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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644667/nuclear-resonant-surface-diffraction-of-synchrotron-radiation
#1
Kai Schlage, Liudmila Dzemiantsova, Lars Bocklage, Hans-Christian Wille, Matthias Pues, Guido Meier, Ralf Röhlsberger
Nuclear resonant x-ray diffraction in grazing incidence geometry is used to determine the lateral magnetic configuration in a one-dimensional lattice of ferromagnetic nanostripes. During magnetic reversal, strong nuclear superstructure diffraction peaks appear in addition to the electronic ones due to an antiferromagnetic order in the nanostripe lattice. We show that the analysis of the angular distribution together with the time dependence of the resonantly diffracted x rays reveals surface spin structures with very high sensitivity...
June 9, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643780/voltage-controlled-interfacial-magnetism-through-platinum-orbits
#2
Shinji Miwa, Motohiro Suzuki, Masahito Tsujikawa, Kensho Matsuda, Takayuki Nozaki, Kazuhito Tanaka, Takuya Tsukahara, Kohei Nawaoka, Minori Goto, Yoshinori Kotani, Tadakatsu Ohkubo, Frédéric Bonell, Eiiti Tamura, Kazuhiro Hono, Tetsuya Nakamura, Masafumi Shirai, Shinji Yuasa, Yoshishige Suzuki
Electric fields at interfaces exhibit useful phenomena, such as switching functions in transistors, through electron accumulations and/or electric dipole inductions. We find one potentially unique situation in a metal-dielectric interface in which the electric field is atomically inhomogeneous because of the strong electrostatic screening effect in metals. Such electric fields enable us to access electric quadrupoles of the electron shell. Here we show, by synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy, electric field induction of magnetic dipole moments in a platinum monatomic layer placed on ferromagnetic iron...
June 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642619/understanding-the-unusual-response-to-high-pressure-in-kbe2bo3f2
#3
D H Yu, M Avdeev, D H Sun, L Q Huston, Thomas B Shiell, Q B Sun, T Lu, Q Gu, H Liu, J E Bradby, N Yie, Y Liu, J Y Wang, G J McIntyre
Strong anisotropic compression with pressure on the remarkable non-linear optical material KBe2BO3F2 has been observed with the linear compression coefficient along the c axis found to be about 40 times larger than that along the a axis. An unusual non-monotonic pressure response was observed for the a lattice parameter. The derived bulk modulus of 31 ± 1 GPa indicates that KBe2BO3F2 is a very soft oxide material yet with stable structure up to 45 GPa. A combination of high-pressure synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction, high-pressure Raman spectroscopy, and Density Functional Theory calculations points to the mechanism for the unusual pressure response being due to the competition between the K-F bond length and K-F-K bond angle and the coupling between the stretching and twisting vibration modes...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642431/quantum-and-isotope-effects-in-lithium-metal
#4
Graeme J Ackland, Mihindra Dunuwille, Miguel Martinez-Canales, Ingo Loa, Rong Zhang, Stanislav Sinogeikin, Weizhao Cai, Shanti Deemyad
The crystal structure of elements at zero pressure and temperature is the most fundamental information in condensed matter physics. For decades it has been believed that lithium, the simplest metallic element, has a complicated ground-state crystal structure. Using synchrotron x-ray diffraction in diamond anvil cells and multiscale simulations with density functional theory and molecular dynamics, we show that the previously accepted martensitic ground state is metastable. The actual ground state is face-centered cubic (fcc)...
