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EBV reactivation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284791/cadherin-6-is-activated-by-epstein-barr-virus-lmp1-to-mediate-emt-and-metastasis-as-an-interplay-node-of-multiple-pathways-in-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma
#1
L-L Zuo, J Zhang, L-Z Liu, Q Zhou, S-J Du, S-Y Xin, Z-P Ning, J Yang, H-B Yu, W-X Yue, J Wang, F-X Zhu, G-Y Li, J-H Lu
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is an epithelial malignancy, which is notorious among head-and-neck cancers with its metastatic feature. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection plays a fundamental role in NPC development with the mechanism is not well understood. Here we demonstrate that EBV oncoprotein LMP1 drives EMT and metastasis of NPC by reactivating the adhesion molecule, cadherin 6 (CDH6), which normally occurs in embryogenesis with unknown role in NPC. CDH6 was found to be upregulated in LMP1-positive NPC tissues, and was identified as a target of the epithelium-specific miR-203...
December 22, 2017: Oncogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279478/ebv-positive-reactive-hyperplasia-progressed-into-ebv-positive-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-of-the-elderly-over-a-6-year-period
#2
Akane Kunitomi, Yuta Hasegawa, Naoko Asano, Seiichi Kato, Takashi Tokunaga, Yasuhiko Miyata, Hiroatsu Iida, Hirokazu Nagai
A 70-year-old woman with lymphadenopathy was admitted to hospital in 2008. Lymph node biopsy showed reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (RH) with monoclonal proliferation of EBV. Her lymphadenopathy regressed without treatment. In 2014, the patient presented with nasal obstruction because of a left nasal mass. She was diagnosed with EBV-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) of the elderly based on the examination of a biopsy specimen of the mass. The IgH rearrangement in the specimens from the 2008 and the 2014 revealed that they were genetically identical...
December 27, 2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262325/b-cell-receptor-activation-and-chemical-induction-trigger-caspase-mediated-cleavage-of-pias1-to-facilitate-epstein-barr-virus-reactivation
#3
Kun Zhang, Dong-Wen Lv, Renfeng Li
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in tumor cells is predominately in the latent phase, but the virus can undergo lytic reactivation in response to various stimuli. However, the cellular factors that control latency and lytic replication are poorly defined. In this study, we demonstrated that a cellular factor, PIAS1, restricts EBV lytic replication. PIAS1 depletion significantly facilitated EBV reactivation, while PIAS1 reconstitution had the opposite effect. Remarkably, we found that various lytic triggers promote caspase-dependent cleavage of PIAS1 to antagonize PIAS1-mediated restriction and that caspase inhibition suppresses EBV replication through blocking PIAS1 cleavage...
December 19, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239916/early-experience-with-clinimacs-prodigy-ccs-ifn-gamma-system-in-selection-of-virus-specific-t-cells-from-third-party-donors-for-pediatric-patients-with-severe-viral-infections-after-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#4
Krisztián Kállay, Csaba Kassa, Marienn Réti, Éva Karászi, János Sinkó, Vera Goda, Anita Stréhn, Katalin Csordás, Orsolya Horváth, Attila Szederjesi, Szabolcs Tasnády, Apor Hardi, Gergely Kriván
Viral reactivation is a frequent complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation especially in children. For refractory cases, rapid virus-specific T-cell therapy would be ideally implemented within a few days. Over the course of a year in our pediatric cohort of 43 allogeneic transplantation, 9 patients fulfilled criteria for virus-specific T-cell therapy. Viral infections were due to cytomegalovirus (CMV) in 3, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in 2, and adenovirus (AdV) in 1 case, whereas >1 virus was detected in 3 cases...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230817/ebv-encoded-mirnas-target-atm-mediated-response-in-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma
#5
Raymond W-M Lung, Pok-Man Hau, Ken H-O Yu, Kevin Y Yip, Joanna H-M Tong, W-P Chak, Anthony W-H Chan, Ka-Hei Lam, Angela K-F Lo, Edith K-Y Tin, Shuk-Ling Chau, Jesse C-S Pang, Johnny S-H Kwan, Pierre Busson, Lawrence S Young, Lee-Fah Yap, Sai-Wah Tsao, Ka-Fai To, Kwok-Wai Lo
