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Shahani Noor, Erin D Milligan
In utero alcohol exposure is emerging as a major risk factor for lifelong aberrant neuroimmune function. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder encompasses a range of behavioral and physiological sequelae that may occur throughout life and includes cognitive developmental disabilities as well as disease susceptibility related to aberrant immune and neuroimmune actions. Emerging data from clinical studies and findings from animal models support that very low to moderate levels of fetal alcohol exposure may reprogram the developing central nervous system leading to altered neuroimmune and neuroglial signaling during adulthood...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Philip Strandwitz
The gut microbiota - the trillions of bacteria that reside within the gastrointestinal tract - has been found to not only be an essential component immune and metabolic health, but also seems to influence development and diseases of the enteric and central nervous system, including motility disorders, behavioral disorders, neurodegenerative disease, cerebrovascular accidents, and neuroimmune-mediated disorders. By leveraging animal models, several different pathways of communication have been identified along the "gut-brain-axis" including those driven by the immune system, the vagus nerve, or by modulation of neuroactive compounds by the microbiota...
August 15, 2018: Brain Research
Francis J Herman, Giulio Maria Pasinetti
The production of inflammatory proteins by the innate immune system is a tightly orchestrated procedure that allows the body to efficiently respond to exogenous and endogenous threats. Recently, accumulating evidence has indicated that disturbances in the inflammatory response system not only provoke autoimmune disorders, but also can have deleterious effects on neuronal function and mental health. As inflammation in the brain is primarily mediated by microglia, there has been an expanding focus on the mechanisms through which these cells initiate and propagate neuroinflammation...
June 11, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Guilhaume Debroas, Guillaume Hoeffel, Ana Reynders, Sophie Ugolini
Upon infection, our ability to eliminate pathogens depends mostly on our immune system. However, recent studies have shown that the nervous system plays a role in controlling infectious and inflammatory processes. Bidirectional functional interactions are established between the nervous and immune systems to protect tissue integrity. The skin is one of the first lines of defense against external threats and has a particularly well-developed neuroimmune system. Challenges to the skin activate neurons specialized in pain perception, which regulate immune cell functions and recruitment to tissues...
May 2018: Médecine Sciences: M/S
Lu Liu, Gang Zhu
Humans have over 100 trillion bacteria, highly abundant in the intestinal tract. Evidence suggests that intestinal microbiota is associated with the neuro-endocrine-immune pathways and can be associated with various mood disorders. This review summarizes findings from studies looking into neurobiochemical, neuroendocrine, and neuroimmune system mechanisms of the gut-brain axis to determine the relationship between intestinal microbiota and mood disorders. The effect of prebiotics, probiotics and antibiotics on mood disorders are also discussed, with the aim to propose some new therapeutic strategies for mood disorders...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Vincent C Lombardi, Kenny L De Meirleir, Krishnamurthy Subramanian, Sam M Nourani, Ruben K Dagda, Shannon L Delaney, András Palotás
The gut-brain-axis refers to the bidirectional communication between the enteric nervous system and the central nervous system. Mounting evidence supports the premise that the intestinal microbiota plays a pivotal role in its function and has led to the more common and perhaps more accurate term gut-microbiota-brain axis. Numerous studies have identified associations between an altered microbiome and neuroimmune and neuroinflammatory diseases. In most cases, it is unknown if these associations are cause or effect; notwithstanding, maintaining or restoring homeostasis of the microbiota may represent future opportunities when treating or preventing these diseases...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Margaret R Bell, Ariel Dryden, Ryan Will, Andrea C Gore
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous in the environment and exposure to them is associated with immune, endocrine and neural dysfunction. Effects of PCBs on inflammation and immunity are best described in spleen and blood, with fewer studies on neural tissues. This is an important gap in knowledge, as molecules typically associated with neuroinflammation also serve neuromodulatory roles and interact with hormones in normal brain development. The current study used Sprague-Dawley rats to assess whether gestational PCB exposure altered hypothalamic gene expression and serum cytokine concentration in neonatal animals given an immune challenge...
