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microbial contamination of eyedrops

Barbara Teuchner, Julia Wagner, Nikolaos E Bechrakis, Dorothea Orth-Höller, Markus Nagl
The aim of this study was to compare the percentage of contamination of multiuse eyedrops applied by glaucoma patients at home and by the medical personnel at the outpatient department, the ward, and the operating room of our Department of Ophthalmology. Eyedrops were collected over a period of 11 months. Samples were taken from the dropper tip (smear), drops, and the residual fluid inside the bottle and cultivated on blood agar. Colony forming units were counted and identified by mass spectrometry. The percentage of contamination was significantly higher in eyedrops applied by the patients (29/119; 24...
February 2015: Medicine (Baltimore)
Mo Sae Kim, Hong Kyun Kim, Joon Mo Kim, Chul Young Choi
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the antimicrobial effectiveness of preservative-free fluoroquinolone products compared with benzalkonium chloride containing fluoroquinolones using the challenge test provided by the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) and the in-use test. METHODS: 1. Challenge test: to compare the growth of microorganisms between different fluoroquinolone preparations, four test organisms, including Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, and Aspergillus niger were chosen among five microorganisms listed by USP 2004...
March 2013: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
Chuan-Yi Su, Yuan-Chieh Yang, Chien-Fang Peng, Yung-Chung Hsu, Chang-Ping Lin
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the risk of microbial contamination of sterile, preservative-free, unit-dose ocular medications within 24 h after the first opening. Four different unit-dose ocular medications (cromolyn sodium, timolol, gentamicin sulfate, and betamethasone) in 1 mL containers, were tested. After opening, the preparations were stored in an acrylic protector with or without cap, at room temperature or in a refrigerator at 4 degrees C. Samples were collected for microbiological cultures at 0, 4, 10, 14, and 24 h after opening from the identical container...
December 2005: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
Z Sklubalová
Microbial contamination of ophthalmic drops means a risk of serious injury to the eye. Ophthalmic drops must therefore comply with sterility requirements. Protection of multiple-dose drops against secondary contamination is ensured by an addition of an antimicrobial agent. Selection of a suitable antimicrobial agent is conditioned by many factors, such as the spectrum of effect, properties of the preparation, compatibility with the components of the preparation and the container, and the technology of manufacture...
May 2004: Ceská a Slovenská Farmacie
Y A Gelfand, E Mezer, S Linn, B Miller
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effect of preoperative prophylatic 0.3% gentamicin sulfate eyedrops on intraocular and extraocular fluid cultures after pars plana vitrectomy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Forty consecutive patients undergoing pars plana vitrectomy were randomly assigned to receive either 0.3% gentamicin eyedrops or placebo preoperatively. Fluids from the vitreous cavity and from the conjunctival sac were collected for bacteriologic studies. RESULTS: Positive cultures from extraocular fluids were obtained in 30...
June 1998: Ophthalmic Surgery and Lasers
A Mistlberger, J Ruckhofer, E Raithel, M Müller, E Alzner, S F Egger, G Grabner
PURPOSE: To measure anterior chamber bacterial and fungal contamination at the beginning and end of cataract surgery with intraocular lens (IOL) implantation in a large series of patients and to determine the influence of preoperative treatment and operative technique on contamination. SETTING: Department of Ophthalmology, County Hospital of Salzburg, Austria. METHODS: This prospective study comprised 700 consecutive patients having planned cataract extraction (511 phacoemulsification, 189 extracapsular cataract extraction [ECCE])...
September 1997: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
G B Oldham, V Andrews
AIMS/BACKGROUND: Preservatives are added to multidose eyedrop containers to ensure that the eyedrops do not become heavily contaminated during patient use. This enables eyedrops to be used for up to 1 month after opening. However, patients are frequently required to use unpreserved eyedrops as their eyes are unable to tolerate these preservatives. Some commercial unpreserved unit dose eyedrops are available, but the range is limited, and they cannot be used in all cases. Twenty one different unpreserved eyedrop formulations in multidose bottles were tested to establish their inherent efficacy in antimicrobial preservation, and to help determine a suitable in use storage life...
July 1996: British Journal of Ophthalmology
R Palmberg, Y S Gutierrez, D Miller, W J Feuer, D R Anderson
We compared the potential for bacterial contamination of a proparacaine hydrochloride solution preserved with benzalkonium chloride, which is used with fluorescein paper for tonometry, to that of a fluorescein-benoxinate hydrochloride combination solution preserved with chlorobutanol. We contaminated bottles of each solution with Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Staphylococcus aureus (10(7) organisms per milliliter of eyedrop solution). From the fluorescein-benoxinate hydrochloride solution, Staphylococcus organisms were cultured in declining numbers over time, with a half-life of nine seconds, and no Staphylococcus organisms were recovered after five minutes...
May 15, 1994: American Journal of Ophthalmology
O Geyer, E J Bottone, S M Podos, R A Schumer, P A Asbell
AIMS: A study was conducted to estimate the frequency of contamination of topical antiglaucoma medications used by asymptomatic patients. METHODS: The drops and the bottle tips of 194 in use topical medications and the conjunctiva from 109 treated glaucoma patients were cultured. RESULTS: Bacteria were recovered from 55 (28%) medications. The bottle tip was more frequently contaminated than the drops (p = 0.008). Gram positive organisms were cultured from 50 (91%) of 55 contaminated medications...
April 1995: British Journal of Ophthalmology
C T Coad, M S Osato, K R Wilhelmus
We undertook an in vitro investigation of the role of the design of the eyedrop dispenser in bacterial contamination. The nozzle tips of pipette and squeeze bottles containing Fluress (pH 5.0) were inoculated with 10 microliter of an ocular isolate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (5.5 X 10(5) bacteria/ml). Cultures of single drops of ophthalmic solution (25-microliter drops from each pipette bottle and 40-microliter drops from each squeeze bottle) were done one minute, 15 minutes, one hour, two hours, and 24 hours after inoculation...
November 1984: American Journal of Ophthalmology
P Frauch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1970: Pharmaceutica Acta Helvetiae
W Sixl, B Sixl-Voigt, M Stögerer, V Bencko, M Köck, E Marth, R Schaffler, G Schuhmann, F Pichler-Semmelrock
In Cairo's waste disposal sites conjunctivitis is frequently found resulting from the burning process of plastic, paper, etc.. Recurrent secondary contamination of the conjunctiva by pathogenic and non-pathogenic microorganisms often takes place; however, in certain germ species, the differentiation between pathogenic or non-pathogenic organisms within a damaged mucous membrane cannot be made. Furthermore, in this study, we have attempted to investigate germ reproduction during the application of PVP-eyedrops...
1989: Geographia Medica. Supplement, Geographia Medica. Sonderband
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