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a highly invasive epithelial malignancy that is prevalent in southern China and Southeast Asia. It is consistently associated with latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. In NPC, miR-BARTs, the EBV-encoded miRNAs derived from BamH1-A rightward transcripts are abundantly expressed and contribute to cancer development by targeting various cellular and viral genes. In this study, we establish a comprehensive transcriptional profile of EBV-encoded miRNAs in a panel of NPC patient-derived xenografts and an EBV-positive NPC cell line by small RNA sequencing...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221139/epstein-barr-virus-in-tumor-infiltrating-b-cells-of-myasthenia-gravis-thymoma-an-innocent-bystander-or-an-autoimmunity-mediator
#6
Paola Cavalcante, Stefania Marcuzzo, Sara Franzi, Barbara Galbardi, Lorenzo Maggi, Teresio Motta, Raffaella Ghislandi, Antonella Buzzi, Luisella Spinelli, Lorenzo Novellino, Fulvio Baggi, Carlo Antozzi, Fabio Conforti, Tommaso Martino De Pas, Massimo Barberis, Pia Bernasconi, Renato Mantegazza
The thymus plays a key role in myasthenia gravis (MG), a B cell-mediated autoimmune disorder affecting neuromuscular junction. Most MG patients have thymic abnormalities, including hyperplasia and thymoma, a neoplasm of thymic epithelial cells. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with autoimmune diseases and tumors. Recently, we showed EBV persistence and reactivation in hyperplastic MG thymuses, suggesting that EBV might contribute to intra-thymic B cell dysregulation in MG patients. Here, we investigated EBV involvement in thymoma-associated MG, by searching for EBV markers in MG (n=26) and non-MG (n=14) thymomas...
November 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214036/strong-viral-associations-with-sle-among-filipinos
#7
Evan S Vista, Michael H Weisman, Mariko L Ishimori, Hua Chen, Rebecka L Bourn, Ben F Bruner, Laniyati Hamijoyo, Robelle D Tanangunan, Noga J Gal, Julie M Robertson, John B Harley, Joel M Guthridge, Sandra V Navarra, Judith A James
Objectives: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is considered an important environmental factor in SLE aetiology, but the relationship between SLE and EBV in the Filipino population is unknown. We tested associations between SLE, lupus-associated autoantibodies and seropositivity for EBV and other herpes viruses in the Filipino population. Methods: Sera from Filipino patients with SLE (n=233), unaffected first-degree relatives (FDRs, n=543) and unrelated controls (n=221) were tested for antibodies against EBV, cytomegalovirus (CMV) and herpes simplex viruses (HSV-1 and HSV-2) by standardised ELISAs...
2017: Lupus Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208744/severity-of-acute-infectious-mononucleosis-correlates-with-cross-reactive-influenza-cd8-t-cell-receptor-repertoires
#8
Nuray Aslan, Levi B Watkin, Anna Gil, Rabinarayan Mishra, Fransenio G Clark, Raymond M Welsh, Dario Ghersi, Katherine Luzuriaga, Liisa K Selin
Fifty years after the discovery of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), it remains unclear how primary infection with this virus leads to massive CD8 T-cell expansion and acute infectious mononucleosis (AIM) in young adults. AIM can vary greatly in severity, from a mild transient influenza-like illness to a prolonged severe syndrome. We questioned whether expansion of a unique HLA-A2.01-restricted, cross-reactive CD8 T-cell response between influenza virus A-M158 (IAV-M1) and EBV BMLF1280 (EBV-BM) could modulate the immune response to EBV and play a role in determining the severity of AIM in 32 college students...
December 5, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207540/herpesvirus-and-autophagy-all-right-everybody-be-cool-this-is-a-robbery
#9
REVIEW
Marion Lussignol, Audrey Esclatine
Autophagy is an essential vacuolar process of the cell, leading to lysosomal degradation and recycling of proteins and organelles, which is extremely important in maintaining homeostasis. Multiple roles have been now associated with autophagy, in particular a pro-survival role in nutrient starvation or in stressful environments, a role in life span extension, in development, or in innate and adaptive immunity. This cellular process can also take over microorganisms or viral proteins inside autophagosomes and degrade them directly in autolysosomes and is then called xenophagy and virophagy, respectively...
