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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431906/transgenic-mice-with-increased-astrocyte-expression-of-ccl2-show-altered-behavioral-effects-of-alcohol
#1
Jennifer G Bray, Amanda J Roberts, Donna L Gruol
Emerging research provides strong evidence that activation of CNS glial cells occurs in neurological diseases and brain injury and results in elevated production of neuroimmune factors. These factors can contribute to pathophysiological processes that lead to altered CNS function. Recently, studies have also shown that both acute and chronic alcohol consumption can produce activation of CNS glial cells and the production of neuroimmune factors, particularly the chemokine CCL2. The consequences of alcohol-induced increases in CCL2 levels in the CNS have yet to be fully elucidated...
April 18, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428121/the-blood-brain-barrier-and-neuropsychiatric-lupus-new-perspectives-in-light-of-advances-in-understanding-the-neuroimmune-interface
#2
REVIEW
Ariel D Stock, Sivan Gelb, Ofer Pasternak, Ayal Ben-Zvi, Chaim Putterman
Experts have previously postulated a linkage between lupus associated vascular pathology and abnormal brain barriers in the immunopathogenesis of neuropsychiatric lupus. Nevertheless, there are some discrepancies between the experimental evidence, or its interpretation, and the working hypotheses prevalent in this field; specifically, that a primary contributor to neuropsychiatric disease in lupus is permeabilization of the blood brain barrier. In this commonly held view, any contribution of the other known brain barriers, including the blood-cerebrospinal fluid and meningeal barriers, is mostly excluded from the discussion...
April 17, 2017: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427424/microglial-depletion-alters-the-brain-neuroimmune-response-to-acute-binge-ethanol-withdrawal
#3
T Jordan Walter, Fulton T Crews
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have implicated microglia-the resident immune cells of the brain-in the pathophysiology of alcoholism. Indeed, post-mortem alcoholic brains show increased microglial markers and increased immune gene expression; however, the effects of ethanol on microglial functioning and how this impacts the brain remain unclear. In this present study, we investigate the effects of acute binge ethanol on microglia and how microglial depletion changes the brain neuroimmune response to acute binge ethanol withdrawal...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421541/systemic-inflammation-as-a-driver-of-brain-injury-the-astrocyte-as-an-emerging-player
#4
Bruna Bellaver, João Paulo Dos Santos, Douglas Teixeira Leffa, Larissa Daniele Bobermin, Paola Haack Amaral Roppa, Iraci Lucena da Silva Torres, Carlos-Alberto Gonçalves, Diogo Onofre Souza, André Quincozes-Santos
Severe systemic inflammation has strong effects on brain functions, promoting permanent neurocognitive dysfunction and high mortality rates. Additionally, hippocampal damage seems to be directly involved in this process and astrocytes play an important role in neuroinflammation and in the neuroimmune response. However, the contribution of the astrocytes to the pathology of acute brain dysfunction is not well understood. Recently, our group established a protocol for obtaining astrocyte cultures from mature brain to allow the characterization of these cells and their functions under pathologic conditions...
April 18, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400134/alpha-synuclein-pathology-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-neuroinflammation-in-parkinson-s-disease
#5
REVIEW
Emily M Rocha, Briana De Miranda, Laurie H Sanders
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a complex, chronic and progressive neurodegenerative disease. While the etiology of PD is likely multifactorial, the protein α-synuclein is a central component to the pathogenesis of the disease. However, the mechanism by which α-synuclein causes toxicity and contributes to neuronal death remains unclear. Mitochondrial dysfunction is also widely considered to play a major role in the underlying mechanisms contributing to neurodegeneration in PD. This review discusses evidence for the neuropathological role for α-synuclein in the dysfunction of dopamine neurons in PD...
April 8, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398339/animal-models-to-improve-our-understanding-and-treatment-of-suicidal-behavior
#6
REVIEW
T D Gould, P Georgiou, L A Brenner, L Brundin, A Can, P Courtet, Z R Donaldson, Y Dwivedi, S Guillaume, I I Gottesman, S Kanekar, C A Lowry, P F Renshaw, D Rujescu, E G Smith, G Turecki, P Zanos, C A Zarate, P A Zunszain, T T Postolache
Worldwide, suicide is a leading cause of death. Although a sizable proportion of deaths by suicide may be preventable, it is well documented that despite major governmental and international investments in research, education and clinical practice suicide rates have not diminished and are even increasing among several at-risk populations. Although nonhuman animals do not engage in suicidal behavior amenable to translational studies, we argue that animal model systems are necessary to investigate candidate endophenotypes of suicidal behavior and the neurobiology underlying these endophenotypes...
April 11, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393702/trem2-and-the-progression-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Li Gao, Teng Jiang, Xiaoying Yao, Ling Yu, Xiaolan Yang, Yansheng Li
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia, which has been currently considered as a genetically complex disorder caused by a combination of environmental and genetic risk factors. Previous studies have reported that triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) gene represents a promising candidate gene for AD susceptibility and progression. Interestingly, recent findings further suggested that the association between TREM2 variants and AD risk was quite diverse among different ethnicities and populations...
