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Menstruation and infection

Andrew J Ghio
Over several decades, asthma has evolved from being recognized as a single disease to include a diverse group of phenotypes with dissimilar natural histories, pathophysiologies, responses to treatment, and distinctive molecular pathways. With the application of Occam's razor to asthma, it is proposed that there is one cause underlying the numerous phenotypes of this disease and that the responsible molecular pathway is a deficiency of iron in the lung tissues. This deficiency can be either absolute (e.g. asthma in the neonate and during both pregnancy and menstruation) or functional (e...
October 2016: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
Evans Paul Kwame Ameade, Helene Akpene Garti
Positive perception about menstruation and good menstrual hygiene practice safeguards the health of postpubescent females by reducing their vulnerability to reproductive and urinary tract infections. Using a questionnaire, a cross-sectional study involving 293 randomly selected female undergraduate students in northern Ghana assessed the relationship between knowledge on menstruation and the practice of safe menstrual hygiene. Data collected was analyzed using GraphPad 5.01. This study found that although majority of respondents (73...
2016: Advances in Preventive Medicine
Dara Abells, Yolanda A Kirkham, Melanie P Ornstein
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Care for women with developmental disabilities requires special consideration for unique needs related to their cognitive and physical abilities. These women and their caregivers require more support and guidance during reproductive health care. We review the literature and provide expert opinion surrounding gynecological issues for women with developmental disabilities to support healthcare providers better understand and care for this population. RECENT FINDINGS: Women with developmental disabilities are more vulnerable to abuse and experience poorer gynecological healthcare outcomes...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Jane E Girling, Michelle G Lockhart, Moshe Olshansky, Premila Paiva, Nicole Woodrow, Jennifer L Marino, Martha Hickey, Peter A W Rogers
Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) is a significant social and public health issue for menstruating women. Development of targeted treatments has been limited by poor understanding of local mechanisms underlying HMB. We aimed to determine how gene expression differs in menstrual phase endometrium from women with HMB. Menstrual phase endometrial biopsies were collected from women with (n = 7) and without (n = 10) HMB (regular menstrual cycles, no known pelvic pathology), as well as women with uterine fibroids (n = 7, n = 4 had HMB)...
May 16, 2016: Reproductive Sciences
Suketu M Mansuria, John Comerci, Robert Edwards, Amin Sanei Moghaddam, Tianzhou Ma, Faina Linkov
INTRODUCTION: The goal of this project is to describe the development and implementation of an evidence-based hysterectomy clinical pathway to reduce unnecessary variations in care and to promote improved patient outcomes at a reduced cost. This study characterized the longitudinal impact of hysterectomy pathway implementation on the number of total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH) procedures performed between fiscal years (FY) 2012 to 2014. METHODS: All noncancerous hysterectomy surgeries performed at University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) hospitals from FY 2012 to FY 2014 were identified through various systems including Medipac and EpicCare...
May 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Priyanka A Sali, Kamal S Yadav, Gunjan S Desai, Bhushan P Bhole, Asha George, Samir S Parikh, Hitesh S Mehta
INTRODUCTION: Endometriosis is defined as the presence of functional ectopic endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity. It rarely involves the small bowel and obstruction due to the same is highly uncommon. Preoperative diagnosis is difficult based on clinical and radiological studies. Diagnosis can be confirmed only on histopathological examination of the surgically resected specimen. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 44 years old lady presented with repeated episodes of abdominal pain, non bilious vomiting and diarrhea...
2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Emre Yanikkerem, Aysegul Yasayan
OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency, associated factors and relationship with vulvovaginal symptoms and vaginal douching among Turkish women. METHODS: The cross-sectional, analytical study was conducted at Merkez Efendi Hospital, Manisa, Turkey, from January to June 2014 using a questionnaire. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS 17. RESULTS: Of the total 343 women in the study, 91(26.5%) had reported vaginal douching in the preceding year...
