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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513566/neurophysiological-changes-induced-by-chronic-toxoplasma-gondii-infection
#1
REVIEW
Ellen Tedford, Glenn McConkey
Although the parasite Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most pervasive neurotropic pathogens in the world, the host-parasite interactions during CNS infection and the consequences of neurological infection are just beginning to be unraveled. The chronic stages of infection have been considered dormant, although several studies have found correlations of infection with an array of host behavioral changes. These may facilitate parasite transmission and impact neurological diseases. During infection, in addition to the presence of the parasites within neurons, host-mediated neuroimmune and hormonal responses to infection are also present...
May 17, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503135/the-gut-microbiota-and-autism-spectrum-disorders
#2
REVIEW
Qinrui Li, Ying Han, Angel Belle C Dy, Randi J Hagerman
Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are a common comorbidity in patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Many studies have shown alterations in the composition of the fecal flora and metabolic products of the gut microbiome in patients with ASD. The gut microbiota influences brain development and behaviors through the neuroendocrine, neuroimmune and autonomic nervous systems. In addition, an abnormal gut microbiota is associated with several diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), ASD and mood disorders...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500787/corticosterone-primes-the-neuroinflammatory-response-to-gulf-war-illness-relevant-organophosphates-independently-of-acetylcholinesterase-inhibition
#3
Alicia R Locker, Lindsay T Michalovicz, Kimberly A Kelly, Julie V Miller, Diane B Miller, James P O'Callaghan
Gulf War Illness (GWI) is a chronic multi-symptom disorder affecting veterans of the 1991 Gulf War. Among the symptoms of GWI are those associated with sickness behavior, observations suggestive of underlying neuroinflammation. We have shown that exposure of mice to the stress hormone, corticosterone (CORT), and to diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP), as a nerve agent mimic, results in marked neuroinflammation, findings consistent with a stress/neuroimmune basis of GWI. Here, we examined the contribution of irreversible and reversible acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors to neuroinflammation in our mouse model of GWI...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499899/the-wake-promoting-drug-modafinil-prevents-motor-impairment-in-sickness-behavior-induced-by-lps-in-mice-role-for-dopaminergic-d1-receptor
#4
Adriano Zager, Wesley Nogueira Brandão, Rafael Oliveira Margatho, Jean Pierre Peron, Sergio Tufik, Monica Levy Andersen, Birgitte Rahbek Kornum, João Palermo-Neto
The wake-promoting drug Modafinil has been used for many years for treatment of Narcolepsy and Excessive Daytime Sleepiness, due to a dopamine-related psychostimulant action. Recent studies have indicated that Modafinil prevents neuroinflammation in animal models. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Modafinil pretreatment in the Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sickness and depressive-like behaviors. Adult male C57BL/6J mice were pretreated with Vehicle or Modafinil (90mg/Kg) and, 30min later, received a single saline or LPS (2mg/Kg) administration, and were submitted to the open field and elevated plus maze test 2h later...
May 9, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483660/markers-of-neuroinflammation-and-neuronal-injury-in-bipolar-disorder-relation-to-prospective-clinical-outcomes
#5
Anniella Isgren, Carl Sellgren, Carl-Johan Ekman, Jessica Holmén-Larsson, Kaj Blennow, Henrik Zetterberg, Joel Jakobsson, Mikael Landén
BACKGROUND: Neuroimmune mechanisms have been linked to the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder based on studies of biomarkers in plasma, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and postmortem brain tissue. There are, however, no longitudinal studies investigating if CSF markers of neuroinflammation and neuronal injury predict clinical outcomes in patients with bipolar disorder. We have in previous studies found higher CSF concentrations of interleukin-8 (IL-8), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1/CCL-2), chitinase-3-like protein 1 (CHI3L1/YKL-40), and neurofilament light chain (NF-L) in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder compared with controls...