June 23, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641439/high-pressure-phase-transition-of-alkali-metal-transition-metal-deuteride-li2pdd2
#5
Yansun Yao, Elissaios Stavrou, Alexander F Goncharov, Arnab Majumdar, Hui Wang, Vitali B Prakapenka, Albert Epshteyn, Andrew P Purdy
A combined theoretical and experimental study of lithium palladium deuteride (Li2PdD2) subjected to pressures up to 50 GPa reveals one structural phase transition near 10 GPa, detected by synchrotron powder x-ray diffraction, and metadynamics simulations. The ambient-pressure tetragonal phase of Li2PdD2 transforms into a monoclinic C2/m phase that is distinct from all known structures of alkali metal-transition metal hydrides/deuterides. The structure of the high-pressure phase was characterized using ab initio computational techniques and from refinement of the powder x-ray diffraction data...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641371/effects-of-changes-in-leaf-properties-mediated-by-methyl-jasmonate-meja-on-foliar-absorption-of-zn-mn-and-fe
#6
Cui Li, Peng Wang, Neal W Menzies, Enzo Lombi, Peter M Kopittke
Background and Aims: Foliar fertilization to overcome nutritional deficiencies is becoming increasingly widespread. However, the processes of foliar nutrient absorption and translocation are poorly understood. The present study aimed to investigate how cuticular leaf properties affect the absorption of foliar-applied nutrients in leaf tissues. Methods: Given that methyl jasmonate (MeJA) can cause alterations in leaf properties, we applied 1 m m MeJA to sunflower ( Helianthus annuus ), tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum ) and soybean ( Glycine max ) to assess changes in leaf properties...
June 21, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640304/addressing-the-characterisation-challenge-to-understand-catalysis-in-mofs-the-case-of-nanoscale-cu-supported-in-nu-1000
#7
Ana E Platero-Prats, Zhanyong Li, Leighanne C Gallington, Aaron W Peters, Joseph T Hupp, Omar K Farha, Karena W Chapman
We explore the dynamic structure and reactivity of Cu species supported on NU-1000. By combining pair distribution function (PDF) analysis and difference envelope density (DED) analysis of in situ synchrotron-based X-ray scattering data, we simultaneously probe the local structure of supported Cu-species, their distribution within NU-1000 and distortions of the NU-1000 lattice under conditions relevant to catalysis and catalyst activation. These analyses show that atomic layer deposition (ALD) of Cu in NU-1000 (Cu-AIM) leads to the formation of Cu-oxo clusters within the small pores that connect the triangular and hexagonal channels...
June 22, 2017: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638053/hard-x-rays-as-pump-and-probe-of-atomic-motion-in-oxide-glasses
#8
B Ruta, F Zontone, Y Chushkin, G Baldi, G Pintori, G Monaco, B Rufflé, W Kob
Nowadays powerful X-ray sources like synchrotrons and free-electron lasers are considered as ultimate tools for probing microscopic properties in materials. However, the correct interpretation of such experiments requires a good understanding on how the beam affects the properties of the sample, knowledge that is currently lacking for intense X-rays. Here we use X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy to probe static and dynamic properties of oxide and metallic glasses. We find that although the structure does not depend on the flux, strong fluxes do induce a non-trivial microscopic motion in oxide glasses, whereas no such dependence is found for metallic glasses...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635947/in-situ-dynamic-observations-of-perovskite-crystallisation-and-microstructure-evolution-intermediated-from-pbi6-4-cage-nanoparticles
#9
Qin Hu, Lichen Zhao, Jiang Wu, Ke Gao, Deying Luo, Yufeng Jiang, Ziyi Zhang, Chenhui Zhu, Eric Schaible, Alexander Hexemer, Cheng Wang, Yi Liu, Wei Zhang, Michael Grätzel, Feng Liu, Thomas P Russell, Rui Zhu, Qihuang Gong
Hybrid lead halide perovskites have emerged as high-performance photovoltaic materials with their extraordinary optoelectronic properties. In particular, the remarkable device efficiency is strongly influenced by the perovskite crystallinity and the film morphology. Here, we investigate the perovskites crystallisation kinetics and growth mechanism in real time from liquid precursor continually to the final uniform film. We utilize some advanced in situ characterisation techniques including synchrotron-based grazing incident X-ray diffraction to observe crystal structure and chemical transition of perovskites...
June 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631783/ultrafast-charge-dynamics-in-glycine-induced-by-attosecond-pulses
#10
David Ayuso, Alicia Palacios, Piero Decleva, Fernando Martín
The combination of attosecond pump-probe techniques with mass spectrometry methods has recently led to the first experimental demonstration of ultrafast charge dynamics in a biomolecule, the amino acid phenylalanine [Calegari et al., Science, 2014, 346, 336]. Using an extension of the static-exchange density functional theory (DFT) method, the observed dynamics was explained as resulting from the coherent superposition of ionic states produced by the broadband attosecond pulse. Here, we have used the static-exchange DFT method to investigate charge migration induced by attosecond pulses in the glycine molecule...
