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EBV reactivation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877083/epstein-barr-virus-lytic-reactivation-regulation-and-its-pathogenic-role-in-carcinogenesis
#1
REVIEW
Hongde Li, Sufang Liu, Jianmin Hu, Xiangjian Luo, Namei Li, Ann M Bode, Ya Cao
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been associated with several types of human cancers. In the host, EBV can establish two alternative modes of life cycle, known as latent or lytic and the switch from latency to the lytic cycle is known as EBV reactivation. Although EBV in cancer cells is found mostly in latency, a small number of lytically-infected cells promote carcinogenesis through the release of growth factors and oncogenic cytokines. This review focuses on the mechanisms by which EBV reactivation is controlled by cellular and viral factors, and discusses how EBV lytic infection contributes to human malignancies...
2016: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873265/epstein-barr-virus-clinical-diagnostics
#2
Hans-Helmut Niller, Georg Bauer
The vast majority of the human adult population is infected with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and the majority of the EBV-infected individuals tolerates the infection well, without any further symptoms after primary infection. In cases of individuals which undergo primary infection in the form of an infectious mononucleosis, or which have undergone primary infection in their past, it is sometimes important to appraise symptomatic disease or differentiate infectious mononucleosis from other conditions. In these cases, serological methods, i...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856447/maternal-antibodies-to-herpes-virus-antigens-and-risk-of-gastroschisis-in-offspring
#3
Martha M Werler, Samantha E Parker, Klaus Hedman, Mika Gissler, Annukka Ritvanen, Heljä-Marja Surcel
Gastroschisis risk is highest in offspring of young women and is increasing in prevalence, suggesting that exposures that are increasingly common among younger females may be causal. Some infections by viruses in the herpes family are more common in the earlier childbearing years and have been increasing in prevalence over time. Data from the Finnish Maternity Cohort were linked to Finnish malformation and birth registers (1987-2012) for this study, a nested case-control study of mothers of offspring with gastroschisis and age-matched controls...
November 17, 2016: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833447/immune-recovery-and-the-risk-of-cmv-ebv-reactivation-in-children-post-allogeneic-haematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#4
Małgorzata Janeczko, Monika Mielcarek, Blanka Rybka, Renata Ryczan-Krawczyk, Dorota Noworolska-Sauren, Krzysztof Kałwak
Immune reconstitution was studied prospectively in 86 children who underwent allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We analysed the risk of cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation in correlation with the kinetics of immune recovery and in relation to other potential risk factors that may influence the reactivation of these viruses including: diagnosis, type of HSCT, source of stem cells, type of conditioning, or the occurrence of graft-versus-host disease (GvHD)...
2016: Central-European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826287/epstein-barr-virus-diseases-linked-to-infection-and-transformation
#5
REVIEW
Hem C Jha, Yonggang Pei, Erle S Robertson
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was first discovered in 1964, and was the first known human tumor virus now shown to be associated with a vast number of human diseases. Numerous studies have been conducted to understand infection, propagation, and transformation in various cell types linked to human diseases. However, a comprehensive lens through which virus infection, reactivation and transformation of infected host cells can be visualized is yet to be formally established and will need much further investigation...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813075/disease-etiology-and-diagnosis-by-tcr-repertoire-analysis-goes-viral
#6
Meriem Attaf, Andrew K Sewell
The importance of T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire diversity is highlighted in murine models of immunodeficiency and in many human pathologies. However, the true extent of TCR diversity and how this diversity varies in health and disease is poorly understood. In a previous issue of the European Journal of Immunology, Lossius et al. [Eur. J. Immunol. 2014. 44: 3439-3452] dissected the composition of the TCR repertoire in the context of multiple sclerosis (MS) using high-throughput sequencing of TCR-β chains in cerebrospinal fluid samples and blood...
November 2016: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797369/association-of-epstein-barr-virus-reactivation-with-the-recovery-of-cd4-cd8-double-negative-t-lymphocytes-after-haploidentical-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#7
Z Bian, J Liu, L-P Xu, Y-J Chang, Y Wang, X-H Zhang, X-J Huang
EBV infection is one of the life-threatening clinical complications in patients who underwent haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (haploHSCT). Although immune recovery is recognized to be crucial for decreasing subsequent morbidity of infections, the link between T-cell recovery and EBV infection after haploHSCT remains elusive. We recently compared the influences of different doses of antithymocyte globulin conditioning on the T-cell reconstitution post haploHSCT and suggested that CD4(-)CD8(-)T cells might interact with the occurrence of EBV reactivation...
