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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663874/n-acetyl-cysteine-and-vitamin-d-supplementation-in-treatment-resistant-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-patients-a-general-review
#1
Flavia di Michele, Alberto Siracusano, Talamo Alessandra, Cinzia Niolu
OBJECTIVE: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a disabling mental illness for which pharmacological and psychosocial interventions are all too often inadequate. This demonstrates the need for more targeted therapeutics. Recent preclinical and clinical studies have implicated dysfunction of glutamatergic neurotransmission in the pathophysiology of OCD. Moreover there are studies suggesting that neuroimmune abnormalities may play an important role in the pathogenesis of OCD. N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) is a safe and readily available agent that would modify the synaptic release of glutamate in subcortical brain regions via modulation of the cysteine-glutamate antiporter...
April 17, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643762/persistent-adult-neuroimmune-activation-and-loss-of-hippocampal-neurogenesis-following-adolescent-ethanol-exposure-blockade-by-exercise-and-the-anti-inflammatory-drug-indomethacin
#2
Ryan P Vetreno, Colleen J Lawrimore, Pamela J Rowsey, Fulton T Crews
Alcohol abuse and binge drinking are common during adolescence, a developmental period characterized by heightened neuroplasticity. Animal studies reveal that adolescent ethanol exposure decreases hippocampal neurogenesis that persists into adulthood, but the mechanism remains to be fully elucidated. Using a rodent model of adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE; 5.0 g/kg, i.g., 2-days on/2-days off from postnatal day [P]25 to P55), we tested the hypothesis that AIE-induced upregulation of neuroimmune signaling contributes to the loss of hippocampal neurogenesis in adulthood...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629608/intravenous-pulses-of-methylprednisolone-to-treat-flares-of-immune-mediated-diseases-how-much-how-long
#3
A Danza, I Borgia, J I Narváez, A Baccelli, C Amigo, M Rebella, V Domínguez
Introduction Glucocorticoids are widely used in the treatment of immune-mediated diseases. Despite their widespread use, details on dosing, effectiveness and adverse effects are yet to be determined. Objective To know the current use of methylprednisolone (MTP) in the management of immune-mediated conditions, evaluating the relationship among doses, therapeutic response and adverse effects. Methodology A multicenter retrospective cohort study was designed, including patients who received intravenous pulses of MTP between 1 January 2013 and 12 December 2015 in three different hospitals in Uruguay...
January 1, 2018: Lupus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626340/neuroimmune-biomarkers-in-mental-illness
#4
James W Herron, Louis Nerurkar, Jonathan Cavanagh
Exploration of neuroimmune mechanisms is vital to the understanding of the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of mental disorders. Inflammatory and immune mechanisms are increasingly understood to underpin a number of neuropsychiatric disorders, with an ever-expanding evidence base drawn from basic science to large-scale epidemiological data. Unravelling of these mechanisms should lead to biomarker discovery and potential new avenues for therapeutics that modulate immunological mechanisms. Identification of neuroimmune biomarkers is vital to improving diagnosis, stratification and treatment of mental disorders...
April 7, 2018: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611101/the-compensatory-immune-regulatory-reflex-system-cirs-in-depression-and-bipolar-disorder
#5
REVIEW
Michael Maes, Andre F Carvalho
Here, we review a novel concept namely the compensatory immune-regulatory reflex system (CIRS) as applied to the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). There is evidence that a substantial subset of individuals with MDD and BD exhibit an activation of the immune-inflammatory response system (IRS), as indicated by an increased production of macrophagic M1 and T helper (Th)-1 pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-6 trans-signaling, positive acute phase proteins (APPs), and complement factors...
April 2, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601943/lung-injury-depresses-glutamatergic-synaptic-transmission-in-the-nucleus-tractus-solitarii-via-discrete-age-dependent-mechanisms-in-neonatal-rats
#6
David G Litvin, Thomas E Dick, Corey B Smith, Frank J Jacono
Transition periods (TPs) are brief stages in CNS development where neural circuits can exhibit heightened vulnerability to pathologic conditions such as injury or infection. This susceptibility is due in part to specialized mechanisms of synaptic plasticity, which may become activated by inflammatory mediators released under pathologic conditions. Thus, we hypothesized that the immune response to lung injury (LI) mediated synaptic changes through plasticity-like mechanisms that depended on whether LI occurred just before or after a TP...