June 20, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631471/great-disparity-in-photoluminesence-quantum-yields-of-colloidal-cspbbr3-nanocrystals-with-varied-shape-the-effect-of-crystal-lattice-strain
#11
Jiangtao Zhao, Mei Liu, Li Fang, Shenlong Jiang, Jingtian Zhou, Huaiyi Ding, Hongwen Huang, Wen Wen, Zhenlin Luo, Qun Zhang, Xiaoping Wang, Chen Gao
Understanding the big discrepancy in the photoluminesence quantum yields (PLQYs) of nanoscale colloidal materials with varied morphologies is of great significance to its property optimization and functional application. Using different shaped CsPbBr3 nanocrystals with the same fabrication processes as model, quantitative synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction analysis reveals the increasing trend in lattice strain values of the nanocrystals: nanocube, nanoplate, nanowire. Furthermore, transient spectroscopic measurements reveal the same trend in the defect quantities of these nanocrystals...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622928/dental-development-and-age-at-death-of-the-holotype-of-anapithecus-hernyaki-rud-9-using-synchrotron-virtual-histology
#12
Adeline Le Cabec, M Christopher Dean, David R Begun
The chronology of dental development and life history of primitive catarrhines provides a crucial comparative framework for understanding the evolution of hominoids and Old World monkeys. Among the extinct groups of catarrhines are the pliopithecoids, with no known descendants. Anapithecus hernyaki is a medium-size stem catarrhine known from Austria, Hungary and Germany around 10 Ma, and represents a terminal lineage of a clade predating the divergence of hominoids and cercopithecoids, probably more than 30 Ma...
July 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621354/density-functional-theory-calculations-for-the-band-gap-and-formation-energy-of-pr4-xcaxsi12o3-xn18-x-a-highly-disordered-compound-with-low-symmetry-and-a-large-cell-size
#13
Sung Un Hong, Satendra Pal Singh, Myoungho Pyo, Woon Bae Park, Kee-Sun Sohn
A novel oxynitride compound, Pr4-xCaxSi12O3+xN18-x, synthesized using a solid-state route has been characterized as a monoclinic structure in the C2 space group using Rietveld refinement on synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction data. The crystal structure of this compound was disordered due to the random distribution of Ca/Pr and N/O ions at various Wyckoff sites. A pragmatic approach for an ab initio calculation based on density function theory (DFT) for this disordered compound has been implemented to calculate an acceptable value of the band gap and formation energy...
June 16, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620232/real-time-monitoring-of-laser-powder-bed-fusion-process-using-high-speed-x-ray-imaging-and-diffraction
#14
Cang Zhao, Kamel Fezzaa, Ross W Cunningham, Haidan Wen, Francesco De Carlo, Lianyi Chen, Anthony D Rollett, Tao Sun
We employ the high-speed synchrotron hard X-ray imaging and diffraction techniques to monitor the laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) process of Ti-6Al-4V in situ and in real time. We demonstrate that many scientifically and technologically significant phenomena in LPBF, including melt pool dynamics, powder ejection, rapid solidification, and phase transformation, can be probed with unprecedented spatial and temporal resolutions. In particular, the keyhole pore formation is experimentally revealed with high spatial and temporal resolutions...
June 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618178/a-new-route-for-de-carboxylation-of-lactones-over-zn-zsm-5-elucidation-of-structure-and-molecular-interactions
#15
Edman Shik Chi Tsang, Lin Ye, Ben Lo, Qi Song, Junlin Zheng, Dejing Kong, Claire A Murray, Chiu Tang
Here, we report a catalytic process of decarboxylating gamma-valerolactone, GVL (the biomass derived lactone as an example) over Zn/ZSM-5 to butene, followed by aromatization at high yield with co-feed water. Evaluation of catalytic performance at prolonged time shows that water molecule is essential in maintaining the decarboxylation/ aromatization activity without rapid deactivation. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction and Rietveld refinement are then used to elucidate the adsorbed structures of GVL and immobilized Zn-species with the support of EXAFS and NMR...
