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Sepideh Sefidbakht, Sakineh Dehghani, Maryam Safari, Homeira Vafaei, Maryam Kasraeian
BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is gradually becoming more common for thorough visualization of the fetus than ultrasound (US), especially for neurological anomalies, which are the most common indications for fetal MRI and are a matter of concern for both families and society. OBJECTIVES: We investigated fetal MRIs carried out in our center for frequency of central nervous system anomalies. This is the first such report in southern Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and seven (107) pregnant women with suspicious fetal anomalies in prenatal ultrasound entered a cross-sectional retrospective study from 2011 to 2013...
August 2016: Iranian Journal of Pediatrics
Joshua Greenstein, Will Panzo, Daniel Klein, Joshua Bock, Barry Hahn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 8, 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Asthik Biswas, Farha Furruqh, Suresh Thirunavukarasu, Ravichandran Vivekandan
Cortical 'clefts' (schizencephaly) and cortical 'bumps' (polymicrogyria) are malformations arising due to defects in postmigrational development of neurons. They are frequently encountered together, with schizencephalic clefts being lined by polymicrogyria. We present the case of an eight-year-old boy who presented with seizures. Imaging revealed closed lip schizencephaly, polymicrogyria and a deep 'incomplete' cleft lined by polymicrogyria not communicating with the lateral ventricle. We speculate that hypoperfusion or ischaemic cortical injury during neuronal development may lead to a spectrum of malformations ranging from polymicrogyria to incomplete cortical clefts to schizencephaly...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Shrikant V Rege, Harshad Patil
Schizencephaly is an extremely rare developmental birth defect characterized by abnormal slits or clefts in the cerebral hemispheres extending from the lateral ventricle to the cerebral cortex. The margins of the cleft are lined with heterotropic, dysplastic gray matter. The causes of schizencephaly are heterogeneous and include teratogens, prenatal infarction/infections, maternal trauma, or EMX2 mutations. This condition is present at birth and manifests early in life.
April 2016: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
Harvey B Sarnat, Laura Flores-Sarnat
After sagittal division of the prosencephalon at 4.5 weeks of gestation, the early fetal cerebral hemisphere bends or rotates posteroventrally from seven weeks of gestation. The posterior pole of the telencephalon thus becomes not the occipital but the temporal lobe as the telencephalic flexure forms the operculum and finally the lateral cerebral or Sylvian fissure. The ventral part is infolded to become the insula. The frontal and temporal lips of the Sylvian fissure, as well as the insula, all derive from the ventral margin of the primitive telencephalon, hence may be influenced by genetic mutations with a ventrodorsal gradient of expression...
October 2016: Pediatric Neurology
Yuri Nagai, Ayataka Fujimoto, Tohru Okanishi, Hironao Motoi, Sotaro Kanai, Takuya Yokota, Hideo Enoki, Mitsuyo Nishimura, Takamichi Yamamoto
PURPOSE: To perform an epilepsy surgery on a patient with drug resistant epilepsy secondary to bilateral brain malformation. The patient was a 2-year 9-month-old boy who had congenital bilateral multiple abnormalities. He developed a complex partial seizure at 9 months old. Based on the presurgical evaluations, he underwent a right hemispherotomy. RESULTS: Brain MRI revealed congenital bilateral polymicrogyria, right schizencephaly, and corpus callosum agenesis...
2016: Epilepsy & Behavior Case Reports
Samhita Panda
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Neurology India
Enighe W Ugboma, C E Agi
Schizencephaly is a congenital condition characterized by cerebrospinal fluid-filled clefts that extend from the pia surface of the cerebral hemisphere to the ependymal surface of the ventricle. Magnetic resonance imaging is the modality of choice for its diagnosis. Very few cases have been described in the literature in this environment. Here, we present an 18-month-old male child who presented in a tertiary hospital in Port Harcourt, Rivers State in Nigeria with 6 months history of recurrent seizures. A cranial MRI done revealed that he had right unilateral opened lip schizencephaly...
January 2016: Nigerian Postgraduate Medical Journal
Junmei Zhang, Zhiquan Yang, Zhuanyi Yang, Xinghui He, Yonghong Hou, Yanjin Wang
Schizencephaly is a rare malformation of cortical development resulting from cell migration defects that occur unilaterally or bilaterally. The type of the schizencephalic cleft can be open lip or closed lip. Patients suffering from refractory seizures secondary to schizencephaly should be considered for surgical treatment. In this paper, we retrospectively analyzed two patients with confirmed schizencephaly and intractable seizures. The evaluation methods included a medical history assessment, a neurological examination and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
July 2016: Neurological Sciences
Arminda Neves, Fausto Carvalheira, Joana Campos, Pedro Alfaiate, António Campos, João Paulo, Castro Sousa
PURPOSE: To report a case of a 56-year-old male with right homonymous hemianopia. METHODS: Retrospective descriptive study of a case report based on information from clinical records, patient observation and analysis of complementary diagnostic tests. RESULTS: An asymptomatic 56-year-old male presented to our hospital for a routine ophthalmic examination. The best-corrected visual acuity was 20/20 in the right eye (RE) and in the left eye (LE)...