June 4, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Shasha Yang, Jing Wu, Qinxiu Zhang, Xinrong Li, Daien Liu, Bin Zeng, Zhiqing Liu, Haoran Kang, Zhendong Zhong
Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a major concern in personal and public health, which negatively affects emotions and behavior, leading to cognitive deficits, memory decline, poor school performance, anxiety, and depression. Several cellular and molecular mediators are released in the inflammatory process of AR and activate common neuroimmune mechanisms, involving emotionally relevant circuits and the induction of anxiety. Responsiveness of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to allergic processes have been reported, which may also include responsiveness of the hippocampus, cortex, and other brain regions...
2018: Behavioural Neurology
Yue Lang, Fengna Chu, Donghui Shen, Weiguanliu Zhang, Chao Zheng, Jie Zhu, Li Cui
Inflammasomes are multiprotein complexes that can sense pathogen-associated molecular patterns and damage-associated molecular signals. They are involved in the initiation and development of inflammation via activation of IL-1 β and IL-18. Many recent studies suggest a strong correlation between inflammasomes and neurological diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and Parkinson's disease (PD). Several components of inflammasomes, such as nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain- (NOD-) like receptor, absent in melanoma 2- (AIM2-) like receptors (ALRs), apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC), and caspase-1, as well as the upstream factors and downstream effectors, are associated with the initiation and development of MS and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Edward G Stopa, Keith Q Tanis, Miles C Miller, Elena V Nikonova, Alexei A Podtelezhnikov, Eva M Finney, David J Stone, Luiz M Camargo, Lisan Parker, Ajay Verma, Andrew Baird, John E Donahue, Tara Torabi, Brian P Eliceiri, Gerald D Silverberg, Conrad E Johanson
BACKGROUND: In Alzheimer's disease, there are striking changes in CSF composition that relate to altered choroid plexus (CP) function. Studying CP tissue gene expression at the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier could provide further insight into the epithelial and stromal responses to neurodegenerative disease states. METHODS: Transcriptome-wide Affymetrix microarrays were used to determine disease-related changes in gene expression in human CP. RNA from post-mortem samples of the entire lateral ventricular choroid plexus was extracted from 6 healthy controls (Ctrl), 7 patients with advanced (Braak and Braak stage III-VI) Alzheimer's disease (AD), 4 with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and 3 with Huntington's disease (HuD)...
May 31, 2018: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
Ji-Yeun Park, Uk Namgung
Although acupuncture therapy is increasingly used to treat diverse symptoms and disorders in humans, its underlying mechanism is not known well. Only recently have experimental studies begun to provide insights into how acupuncture stimulation generates and relates to pathophysiological responsiveness. Acupuncture intervention is frequently used to control pathologic symptoms in several visceral organs, and a growing number of studies using experimental animal models suggest that acupuncture stimulation may be involved in inducing anti-inflammatory responses...
2018: Journal of Inflammation Research
Joshua A Kulas, Jordan V Hettwer, Mona Sohrabi, Justine E Melvin, Gunjan D Manocha, Kendra L Puig, Matthew W Gorr, Vineeta Tanwar, Michael P McDonald, Loren E Wold, Colin K Combs
Environmental exposure to air pollution has been linked to a number of health problems including organ rejection, lung damage and inflammation. While the deleterious effects of air pollution in adult animals are well documented, the long-term consequences of particulate matter (PM) exposure during animal development are uncertain. In this study we tested the hypothesis that environmental exposure to PM 2.5 μm in diameter in utero promotes long term inflammation and neurodegeneration. We evaluated the behavior of PM exposed animals using several tests and observed deficits in spatial memory without robust changes in anxiety-like behavior...
