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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458195/human-dorsal-root-ganglion-pulsed-radiofrequency-treatment-modulates-cerebrospinal-fluid-lymphocytes-and-neuroinflammatory-markers-in-chronic-radicular-pain
#1
Basabjit Das, Melissa Conroy, David Moore, Joanne Lysaght, Connail McCrory
Radicular pain is a common cause of disability. Traditionally treatment has been either epidural steroid injection providing short-term relief or surgery with associated complications. Pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) applied to the Dorsal Root Ganglion (DRG) is a minimally invasive day-care treatment, which is gaining significant clinical acceptance in a selective group of patients with pure radicular pain. Greater insights into the immunomodulatory effects of this procedure may help to further optimise its application and find alternative treatment options...
February 16, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458194/differential-effects-of-acute-versus-chronic-stress-on-ethanol-sensitivity-evidence-for-interactions-on-both-behavioral-and-neuroimmune-outcomes
#2
Tamara L Doremus-Fitzwater, Jacqueline E Paniccia, Anny Gano, Andrew Vore, Terrence Deak
Acute alcohol intoxication induces significant alterations in brain cytokines. Since stress challenges also profoundly impact central cytokine expression, these experiments examined the influence of acute and chronic stress on ethanol-induced brain cytokine responses. In Experiment 1, adult male rats were exposed to acute footshock. After a post-stress recovery interval of 0, 2, 4, or 24 h, rats were administered ethanol (4 g/kg; intragastric), with trunk blood and brains collected 3 h later. In non-stressed controls, acute ethanol increased expression of Il-6 and IκBα in the hippocampus...
February 16, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437267/pharmacoproteomics-profile-in-response-to-acamprosate-treatment-of-an-alcoholism-animal-model
#3
Caroline E Germany, Ashlie N Reker, David J Hinton, Alfredo Oliveros, Xinggui Shen, Lindsey G Andres-Beck, Katheryn M Wininger, Marjan Trutchul, Urska Cvek, Doo-Sup Choi, Hyung W Nam
Acamprosate is an FDA-approved medication for the treatment of alcoholism that is unfortunately only effective in certain patients. Although acamprosate known to stabilize the hyper-glutamatergic state in alcoholism, pharmacological mechanisms of action in brain tissue remains unknown. To investigate the mechanism of acamprosate efficacy, we employed a pharmacoproteomics approach using an animal model of alcoholism, type 1 equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT1) null mice. Our results demonstrated that acamprosate treatment significantly decreased both ethanol drinking and preference in ENT1 null mice compared to that of wild-type mice...
February 13, 2018: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427657/the-evolving-dialogue-of-microglia-and-neurons-in-alzheimer-s-disease-microglia-as-necessary-transducers-of-pathology
#4
REVIEW
E Simon, J Obst, D Gomez-Nicola
The understanding of the contribution of microglial cells to the onset and/or progression chronic neurodegenerative diseases is key to identify disease-modifying therapies, given the strong neuroimmune component of these disorders. In this review, we dissect the different pathways by which microglia can affect, directly or indirectly, neuronal function and dysfunction associated with diseases like Alzheimer's. We here present the rationale for proposing a model to explain the contribution of microglia to the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease, defining microglial cells as necessary transducers of pathology and ideal targets for intervention...
February 7, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419657/neuroinflammation-of-the-spinal-cord-and-nerve-roots-in-chronic-radicular-pain-patients
#5
Daniel Albrecht, Shihab Ahmed, Norman Kettner, Ronald Borra, Julien Cohen-Adad, Hao Deng, Timothy Houle, Arissa Opalacz, Sarah Roth, Marcos Vidal Melo, Lucy Chen, Jianren Mao, Jacob Hooker, Marco L Loggia, Yi Zhang
Numerous preclinical studies support the role of spinal neuroimmune activation in the pathogenesis of chronic pain, and targeting glia (e.g., microglia/astrocyte)- or macrophage-mediated neuroinflammatory responses effectively prevents or reverses the establishment of persistent nocifensive behaviors in laboratory animals. However, thus far the translation of those findings into novel treatments for clinical use has been hindered by the scarcity of data supporting the role of neuroinflammation in human pain...
February 5, 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412789/long-term-treatment-by-mesenchymal-stem-cells-conditioned-medium-modulates-cellular-molecular-and-behavioral-aspects-of-adjuvant-induced-arthritis
#6
Vida Nazemian, Homa Manaheji, Ali Mohammad Sharifi, Jalal Zaringhalam
Neuroinflammation plays a crucial role in expression of symptoms of numerous autoimmune and neurodegenerative diseases such as pain during rheumatoid arthritis. Overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and activation of intracellular signaling pathways have been strongly implicated in the generation of pathological pain states, particularly at central nervous system sites and induction of spinal neuroinflammatory symptoms. The wide ranges of research to define new therapeutic approaches, including neuroimmune-modulators like stem cells are in progress...