April 4, 2017: Current Neurovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390408/a-comprehensive-hybridization-model-allows-whole-herv-transcriptome-profiling-using-high-density-microarray
#8
Jérémie Becker, Philippe Pérot, Valérie Cheynet, Guy Oriol, Nathalie Mugnier, Marine Mommert, Olivier Tabone, Julien Textoris, Jean-Baptiste Veyrieras, François Mallet
BACKGROUND: Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) have received much attention for their implications in the etiology of many human diseases and their profound effect on evolution. Notably, recent studies have highlighted associations between HERVs expression and cancers (Yu et al., Int J Mol Med 32, 2013), autoimmunity (Balada et al., Int Rev Immunol 29:351-370, 2010) and neurological (Christensen, J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 5:326-335, 2010) conditions. Their repetitive nature makes their study particularly challenging, where expression studies have largely focused on individual loci (De Parseval et al...
April 8, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385921/the-effects-of-physical-exercise-on-non-motor-symptoms-and-on-neuroimmune-rage-network-in-experimental-parkinsonism
#9
Sofia D Viana, Inês R Pita, Cristina Lemos, Daniel Rial, Patrícia Couceiro, Paulo Rodrigues-Santos, Francisco Caramelo, Félix Carvalho, Syed F Ali, Rui D Prediger, Carlos A Fontes Ribeiro, Frederico C Pereira
Parkinson's disease (PD) prodromic stages comprise neuropsychiatric perturbations that critically compromise patient's quality of life. These non-motor symptoms (NMS) are associated with exacerbated innate immunity, a hallmark of overt PD. Physical exercise (PE) has the potential to improve neuropsychiatric deficits and to modulate immune network including receptors for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in distinct pathological settings. Accordingly, the present study aimed to test the hypothesis that PE i) alleviates PD NMS and ii) modulates neuroimmune RAGE-network in experimental PD...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373915/assessed-and-emerging-biomarkers-in-stroke-and-training-mediated-stroke-recovery-state-of-the-art
#10
REVIEW
Marialuisa Gandolfi, Nicola Smania, Antonio Vella, Alessandro Picelli, Salvatore Chirumbolo
Since the increasing update of the biomolecular scientific literature, biomarkers in stroke have reached an outstanding and remarkable revision in the very recent years. Besides the diagnostic and prognostic role of some inflammatory markers, many further molecules and biological factors have been added to the list, including tissue derived cytokines, growth factor-like molecules, hormones, and microRNAs. The literatures on brain derived growth factor and other neuroimmune mediators, bone-skeletal muscle biomarkers, cellular and immunity biomarkers, and the role of microRNAs in stroke recovery were reviewed...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359860/factors-affecting-increased-risk-for-substance-use-disorders-following-traumatic-brain-injury-what-we-can-learn-from-animal-models
#11
REVIEW
Steven F Merkel, Lee Anne Cannella, Roshanak Razmpour, Evan Lutton, Ramesh Raghupathi, Scott M Rawls, Servio H Ramirez
Recent studies have helped identify multiple factors affecting increased risk for substance use disorders (SUDs) following traumatic brain injury (TBI). These factors include age at the time of injury, repetitive injury and TBI severity, neurocircuits, neurotransmitter systems, neuroinflammation, and sex differences. This review will address each of these factors by discussing 1) the clinical and preclinical data identifying patient populations at greatest risk for SUDs post-TBI, 2) TBI-related neuropathology in discrete brain regions heavily implicated in SUDs, and 3) the effects of TBI on molecular mechanisms that may drive substance abuse behavior, like dopaminergic and glutamatergic transmission or neuroimmune signaling in mesolimbic regions of the brain...
March 28, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359740/bilateral-tactile-hypersensitivity-and-neuroimmune-responses-after-spared-nerve-injury-in-mice-lacking-vasoactive-intestinal-peptide
#12
Alessandro Gallo, Marjolein Leerink, Benoît Michot, Eman Ahmed, Patrice Forget, André Mouraux, Emmanuel Hermans, Ronald Deumens
Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is one of the neuropeptides showing the strongest up-regulation in the nociceptive pathway after peripheral nerve injury and has been proposed to support neuropathic pain. Nevertheless, the story may be more complicated considering the known suppressive effects of the peptide on the immune reactivity of microglial cells, which have been heavily implicated in the onset and maintenance of pain after nerve injury. We here used mice deficient in VIP and the model of spared nerve injury, characterized by persistent tactile hypersensitivity...
March 27, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358316/theranostic-biomarkers-for-schizophrenia
#13
REVIEW
Matea Nikolac Perkovic, Gordana Nedic Erjavec, Dubravka Svob Strac, Suzana Uzun, Oliver Kozumplik, Nela Pivac
Schizophrenia is a highly heritable, chronic, severe, disabling neurodevelopmental brain disorder with a heterogeneous genetic and neurobiological background, which is still poorly understood. To allow better diagnostic procedures and therapeutic strategies in schizophrenia patients, use of easy accessible biomarkers is suggested. The most frequently used biomarkers in schizophrenia are those associated with the neuroimmune and neuroendocrine system, metabolism, different neurotransmitter systems and neurotrophic factors...
