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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016958/increased-central-nervous-system-interleukin-8-in-a-majority-postlaminectomy-syndrome-chronic-pain-population
#1
Sarah E Giron, Martin F Bjurstrom, Charles A Griffis, F Michael Ferrante, Irene I Wu, Andrea L Nicol, Tristan R Grogan, Joseph F Burkard, Michael R Irwin, Elizabeth Crabb Breen
Background and Objectives: Multiple processes have been identified as potential contributors to chronic pain, with increasing evidence illustrating an association with aberrant levels of neuroimmune mediators. The primary objectives of the present study were to examine central nervous system cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors present in a chronic pain population and to explore patterns of the same mediator molecules over time. Secondary objectives explored the relationship of central and peripheral neuroimmune mediators while examining the levels of anxiety, depression, sleep quality, and perception of pain associated with the chronic pain patient experience...
June 20, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987617/mitigation-of-postnatal-ethanol-induced-neuroinflammation-ameliorates-trace-fear-memory-deficits-in-juvenile-rats
#2
Molly J Goodfellow, Youn Ju Shin, Derick H Lindquist
Impairments in behavior and cognition are common in individuals diagnosed with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). In this study, FASD model rats were intragastrically intubated with ethanol (5g/kg/day; 5E), sham-intubated (SI), or maintained as naïve controls (NC) over postnatal days (PD) 4-9. Ethanol exposure during this human third trimester-equivalent period induces persistent impairments in hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. The ability of ibuprofen (IBU), a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, to diminish ethanol-induced neuroinflammation and rescue deficits in hippocampus-dependent trace fear conditioning (TFC) was investigated in 5E rats...
October 5, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987324/toll-like-receptors-and-their-role-in-persistent-pain
#3
REVIEW
Michael J Lacagnina, Linda R Watkins, Peter M Grace
One of the fundamental mechanisms whereby the innate immune system coordinates inflammatory signal transduction is through Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which function to protect and defend the host organism by initiating inflammatory signaling cascades in response to tissue damage or injury. TLRs are positioned at the neuroimmune interface, and accumulating evidence suggests that the inflammatory consequences of TLR activation on glia (including microglia and astrocytes), sensory neurons, and other cell types can influence nociceptive processing and lead to states of exaggerated and unresolved pain...
October 4, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973966/impact-of-prenatal-and-subsequent-adult-alcohol-exposure-on-pro-inflammatory-cytokine-expression-in-brain-regions-necessary-for-simple-recognition-memory
#4
Laurne S Terasaki, Jaclyn M Schwarz
Microglia, the immune cells of the brain, are important and necessary for appropriate neural development; however, activation of microglia, concomitant with increased levels of secreted immune molecules during brain development, can leave the brain susceptible to certain long-term changes in immune function associated with neurological and developmental disorders. One mechanism by which microglia can be activated is via alcohol exposure. We sought to investigate if low levels of prenatal alcohol exposure can alter the neuroimmune response to a subsequent acute dose of alcohol in adulthood...
September 30, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972819/schwann-cell-phenotype-changes-in-aging-human-dental-pulp
#5
E Couve, M Lovera, K Suzuki, O Schmachtenberg
Schwann cells are glial cells that support axonal development, maintenance, defense, and regeneration in the peripheral nervous system. There is limited knowledge regarding the organization, plasticity, and aging of Schwann cells within the dental pulp in adult permanent teeth. The present study sought to relate changes in the pattern of Schwann cell phenotypes between young and old adult teeth with neuronal, immune, and vascular components of the dental pulp. Schwann cells are shown to form a prominent glial network at the dentin-pulp interface, consisting of nonmyelinating and myelinating phenotypes, forming a multicellular neuroimmune interface in association with nerve fibers and dendritic cells...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970585/targeting-neural-reflex-circuits-in-immunity-to-treat-kidney-disease
#6
REVIEW
Mark D Okusa, Diane L Rosin, Kevin J Tracey
Neural pathways regulate immunity and inflammation via the inflammatory reflex and specific molecular targets can be modulated by stimulating neurons. Neuroimmunomodulation by nonpharmacological methods is emerging as a novel therapeutic strategy for inflammatory diseases, including kidney diseases and hypertension. Electrical stimulation of vagus neurons or treatment with pulsed ultrasound activates the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP) and protects mice from acute kidney injury (AKI). Direct innervation of the kidney, by afferent and efferent neurons, might have a role in modulating and responding to inflammation in various diseases, either locally or by providing feedback to regions of the central nervous system that are important in the inflammatory reflex pathway...
October 3, 2017: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961037/cns-not-an-immunoprivilaged-site-anymore-but-a-virtual-secondary-lymphoid-organ
#7
Neema Negi, Bimal K Das
The cardinal dogma of central nervous system (CNS) immunology believed brain is an immune privileged site, but scientific evidences gathered so far have overturned this notion proving that CNS is no longer an immune privileged site, but rather an actively regulated site of immune surveillance. Landmark discovery of lymphatic system surrounding the duramater of the brain, made possible by high resolution live imaging technology has given new dimension to neuro-immunology. Here, we discuss the immune privilege status of CNS in light of the previous and current findings, taking into account the differences between a healthy state and changes that occur during an inflammatory response...
