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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909320/the-neuroimmune-basis-of-excessive-alcohol-consumption
#1
Jody Mayfield, R Adron Harris
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903432/antigen-presentation-for-priming-t-cellsin-central-system
#2
Shaoni Dasgupta, Subhajit Dasgupta
Generation of myelin antigen-specific T cells is a major event in neuroimmune responses that causes demyelination. The antigen-priming of T cells and its location is important in chronic and acute inflammation. In autoimmune multiple sclerosis, the effector T cells are considered to generate in periphery. However, the reasons for chronic relapsing-remitting events are obscure. Considering mechanisms, a feasible aim of research is to investigate the role of antigen-primed T cells in lupus cerebritis. Last thirty years of investigations emphasize the relevance of microglia and infiltrated dendritic cells/macrophages as antigen presenting cells in the central nervous system...
November 26, 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875800/evaluation-of-tspo-pet-imaging-a-marker-of-glial-activation-to-study-the-neuroimmune-footprints-of-morphine-exposure-and-withdrawal
#3
Sylvain Auvity, Sébastien Goutal, Benoît Thézé, Catarina Chaves, Benoît Hosten, Bertrand Kuhnast, Wadad Saba, Raphaël Boisgard, Irène Buvat, Salvatore Cisternino, Nicolas Tournier
INTRODUCTION: A growing area of research suggests that neuroimmunity may impact the pharmacology of opioids. Microglia is a key component of the brain immunity. Preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated that microglial modulators may improve morphine-induced analgesia and prevent the development of tolerance and dependence. Positron emission tomography (PET) using translocator protein 18kDa (TSPO) radioligand is a clinically validated strategy for the non-invasive detection of microglial activation...
November 8, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871670/convergence-of-sex-differences-and-the-neuroimmune-system-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#4
REVIEW
Margaret M McCarthy, Christopher L Wright
The male bias in autism spectrum disorder incidence is among the most extreme of all neuropsychiatric disorders, yet the origins of the sex difference remain obscure. Developmentally, males are exposed to high levels of testosterone and its byproduct, estradiol. Together these steroids modify the course of brain development by altering neurogenesis, cell death, migration, differentiation, dendritic and axonal growth, synaptogenesis, and synaptic pruning, all of which can be deleteriously impacted during the course of developmental neuropsychiatric disorders...
October 11, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870450/the-immune-system-as-a-novel-regulator-of-sex-differences-in-brain-and-behavioral-development
#5
REVIEW
Lars H Nelson, Kathryn M Lenz
Sexual differentiation of the brain occurs early in life as a result of sex-typical hormone action and sex chromosome effects. Immunocompetent cells are being recognized as underappreciated regulators of sex differences in brain and behavioral development, including microglia, astrocytes, and possibly other less well studied cell types, including T cells and mast cells. Immunocompetent cells in the brain are responsive to steroid hormones, but their role in sex-specific brain development is an emerging field of interest...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870428/-putative-sex-differences-in-neuroimmune-modulation-of-memory
#6
REVIEW
Natalie C Tronson, Katie M Collette
The neuroimmune system is significantly sexually dimorphic, with sex differences evident in the number and activation states of microglia, in the activation of astrocytes, and in cytokine release and function. Neuroimmune cells and signaling are now recognized as critical for many neural functions throughout the life span, including synaptic plasticity and memory function. Here we address the question of how cytokines, astrocytes, and microglia contribute to memory, and specifically how neuroimmune modulation of memory differentially affects males and females...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870397/sex-differences-in-neuroimmunity-and-pain
#7
REVIEW
Sarah Rosen, Boram Ham, Jeffrey S Mogil
Differences in the prevalence of chronic pain in women vs. men are well known, and decades of laboratory experimentation have demonstrated that women are more sensitive to pain than are men. Attention has thus shifted to investigating mechanisms underlying such differences. Recent evidence suggests that neuroimmune modulation of pain may represent an important cause of sex differences. The current Review examines the evidence for gonadal hormone modulation of the immune system, immune system modulation of pain, and interactions that might help to explain sex differences in pain...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867383/environmental-toxicants-induced-immune-responses-in-the-olfactory-mucosa
#8
REVIEW
Fumiaki Imamura, Sanae Hasegawa-Ishii
Olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) are the receptor cells for the sense of smell. Although cell bodies are located in the olfactory mucosa (OM) of the nasal cavity, OSN axons directly project to the olfactory bulb (OB) that is a component of the central nervous system (CNS). Because of this direct and short connection from this peripheral tissue to the CNS, the olfactory system has attracted attention as a port-of-entry for environmental toxicants that may cause neurological dysfunction. Selected viruses can enter the OB via the OM and directly affect the CNS...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866184/the-gut-brain-axis-autoimmune-and-neuroimmune-disorders
#9
Aristo Vojdani, Jama Lambert, Elroy Vojdani
No Abstract Available.