June 15, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615647/differential-synchrotron-x-ray-imaging-markers-based-on-the-renal-microvasculature-for-tubulointerstitial-lesions-and-glomerulopathy
#16
Yu-Chuan Lin, Yeukuang Hwu, Guo-Shu Huang, Michael Hsiao, Tsung-Tse Lee, Shun-Min Yang, Ting-Kuo Lee, Nan-Yow Chen, Sung-Sen Yang, Ann Chen, Shuk-Man Ka
High resolution synchrotron microtomography capable of revealing microvessels in three dimensional (3D) establishes distinct imaging markers of mouse kidney disease strongly associated to renal tubulointerstitial (TI) lesions and glomerulopathy. Two complementary mouse models of chronic kidney disease (CKD), unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), were used and five candidates of unique 3D imaging markers were identified. Our characterization to differentially reflect the altered microvasculature of renal TI lesions and/or glomerulopathy demonstrated these image features can be used to differentiate the disease status and the possible cause therefore qualified as image markers...
June 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613341/three-dimensional-interpenetrating-mesoporous-carbon-confining-sno2-particles-for-superior-sodiation-desodiation-properties
#17
Jagabandhu Patra, Purna Chandra Rath, Cheng-Hsein Yang, Diganta Saikia, Hsien-Ming Kao, Jeng-Kuei Chang
Nanosized SnO2 particles (∼2 nm in diameter) are embedded in ordered mesoporous CMK-8 carbon with unique three-dimensional interconnected pore channels and used as a sodium-ion battery (NIB) anode. Due to the CMK-8 confinement effects, the growth of SnO2 is suppressed during synthesis, leading to high material electroactivity. The CMK-8 not only serves as an electronic conducting pathway, but also creates interpenetrating tunnels, which guarantee electrolyte accessibility and thus Na(+) transport throughout the electrode...
June 14, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613288/tracking-thermal-induced-amorphization-of-a-zeolitic-imidazolate-framework-via-synchrotron-in-situ-far-infrared-spectroscopy
#18
Matthew R Ryder, Thomas D Bennett, Chris S Kelley, Mark D Frogley, Gianfelice Cinque, Jin-Chong Tan
We present the first use of in situ far-infrared spectroscopy to analyze the thermal amorphization of a zeolitic imidazolate framework material. We explain the nature of vibrational motion changes during the amorphization process and reveal new insights into the effect that temperature has on the Zn-N tetrahedra.
June 14, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612499/xenon-recovery-at-room-temperature-using-metal-organic-frameworks
#19
Praveen Thallapally, Sameh K Elsaidi, Daniele Ongari, Wenqian Xu, Mona H Mohamed, Maciej Haranczyk
Xenon is known to be a very efficient anesthetic gas but its cost prohibits the wider use in medical industry and other potential applications. It has been shown that Xe recovery and recycle from anesthetic gas mixture can significantly reduce its cost as anesthetic. The current technology uses series of adsorbent columns followed by low temperature distillation to recover Xe, which is expensive to use in medical facilities. Herein, we propose a much simpler and more efficient system to recover and recycle Xe from exhale anesthetic gas mixture at room temperature using metal organic frameworks...
June 14, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610167/phase-contrast-synchrotron-microtomography-reveals-the-internal-morphology-of-a-new-fossil-species-of-the-i-corticaria-i-i-sylvicola-i-group-coleoptera-latridiidae
#20
Hans-Peter Reike, Andris Bukejs, Tobias Arlt, Nikolay Kardjilov, Ingo Manke
Corticaria amberica sp. nov. (Coleoptera: Latridiidae) from Baltic amber is described and illustrated using the features of the male genitalia. To study these features, phase-contrast synchrotron microtomography was used for the first time with a member of this family. A literature-based checklist of fossil and subfossil Latridiidae is provided. The following new synonymy is established: Latridius alexeevi Bukejs, Kirejtshuk & Rücker, 2011 = Latridius usovae Sergi & Perkovsky, 2014 syn. nov. New fossil records for the species Latridius alexeevi Bukejs, Kirejtshuk & Rücker, Latridius jantaricus Borowiec, Revelieria groehni Sergi, Perkovsky & Reike, and Corticarina palaeominuta Reike are also presented...
March 13, 2017: Zootaxa
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