May 5, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480882/dysfunction-of-microglial-stat3-alleviates-depressive-behavior-via-neuron-microglia-interactions
#6
Sun-Ho Kwon, Jeong-Kyu Han, Moonseok Choi, Yong-Jin Kwon, Sung Joon Kim, Eun Hee Yi, Jae-Cheon Shin, Ik-Hyun Cho, Byung-Hak Kim, Sang Jeong Kim, Sang-Kyu Ye
Neuron-microglia interactions play a crucial role in maintaining the neuroimmune system. The balance of neuroimmune system has emerged as an important process in the pathophysiology of depression. However, how neuron-microglia interactions contribute to major depressive disorders has been poorly understood. Herein, we demonstrated that microglia-derived synaptic changes induced antidepressive-like behavior by using microglia-specific signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) knockout (STAT3(fl/fl);LysM-Cre(+/-)) mice...
May 8, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470955/phenotypic-characterisation-of-cell-populations-in-the-brains-of-horses-experimentally-infected-with-west-nile-virus
#7
G H Delcambre, J Liu, W J Streit, G P J Shaw, K Vallario, J Herrington, N Wenzlow, K L Barr, M T Long
BACKGROUND: West Nile Virus (WNV), a mosquito borne member of the Flaviviridae, is one of the most commonly diagnosed agents of viral encephalitis in horses and people worldwide. OBJECTIVE: A cassette of markers for formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue and an archive of tissues from experimental infections in the horse were used to investigate the equine neuroimmune response to WNV meningoencephalomyelitis to phenotype the early response to WNV infection in the horse...
May 4, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465254/activation-of-adenosine-a2a-receptor-signaling-regulates-the-expression-of-cytokines-associated-with-immunologic-dysfunction-in-btbr-t-itpr3-tf-j-mice
#8
Mushtaq A Ansari, Sabry M Attia, Ahmed Nadeem, Saleh A Bakheet, Mohammad Raish, Tajdar H Khan, Othman A Al-Shabanah, Sheikh F Ahmad
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by stereotypical repetitive behavior, impaired social interaction, and deficits in communication. The BTBR T(+) Itpr3(tf)/J (BTBR) mice have been extensively used as an animal model of the ASD-like phenotype. Adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) are considered potential targets in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we used the A2AR antagonist SCH 5826 (SCH) and the A2AR agonist CGS 21680 (CGS) to investigate the activation of A2AR signaling in immune cells...
April 30, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460650/developmental-toxicant-exposure-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease-induces-differential-sex-associated-microglial-activation-and-increased-susceptibility-to-amyloid-accumulation
#9
A N vonderEmbse, Q Hu, J C DeWitt
As the resident macrophage of the central nervous system, microglia are thought to contribute to Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology through lack of neuroprotection. The role of immune dysfunction in AD may be due to disruption of regulatory signals for the activation of microglia that may occur early in development. We hypothesized that early toxicant exposure would systematically activate microglia, possibly reversing the pathological severity of AD. Offspring of a triple transgenic murine model for AD (3×TgAD) were exposed to a model neurotoxicant, lead acetate, from postnatal days (PND) 5-10...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455693/therapeutic-strategies-under-development-targeting-inflammatory-mechanisms-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#10
REVIEW
Sebastiano Giuseppe Crisafulli, Simona Brajkovic, Maria Sara Cipolat Mis, Valeria Parente, Stefania Corti
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurological disease characterized by the progressive loss of cortical, bulbar, and spinal motor neurons (MNs). The cardinal manifestation of ALS is a progressive paralysis which leads to death within a time span of 3 to 5 years after disease onset. Despite similar final output of neuronal death, the underlying pathogenic causes are various and no common cause of neuronal damage has been identified to date. Inflammation-mediated neuronal injury is increasingly recognized as a major factor that promotes disease progression and amplifies the MN death-inducing processes...