September 29, 2017: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951710/brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-is-increased-in-serum-levels-of-patients-with-symptomatic-dermographism
#8
Seval Erpolat, Huseyin Tugrul Celik, Bulent Bozkurt
INTRODUCTION: Symptomatic dermographism (SD) is the most common form of physical urticaria. However, the role of neuroimmune mechanisms in SD is unclear. AIM: To investigate circulating levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in symptomatic dermographism. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-two patients suffering from SD and 33 healthy subjects were included in the study. Serum BDNF levels were determined by a human enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) kit...
August 2017: Postȩpy Dermatologii i Alergologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947376/antagonising-tlr4-trif-signalling-before-or-after-a-low-dose-alcohol-binge-during-adolescence-prevents-alcohol-drinking-but-not-seeking-behaviour-in-adulthood
#9
Jonathan Henry Jacobsen, Femke Buisman-Pijlman, Sanam Mustafa, Kenner C Rice, Mark R Hutchinson
Adolescents frequently engage in risky behaviours such as binge drinking. Binge drinking, in turn, perturbs neurodevelopment reinforcing reward seeking behaviour in adulthood. Current animal models are limited in their portrayal of this behaviour and the assessment of neuroimmune involvement (specifically the role of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)). Therefore, the aims of this project were to develop a more relevant animal model of adolescent alcohol exposure and to characterise its effects on TLR4 signalling and alcohol-related behaviours later life...
September 22, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944558/imaging-the-neuroimmune-response-to-alcohol-exposure-in-adolescent-baboons-a-tspo-pet-study-using-18-f-dpa-714
#10
Wadad Saba, Sébastien Goutal, Sylvain Auvity, Bertrand Kuhnast, Christine Coulon, Virginie Kouyoumdjian, Irène Buvat, Claire Leroy, Nicolas Tournier
The effects of acute alcohol exposure to the central nervous system are hypothesized to involve the innate immune system. The neuroimmune response to an initial and acute alcohol exposure was investigated using translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO) PET imaging, a non-invasive marker of glial activation, in adolescent baboons. Three different alcohol-naive adolescent baboons (3-4 years old, 9 to 14 kg) underwent (18) F-DPA-714 PET experiments before, during and 7-12 months after this initial alcohol exposure (0...
September 25, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943841/microglia-an-interface-between-the-loss-of-neuroplasticity-and-depression
#11
REVIEW
Gaurav Singhal, Bernhard T Baune
Depression has been widely accepted as a major psychiatric disease affecting nearly 350 million people worldwide. Research focus is now shifting from studying the extrinsic and social factors of depression to the underlying molecular causes. Microglial activity is shown to be associated with pathological conditions, such as psychological stress, pathological aging, and chronic infections. These are primary immune effector cells in the CNS and regulate the extensive dialogue between the nervous and the immune systems in response to different immunological, physiological, and psychological stressors...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941277/alcohol-and-stress-activation-of-microglia-and-neurons-brain-regional-effects
#12
T Jordan Walter, Ryan P Vetreno, Fulton T Crews
BACKGROUND: Cycles of alcohol and stress are hypothesized to contribute to alcohol use disorders. How this occurs is poorly understood, although both alcohol and stress activate the neuroimmune system - the immune molecules and cells that interact with the nervous system. The effects of alcohol and stress on the neuroimmune system are mediated in part by peripheral signaling molecules. Alcohol and stress both enhance immunomodulatory molecules such as corticosterone and endotoxin to impact neuroimmune cells such as microglia, and may subsequently impact neurons...
September 23, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913854/preoperative-ultraviolet-b-inflammation-in-skin-modelling-individual-differences-in-acute-postoperative-pain-and-neuro-immune-interactions
#13
T H Lunn, J M Dawes, F Denk, D L Bennett, H Husted, H Kehlet, S B McMahon
BACKGROUND: Neuroimmune interactions play a vital role in many of the most common pain conditions, such as arthritis. There have been many attempts to derive clinically predictive information from an individual's inflammatory response in order to gauge subsequent pain perception. OBJECTIVES: Here, we wanted to test whether this effort could be enhanced and complemented by the use of a model system which takes into account the function of not just circulating, but also tissue-resident immune cells: ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation of the skin...
September 14, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893229/neuroimmune-expression-in-hip-osteoarthritis-a-systematic-review
#14
Manuel Ribeiro da Silva, Daniela Linhares, Daniel Marques Vasconcelos, Cecilia Juliana Alves, Nuno Neves, Gilberto Costa, Meriem Lamghari
BACKGROUND: Neuroimmune axis is central in the physiopathology of hip osteoarthritis (OA), but its specific pathways are still unclear. This systematic review aims to assess the nervous and immune system profile of patients with hip osteoarthritis (OA) when compared to healthy controls. METHODS: A systematic review followed PRISMA guidelines was conducted. A two-step selection process was completed, and from 609 references 17 were included. The inclusion criteria were: original articles on adult patients with hip OA, with assessment of neuroimmune expression...