October 2016: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862011/effective-reduction-of-acute-ethanol-withdrawal-by-the-tetracycline-derivative-tigecycline-in-female-and-male-dba-2j-mice
#10
Joseph M Martinez, Jessica A Groot, David C Curtis, Clayton L Allison, Patrick C Marquardt, Ashley N Holmes, David S Edwards, David R M Trotter, Peter J Syapin, Deborah A Finn, Susan E Bergeson
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a spectrum disorder characterized by mild to severe symptoms, including potential withdrawal signs upon cessation of consumption. Approximately five hundred thousand patients with AUD undergo clinically relevant episodes of withdrawal annually (New Engl J Med, 2003, 348, 1786). Recent evidence indicates potential for drugs that alter neuroimmune pathways as new AUD therapies. We have previously shown the immunomodulatory drugs, minocycline and tigecycline, were effective in reducing ethanol (EtOH) consumption in both the 2-bottle choice and drinking-in-the-dark paradigms...
December 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852966/hippocampal-activation-of-microglia-may-underlie-the-shared-neurobiology-of-comorbid-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-chronic-pain
#11
Rao Sun, Zuoxia Zhang, Yishan Lei, Yue Liu, Cui'e Lu, Hui Rong, Yu'e Sun, Wei Zhang, Zhengliang Ma, Xiaoping Gu
The high comorbidity rates of posttraumatic stress disorder and chronic pain have been widely reported, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Emerging evidence suggested that an excess of inflammatory immune activities in the hippocampus involved in the progression of both posttraumatic stress disorder and chronic pain. Considering that microglia are substrates underlying the initiation and propagation of the neuroimmune response, we hypothesized that stress-induced activation of hippocampal microglia may contribute to the pathogenesis of posttraumatic stress disorder-pain comorbidity...
2016: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830176/lipopolysaccharide-induced-spatial-memory-and-synaptic-plasticity-impairment-is-preventable-by-captopril
#12
Azam Abareshi, Akbar Anaeigoudari, Fatemeh Norouzi, Mohammad Naser Shafei, Mohammad Hossein Boskabady, Majid Khazaei, Mahmoud Hosseini
Introduction. Renin-angiotensin system has a role in inflammation and also is involved in many brain functions such as learning, memory, and emotion. Neuroimmune factors have been proposed as the contributors to the pathogenesis of memory impairments. In the present study, the effect of captopril on spatial memory and synaptic plasticity impairments induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was investigated. Methods. The rats were divided and treated into control (saline), LPS (1 mg/kg), LPS-captopril (LPS-Capto; 50 mg/kg captopril before LPS), and captopril groups (50 mg/kg) before saline...
2016: Advances in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824355/neuropathology-of-mood-disorders-do-we-see-the-stigmata-of-inflammation
#13
REVIEW
N Mechawar, J Savitz
A proportion of cases with mood disorders have elevated inflammatory markers in the blood that conceivably may result from stress, infection and/or autoimmunity. However, it is not yet clear whether depression is a neuroinflammatory disease. Multiple histopathological and molecular abnormalities have been found postmortem but the etiology of these abnormalities is unknown. Here, we take an immunological perspective of this literature. Increases in activated microglia or perivascular macrophages in suicide victims have been reported in the parenchyma...
November 8, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806904/supporting-a-neuroimmune-basis-of-gulf-war-illness
#14
James P O'Callaghan, Lindsay T Michalovicz, Kimberly A Kelly
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 26, 2016: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800584/neuroimmune-interactions-dendritic-cell-modulation-by-the-sympathetic-nervous-system
#15
REVIEW
Maisa C Takenaka, Marcia G Guereschi, Alexandre S Basso
Dendritic cells are of paramount importance bridging innate and adaptive immune responses. Depending on the context, after sensing environmental antigens, commensal microorganisms, pathogenic agents, or antigens from the diet, dendritic cells may drive either different effector adaptive immune responses or tolerance, avoiding tissue damage. Although the plasticity of the immune response and the capacity to regulate itself are considered essential to orchestrate appropriate physiological responses, it is known that the nervous system plays a relevant role controlling immune cell function...