January 31, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406995/functional-neurological-symptom-disorder-conversion-disorder-a-role-for-microglial-based-plasticity-mechanisms
#7
Chris P Stephenson, Ian J Baguley
Functional Neurological Symptom Disorder (FND) is a relatively common neurological condition, accounting for approximately 3-6% of neurologist referrals. FND is considered a transient disorder of neuronal function, sometimes linked to physical trauma and psychological stress. Despite this, chronic disability is common, for example, around 40% of adults with motor FND have permanent disability. Building on current theoretical models, this paper proposes that microglial dysfunction could perpetuate functional changes within acute motor FND, thus providing a pathophysiological mechanism underlying the chronic stage of the motor FND phenotypes seen clinically...
February 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403490/corticosterone-preexposure-increases-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-translocation-and-sensitizes-il-1%C3%AE-responses-in-bv2-microglia-like-cells
#8
JiaJun Liu, Sanam Mustafa, Daniel Thomas Barratt, Mark Rowland Hutchinson
Corticosterone (CORT), a critical mediator of the hypothalamus pituitary adrenal axis in rodents, is a stress hormone that is classically viewed as possessing immune-suppressive properties. CORT is now appreciated to also mediate the neuroimmune-priming effect of stress to innate-immune stimulation, and hence serves as a mechanistic link to the neuroimmune involvement in stress-related disorders. However, these dichotomous actions of CORT remain poorly defined. This study investigated the conditions and concentration dependency of CORT's actions required to prime the innate-immune system...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397391/gut-microbiome-and-depression-what-we-know-and-what-we-need-to-know
#9
Gal Winter, Robert A Hart, Richard P G Charlesworth, Christopher F Sharpley
Gut microbiome diversity has been strongly associated with mood-relating behaviours, including major depressive disorder (MDD). This association stems from the recently characterised bi-directional communication system between the gut and the brain, mediated by neuroimmune, neuroendocrine and sensory neural pathways. While the link between gut microbiome and depression is well supported by research, a major question needing to be addressed is the causality in the connection between the two, which will support the understanding of the role that the gut microbiota play in depression...
February 5, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374837/hepatic-immune-system-adaptations-to-alcohol
#10
Adam Kim, Rebecca L McCullough, Kyle L Poulsen, Carlos Sanz-Garcia, Megan Sheehan, Abram B Stavitsky, Laura E Nagy
Both the innate and adaptive immune systems are critical for the maintenance of healthy liver function. Immune activity maintains the tolerogenic capacity of the liver, modulates hepatocellular response to various stresses, and orchestrates appropriate cellular repair and turnover. However, in response to heavy, chronic alcohol exposure, the finely tuned balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory functions in the liver is disrupted, leading to a state of chronic inflammation in the liver. Over time, this non-resolving inflammatory response contributes to the progression of alcoholic liver disease (ALD)...
January 28, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368213/molecular-anatomy-and-functions-of-the-choroidal-blood-cerebrospinal-fluid-barrier-in-health-and-disease
#11
REVIEW
Jean-François Ghersi-Egea, Nathalie Strazielle, Martin Catala, Violeta Silva-Vargas, Fiona Doetsch, Britta Engelhardt
The barrier between the blood and the ventricular cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is located at the choroid plexuses. At the interface between two circulating fluids, these richly vascularized veil-like structures display a peculiar morphology explained by their developmental origin, and fulfill several functions essential for CNS homeostasis. They form a neuroprotective barrier preventing the accumulation of noxious compounds into the CSF and brain, and secrete CSF, which participates in the maintenance of a stable CNS internal environment...
January 24, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29365772/neuropeptide-y-as-regulator-of-macrophage-phenotype-and-functions-a-neuroimmune-cue-in-atherosclerosis-regression
#12
Brigitta Buttari, Elisabetta Profumo, Daniela Darcangelo, Tania Di Raimo, Rita Businaro, Raffaele Capoano, Bruno Salvati, Luciano Saso, Ilia Elenkov
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351513/neuroimmune-interactions-from-the-brain-to-the-immune-system-and-vice-versa
#13
Robert Dantzer
Because of the compartmentalization of disciplines that shaped the academic landscape of biology and biomedical sciences in the past, physiological systems have long been studied in isolation from each other. This has particularly been the case for the immune system. As a consequence of its ties with pathology and microbiology, immunology as a discipline has largely grown independently of physiology. Accordingly, it has taken a long time for immunologists to accept the concept that the immune system is not self-regulated but functions in close association with the nervous system...