October 31, 2016: Bone Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795350/development-of-a-sensitive-and-specific-serological-assay-based-on-the-luminex-technology-for-the-detection-of-antibodies-to-zaire-ebola-virus-ebov
#8
Ahidjo Ayouba, Abdoulaye Touré, Christelle Butel, Alpha Kabinet Keita, Florian Binetruy, Mamadou S Sow, Vincent Foulongne, Eric Delaporte, Martine Peeters
The recent Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa illustrates clearly the need for additional studies in humans and animals to elucidate the ecology of Ebola viruses. Here we developed a serological assay based on the Luminex technology. Nine recombinant proteins representing different viral regions (NP, VP40 and GP) from four of the five EBV lineages were used. Samples from 94 survivors of the EBOV outbreak in Guinea and negative samples from 108 patients in France were used to calculate test performance for EBOV detection and cross-reaction with other Ebola virus lineages...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780949/alterations-in-acetylation-of-histone-h4-lysine-8-and-trimethylation-of-lysine-20-associated-with-lytic-gene-promoters-during-kaposi-s-sarcoma-associated-herpesvirus-reactivation
#9
Sora Lim, Seho Cha, Jun Hyeong Jang, Dahye Yang, Joonho Choe, Taegun Seo
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is associated with formation of Kaposi's sarcoma, multicentric Castleman's disease and primary effusion lymphoma. Replication and transcription activator (RTA) genes are expressed upon reactivation of KSHV, which displays a biphasic life cycle consisting of latent and lytic replication phases. RTA protein expression results in KSHV genome amplification and successive viral lytic gene expression. Transcriptional activity of viral lytic genes is regulated through epigenetic modifications...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765370/resveratrol-piperine-and-apigenin-differ-in-their-nadph-oxidase-inhibitory-and-reactive-oxygen-species-scavenging-properties
#10
Scott Whitehouse, Pei-Lin Chen, Anna L Greenshields, Mat Nightingale, David W Hoskin, Karen Bedard
BACKGROUND: Many plant-derived chemicals have been studied for their potential benefits in ailments including inflammation, cancer, neurodegeneration, and cardiovascular disease. The health benefits of phytochemicals are often attributed to the targeting of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, it is not always clear whether these agents act directly as antioxidants to remove ROS, or whether they act indirectly by blocking ROS production by enzymes such as NADPH oxidase (NOX) enzymes, or by influencing the expression of cellular pro- and anti- oxidants...
November 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751359/karyotypic-abnormalities-associated-with-epstein-barr-virus-status-in-classical-hodgkin-lymphoma
#11
Nathan D Montgomery, Wilborn B Coward, Steven Johnson, Ji Yuan, Margaret L Gulley, Stephanie P Mathews, Kathleen Kaiser-Rogers, Kathleen W Rao, Warren G Sanger, Jennifer N Sanmann, Yuri Fedoriw
Classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL) is morphologically characterized by scattered malignant Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells that are far outnumbered by surrounding reactive hematolymphoid cells. Approximately half of all cases of CHL are associated with infection by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), an oncogenic herpesvirus that expresses a number of proteins thought to contribute to transformation. While a small number of published studies have attempted to identify recurrent cytogenetic abnormalities in CHL, no large case series have explored karyotypic differences between EBV-positive and EBV-negative tumors...
September 2016: Cancer Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750386/the-impact-of-ebv-and-hiv-infection-on-the-microenvironmental-niche-underlying-hodgkin-lymphoma-pathogenesis
#12
Antonino Carbone, Annunziata Gloghini, Arnaldo Caruso, Paolo De Paoli, Riccardo Dolcetti
The pathogenesis of classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) is still enigmatic, largely because its tumor cells, the so-called Hodgkin and Reed-Stenberg (HRS) cells, invariably reside in a prominent reactive microenvironment, are rare and therefore difficult to analyze. On the other hand, the broadly investigated cHL-derived cell lines are not unequivocally considered as suitable and representative models for this puzzling disease. Based on current knowledge, it appears that the cross talk between the tumour cells and the reactive infiltrate of the microenvironment is complex and that multiple mechanisms occur, making cHL a very heterogeneous disease...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708396/erk-c-jun-recruits-tet1-to-induce-zta-expression-and-epstein-barr-virus-reactivation-through-dna-demethylation
#13
Wei Zhang, Dongjie Han, Pin Wan, Pan Pan, Yanhua Cao, Yingle Liu, Kailang Wu, Jianguo Wu
DNA demethylation plays an essential role in the reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) from latency infection. However, it is unclear how epigenetic modification is initiated in responding to stimuli. Here, we demonstrate that ERK/c-Jun signaling is involved in DNA demethylation of EBV immediate early (IE) gene Zta in response to 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) stimulation. Remarkably, Ser73 phosphorylation of c-Jun facilitates Zta promoter demethylation and EBV reactivation, whereas knockdown of c-Jun attenuates Zta demethylation and viral reactivation...
October 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683629/recent-insights-in-the-pathogenesis-of-post-transplantation-lymphoproliferative-disorders
#14
REVIEW
Julie Morscio, Thomas Tousseyn
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is an aggressive complication of solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation that arises in up to 20% of transplant recipients. Infection or reactivation of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a ubiquitous human herpesvirus, in combination with chronic immunosuppression are considered as the main predisposing factors, however insight in PTLD biology is fragmentary. The study of PTLD is complicated by its morphological heterogeneity and the lack of prospective trials, which also impede treatment optimization...
