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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160311/microstructure-variations-induced-by-excess-pbx2-or-ax-within-perovskite-thin-films
#1
Guanhaojie Zheng, Cheng Zhu, Yihua Chen, Juchen Zhang, Qi Chen, Xingyu Gao, Huanping Zhou
We systematically investigated the impact of stoichiometric ratio variation between PbX2 and AX on hybrid perovskite films from the perspective of microstructure, especially on the plane stacking directions, using the two-dimensional synchrotron radiation grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS) technique. The tuned crystal plane stacking in perovskite films can consequently enlighten further explorations about the relationship between microstructure and solar cell performance.
November 21, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159136/determination-of-the-critical-values-of-flow-parameters-characteristic-of-the-alignment-of-cylindrical-nano-objects-in-suspensions
#2
Alexander A Loshkarev, Maria F Vlasova, Natalya I Sapronova, Yuri M Tokunov, Ivan A Volkov, Victor V Ivanov, Thomas Maeder
A method for determining the critical values of the flow speed and the flow constriction degree characteristic of the alignment of cylindrical nano-objects in a flowing suspension is proposed. Previously, the alignment process of cylindrical nano-objects in suspensions was investigated by using birefringence of the polarized light and the small-angle X-ray scattering. While both methods are suitable for measuring the alignment degree of cylindrical nano-objects in suspensions diluted down to low concentrations, they are restricted for the application to undiluted concentrated suspensions because of non-transparency and multiple scattering of X-rays...
2017: MethodsX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157359/countercurrent-heat-exchange-and-thermoregulation-during-blood-feeding-in-kissing-bugs
#3
Chloé Lahondère, Teresita C Insausti, Rafaela Mm Paim, Xiaojie Luan, George Belev, Marcos H Pereira, Juan P Ianowski, Claudio R Lazzari
Blood-sucking insects experience thermal stress at each feeding event on endothermic vertebrates. We used thermography to examine how kissing-bugs Rhodnius prolixus actively protect themselves from overheating. During feeding, these bugs sequester and dissipate the excess heat in their heads while maintaining an abdominal temperature close to ambient. We employed a functional-morphological approach, combining histology, µCT and X-ray-synchrotron imaging to shed light on the way these insects manage the flow of heat across their bodies...
November 21, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154442/a-biomimetic-tumor-tissue-phantom-for-validating-diffusion-weighted-mri-measurements
#4
Damien J McHugh, Feng-Lei Zhou, Ian Wimpenny, Gowsihan Poologasundarampillai, Josephine H Naish, Penny L Hubbard Cristinacce, Geoffrey J M Parker
PURPOSE: To develop a biomimetic tumor tissue phantom which more closely reflects water diffusion in biological tissue than previously used phantoms, and to evaluate the stability of the phantom and its potential as a tool for validating diffusion-weighted (DW) MRI measurements. METHODS: Coaxial-electrospraying was used to generate micron-sized hollow polymer spheres, which mimic cells. The bulk structure was immersed in water, providing a DW-MRI phantom whose apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and microstructural properties were evaluated over a period of 10 months...
November 20, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154311/precise-measurement-of-inner-diameter-of-mono-capillary-optic-using-x-ray-imaging-technique
#5
Soonmu Kwon, Jae Hong Lim, Yoshiharu Namba, Kwon Su Chon
BACKGROUND: Mono-capillary optics have been applied to increase the performance of X-ray instruments. However, performance of a mono-capillary optic strongly depends on the shape accuracy, which is determined by the diameters of the inner hollow of the capillary along the axial direction. OBJECTIVE: To precisely determine the inner diameter of the capillary optic used in X-ray imaging technique, which aims to replace the conventional method using a visible microscope...