March 27, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582223/abstracts-from-the-joint-meeting-of-the-international-society-for-neurovirology-isnv-and-the-society-on-neuroimmune-pharmacology-snip-april-10-14-2018-chicago-illinois-usa
#7
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 27, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580714/controllable-and-uncontrollable-stress-differentially-impact-pathogenicity-and-survival-in-a-mouse-model-of-viral-encephalitis
#8
Richard P Ciavarra, Mayumi Machida, Patric S Lundberg, Phillip Gauronskas, Laurie L Wellman, Christina Steel, Justin O Aflatooni, Larry D Sanford
Intranasal instillation of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) into mice given controllable stress (modeled by escapable foot shock, ES) resulted in enhanced pathogenicity and decreased survival relative to infected mice given uncontrollable stress (modeled by inescapable foot shock, IS) and non-shocked control mice. Survival likely reflected differential cytokine gene expression that may have been regulated by miR146a, a predicted stress-responsive upstream regulator. Controllability also enhanced the accumulation of brain T resident memory cells that persisted long after viral clearance...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576747/cd38-cadpr-signaling-pathway-in-airway-disease-regulatory-mechanisms
#9
REVIEW
Deepak A Deshpande, Alonso G P Guedes, Richard Graeff, Soner Dogan, Subbaya Subramanian, Timothy F Walseth, Mathur S Kannan
Asthma is an inflammatory disease in which proinflammatory cytokines have a role in inducing abnormalities of airway smooth muscle function and in the development of airway hyperresponsiveness. Inflammatory cytokines alter calcium (Ca2+ ) signaling and contractility of airway smooth muscle, which results in nonspecific airway hyperresponsiveness to agonists. In this context, Ca2+ regulatory mechanisms in airway smooth muscle and changes in these regulatory mechanisms encompass a major component of airway hyperresponsiveness...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572015/differential-effects-of-single-versus-repeated-minocycline-administration-lack-of-significant-interaction-with-chronic-alcohol-history
#10
Kathryn M Harper, Darin J Knapp, Meredith A Park, George R Breese
Neuroimmune cytokines are increased with alcohol withdrawal and may mediate clinical responses associated with alcoholism. Because minocycline regulates the level of cytokines, it has been suggested as a therapeutic for disorders associated with alcohol. Male Wistar rats were exposed to chronic intermittent alcohol (CIA) comprising three 5-day cycles of ethanol liquid diet separated by 2 days of withdrawal. Rats were tested on social interaction, a measure of anxiety-like behavior, followed immediately by collection of amygdala tissue to measure CCL2 and TNFα or collection of the blood to measure corticosterone (CORT)...
March 20, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570615/neuroimmune-tau-mechanisms-their-role-in-the-progression-of-neuronal-degeneration
#11
REVIEW
Nicole Cortés, Víctor Andrade, Leonardo Guzmán-Martínez, Matías Estrella, Ricardo B Maccioni
Progressive neurodegenerative pathologies in aged populations are an issue of major concern worldwide. The microtubule-associated protein tau is able to self-aggregate to form abnormal supramolecular structures that include small oligomers up to complex polymers. Tauopathies correspond to a group of diseases that share tau pathology as a common etiological agent. Since microglial cells play a preponderant role in innate immunity and are the main source of proinflammatory factors in the central nervous system (CNS), the alterations in the cross-talks between microglia and neuronal cells are the main focus of studies concerning the origins of tauopathies...
March 23, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563870/early-life-stress-does-not-aggravate-spatial-memory-or-the-process-of-hippocampal-neurogenesis-in-adult-and-middle-aged-app-ps1-mice
#12
Lianne Hoeijmakers, Anna Amelianchik, Fleur Verhaag, Janssen Kotah, Paul J Lucassen, A Korosi
Life-time experiences are thought to influence the risk to develop the neurodegenerative disorder Alzheimer's disease (AD). In particular, early-life stress (ES) may modulate the onset and progression of AD. There is recent evidence by our group and others that AD-related neuropathological progression and the associated neuroimmune responses are modulated by ES in the classic APPswe/PS1dE9 mouse model for AD. We here extend our previous study on ES mediated modulation of neuropathology and neuroinflammation and address in the same cohort of mice whether ES accelerates and/or aggravates AD-induced cognitive decline and alterations in the process of adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN), a form of brain plasticity...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556984/abstracts-from-the-joint-meeting-of-the-international-society-for-neurovirology-isnv-and-the-society-on-neuroimmune-pharmacology-snip-april-10-14-2018-chicago-illinois-usa
#13
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 19, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553988/a-role-for-pericytes-in-chronic-pain
#14
Alexandra M Durrant, Matthew N Swift, Nicholas Beazley-Long
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The importance of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and neuroinflammation in neurodegenerative conditions is becoming increasingly apparent, yet very little is known about these neurovascular functions in nonmalignant disease chronic pain. Neural tissue pericytes play critical roles in the formation and maintenance of the BBB. Herein, we review the important roles of neural pericytes and address their potential role in chronic pain. RECENT FINDINGS: Pericytes are implicated in the function of neural microvasculature, including BBB permeability, neuroimmune factor secretion and leukocyte transmigration...