April 28, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438638/adenosine-a2a-receptor-modulates-neuroimmune-function-through-th17-retinoid-related-orphan-receptor-gamma-t-ror%C3%AE-t-signaling-in-a-btbr-t-itpr3-tf-j-mouse-model-of-autism
#11
Mushtaq A Ansari, Ahmed Nadeem, Sabry M Attia, Saleh A Bakheet, Mohammad Raish, Sheikh F Ahmad
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by abnormal social interactions, repetitive behaviors that impair social communication, and circumscribed interests. BTBR T+tf/J (BTBR) inbred mice are generally used as a model for ASD, as they show repetitive behaviors and social deficits that resemble signs of ADS in humans. Adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) are considered as potential targets in the treatment of immune, inflammatory, and neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we investigated the potential effects of the A2A adenosine receptor (A2AR) antagonist SCH 5826 (SCH) and agonist CGS 21680 (CGS) on behavior (self-grooming), hot plate test results, and expression levels of IL-17A(+), RORγt(+), Foxp3(+), and IL-10(+) in CD4(+) T spleen cells in BTBR and C57BL/6 (B6) mice...
April 21, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436446/opioid-self-administration-is-attenuated-by-early-life-experience-and-gene-therapy-for-anti-inflammatory-il-10-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-of-male-rats
#12
Michael J Lacagnina, Ashley M Kopec, Stewart S Cox, Richa Hanamsagar, Corinne Wells, Susan Slade, Peter M Grace, Linda R Watkins, Edward D Levin, Staci D Bilbo
Early-life conditions can contribute to the propensity for developing neuropsychiatric disease, including substance abuse disorders. However, the long-lasting mechanisms that shape risk or resilience for drug addiction remain unclear. Previous work has shown that a neonatal handling procedure in rats (which promotes enriched maternal care) attenuates morphine conditioning, reduces morphine-induced glial activation, and increases microglial expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10)...
April 24, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433417/mechanistic-insights-into-epigenetic-modulation-of-ethanol-consumption
#13
Igor Ponomarev, Claire E Stelly, Hitoshi Morikawa, Yuri A Blednov, R Dayne Mayfield, R Adron Harris
There is growing evidence that small-molecule inhibitors of epigenetic modulators, such as histone deacetylases (HDAC) and DNA methyltransferases (DNMT), can reduce voluntary ethanol consumption in animal models, but molecular and cellular processes underlying this behavioral effect are poorly understood. We used C57BL/6J male mice to investigate the effects of two FDA-approved drugs, decitabine (a DNMT inhibitor) and SAHA (an HDAC inhibitor), on ethanol consumption using two tests: binge-like drinking in the dark (DID) and chronic intermittent every other day (EOD) drinking...
May 2017: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431906/transgenic-mice-with-increased-astrocyte-expression-of-ccl2-show-altered-behavioral-effects-of-alcohol
#14
Jennifer G Bray, Amanda J Roberts, Donna L Gruol
Emerging research provides strong evidence that activation of CNS glial cells occurs in neurological diseases and brain injury and results in elevated production of neuroimmune factors. These factors can contribute to pathophysiological processes that lead to altered CNS function. Recently, studies have also shown that both acute and chronic alcohol consumption can produce activation of CNS glial cells and the production of neuroimmune factors, particularly the chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2). The consequences of alcohol-induced increases in CCL2 levels in the CNS have yet to be fully elucidated...
April 19, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428121/the-blood-brain-barrier-and-neuropsychiatric-lupus-new-perspectives-in-light-of-advances-in-understanding-the-neuroimmune-interface
#15
REVIEW
Ariel D Stock, Sivan Gelb, Ofer Pasternak, Ayal Ben-Zvi, Chaim Putterman
Experts have previously postulated a linkage between lupus associated vascular pathology and abnormal brain barriers in the immunopathogenesis of neuropsychiatric lupus. Nevertheless, there are some discrepancies between the experimental evidence, or its interpretation, and the working hypotheses prevalent in this field; specifically, that a primary contributor to neuropsychiatric disease in lupus is permeabilization of the blood brain barrier. In this commonly held view, any contribution of the other known brain barriers, including the blood-cerebrospinal fluid and meningeal barriers, is mostly excluded from the discussion...