September 11, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870557/retroviral-envelope-proteins-involvement-in-neuropathogenesis
#15
REVIEW
Dorte Tranberg Hansen, Thor Petersen, Tove Christensen
The primary disease caused by infection with the exogenous human retroviruses, human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) or human T-cell lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1), may overlay manifestations of additional autoimmune pathogenesis. Currently, a role for human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) is also emerging in some autoimmune/immune-mediated diseases, particularly in multiple sclerosis (MS). Both exogenous and endogenous retroviruses have the potential to elicit the processes leading to autoimmune disease. The pathogenicity of the retroviral envelope protein (Env) is a key player with notable importance in neuroimmune diseases...
September 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869974/neuronal-regulation-of-type-2-innate-lymphoid-cells-via-neuromedin-u
#16
Vânia Cardoso, Julie Chesné, Hélder Ribeiro, Bethania García-Cassani, Tânia Carvalho, Tiffany Bouchery, Kathleen Shah, Nuno L Barbosa-Morais, Nicola Harris, Henrique Veiga-Fernandes
Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) regulate inflammation, tissue repair and metabolic homeostasis, and are activated by host-derived cytokines and alarmins. Discrete subsets of immune cells integrate nervous system cues, but it remains unclear whether neuron-derived signals control ILC2s. Here we show that neuromedin U (NMU) in mice is a fast and potent regulator of type 2 innate immunity in the context of a functional neuron-ILC2 unit. We found that ILC2s selectively express neuromedin U receptor 1 (Nmur1), and mucosal neurons express NMU...
September 14, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865126/circadian-control-of-pain-and-neuroinflammation
#17
REVIEW
Julia P Segal, Kaitlyn A Tresidder, Charvi Bhatt, Ian Gilron, Nader Ghasemlou
The importance of a neuroinflammatory response to the development and maintenance of inflammatory and neuropathic pain have been highlighted in recent years. Inflammatory cells contributing to this response include circulating immune cells such as monocytes, T and B lymphocytes, and neutrophils, as well as microglia in the central nervous system. Pain signals are transmitted via sensory neurons in the peripheral nervous system, which express various receptors and channels that respond to mediators secreted from these inflammatory cells...
September 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851339/comorbid-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-in-alcohol-use-disorder-relationships-to-demography-drinking-and-neuroimmune-profile
#18
Sudan Prasad Neupane, Jørgen G Bramness, Lars Lien
BACKGROUND: This study examined how alcohol use disorder (AUD) patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) differed from those without PTSD in terms of demography, drinking patterns and C-reactive protein, inflammatory cytokines, tryptophan metabolism parameters, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). METHODS: A consecutive sample (N = 187) of treatment-receiving AUD individuals were recruited from Nepalese facilities. They underwent fully structured psychiatric interviews...
August 29, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840972/chronic-ethanol-consumption-role-of-tlr3-trif-dependent-signaling
#19
Gizelle M McCarthy, Anna S Warden, Courtney R Bridges, Yuri A Blednov, R Adron Harris
Chronic ethanol consumption stimulates neuroimmune signaling in the brain, and Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation plays a key role in ethanol-induced inflammation. However, it is unknown which of the TLR signaling pathways, the myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88) dependent or the TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF) dependent, is activated in response to chronic ethanol. We used voluntary (every-other-day) chronic ethanol consumption in adult C57BL/6J mice and measured expression of TLRs and their signaling molecules immediately following consumption and 24 hours after removing alcohol...
August 25, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840951/young-alcohol-binge-drinkers-have-elevated-blood-endotoxin-peripheral-inflammation-and-low-cortisol-levels-neuropsychological-correlations-in-women
#20
Laura Orio, María Antón, Inmaculada Concepción Rodríguez-Rojo, Ángeles Correas, Borja García-Bueno, Monserrat Corral, Fernando Rodríguez de Fonseca, Luis Miguel García-Moreno, Fernando Maestú, Fernando Cadaveira
Alcohol binge drinking is a pattern of heavy alcohol consumption that is increasingly practiced by adolescents and young adults. Evidence indicates that alcohol binges induce peripheral inflammation and an exacerbated neuroimmune response that may participate in alcohol-induced cognitive/behavioral dysfunctions. Here, we recruited 20-year-old male and female university students who were identified as binge drinkers for at least 2 years. Compared with controls, young alcohol binge drinkers had elevated levels of blood endotoxin and upregulated markers of the toll-like receptor 4/NF-κB inflammatory pathway in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, together with pro-inflammatory cytokine/chemokine release, oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation...
August 25, 2017: Addiction Biology
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