January 2016: Case Reports in Ophthalmology
Robert Smigiel, Magdalena Cabala, Aleksandra Jakubiak, Hirofumi Kodera, Marek J Sasiadek, Naomichi Matsumoto, Maria M Sasiadek, Hirotomo Saitsu
BACKGROUND: A clinical case is described of growth retardation, severe developmental delay, facial dysmorphic features with microcephaly, as well as congenital cataract, schizencephaly, periventricular calcifications, and epilepsy. METHODS: TORCH infection was suspected, but all tests for toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex virus were negative for the child and her mother; however, an increased level of antibodies against parvovirus B19 was detected in the proband...
April 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part A, Clinical and Molecular Teratology
Elizabeth Hanson, Niels Christian Danbolt, Chris G Dulla
Developmental cortical malformations (DCMs) are linked with severe epilepsy and are caused by both genetic and environmental insults. DCMs include several neurological diseases, such as focal cortical dysplasia, polymicrogyria, schizencephaly, and others. Human studies have implicated astrocyte reactivity and dysfunction in the pathophysiology of DCMs, but their specific role is unknown. As astrocytes powerfully regulate glutamate neurotransmission, and glutamate levels are known to be increased in human epileptic foci, understanding the role of astrocytes in the pathological sequelae of DCMs is extremely important...
May 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
Roberto H Caraballo, Gabriela Reyes, Raffaele Falsaperla, Belen Ramos, Aliria Carpio Ruiz, Cecilia Aguilar Fernandez, Gabriela Peretti, Lucas Beltran
OBJECTIVE: We analyzed the electroclinical features, etiology, treatment, and outcome of 12 patients with West syndrome (WS) associated with focal hypsarrhythmia (FH). METHODS: Between February 2005 and July 2013, 12 patients met the electroclinical diagnostic criteria of WS associated with FH. Hypsarrhythmia was considered to be focal when two or three brain lobes were involved. Patients with hemihypsarrhythmia were excluded. RESULTS: All patients had epileptic spasms (ES) in clusters of a structural etiology...
February 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Chih-Ping Chen, Cheng-Ran Peng, Tung-Yao Chang, Wan-Yuo Guo, Yen-Ni Chen, Peih-Shan Wu, Dai-Dyi Town, Wayseen Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2015: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
Tadashi Matsumoto, Kei Miyakoshi, Marie Fukutake, Daigo Ochiai, Kazuhiro Minegishi, Mamoru Tanaka
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2015: Journal of Medical Ultrasonics
(no author information available yet)
Reason for correction: There is an error of the year of publication.Details: We have to correct the issue year from 2014 to 2015.
2015: Magnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences: MRMS
Naomi Hino-Fukuyo, Noriko Togashi, Ritsuko Takahashi, Junko Saito, Takehiko Inui, Wakaba Endo, Ryo Sato, Yukimune Okubo, Hirotomo Saitsu, Kazuhiro Haginoya
BACKGROUND: No population-based surveys of porencephaly, schizencephaly, and hydranencephaly have been conducted in Japan or other Asian countries. We performed a neuroepidemiologic analysis to elucidate the incidence of porencephaly, schizencephaly, and hydranencephaly in Miyagi prefecture, Japan, during 2007-2011. METHODS: We sent inquiry forms in February 2012 to three neonatal intensive care units, 25 divisions of orthopedic surgery in municipal hospitals, 33 divisions of pediatrics including one university hospital, municipal hospitals, pediatric practitioners, and institutions for physically handicapped children located in Miyagi prefecture...
January 2016: Pediatric Neurology
Bilal Battal, Selami Ince, Veysel Akgun, Murat Kocaoglu, Emrah Ozcan, Mustafa Tasar
Malformation of cortical development (MCD) is a term representing an inhomogeneous group of central nervous system abnormalities, referring particularly to embriyological aspect as a consequence of any of the three developmental stages, i.e., cell proliferation, cell migration and cortical organization. These include cotical dysgenesis, microcephaly, polymicrogyria, schizencephaly, lissencephaly, hemimegalencephaly, heterotopia and focal cortical dysplasia. Since magnetic resonance imaging is the modality of choice that best identifies the structural anomalies of the brain cortex, we aimed to provide a mini review of MCD by using 3T magnetic resonance scanner images...
October 28, 2015: World Journal of Radiology
Akiko Shibata, Mariko Yamamoto, Yu Watanabe, Hiroshi Terashima, Hirofumi Kashii, Masaya Kubota, Nobuhito Morota
Intrathecal baclofen (ITB) therapy is popular for the management of intractable spasticity. In 2007, the indications of ITB therapy expanded to include spasticity of children in Japan. In this report, we assessed the utility of radioisotopic scintigraphy in the diagnosis of failed ITB therapy. A 7-year-old boy with schizencephaly, hydrocephalus, and spastic quadriplegia had an ITB pump implanted. In his infancy, he had undergone ventriculoperitoneal shunt implantation. One month after the ITB operation, the ITB therapeutic effect diminished...
September 2015: No to Hattatsu. Brain and Development
Ki Yeun Nam, Changjae Kim, Jin Woo Park, Ho Jun Lee, Bum Sun Kwon
A 4-year-old schizencephaly patient admitted to authors' institution with dysphagia caused by upper esophageal sphincter (UES) dysfunction. Videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) was done for the diagnosis and the botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) was injected to the cricopharyngeal muscle. UES dysfunction improved and oral feeding was possible after the injection. This normal swallowing function remained for over 79 months which was confirmed by follow up VFSS. To the best of our knowledge, this is first case of schizencephaly patient to be treated by BTX-A for UES dysfunction and longest to maintain its effect with single session of injection...
November 2015: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
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