December 4, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207444/abnormal-b-cell-development-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-what-the-genetics-tell-us
#10
REVIEW
Sarah Karrar, Deborah S Cunninghame Graham
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease characterised by B-cell dysfunction, production of autoantibodies directed towards cellular and nuclear components and tissue damage caused by immune complex deposition and inflammation. It largely affects women in the 3rd and 4th decades of life and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. In healthy individuals, B-cells with auto-reactive receptors are selected out during B-cell maturation, starting at the initial stages of B-cell receptor development in the bone marrow, through to the fine tuning that occurs in activated mature B-cells in secondary lymphoid tissue...
December 5, 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202043/epstein-barr-virus-induces-adhesion-receptor-cd226-dnam-1-expression-during-primary-b-cell-transformation-into-lymphoblastoid-cell-lines
#11
Lisa Grossman, Chris Chang, Joanne Dai, Pavel A Nikitin, Dereje D Jima, Sandeep S Dave, Micah A Luftig
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), an oncogenic herpesvirus, infects and transforms primary B cells into immortal lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs), providing a model for EBV-mediated tumorigenesis. EBV transformation stimulates robust homotypic aggregation, indicating that EBV induces molecules that mediate cell-cell adhesion. We report that EBV potently induced expression of the adhesion molecule CD226, which is not normally expressed on B cells. We found that early after infection of primary B cells, EBV promoted an increase in CD226 mRNA and protein expression...
November 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188583/infusions-of-epstein-barr-virus-specific-cytotoxic-t-lymphocytes-as-post-remission-therapy-in-high-risk-post-transplant-lymphoproliferative-disorder-patients-report-of-two-cases
#12
Nayoun Kim, Hyun-Jung Sohn, Joo Hyun Oh, Young-Woo Jeon, Hyun-Joo Lee, Hyun-Il Cho, Byung Ha Chung, Chul-Woo Yang, Tai-Gyu Kim, Seok-Goo Cho
Conventional therapeutic approaches to post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) occurring after solid-organ transplantation have shown only limited success in achieving durable response. Key factors driving the pathogenesis of PTLD include Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation and impaired immune surveillance due to prolonged immune suppression. Thus, EBV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (EBV-CTLs) have emerged as an alternative therapeutic approach for the treatment of EBV-associated PTLD by enhancing EBV-specific immunity...
November 29, 2017: International Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181178/development-of-lymphoma-from-the-donor-of-haploidentical-stem-cell-transplantation-a-case-report
#13
Linna Xie, Fang Zhou
Post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) is a serious complication following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The majority of the cases develop during the first year after the transplantation and are associated with reactivation of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV); the EBV-induced lymphoproliferation usually includes donor-derived B cells. We herein describe the case of a 28-year-old female patient who developed EBV-negative PTLD, namely diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), 6 months after receiving a haploidentical HSCT from her father...
November 2017: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178248/no-indication-of-increased-infection-rates-using-low-dose-alemtuzumab-instead-of-anti-thymocyte-globulin-as-graft-versus-host-disease-prophylaxis-before-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation
#14
Thomas Neumann, Laila Schneidewind, Thomas Thiele, Daniel Pink, Meike Schulze, Christian Schmidt, William Krüger
BACKGROUND: Alemtuzumab as part of the conditioning protocol is effective in reducing graft-versus-host disease (GvHD), but may be associated with increased infection rates, especially when using high doses (ie, 100 mg). METHODS: We performed a retrospective, single-centre, case-control study analysing the rates of neutropenic fever, cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation, clinical manifest toxoplasmosis, and clinical manifest human herpesvirus-6 (HHV6) infection using low-dose alemtuzumab in comparison with anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) as GvHD prophylaxis before allogeneic stem cell transplantation...