April 17, 2017: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427424/microglial-depletion-alters-the-brain-neuroimmune-response-to-acute-binge-ethanol-withdrawal
#16
T Jordan Walter, Fulton T Crews
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have implicated microglia-the resident immune cells of the brain-in the pathophysiology of alcoholism. Indeed, post-mortem alcoholic brains show increased microglial markers and increased immune gene expression; however, the effects of ethanol on microglial functioning and how this impacts the brain remain unclear. In this present study, we investigate the effects of acute binge ethanol on microglia and how microglial depletion changes the brain neuroimmune response to acute binge ethanol withdrawal...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421541/systemic-inflammation-as-a-driver-of-brain-injury-the-astrocyte-as-an-emerging-player
#17
Bruna Bellaver, João Paulo Dos Santos, Douglas Teixeira Leffa, Larissa Daniele Bobermin, Paola Haack Amaral Roppa, Iraci Lucena da Silva Torres, Carlos-Alberto Gonçalves, Diogo Onofre Souza, André Quincozes-Santos
Severe systemic inflammation has strong effects on brain functions, promoting permanent neurocognitive dysfunction and high mortality rates. Additionally, hippocampal damage seems to be directly involved in this process and astrocytes play an important role in neuroinflammation and in the neuroimmune response. However, the contribution of the astrocytes to the pathology of acute brain dysfunction is not well understood. Recently, our group established a protocol for obtaining astrocyte cultures from mature brain to allow the characterization of these cells and their functions under pathologic conditions...
April 18, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400134/alpha-synuclein-pathology-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-neuroinflammation-in-parkinson-s-disease
#18
REVIEW
Emily M Rocha, Briana De Miranda, Laurie H Sanders
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a complex, chronic and progressive neurodegenerative disease. While the etiology of PD is likely multifactorial, the protein α-synuclein is a central component to the pathogenesis of the disease. However, the mechanism by which α-synuclein causes toxicity and contributes to neuronal death remains unclear. Mitochondrial dysfunction is also widely considered to play a major role in the underlying mechanisms contributing to neurodegeneration in PD. This review discusses evidence for the neuropathological role for α-synuclein in the dysfunction of dopamine neurons in PD...
April 8, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398339/animal-models-to-improve-our-understanding-and-treatment-of-suicidal-behavior
#19
REVIEW
T D Gould, P Georgiou, L A Brenner, L Brundin, A Can, P Courtet, Z R Donaldson, Y Dwivedi, S Guillaume, I I Gottesman, S Kanekar, C A Lowry, P F Renshaw, D Rujescu, E G Smith, G Turecki, P Zanos, C A Zarate, P A Zunszain, T T Postolache
Worldwide, suicide is a leading cause of death. Although a sizable proportion of deaths by suicide may be preventable, it is well documented that despite major governmental and international investments in research, education and clinical practice suicide rates have not diminished and are even increasing among several at-risk populations. Although nonhuman animals do not engage in suicidal behavior amenable to translational studies, we argue that animal model systems are necessary to investigate candidate endophenotypes of suicidal behavior and the neurobiology underlying these endophenotypes...
April 11, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393702/trem2-and-the-progression-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
Li Gao, Teng Jiang, Xiaoying Yao, Ling Yu, Xiaolan Yang, Yansheng Li
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia, which has been currently considered as a genetically complex disorder caused by a combination of environmental and genetic risk factors. Previous studies have reported that triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) gene represents a promising candidate gene for AD susceptibility and progression. Interestingly, recent findings further suggested that the association between TREM2 variants and AD risk was quite diverse among different ethnicities and populations...
April 4, 2017: Current Neurovascular Research
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