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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236160/ethanol-and-cytokines-in-the-central-nervous-system
#1
Marisa Roberto, Reesha R Patel, Michal Bajo
The innate immune system plays a critical role in the ethanol-induced neuroimmune response in the brain. Ethanol initiates the innate immune response via activation of the innate immune receptors Toll-like receptors (TLRs, e.g., TLR4, TLR3, TLR7) and NOD-like receptors (inflammasome NLRs) leading to a release of a plethora of chemokines and cytokines and development of the innate immune response. Cytokines and chemokines can have pro- or anti-inflammatory properties through which they regulate the immune response...
December 14, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230022/trained-innate-immunity-a-salient-factor-in-the-pathogenesis-of-neuroimmune-psychiatric-disorders
#2
A P Salam, A Borsini, P A Zunszain
Historically, only cells of the adaptive immune system have been considered capable of retaining memory for infectious challenges. Recently, however, cells of the innate immune system have been shown to be capable of displaying long-term functional memory following a single immunostimulatory challenge, leading to enhanced production of proinflammatory molecules upon other subsequent, and temporally distant, immunostimulatory challenges. This effect has been termed 'trained innate immunity', and is underwritten by stable epigenetic changes in immune and metabolic pathways...
December 12, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214654/role-of-the-innate-immune-system-in-the-neuropathological-consequences-induced-by-adolescent-binge-drinking
#3
REVIEW
María Pascual, Jorge Montesinos, Consuelo Guerri
Adolescence is a critical stage of brain maturation in which important plastic and dynamic processes take place in different brain regions, leading to development of the adult brain. Ethanol drinking in adolescence disrupts brain plasticity and causes structural and functional changes in immature brain areas (prefrontal cortex, limbic system) that result in cognitive and behavioral deficits. These changes, along with secretion of sexual and stress-related hormones in adolescence, may impact self-control, decision making, and risk-taking behaviors that contribute to anxiety and initiation of alcohol consumption...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203847/reconceptualization-of-translocator-protein-as-a-biomarker-of-neuroinflammation-in-psychiatry
#4
T Notter, J M Coughlin, A Sawa, U Meyer
A great deal of interest in psychiatric research is currently centered upon the pathogenic role of inflammatory processes. Positron emission tomography (PET) using radiolabeled ligands selective for the 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO) has become the most widely used technique to assess putative neuroimmune abnormalities in vivo. Originally used to detect discrete neurotoxic damages, TSPO has generally turned into a biomarker of 'neuroinflammation' or 'microglial activation'. Psychiatric research has mostly accepted these denotations of TSPO, even if they may be inadequate and misleading under many pathological conditions...
December 5, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195504/blinded-by-zika-a-missed-hiv-diagnosis-that-resulted-in-optic-neuropathy-and-blindness-a-case-report
#5
Tiffany Hirschel, Heimo Steffen, Victor Pecoul, Alexandra Calmy
BACKGROUND: Typical symptoms of an acute human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections like fever and rash are not specific and can be caused by a multitude of other pathogens, such as Zika or rickettsiosis. Up to 30% of primary HIV infection do not present with the typical flu-like symptoms and thus represent a diagnostic challenge. In this report, we describe a rare case of optic neuropathy as the initial presentation of primary HIV infection, which resulted in irreversible blindness...
December 1, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194444/behavioral-stress-alters-corticolimbic-microglia-in-a-sex-and-brain-region-specific-manner
#6
Justin L Bollinger, Kaitlyn E Collins, Rushi Patel, Cara L Wellman
Women are more susceptible to numerous stress-linked psychological disorders (e.g., depression) characterized by dysfunction of corticolimbic brain regions critical for emotion regulation and cognitive function. Although sparsely investigated, a number of studies indicate sex differences in stress effects on neuronal structure, function, and behaviors associated with these regions. We recently demonstrated a basal sex difference in- and differential effects of stress on- microglial activation in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183965/regulation-of-proinflammatory-monocyte-activation-by-the-kynurenine-ahr-axis-underlies-immunometabolic-control-of-depressive-behavior-in-mice
#7
Xiaojie Zang, Xiao Zheng, Yuanlong Hou, Miaomiao Hu, Hong Wang, Xiaoqiang Bao, Fang Zhou, Guangji Wang, Haiping Hao
Elevated kynurenine (Kyn) production from tryptophan (Trp) metabolism is a biomarker of immune dysregulation in depression, but its mechanistic contributions to the behavioral symptoms are poorly defined. In this study, Kyn was shown to be a metabolic regulator of proinflammatory monocytes that orchestrated peripheral immune activation and neuroinflammation in depressive mice. Kyn-induced depressive behavior was paralleled by brain infiltration of proinflammatory monocytes and astrocytic activation. Kyn enhanced chemokine (C-C motif) ligand-2-mediated chemotaxis of monocytes and their proinflammatory capability on cocultured astrocytes in vitro, which involved the activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) signaling...