April 2016: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Hiroshi Kawabata
The major causes of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) include iron loss due to bleeding, increased iron requirements, and decreased iron absorption by the intestine. The most common cause of IDA in Japanese women is iron loss during menstruation. Autoimmune atrophic gastritis and Helicobacter pylori infection can also cause IDA by reducing intestinal iron absorption. In addition to these common etiologies, germline mutations of TMPRSS6 can cause iron-refractory IDA (IRIDA). TMPRSS6 encodes matriptase-2, a membrane-bound serine protease primarily expressed in the liver...
February 2016: [Rinshō Ketsueki] the Japanese Journal of Clinical Hematology
Sangeeta Kansal, Sweta Singh, Alok Kumar
INTRODUCTION: Up until now, poor menstrual hygiene in developing countries has been an insufficiently acknowledged problem. The lack of attention to this issue is striking as we cannot achieve several Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), that is, 2, 3 4,5, and 5B. This study aimed to assess the level of awareness about menarche and hygienic practices during menstruation in context of schooling. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Community-based cross-sectional study using a mix method approach (qualitative and quantitative)...
January 2016: Indian Journal of Community Medicine
Elizabeth M Miller
Reproductive ecology focuses on the sensitivity of human reproduction to environmental variation. While reproductive ecology has historically focused on the relationship between energy status and reproductive outcomes, iron status is equally critical to women's reproductive health, given the wide-ranging detrimental effects of iron-deficiency anemia on maternal and infant well-being. This review interprets the vast literature on iron status and women's reproduction through an evolutionary framework. First, it will critique the evidence for iron deficiency caused by blood loss during menstruation, reinterpreting the available data as ecological variation in menses within and between populations of women...
January 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Cheng-Wei Chan, Yin-Chou Lin, Yu-Hui Chiu, Yi-Ming Weng, Wen-Cheng Li, Yu-Jr Lin, Shih-Hao Wang, Tai-Yi Hsu, Kuo-Feng Huang, Te-Fa Chiu
BACKGROUND: Acute mountain sickness (AMS) is a pathophysiological symptom complex that occurs in high-altitude areas. The incidence of AMS on Jade Mountain, the highest peak in Taiwan (3952 m), has been reported to be ∼36%. There is a lack of data in children trekking at altitude in Taiwan. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence, risk factors and symptoms of AMS in children trekking on Jade Mountain, Taiwan. METHODS: This prospective cohort study included a total of 96 healthy non-acclimatized children aged 11-12 years who trekked from an elevation of 2600-3952 m in 3 days...
January 2016: Journal of Travel Medicine
Xiaoyan Zhang, Ling Ji, Lichuan Yang, Xiaohong Tang, Wei Qin
PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) cyclosporine (CyA) and tacrolimus (TAC) in the induction and maintenance treatment of lupus nephritis (LN). METHODS: The Cochrane library, PubMed, Embase, and CENTRAL databases were searched and reviewed up to February 2015. Randomized controlled trials were analyzed using RevMan 5.2 software. RESULTS: Ten randomized controlled trials were selected and included in this study according to our inclusion and exclusion criteria, and six were included in the meta-analysis...
May 2016: International Urology and Nephrology
Asli Yarci Gursoy, Gamze Sinem Caglar, Mine Kiseli, Emre Pabuccu, Tuba Candar, Selda Demirtas
OBJECTIVE: C-reactive protein (CRP) is a well-known marker of inflammation and infection in clinical practice. This study is designed to evaluate CRP levels in different phases of menstrual cycle, which might end up with misleading conclusions especially when used for cardiovascular risk assessment. METHODS: Twenty-seven women were eligible for the cross-sectional study. Venous blood samples from each participant were collected twice during the menstrual cycle. The first sampling was held at 2nd to 5th days of the menstrual cycle for FSH, estradiol, CRP, and sedimentation, and the second was done at 21st to 24th days of the menstrual cycle for measurement of progesterone, CRP, and sedimentation values...
December 2015: Interventional Medicine & Applied Science
Humayun Kabir, Nirod Chandra Saha, Rukhsana Gazi
BACKGROUND: In Bangladesh, 24 % of the total populations are adolescents. Twelve months intervention was implemented under Demand-Based Reproductive Health Commodity Project (DBRHCP) in two low performing areas: rural Sub-district Nabiganj (population 323,357) and an urban slum in Dhaka city (population 141,912). We evaluated the changes in knowledge of female unmarried adolescents on selected reproductive health issues over the project period in two low performing areas of Bangladesh...