November 16, 2017: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152977/local-disorder-and-tunable-luminescence-in-sr1-x-2al2-xsixo4-0-2-%C3%A2-x-%C3%A2-0-5-transparent-ceramics
#6
Alberto J Fernandez-Carrion, Kholoud Al Saghir, Emmanuel Veron, Ana I Becerro, Florence Porcher, Wolfgang Wisniewski, Guy Matzen, Franck Fayon, Mathieu Allix
Eu-doped Sr1-x/2Al2-xSixO4 (x = 0.2, 0.4, and 0.5) transparent ceramics have been synthesized by full and congruent crystallization from glasses prepared by aerodynamic levitation and laser-heating method. Structural refinements from synchrotron and neutron powder diffraction data show that the ceramics adopt a 1 × 1 × 2 superstructure compared to the SrAl2O4 hexagonal polymorph. While the observed superstructure reflections indicate a long-range ordering of the Sr vacancies in the structure, (29)Si and (27)Al solid-state NMR measurements associated with DFT computations reveal a significant degree of disorder in the fully polymerized tetrahedral network...
November 20, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152370/unusual-thermolysis-of-aza-cyclic-allene-under-microwave-conditions-crystal-structure-of-3rs-3asr-8rs-8ars-methyl-5-6-dimeth-oxy-3a-10-dimethyl-1-phenyl-3-3a-8-8a-tetra-hydro-3-8-epimino-methano-cyclo-penta-a-indene-2-carboxyl-ate-from-synchrotron-x-ray-diffraction
#7
Le Tuan Anh, Alexander A Titov, Maxim S Kobzev, Leonid G Voskressensky, Alexey V Varlamov, Pavel V Dorovatovskii, Victor N Khrustalev
The title compound, C25H27NO4 (I), the product of the unusual thermolysis of aza-cyclic allene methyl 10,11-dimeth-oxy-3,8-dimethyl-6-phenyl-3-aza-benzo[d]cyclo-deca-4,6,7-triene-5-carboxyl-ate, represents a bicyclic heterosystem and crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/c with three crystallographically independent mol-ecules in the unit cell. These independent mol-ecules adopt very similar geometries and differ only in the conformations of the two meth-oxy substituents on the benzene ring. In two of the three independent mol-ecules, both meth-oxy groups are almost coplanar with the benzene ring [the C-C-O-Me torsion angles are 10...
November 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section E, Crystallographic Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147699/strain-relaxation-and-ambipolar-electrical-transport-in-gaas-insb-core-shell-nanowires
#8
Torsten Rieger, Patrick Zellekens, Natalia Demarina, Ali Al Hassan, Franz Josef Hackemüller, Hans Lüth, Ullrich Pietsch, Thomas Schäpers, Detlev Grützmacher, Mihail Ion Lepsa
The growth, crystal structure, strain relaxation and room temperature transport characteristics of GaAs/InSb core-shell nanowires grown using molecular beam epitaxy are investigated. Due to the large lattice mismatch between GaAs and InSb of 14%, a transition from island-based to layer-like growth occurs during the formation of the shell. High resolution transmission electron microscopy in combination with geometric phase analyses as well as X-ray diffraction with synchrotron radiation are used to investigate the strain relaxation and prove the existence of different dislocations relaxing the strain on zinc blende and wurtzite core-shell nanowire segments...
November 17, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146969/thermal-expansion-of-pd-based-metallic-glasses-by-ab-initio-methods-and-high-energy-x-ray-diffraction
#9
Simon Evertz, Denis Music, Volker Schnabel, Jozef Bednarcik, Jochen M Schneider
Metallic glasses are promising structural materials due to their unique properties. For structural applications and processing the coefficient of thermal expansion is an important design parameter. Here we demonstrate that predictions of the coefficient of thermal expansion for metallic glasses by density functional theory based ab initio calculations are efficient both with respect to time and resources. The coefficient of thermal expansion is predicted by an ab initio based method utilising the Debye-Grüneisen model for a Pd-based metallic glass, which exhibits a pronounced medium range order...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140367/compact-bolometric-radiometer-for-free-electron-lasers-in-a-wavelength-range-from-extreme-ultraviolet-to-x-rays
#10
Takahiro Tanaka, Masahiro Kato, Norio Saito, Shigeki Owada, Kensuke Tono, Makina Yabashi, Tetsuya Ishikawa
A reliable diagnostic device for free-electron lasers (FELs) is essential for both users and the evaluation of FEL sources and beamline optics. Here, we propose a compact bolometric radiometer (CBR) that can operate at room temperature. The CBR is mainly designed for FELs in the wavelength range from the extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) to x-rays; moreover, we confirmed that the proposed device can also be applied to synchrotron radiation. As an application of the CBR, we evaluated an FEL beamline transmission by means of bolometric technique in the EUV range for the first time, to the best of our knowledge...