March 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550999/evaluation-of-the-immunoreactivity-of-nerve-growth-factor-and-tropomyosin-receptor-kinase-a-in-the-esophagus-of-noninfected-and-infected-individuals-with-trypanosoma-cruzi
#15
Jacqueline Garcia Duarte, Rodolfo Duarte Nascimento, Patrícia Rocha Martins, Débora d'Ávila Reis
Megaesophagus is one of the major manifestations of the chronic phase of Chagas disease. Its primary symptom is generally dysphagia due to disturbance in the lower esophageal sphincter. Microscopically, the affected organ presents denervation, which has been considered as consequence of an inflammatory process that begins at the acute phase and persists in the chronic phase. Inflammatory infiltrates are composed of lymphocytes, macrophages, natural killer cells, mast cells, and eosinophils. In this study, we evaluated the immunoreactivity of nerve growth factor (NGF), and of its receptor tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TrkA), molecules that are well known for having a relevant role in neuroimmune communication in the gastrointestinal tract...
March 17, 2018: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549885/epigenetic-impacts-of-stress-priming-of-the-neuroinflammatory-response-to-sarin-surrogate-in-mice-a-model-of-gulf-war-illness
#16
David G Ashbrook, Benjamin Hing, Lindsay T Michalovicz, Kimberly A Kelly, Julie V Miller, Wilfred C de Vega, Diane B Miller, Gordon Broderick, James P O'Callaghan, Patrick O McGowan
BACKGROUND: Gulf War illness (GWI) is an archetypal, medically unexplained, chronic condition characterised by persistent sickness behaviour and neuroimmune and neuroinflammatory components. An estimated 25-32% of the over 900,000 veterans of the 1991 Gulf War fulfil the requirements of a GWI diagnosis. It has been hypothesised that the high physical and psychological stress of combat may have increased vulnerability to irreversible acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors leading to a priming of the neuroimmune system...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546785/targeting-macrophage-and-microglia-activation-with-colony-stimulating-factor-1-receptor-inhibitor-is-an-effective-strategy-to-treat-injury-triggered-neuropathic-pain
#17
SeungHwan Lee, Xiang Qun Shi, Anni Fan, Brian West, Ji Zhang
Introduction Neuropathic pain is a debilitating condition. The importance of neuroimmune interactions in neuropathic pain has been evidenced by the involvement of different immune cells in peripheral and central sensitization of pathological pain. Macrophages and microglia are the most abundant immune cells activated in injured nerves and spinal cord, respectively. Several lines of evidence showed that macrophage/microglia survival, activation, proliferation, and differentiation require the involvement of macrophage-colony stimulating factor...
January 2018: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544518/cd4-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cell-infiltration-into-the-leptomeninges-of-lumbar-dorsal-roots-contributes-to-the-transition-from-acute-to-chronic-mechanical-allodynia-after-adult-rat-tibial-nerve-injuries
#18
Bin Du, You-Quan Ding, Xia Xiao, Hong-Yi Ren, Bing-Yin Su, Jian-Guo Qi
BACKGROUND: Antigen-specific and MHCII-restricted CD4+ αβ T cells have been shown or suggested to play an important role in the transition from acute to chronic mechanical allodynia after peripheral nerve injuries. However, it is still largely unknown where these T cells infiltrate along the somatosensory pathways transmitting mechanical allodynia to initiate the development of chronic mechanical allodynia after nerve injuries. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to ascertain the definite neuroimmune interface for these T cells to initiate the development of chronic mechanical allodynia after peripheral nerve injuries...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527624/deficit-schizophrenia-is-a-discrete-diagnostic-category-defined-by-neuro-immune-and-neurocognitive-features-results-of-supervised-machine-learning
#19
Buranee Kanchanatawan, Sira Sriswasdi, Supaksorn Thika, Sunee Sirivichayakul, André F Carvalho, Michel Geffard, Marta Kubera, Michael Maes
Deficit schizophrenia is characterized by neurocognitive impairments and changes in the patterning of IgA/IgM responses to plasma tryptophan catabolites (TRYCATs). In the current study, supervised pattern recognition methods, including logistic regression analysis (LRA), Support Vector Machine (SVM), and Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA), were used to examine whether deficit schizophrenia is a discrete diagnostic class with respect to Consortium To Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's disease (CERAD) and Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) tests and IgA/IgM responses to noxious (NOX) and generally more protective (PRO) TRYCATs...
March 11, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29513402/inflammation-in-cns-neurodegenerative-diseases
#20
REVIEW
Jodie Stephenson, Erik Nutma, Paul van der Valk, Sandra Amor
Neurodegenerative diseases, the leading cause of morbidity and disability is gaining increased attention as it imposes a considerable socioeconomic impact, due in part to the ageing community. Neuronal damage is a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington's disease, spinocerebellar ataxia and multiple sclerosis, although such damage is also observed following neurotropic viral infections, stroke, genetic white matter diseases and paraneoplastic disorders...
March 7, 2018: Immunology
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