2015: BMC Public Health
Banghyun Lee, Hye-Yon Cho, Kum Jin Jeon, Kidong Kim, Jung Ryeol Lee, Jung Joo Moon, Jae Hong No, Yong-Beom Kim
AIM: Few studies have reported that human papillomavirus (HPV) tests using menstrual blood (MB) may be a convenient and effective screening modality for cervical cancer. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the efficacy of detecting high-risk (HR)-HPV from MB in women with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions or HR-HPV infections dependent on menstrual days. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective exploratory pilot study, a clinical trial was conducted in 19 women...
March 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
Wilson Winstons Muhwezi, Anne Ruhweza Katahoire, Cecily Banura, Herbert Mugooda, Doris Kwesiga, Sheri Bastien, Knut-Inge Klepp
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that in spite of some adolescents being sexually active, many parents do not discuss sex-related issues with them due to lack of age-appropriate respectful vocabulary and skills. The likelihood of parent-adolescent communication improving sexual and reproductive health outcomes appears plausible. The desire to understand parent-adolescent communication and how to improve it for promotion of healthy sexual behaviours inspired this research. The paper is meant to describe perceptions of adolescents, parents and school administrators about parent-adolescent communication on sexual issues; describe the content of such communication and identify factors that influence this communication...
2015: Reproductive Health
Enu Anand, Jayakant Singh, Sayeed Unisa
OBJECTIVE: The objective was to explore the determinants of menstrual hygienic practices and its effect on Reproductive Tract Infections (RTI) among ever married women in India. METHODS: District Level Household and Facility Survey-3 (DLHS) India data have been used in the study. The respondents constituted ever married women (N = 577,758) in the age group of 15-49. Bivariate and multivariate techniques were employed using IBM SPSS statistics 20. Individual effects of socio economic, demographic and gynecological factors on menstrual hygienic practices, RTIs and abnormal vaginal discharged respectively were calculated using binary logistic regression...
December 2015: Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare: Official Journal of the Swedish Association of Midwives
Shivaleela P Upashe, Tesfalidet Tekelab, Jalane Mekonnen
BACKGROUND: The issue of menstrual hygiene is inadequately acknowledged and has not received proper attention. Use of sanitary pads and washing the genital area are essential practices to keep the menstrual hygiene. Unhygienic menstrual practices can affect the health of the girls and there is an increased vulnerability to reproductive tract infections and pelvic inflammatory diseases and other complications. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the knowledge and practice of menstrual hygiene among high school girls at Nekemte town, Oromia region, Western Ethiopia...
2015: BMC Women's Health
R K Lekshmi, R Rajesh, S Mini
BACKGROUND: Cissus quadrangularis is a plant with great medicinal value and different parts of the plant is traditionally used for the treatment of skin infections, constipation, piles, anaemia, asthma, irregular menstruation, burns and wounds. The stems and leaves of Cissus quadrangularis has been traditionally consumed as a vegetable. OBJECTIVE: The current study was hypothesized to investigate the beneficial effects of ethyl acetate fraction of Cissus quadrangularis stem (CQSF) on hyperglycaemia-mediated oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in nicotinamide/streptozotocin induced diabetes mellitus...
September 15, 2015: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Whitney A Nichols, Leslie Birke, Jason Dufour, Nisha Loganantharaj, Gregory J Bagby, Steve Nelson, Patricia E Molina, Angela M Amedee
PROBLEM: HIV infection among women is frequently modeled in female rhesus macaques. Longitudinal studies on genital compartment and hormonal factors that can influence susceptibility to SIV infection are lacking in this animal model. METHOD OF STUDY: Genital specimens and menstruation of indoor-housed female rhesus macaques were analyzed prior to and after SIV infection. RESULTS: Median menstrual cycle length averaged 27 days, although highly variable cycle lengths and frequent periods of amenorrhea were observed during summer months...
December 2015: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
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