November 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140321/single-silicon-ccd-cmos-platform-for-multi-spectral-detection-from-terahertz-to-x-rays
#11
Mostafa Shalaby, Carlo Vicario, Christoph P Hauri
Charge-coupled devices (CCDs) are a well-established imaging technology in the visible and x-ray frequency ranges. However, the small quantum photon energies of terahertz radiation have hindered the use of this mature semiconductor technological platform in this frequency range, leaving terahertz imaging totally dependent on low-resolution bolometer technologies. Recently, it has been shown that silicon CCDs can detect terahertz photons at a high field, but the detection sensitivity is limited. Here we show that silicon, complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology offers enhanced detection sensitivity of almost two orders of magnitude, compared to CCDs...
November 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137985/the-effect-of-surface-charge-on-the-thermal-stability-and-ice-recrystallization-inhibition-activity-of-antifreeze-protein-iii-afp-iii
#12
R C Deller, B M Carter, I Zampetakis, F Scarpa, A W Perriman
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of chemical cationization on the structure and function of antifreeze protein III (AFP III) over an extreme temperature range (-40 °C to +90 °C) using far-UV synchrotron radiation circular dichroism (SRCD) and ice recrystallization inhibition (IRI) assays. Chemical cationization was able to produce a modified AFP III with a net cationic charge at physiological pH that had enhanced resistance to denaturation at elevated temperatures, with no immediate negative impact on protein structure at subzero temperatures...
November 11, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136473/structural-investigation-of-bulk-and-dispersed-inverse-lyotropic-hexagonal-liquid-crystalline-phases-of-eicosapentaenoic-acid-monoglyceride
#13
Anan Yaghmur, Sabah Al-Hosayni, Heinz Amenitsch, Stefan Salentinig
Recent studies demonstrated the potential therapeutic use of newly synthesized omega-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) monoglycerides owing to their beneficial health effects in various disorders including cancer and inflammation diseases. To date, the research was mainly focused on exploring the biological effects of these functional lipids. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no report on the hydration-mediated self assembly of these lipids that leads to the formation of nanostructures, which are attractive for use as vehicles for the delivery of drugs and functional foods...
November 14, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136380/synchrotron-based-high-angle-resolution-and-high-lateral-resolution-x-ray-diffraction-reveals-lead-white-pigment-qualities-in-old-masters-paintings
#14
Victor Gonzalez, Gilles Wallez, Thomas Calligaro, Marine Cotte, Wout De Nolf, Myriam Eveno, Elisabeth Ravaud, Michel Menu
Micro-samples collected on 28 major paintings by Old European Masters dating from the Middle Ages to the late 19th c. were analyzed using Synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction. Two complementary analytical configurations were used at beamlines ID22 (high-angle resolution) and ID21 (high lateral resolution), in order to highlight markers of the different grades of the lead white pigments (mixture of cerussite PbCO3 and hydrocerussite Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2). Rietveld analysis and crystalline phases mapping at the micro-scale revealed the composition and microstructure of the pigments, shedding light on the preparation recipes and pigment choices of the artists through History...
November 14, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135468/thermal-effect-of-zn-quantum-dots-grown-on-si-111-competition-between-relaxation-and-reconstraint
#15
Li-Chi Kao, Bo-Jia Huang, Yu-En Jeng, Kai-Teng Tu, Shang-Jui Chiu, Ching-Shun Ku, Kuang-Yao Lo
Zn dots are potential solutions for metal contacts in future nanodevices. The metastable states that exist at the interface between Zn quantum dots and oxide-free Si(111) surfaces can suppress the development of the complete relaxation and increase the size of Zn dots. In this work, the actual heat consumption of the structural evolution of Zn dots resulting from extrinsic thermal effect was analyzed. Zn dots were coherently grown on oxide-free Si(111) through magnetron RF sputtering. A compensative optical method combined with reflective second harmonic generation (RSHG) and synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) was developed to statistically analyze the thermal effect on the Zn dot system...