October 31, 2016: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797173/dipeptidyl-vinyl-sulfone-as-a-novel-chemical-tool-to-inhibit-hmgb1-nlrp3-inflammasome-and-inflamma-mirs-in-a%C3%AE-mediated-microglial-inflammation
#16
Ana Sofia Falcão, Luís A R Carvalho, Gonçalo Lidónio, Ana Rita Vaz, Susana Dias Lucas, Rui Moreira, Dora Brites
Rapid microglial activation and associated inflammatory pathways contribute to immune-defense and tissue repair in the central nervous system (CNS). However, persistent activation of these cells will ultimately result in vast production of pro-inflammatory mediators and other neurotoxic factors, which may induce neuronal damage and contribute to chronic neurodegenerative diseases, as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Therefore, small molecules with immunomodulatory effects on microglia may be considered as potential tools to counteract their pro-inflammatory phenotype and neuroimmune dysregulation in such disorders...
October 31, 2016: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793226/gut-microbiome-and-behavior-focus-on-neuroimmune-interactions
#17
J A Foster
As neuroscientists, psychologists, and psychiatrists are starting to appreciate the importance of the gut microbiota to mental health, it is critical to determine the mechanisms of microbiota to brain communication and thereby provide a better understanding of the aspects that may be modifiable with proper intervention in individuals with mental illness. Microbiota-brain communication is emerging as an important factor in brain development and function. Further, immune dysfunction is clearly established to play a role in mental illness...
2016: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766535/hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-hypofunction-in-myalgic-encephalomyelitis-me-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-cfs-as-a-consequence-of-activated-immune-inflammatory-and-oxidative-and-nitrosative-pathways
#18
Gerwyn Morris, George Anderson, Michael Maes
There is evidence that immune-inflammatory and oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS) pathways play a role in the pathophysiology of myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME)/chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). There is also evidence that these neuroimmune diseases are accompanied by hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hypoactivity as indicated by lowered baseline glucocorticoid levels. This paper aims to review the bidirectional communications between immune-inflammatory and O&NS pathways and HPA axis hypoactivity in ME/CFS, considering two possibilities: (a) Activation of immune-inflammatory pathways is secondary to HPA axis hypofunction via attenuated negative feedback mechanisms, or (b) chronic activated immune-inflammatory and O&NS pathways play a causative role in HPA axis hypoactivity...
October 20, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761799/neuropeptide-levels-as-well-as-neprilysin-activity-decrease-in-renal-cell-carcinoma
#19
Nuray Erin, Tümay İpekçi, Bahar Akkaya, İrem Hicran Özbudak, Mehmet Baykara
Calcitonin Gene-related Peptide (CGRP), Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) and Substance P (SP) are sensory neuropeptides which may alter cancer growth through modulation of chronic inflammation. We recently reported that SP suppresses breast cancer growth and metastasis through neuroimmune modulation. These neuropeptides are hydrolyzed by Neprilysin (NEP) to bioactive fragments. Decreased activity of NEP was reported in clear cell and chromophobe type renal cell carcinoma (RCC). It is however not known how the levels of neuropeptides hydrolyzed with NEP changes in RCC...
October 19, 2016: Cancer Microenvironment: Official Journal of the International Cancer Microenvironment Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754761/a-novel-pink1-and-park2-dependent-protective-neuroimmune-pathway-in-lethal-sepsis
#20
Rui Kang, Ling Zeng, Yangchun Xie, Zhengwen Yan, Borong Zhou, Lizhi Cao, Daniel J Klionsky, Kevin J Tracey, Jianhua Li, Haichao Wang, Timothy R Billiar, Jianxin Jiang, Daolin Tang
Although the PINK1-PARK2 pathway contributes to the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease, its roles in sepsis (a major challenge for critical care) were previously unknown. Here, we show that pink1(-/-) and park2(-/-) mice are more sensitive to polymicrobial sepsis-induced multiple organ failure and death. The decrease in the circulating level of the neurotransmitter dopamine in pink1(-/-) and park2(-/-) mice accelerates the release of a late sepsis mediator, HMGB1, via HIF1A-dependent anaerobic glycolysis and subsequent NLRP3-dependent inflammasome activation...
October 18, 2016: Autophagy
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