November 28, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180192/reduced-serum-cholinesterase-activity-indicates-splenic-modulation-of-the-sterile-inflammation
#8
Aleksandar R Zivkovic, Kevin M Tourelle, Thorsten Brenner, Markus A Weigand, Stefan Hofer, Karsten Schmidt
BACKGROUND: Sterile inflammation is an immediate and well-coordinated immune response to surgical injury. The cholinergic system plays a pivotal role in the inflammatory response. Induced inflammation stimulates the vagus nerve, which in turn activates anti-inflammatory nonneuronal processes. Serum cholinesterase (butyrylcholinesterase [BChE]) is an enzyme that hydrolyzes acetylcholine. Measuring the activity of the BChE in blood might indicate the level of the nonneuronal cholinergic activity...
December 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169241/gut-reactions-how-the-blood-brain-barrier-connects-the-microbiome-and-the-brain
#9
Aric F Logsdon, Michelle A Erickson, Elizabeth M Rhea, Therese S Salameh, William A Banks
A growing body of evidence indicates that the microbiome interacts with the central nervous system (CNS) and can regulate many of its functions. One mechanism for this interaction is at the level of the blood-brain barriers (BBBs). In this minireview, we examine the several ways the microbiome is known to interact with the CNS barriers. Bacteria can directly release factors into the systemic circulation or can translocate into blood. Once in the blood, the microbiome and its factors can alter peripheral immune cells to promote interactions with the BBB and ultimately with other elements of the neurovascular unit...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167670/the-cholinergic-system-modulates-memory-and-hippocampal-plasticity-via-its-interactions-with-non-neuronal-cells
#10
REVIEW
Sara V Maurer, Christina L Williams
Degeneration of central cholinergic neurons impairs memory, and enhancement of cholinergic synapses improves cognitive processes. Cholinergic signaling is also anti-inflammatory, and neuroinflammation is increasingly linked to adverse memory, especially in Alzheimer's disease. Much of the evidence surrounding cholinergic impacts on the neuroimmune system focuses on the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptor, as stimulation of this receptor prevents many of the effects of immune activation. Microglia and astrocytes both express this receptor, so it is possible that some cholinergic effects may be via these non-neuronal cells...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161707/a-novel-animal-model-simulating-the-beginning-of-combat-exposure
#11
Dongsoo Kim, Chang Yul Kim, Hyojin Koo, Yong Heo, Kicheol Cheon
OBJECTIVE: Predator stress, social defeat stress, and fear conditioning animal models have been applied to investigate combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, no animal model psychopharmacological studies have investigated prevention of somatization of increased mental stress and fatigue at the beginning of combat exposure. This study utilized a novel animal model simulating the beginning of combat exposure that aided specification of a set of biomarkers. METHODS: Psychological stress was induced by both inescapable electric foot shock and noise stimuli...
November 22, 2017: Neuroimmunomodulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159704/neuroimmune-regulation-of-jc-virus-by-intracellular-and-extracellular-agnoprotein
#12
Michael Craigie, Stephanie Cicalese, Ilker Kudret Sariyer
JC virus (JCV) is a human polyomavirus and the etiologic agent of the demyelinating disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). PML is observed in patients with underlying immunocompromising conditions, suggesting that neuro-immune interactions between peripheral immune cells and neuro-glia play an important role in controlling viral reactivation in the brain. There is little known about the immunobiology of JCV reactivation in glial cells and the role of immune, glial, and viral players in this regulation...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146504/minocycline-protects-developing-brain-against-ethanol-induced-damage
#13
Xin Wang, Kai Zhang, Fanmuyi Yang, Zhenhua Ren, Mei Xu, Jacqueline A Frank, Zun-Ji Ke, Jia Luo
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are caused by ethanol exposure during the pregnancy and is the leading cause of mental retardation. Ethanol exposure during the development results in the loss of neurons in the developing brain, which may underlie many neurobehavioral deficits associated with FASD. It is important to understand the mechanisms underlying ethanol-induced neuronal loss and develop appropriate therapeutic strategies. One of the potential mechanisms involves neuroimmune activation. Using a third trimester equivalent mouse model of ethanol exposure, we demonstrated that ethanol induced a wide-spread neuroapoptosis, microglial activation, and neuroinflammation in C57BL/6 mice...
February 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140923/interleukin-4-mediates-the-analgesia-produced-by-low-intensity-exercise-in-mice-with-neuropathic-pain
#14
Franciane Bobinski, Juliana Maia Teixeira, Kathleen Anne Sluka, Adair Roberto Soares Santos
Peripheral nerve injury (PNI) activates the immune system, resulting in increased proinflammatory cytokines at the site of injury and in the spinal cord dorsal horn. Exercise modulates the immune system promoting an anti-inflammatory phenotype of macrophages in uninjured muscle, and increases in anti-inflammatory cytokines can promote healing and analgesia. We proposed that PNI will decrease, and treadmill exercise will increase, release of anti-inflammatory cytokines at the site of injury and in the spinal cord...