November 14, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132829/the-lipolytic-degradation-of-highly-structured-cubic-micellar-nanoparticles-of-soy-phosphatidylcholine-and-glycerol-dioleate-by-phospholipase-a2-and-triacylglycerol-lipase
#16
Maria Wadsäter, Justas Barauskas, Fredrik Tiberg, Tommy Nylander
The effects of different lipolytic enzymes on the structure of lipid liquid crystalline nano-particles (LCNP) have been investigated by cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) and synchrotron small angle X-ray diffraction (SAXD). Here we used highly structured cubic micellar (Fd3m) nanoparticles of 50/50 (wt%/wt%) soy phosphatidyl choline (SPC)/glycerol dioleate (GDO) as substrate. Two types of lipolytic enzymes were used, phospholipase A2 (PLA2) that catalysis degradation of the phospholipid component, SPC, and porcine pancreatic triacylglycerol lipase (TGL) that facilitate the hydrolysis of the diglyceride, GDO...
November 10, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131937/an-innovative-in-situ-ball-mill-for-x-ray-diffraction
#17
Voraksmy Ban, Yolanda Sadikin, Michael Lange, Nikolay A Tumanov, Yaroslav Filinchuk, Radovan Černý, Nicola P M Casati
The renewed interest of mechanochemistry as an eco-friendly synthetic route has inspired original methodologies to probe reactions, with the aim to rationalize unknown mechanisms. Recently, Friščić et al. [Nat Chem 2013, 5, 66-73] monitored the progress of milling reactions by synchrotron X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRPD). For the first time, it was possible to acquire directly information during a mechanochemical process. This new methodology is still in its early stages and its development will definitively transform the fundamental understanding of mechanochemistry...
November 13, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127402/the-nature-of-ancient-egyptian-copper-containing-carbon-inks-is-revealed-by-synchrotron-radiation-based-x-ray-microscopy
#18
Thomas Christiansen, Marine Cotte, René Loredo-Portales, Poul Erik Lindelof, Kell Mortensen, Kim Ryholt, Sine Larsen
For the first time it is shown that carbon black inks on ancient Egyptian papyri from different time periods and geographical regions contain copper. The inks have been investigated using synchrotron-based micro X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and micro X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy (XANES) at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). The composition of the copper-containing carbon inks showed no significant differences that could be related to time periods or the geographical locations...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127330/giant-thermal-expansion-and-%C3%AE-precipitation-pathways-in-ti-alloys
#19
Matthias Bönisch, Ajit Panigrahi, Mihai Stoica, Mariana Calin, Eike Ahrens, Michael Zehetbauer, Werner Skrotzki, Jürgen Eckert
Ti-alloys represent the principal structural materials in both aerospace development and metallic biomaterials. Key to optimizing their mechanical and functional behaviour is in-depth know-how of their phases and the complex interplay of diffusive vs. displacive phase transformations to permit the tailoring of intricate microstructures across a wide spectrum of configurations. Here, we report on structural changes and phase transformations of Ti-Nb alloys during heating by in situ synchrotron diffraction. These materials exhibit anisotropic thermal expansion yielding some of the largest linear expansion coefficients (+ 163...
November 10, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125832/minibeam-radiotherapy-with-small-animal-irradiators-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-feasibility-studies
#20
Soha Bazyar, Christina R Inscoe, E Timothy O'Brian, Otto Zhou, Yueh Z Lee
Minibeam radiation therapy (MBRT) delivers an ultrahigh dose of x-ray (⩾100 Gy) in 200-1000 µm beams (peaks), separated by wider non-irradiated regions (valleys) usually as a single temporal fraction. Preclinical studies performed at synchrotron facilities revealed that MBRT is able to ablate tumors while maintaining normal tissue integrity. The main purpose of the present study was to develop an efficient and accessible method to perform MBRT using a conventional x-ray irradiator. We then tested this new method both in vitro and in vivo...
November 10, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
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