March 30, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350401/systemic-inflammation-enhances-stimulant-induced-striatal-dopamine-elevation
#14
J R Petrulli, B Kalish, N B Nabulsi, Y Huang, J Hannestad, E D Morris
Changes in the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system are implicated in a range of neuropsychiatric conditions including addiction, depression and schizophrenia. Dysfunction of the neuroimmune system is often comorbid with such conditions and affects similar areas of the brain. The goal of this study was to use positron emission tomography with the dopamine D2 antagonist tracer, (11)C-raclopride, to explore the effect of acute immune activation on striatal DA levels. DA transmission was modulated by an oral methylphenidate (MP) challenge in order to reliably elicit DA elevation...
March 28, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348566/lifetime-modulation-of-the-pain-system-via-neuroimmune-and-neuroendocrine-interactions
#15
REVIEW
Ihssane Zouikr, Bianka Karshikoff
Chronic pain is a debilitating condition that still is challenging both clinicians and researchers. Despite intense research, it is still not clear why some individuals develop chronic pain while others do not or how to heal this disease. In this review, we argue for a multisystem approach to understand chronic pain. Pain is not only to be viewed simply as a result of aberrant neuronal activity but also as a result of adverse early-life experiences that impact an individual's endocrine, immune, and nervous systems and changes which in turn program the pain system...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339145/respiratory-syncytial-virus-host-interaction-in-the-pathogenesis-of-bronchiolitis-and-its-impact-on-respiratory-morbidity-in-later-life
#16
REVIEW
Giovanni A Rossi, Andrew A Colin
Rossi GA, Colin AA(.) Respiratory syncytial virus - host interaction in the pathogenesis of bronchiolitis and its impact on respiratory morbidity in later life. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common agent of severe airway disease in infants and young children. Large epidemiologic studies have demonstrated a clear relationship between RSV infection and subsequent recurrent wheezing and asthma into childhood, thought to be predominantly related to long-term changes in neuroimmune control of airway tone rather than to allergic sensitization...
March 24, 2017: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337573/neuroimmune-pharmacology-2nd-edition-a-perspective
#17
Harris A Gelbard
It has been almost nine years since the 1st edition of Neuroimmune Pharmacology was published on May 23rd, 2008. The 2nd edition of Neuroimmune Pharmacology by Ikezu and Gendelman (Editors) with Przedborski, Masliah and Cosentino (Associate Editors) manages to fulfill two separate missions: to provide comprehensive, but highly topical access to a rapidly evolving field and to serve as a standalone reference for scientists and clinicians in need of guidance regarding questions pertinent to neuroimmune pharmacology...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319836/a-cross-sectional-comparison-of-ethanol-related-cytokine-expression-in-the-hippocampus-of-young-and-aged-fischer-344-rats
#18
Anny Gano, Tamara L Doremus-Fitzwater, Terrence Deak
Our work in Sprague Dawley rats has shown rapid alterations in neuroimmune gene expression (RANGE) in the hippocampus and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). These manifest as increased interleukin (IL)-6 and IκBα, and suppressed IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor alpha during acute ethanol intoxication. The present studies tested these effects across the lifespan (young adulthood at 2-3 months; senescence at 18 and 24 months), as well as across strain (Fischer 344) and sex. The hippocampus revealed age-dependent shifts in cytokine expression (IL-6, IL-1β, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1), but no changes were observed in the PVN at baseline or following ethanol...
March 17, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293774/hiv-associated-neurodegeneration-and-neuroimmunity-multivoxel-mr-spectroscopy-study-in-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-and-treated-patients
#19
Jasmina Boban, Dusko Kozic, Vesna Turkulov, Jelena Ostojic, Robert Semnic, Dajana Lendak, Snezana Brkic
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to test neurobiochemical changes in normal appearing brain tissue in HIV+ patients receiving and not receiving combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) and healthy controls, using multivoxel MR spectroscopy (mvMRS). METHODS: We performed long- and short-echo 3D mvMRS in 110 neuroasymptomatic subjects (32 HIV+ subjects on cART, 28 HIV+ therapy-naïve subjects and 50 healthy controls) on a 3T MR scanner, targeting frontal and parietal supracallosal subcortical and deep white matter and cingulate gyrus (NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr and mI/Cr ratios were analysed)...
March 14, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290524/gut-dysbiosis-and-neuroimmune-responses-to-brain-infection-with-theiler-s-murine-encephalomyelitis-virus
#20
F J Carrillo-Salinas, L Mestre, M Mecha, A Feliú, R Del Campo, N Villarrubia, C Espejo, X Montalbán, J C Álvarez-Cermeño, L M Villar, C Guaza
Recent studies have begun to point out the contribution of microbiota to multiple sclerosis (MS) pathogenesis. Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus induced demyelinating disease (TMEV-IDD) is a model of progressive MS. Here, we first analyze the effect of intracerebral infection with TMEV on commensal microbiota and secondly, whether the early microbiota depletion influences the immune responses to TMEV on the acute phase (14 dpi) and its impact on the chronic phase (85 dpi). The intracranial inoculation of TMEV was associated with a moderate dysbiosis...
March 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
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