November 15, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129797/microglia-and-alcohol-meet-at-the-crossroads-microglia-as-critical-modulators-of-alcohol-neurotoxicity
#15
REVIEW
Joana F Henriques, Camila C Portugal, Teresa Canedo, João B Relvas, Teresa Summavielle, Renato Socodato
Alcohol use disorders affect millions of people worldwide causing huge social and economic burden on modern society. Excessive alcohol consumption or intoxication provokes severe damage to the body inducing immune suppression, liver damage and neurological disorder. In the central nervous system (CNS), alcohol exposure can lead to neuronal loss, cognitive decline, motor dysfunction, inflammation and impairment of neuroimmune responses. Glial cells, from which microglia represent roughly 10-15%, are primary modulators of the neuroimmune responses and inflammation in the CNS...
November 10, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126979/ropivacaine-and-bupivacaine-prevent-increased-pain-sensitivity-without-altering-neuroimmune-activation-following-repeated-social-defeat-stress
#16
Caroline M Sawicki, January K Kim, Michael D Weber, Brant L Jarrett, Jonathan P Godbout, John F Sheridan, Michelle Humeidan
OBJECTIVE: Mounting evidence indicates that stress influences the experience of pain. Exposure to psychosocial stress disrupts bi-directional communication pathways between the central nervous system and peripheral immune system, and can exacerbate the frequency and severity of pain experienced by stressed subjects. Repeated social defeat (RSD) is a murine model of psychosocial stress that recapitulates the immune and behavioral responses to stress observed in humans, including activation of stress-reactive neurocircuitry and increased pro-inflammatory cytokine production...
November 8, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123465/autoimmunity-as-a-driving-force-of-cognitive-evolution
#17
Serge Nataf
In the last decades, increasingly robust experimental approaches have formally demonstrated that autoimmunity is a physiological process involved in a large range of functions including cognition. On this basis, the recently enunciated "brain superautoantigens" theory proposes that autoimmunity has been a driving force of cognitive evolution. It is notably suggested that the immune and nervous systems have somehow co-evolved and exerted a mutual selection pressure benefiting to both systems. In this two-way process, the evolutionary-determined emergence of neurons expressing specific immunogenic antigens (brain superautoantigens) has exerted a selection pressure on immune genes shaping the T-cell repertoire...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114211/microglial-over-activation-by-social-defeat-stress-contributes-to-anxiety-and-depressive-like-behaviors
#18
REVIEW
Dirson J Stein, Mailton F Vasconcelos, Lucas Albrechet-Souza, Keila M M Ceresér, Rosa M M de Almeida
Hyper activation of the neuroimmune system is strongly related to the development of neuropsychiatric disorders. Psychosocial stress has been postulated to play an important role in triggering anxiety and major depression. In preclinical models, there is mounting evidence that social defeat stress activates microglial cells in the central nervous system. This type of stress could be one of the major factors in the development of these psychopathologies. Here, we reviewed the most recent literature on social defeat and the associated immunological reactions...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112774/neuroactive-steroid-3%C3%AE-5%C3%AE-3-hydroxypregnan-20-one-3%C3%AE-5%C3%AE-thp-and-pro-inflammatory-cytokine-mcp-1-levels-in-hippocampus-ca1-are-correlated-with-voluntary-ethanol-consumption-in-cynomolgus-monkey
#19
Matthew C Beattie, Christopher S Reguyal, Patrizia Porcu, James B Daunais, Kathleen A Grant, A Leslie Morrow
BACKGROUND: Neuroactive steroids such as (3α,5α)3-hydroxypregnan-20-one (3α,5α-THP, allopregnanolone) are potent neuromodulators that enhance GABAergic neurotransmission and produce inhibitory neurobehavioral and anti-inflammatory effects. Chronic ethanol consumption reduces 3α,5α-THP levels in human plasma, but has brain-region and species-specific effects on CNS levels of 3α,5α-THP. We explored the relationship between 3α,5α-THP levels in the hippocampus and voluntary ethanol consumption in the cynomolgus monkey following daily self-administration of ethanol for 12 months and further examined the relationship to HPA axis function prior to ethanol exposure...
November 7, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111230/high-intensity-interval-training-modulates-hippocampal-oxidative-stress-bdnf-and-inflammatory-mediators-in-rats
#20
Daniel A Freitas, Etel Rocha-Vieira, Bruno A Soares, Luiza F Nonato, Sueli R Fonseca, Jeanne B Martins, Vanessa Amaral Mendonça, Ana C Lacerda, André R Massensini, Jacques R Poortamns, Romain Meeusen, Hércules R Leite
Although High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) are being associated to increase cardiovascular and metabolic adaptation, there is controversy and limited information about the effects of HIIT on hippocampal oxidative stress, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines balance and neurotrophic status. Thus, this study evaluated the effects of six weeks of HIIT on hippocampal redox state (oxidative damage and enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defenses), neuroimmune mediators (TNFα, IL-6, IL-1β and IL-10) and brain-derived neurotrophic (BDNF) levels...
October 28, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
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