September 24, 2016: World Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638250/kidney-transplant-recipients-after-nonrenal-solid-organ-transplantation-show-low-alloreactivity-but-an-increased-risk-of-infection
#15
Thomas Schachtner, Maik Stein, Petra Reinke
The number of kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) after nonrenal solid organ transplantation (SOT) has increased to almost 5%. Knowledge on patient and allograft outcomes, infections, and alloreactivity, however, remains scarce. We studied 40 KTRs after nonrenal SOT. 720 primary KTRs and 119 repeat KTRs were used for comparison. Samples were collected pretransplantation, at +1, +2, and +3 months posttransplantation. Alloreactive and CMV-specific T-cells were measured by interferon-γ Elispot assay. Patient survival in KTRs after SOT, primary and repeat KTRs was comparable...
September 17, 2016: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27622810/shedding-of-hsv-1-hsv-2-cmv-and-ebv-in-the-saliva-of-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-recipients-at-fundaci%C3%A3-n-homi-hospital-de-la-misericordia-bogot%C3%A3-d-c
#16
Sonia P Bohórquez, Juliana Díaz, Claudia M Rincón, Marcela Estupiñán, Mauricio Chaparro, Ana María Low-Calle, Jaime E Castellanos
INTRODUCTION: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in pediatric patients is an alternative treatment for different diseases. The conditioning regimen for transplant predisposes recipients to the development of infections. Viral infections by herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2), human cytomegalovirus (CMV), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), are the most common, and the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among these patients. These viruses lie dormant in various cell types and the reactivation of latent infections may lead to asymptomatic viral shedding in saliva...
2016: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621818/mapping-an-epitope-in-ebna-1-that-is-recognized-by-monoclonal-antibodies-to-ebna-1-that-cross-react-with-dsdna
#17
Pragya Yadav, Matthew T Carr, Ruby Yu, Alice Mumbey-Wafula, Linda A Spatz
INTRODUCTION: The Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) has been associated with the autoimmune disease, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). EBV nuclear antigen-I (EBNA-1) is the major nuclear protein of EBV. We previously generated an IgG monoclonal antibody (MAb) to EBNA-1, 3D4, and demonstrated that it cross-reacts with double stranded DNA (dsDNA) and binds the 148 amino acid viral binding site (VBS) in the carboxyl region of EBNA-1. The aim of the present study was to characterize another antibody to EBNA-1 that cross-reacts with dsDNA, compare its immunoglobulin genes to 3D4, and finely map the epitope in EBNA-1 that is recognized by these cross-reactive antibodies...
September 2016: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27600985/role-of-mtor-inhibitors-for-the-control-of-viral-infection-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients
#18
Julio Pascual, Ana Royuela, Ana M Fernández, Ignacio Herrero, Juan F Delgado, Amparo Solé, Lluis Guirado, Teresa Serrano, Julián de la Torre-Cisneros, Asunción Moreno, Elisa Cordero, Roberto Gallego, Carlos Lumbreras, José M Aguado
Appropriate post-transplant immunosuppressive regimens that avoid acute rejection, while reducing risk of viral reactivation, have been sought, but remain a chimera. Recent evidence suggesting potential regulatory and antiviral effects of mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors (mTORi) is of great interest. Although the concept of an immunosuppressive drug with antiviral properties is not new, little effort has been made to put the evidence together to assess the management of immunosuppressive therapy in the presence of a viral infection...
September 7, 2016: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27600027/epstein-barr-virus-mrna-profiles-and-viral-dna-methylation-status-in-nasopharyngeal-brushings-from-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-patients-reflect-tumor-origin
#19
Octavia Ramayanti, Hedy Juwana, Sandra A M W Verkuijlen, Marlinda Adham, Michiel D Pegtel, Astrid E Greijer, Jaap M Middeldorp
Undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is 100% associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) as oncogenic driver. NPC is often diagnosed late due to initial vague complaints and obscured location. Prior studies suggest that measurement of EBV DNA load and RNA transcripts in nasopharyngeal (NP) brushings is useful for minimally invasive NPC diagnosis. However, whether these EBV markers relate to local virus replication or reflect tumor origin remains to be demonstrated. To resolve this, we analysed EBV-DNA characteristics and quantified latent and lytic viral RNA transcripts in NP brushings and matching frozen NP-biopsy specimens from patients suspected of having NPC...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27595281/patterns-of-infection-and-infection-related-mortality-in-patients-with-steroid-refractory-acute-graft-versus-host-disease
#20
I García-Cadenas, I Rivera, R Martino, A Esquirol, P Barba, S Novelli, G Orti, J Briones, S Brunet, D Valcarcel, J Sierra
This study aimed to characterize the incidence, etiology and outcome of infectious episodes in patients with steroid refractory acute GvHD (SR-GvHD). The cohort included 127 adults treated with inolimomab (77%) or etanercept (23%) owing to acute 2-4 SR-GvHD, with a response rate of 43% on day +30 and a 4-year survival of 15%. The 1-year cumulative incidences of bacterial, CMV and invasive fungal infection were 74%, 65% and 14%, respectively. A high rate (37%) of enterococcal infections was observed. Twenty patients (15...
September 5, 2016: Bone Marrow Transplantation
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