May 22, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Matthew G Frank, Laura K Fonken, Samuel D Dolzani, Jessica L Annis, Philip H Siebler, Dominic Schmidt, Linda R Watkins, Steven F Maier, Christopher A Lowry
Exposure to stressors induces anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors, which are mediated, in part, by neuroinflammatory processes. Recent findings demonstrate that treatment with the immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory bacterium, Mycobacterium vaccae (M. vaccae), attenuates stress-induced exaggeration of peripheral inflammation and stress-induced anxiety-like behavioral responses. However, the effects of M. vaccae on neuroimmune processes have largely been unexplored. In the present study, we examined the effect of M...
May 25, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Jenna R Cummings, A Janet Tomiyama, Lara A Ray
OBJECTIVE: Ibudilast (IBUD) is a neuroimmune modulator that inhibits phosphodiesterase-4 and -10 and macrophage migration inhibitory factor. A randomized, placebo-control, crossover human laboratory trial advanced IBUD development for alcohol use disorder and found that IBUD reduced tonic levels of alcohol craving. Given the importance of considering medication effects on other appetitive behavior, the present study tested the effect of IBUD (50 mg bid) on food craving. METHOD: The present study was a secondary data analysis of the trial of IBUD in non-treatment seekers with alcohol use disorder (N = 19)...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Buranee Kanchanatawan, Sira Sriswasdi, Supaksorn Thika, Drozdstoy Stoyanov, Sunee Sirivichayakul, André F Carvalho, Michel Geffard, Michael Maes
RATIONALE: Deficit schizophrenia, as defined by the Schedule for Deficit Syndrome, may represent a distinct diagnostic class defined by neurocognitive impairments coupled with changes in IgA/IgM responses to tryptophan catabolites (TRYCATs). Adequate classifications should be based on supervised and unsupervised learning rather than on consensus criteria. METHODS: This study used machine learning as means to provide a more accurate classification of patients with stable phase schizophrenia...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
Donna L Gruol, Salvador Huitron-Resendiz, Amanda J Roberts
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is an important neuroimmune factor that is increased in the brain by alcohol exposure/withdrawal and is thought to play a role in the actions of alcohol on the brain. To gain insight into IL-6/alcohol/withdrawal interactions and how these interactions affect the brain, we are studying the effects of chronic binge alcohol exposure on transgenic mice that express elevated levels of IL-6 in the brain due to increased astrocyte expression (IL-6 tg) and their non-transgenic (non-tg) littermate controls...
May 19, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Diana M Norden, John R Bethea, Jiu Jiang
BACKGROUND: Spinal cord injury (SCI) disrupts essential neuroimmune communication, leading to severe immune depression. Previous studies confirmed immune dysfunction in mice with chronic SCI and following high thoracic level injury where sympathetic innervation of the spleen is disrupted. Here, we induced a mid-thoracic injury where integrity of the sympathetic response is maintained and investigated the antiviral T cell response to influenza virus after acute SCI. METHODS: One week following a contusion SCI at thoracic level T9, mice were infected intranasally with influenza virus...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Manuel Delgado-Vélez, José A Lasalde-Dominicci
Macrophages are phagocytic immune cells that protect the body from foreign invaders and actively support the immune response by releasing anti- and proinflammatory cytokines. A seminal finding revolutionized the way macrophages are seen. The expression of the neuronal alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7-nAChR) in macrophages led to the establishment of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory response (CAR) in which the activation of this receptor inactivates macrophage production of proinflammatory cytokines...
May 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Tracy A Larson
Sex steroidal hormones coordinate the development and maintenance of tissue architecture in many organs, including the central nervous systems (CNS). Within the CNS, sex steroids regulate the morphology, physiology, and behavior of a wide variety of neural cells including, but not limited to, neurons, glia, endothelial cells, and immune cells. Sex steroids spatially and temporally control distinct molecular networks, that, in turn modulate neural activity, synaptic plasticity, growth factor expression and function, nutrient exchange, cellular proliferation, and apoptosis...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Mandakh Bekhbat, Gretchen N Neigh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 10, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
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