to reduce colorectal cancer (CRC) growth in mice and modify the human stool microbiome. Changes in host and microbial metabolism induced by RB consumption was hypothesised to modulate the stool metabolite profile in favour of promoting gut health and inhibiting CRC growth. The objective was to integrate gut microbial metabolite profiles and identify metabolic pathway networks for CRC chemoprevention using non-targeted metabolomics. In all, nineteen CRC survivors participated in a parallel randomised controlled dietary intervention trial that included daily consumption of study-provided foods with heat-stabilised RB (30 g/d) or no additional ingredient (control)...
May 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643480/microbiome-yarns-microbial-forensics-for-auditing-provenance-in-global-food-chains
#14
EDITORIAL
Kenneth Timmis, Franziska Jebok, Romilio T Espejo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643294/-saccharomyces-boulardii-cncm-i-745-influences-the-gut-associated-immune-system
#15
Heike Stier, Stephan C Bischoff
BACKGROUND: The impact of the intestinal microbiome is increasing steadily with regard to the immune function und the defense against pathogens. The medicinal yeast Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 (S. boulardii) has been used as probiotic for the prevention and treatment of infectious diarrhea since more than 50 years. Meta-analyses confirm the clinical efficacy of S. boulardii to treat diarrhea of various origins in children and adults. METHOD: This review article summarizes experimental studies on molecular and immunological mechanisms which explain the proven clinical efficacy of S...
June 2017: MMW Fortschritte der Medizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643167/microbiome-probiotics-and-neurodegenerative-diseases-deciphering-the-gut-brain-axis
#16
REVIEW
Susan Westfall, Nikita Lomis, Imen Kahouli, Si Yuan Dia, Surya Pratap Singh, Satya Prakash
The gut microbiota is essential to health and has recently become a target for live bacterial cell biotherapies for various chronic diseases including metabolic syndrome, diabetes, obesity and neurodegenerative disease. Probiotic biotherapies are known to create a healthy gut environment by balancing bacterial populations and promoting their favorable metabolic action. The microbiota and its respective metabolites communicate to the host through a series of biochemical and functional links thereby affecting host homeostasis and health...
June 22, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642887/dynamic-regulation-of-serum-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-agonists-in-ms
#17
Veit Rothhammer, Davis M Borucki, Maria Isabel Garcia Sanchez, Maria Antonietta Mazzola, Christopher C Hemond, Keren Regev, Anu Paul, Pia Kivisäkk, Rohit Bakshi, Guillermo Izquierdo, Howard L Weiner, Francisco J Quintana
OBJECTIVE: Several factors influence the clinical course of autoimmune inflammatory diseases such as MS and inflammatory bowel disease. Only recently, the complex interaction between the gut microbiome, dietary factors, and metabolism has started to be appreciated with regard to its potential to modulate acute and chronic inflammation. One of the molecular sensors that mediates the effects of these environmental signals on the immune response is the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), a ligand-activated transcription factor with key functions in immune cells...
July 2017: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642842/the-tick-microbiome-why-non-pathogenic-microorganisms-matter-in-tick-biology-and-pathogen-transmission
#18
REVIEW
Sarah I Bonnet, Florian Binetruy, Angelica M Hernández-Jarguín, Olivier Duron
Ticks are among the most important vectors of pathogens affecting humans and other animals worldwide. They do not only carry pathogens however, as a diverse group of commensal and symbiotic microorganisms are also present in ticks. Unlike pathogens, their biology and their effect on ticks remain largely unexplored, and are in fact often neglected. Nonetheless, they can confer multiple detrimental, neutral, or beneficial effects to their tick hosts, and can play various roles in fitness, nutritional adaptation, development, reproduction, defense against environmental stress, and immunity...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642837/environmental-influences-in-the-etiology-of-colorectal-cancer-the-premise-of-metabolomics
#19
Nicholas J W Rattray, Georgia Charkoftaki, Zahra Rattray, James E Hansen, Vasilis Vasiliou, Caroline H Johnson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review we discuss how environmental exposures predominate the etiology of colorectal cancer (CRC). With CRC being a personalized disease influenced by genes and environment, our goal was to explore the role metabolomics can play in identifying exposures, assessing the interplay between co-exposures, and the development of personalized therapeutic interventions. RECENT FINDINGS: Approximately 10 % of CRC cases can be explained by germ-line mutations, whereas the prevailing majority are caused by an initiating exposure event occurring decades prior to diagnosis...
June 2017: Current Pharmacology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642609/microbial-signatures-associated-with-oropharyngeal-and-oral-squamous-cell-carcinomas
#20
Sagarika Banerjee, Tian Tian, Zhi Wei, Kristen N Peck, Natalie Shih, Ara A Chalian, Bert W O'Malley, Gregory S Weinstein, Michael D Feldman, James Alwine, Erle S Robertson
The microbiome is fundamentally one of the most unique organs in the human body. Dysbiosis can result in critical inflammatory responses and result in pathogenesis contributing to neoplastic events. We used a pan-pathogen array technology (PathoChip) coupled with next-generation sequencing to establish microbial signatures unique to human oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OCSCC/OPSCC). Signatures for DNA and RNA viruses including oncogenic viruses, gram positive and negative bacteria, fungi and parasites were detected...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
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