November 27, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174725/epstein-barr-virus-ebv-associated-reactive-and-indeterminate-lymphoid-proliferations-in-the-lymph-node
#15
REVIEW
Nadine Aguilera, Aaron Auerbach
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 15, 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169830/rapamycin-enhances-lytic-replication-of-epstein-barr-virus-in-gastric-carcinoma-cells-by-increasing-the-transcriptional-activities-of-immediate-early-lytic-promoters
#16
Man Wang, Wei Wu, Yinfeng Zhang, Guoliang Yao, Bianli Gu
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a human herpesvirus, is linked to both epithelial and lymphoid malignancies. Induction of EBV reactivation is a potential therapeutic strategy for EBV-associated tumors. In this study, we assessed the effects of rapamycin on EBV reactivation in gastric carcinoma cells. We found that rapamycin upregulated expression of EBV lytic proteins and increased the viral proliferation triggered by the EBV lytic inducer sodium butyrate. Reverse transcription-qPCR, luciferase activity assays, chromatin immunoprecipitation and western blotting were employed to explore the mechanism by which rapamycin promotes EBV reactivation...
November 20, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169653/-how-i-manage-ebv-reactivation-and-ebv-ptld-cmv-and-human-herpesvirus%C3%A2-6%C3%A2-reactivation-and-infection-after-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation-a-report-of-the-sfgm-tc-update
#17
REVIEW
Eolia Brissot, Tamim Alsuliman, Bérengère Gruson, Eric Hermet, Yordanka Tirefort, Ibrahim Yakoub-Agha, Sophie Alain
The French society of bone marrow transplantation and cell therapy (SFGM-TC) organizes annually workshops in the attempt to harmonize clinical practices between different francophone transplantation center. Here, we report our recommendations regarding the management of Epstein Barr virus reactivation and lymphoproliferative disorders, cytomegalovirus (CMV) and human herpes virus 6 (HHV6) after allogeneic stem cell transplantation.
November 20, 2017: Bulletin du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160853/therapeutic-strategies-against-epstein-barr-virus-associated-cancers-using-proteasome-inhibitors
#18
REVIEW
Kwai Fung Hui, Kam Pui Tam, Alan Kwok Shing Chiang
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is closely associated with several lymphomas (endemic Burkitt lymphoma, Hodgkin lymphoma and nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma) and epithelial cancers (nasopharyngeal carcinoma and gastric carcinoma). To maintain its persistence in the host cells, the virus manipulates the ubiquitin-proteasome system to regulate viral lytic reactivation, modify cell cycle checkpoints, prevent apoptosis and evade immune surveillance. In this review, we aim to provide an overview of the mechanisms by which the virus manipulates the ubiquitin-proteasome system in EBV-associated lymphoid and epithelial malignancies, to evaluate the efficacy of proteasome inhibitors on the treatment of these cancers and discuss potential novel viral-targeted treatment strategies against the EBV-associated cancers...
November 21, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144413/epstein-barr-virus-hijacks-dna-damage-response-transducers-to-orchestrate-its-life-cycle
#19
REVIEW
Pok Man Hau, Sai Wah Tsao
The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous virus that infects most of the human population. EBV infection is associated with multiple human cancers, including Burkitt's lymphoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma, a subset of gastric carcinomas, and almost all undifferentiated non-keratinizing nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Intensive research has shown that EBV triggers a DNA damage response (DDR) during primary infection and lytic reactivation. The EBV-encoded viral proteins have been implicated in deregulating the DDR signaling pathways...
November 16, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142137/the-epstein-barr-virus-episome-maneuvers-between-nuclear-chromatin-compartments-during-reactivation
#20
Stephanie A Moquin, Sean Thomas, Sean Whalen, Alix Warburton, Samantha G Fernandez, Alison A McBride, Katherine S Pollard, J J L Miranda
The human genome is structurally organized in three-dimensional space to facilitate functional partitioning of transcription. We learned that the latent episome of the human Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) preferentially associates with gene-poor chromosomes and avoids gene-rich chromosomes. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus behaves similarly, but human papillomavirus does not. Contacts localize on the EBV side to OriP, the latent origin of replication. This genetic element, and the EBNA1 protein that binds there, are sufficient to reconstitute chromosome association preferences of the entire episome...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
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