January 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342105/neuroimmune-driven-neuropathic-pain-establishment-a-focus-on-gender-differences
#14
REVIEW
Vincenzo Coraggio, Francesca Guida, Serena Boccella, Mariantonietta Scafuro, Salvatore Paino, Domenico Romano, Sabatino Maione, Livio Luongo
The role of neuroinflammatory cells in the establishment of neuropathic pain has been investigated in depth in the last few years. In particular, microglia have been shown to be key players in the induction of tactile allodynia, as they release proinflammatory molecules that, in turn, sensitize nociceptive neurons within the spinal cord. However, the role of peripheral immune cells such as macrophages, infiltrating monocytes, mast cells, and T-cells has been highlighted in the last few studies, even though the data are still conflicting and need to be clarified...
January 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332092/early-life-stress-activates-glial-cells-in-the-hippocampus-but-attenuates-cytokine-secretion-in-response-to-an-immune-challenge-in-rat-pups
#15
Luis Miguel Saavedra, Bertha Fenton Navarro, Luz Torner
OBJECTIVE: Early life stress (ELS) increases the vulnerability to developing psychopathological disorders in adulthood that are accompanied by brain inflammatory processes. However, it is not known how a combined double hit (stress and immune) at an early age affects the response of the neuroimmune system. Here we investigated the effect of periodic maternal separation (MS) followed by administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on glial cells in the CA3 region and hilus of the hippocampus and on cytokine release on postnatal day (PN) 15...
January 13, 2018: Neuroimmunomodulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310666/in-vivo-evidence-for-the-contribution-of-peripheral-circulating-inflammatory-exosomes-to-neuroinflammation
#16
Jing Jing Li, Bin Wang, Mahesh Chandra Kodali, Chao Chen, Eunhee Kim, Benjamin John Patters, Lubin Lan, Santosh Kumar, Xinjun Wang, Junming Yue, Francesca-Fang Liao
BACKGROUND: Neuroinflammation is implicated in the development and progression of many neurodegenerative diseases. Conditions that lead to a peripheral immune response are often associated with inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS), suggesting a communication between the peripheral immune system and the neuroimmune system. The underlying mechanism of this relationship remains largely unknown; however, experimental studies have demonstrated that exposure to infectious stimuli, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or high-fat diet (HFD) feeding, result in profound peripheral- and neuro-inflammation...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309503/role-of-tlr4-in-the-modulation-of-central-amygdala-gaba-transmission-by-crf-following-restraint-stress
#17
F P Varodayan, S Khom, R R Patel, M Q Steinman, D M Hedges, C S Oleata, G E Homanics, M Roberto, M Bajo
Aims: Stress induces neuroimmune responses via Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation. Here, we investigated the role of TLR4 in the effects of the stress peptide corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) on GABAergic transmission in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) following restraint stress. Methods: Tlr4 knock out (KO) and wild-type rats were exposed to no stress (naïve), a single restraint stress (1 h) or repeated restraint stress (1 h per day for 3 consecutive days)...
January 4, 2018: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281037/central-administration-of-cyclosporine-a-decreases-ethanol-drinking
#18
Patrick J Ronan, Sydney A Strait, Geralyn M Palmer, Thomas P Beresford
Aims: Abstinence among alcohol dependent liver graft recipients is remarkably high. The routine use of anti-immune agents in these patients led to rodent studies showing that immunosuppressants acting through inhibition of calcineurin (CLN) are highly effective in decreasing alcohol consumption. It remained unclear, however, whether the decreased alcohol consumption in rodent models is mediated through peripheral suppression of immune response or centrally through direct inhibition of cyclophilin-CLN in the brain...
December 21, 2017: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274031/sex-differences-in-early-postnatal-microglial-colonization-of-the-developing-rat-hippocampus-following-a-single-day-alcohol-exposure
#19
M J Ruggiero, K E Boschen, T L Roth, A Y Klintsova
Microglia are involved in various homeostatic processes in the brain, including phagocytosis, apoptosis, and synaptic pruning. Sex differences in microglia colonization of the developing brain have been reported, but have not been established following alcohol insult. Developmental alcohol exposure represents a neuroimmune challenge that may contribute to cognitive dysfunction prevalent in humans with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) and in rodent models of FASD. Most studies have investigated neuroimmune activation following adult alcohol exposure or following multiple exposures...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258741/chronic-stress-from-adolescence-to-aging-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-a-neuroimmune-perspective
#20
REVIEW
Victoria A Macht, Lawrence P Reagan
The development of the organism is a critical variable which influences the magnitude, duration, and reversibility of the effects of chronic stress. Such factors are relevant to the prefrontal cortex (PFC), as this brain region is the last to mature, the first to decline, and is highly stress-sensitive. Therefore, this review will examine the intersection between the nervous system and immune system at glutamatergic synapses in the PFC across three developmental periods: adolescence, adulthood, and aging. Glutamatergic synapses are tightly juxtaposed with microglia and astrocytes, and each of these cell types exhibits their own developmental trajectory...
December 16, 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
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