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EBV reactivation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495131/massive-intracerebral-epstein-barr-virus-reactivation-in-lethal-multiple-sclerosis-relapse-after-natalizumab-withdrawal
#1
Barbara Serafini, Eleonora Scorsi, Barbara Rosicarelli, Valérie Rigau, Eric Thouvenot, Francesca Aloisi
Rebound of disease activity in multiple sclerosis patients after natalizumab withdrawal is a potentially life-threatening event. To verify whether highly destructive inflammation after natalizumab withdrawal is associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation in central nervous system infiltrating B-lineage cells and cytotoxic immunity, we analyzed post-mortem brain tissue from a patient who died during a fulminating MS relapse following natalizumab withdrawal. Numerous EBV infected B cells/plasma cells and CD8+ T cells infiltrated all white matter lesions; the highest frequency of EBV lytically infected cells and granzyme B+ CD8+ T cells was observed in actively demyelinating lesions...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490592/epstein-barr-virus-rta-mediated-accumulation-of-dna-methylation-interferes-with-ctcf-binding-in-both-host-and-viral-genomes
#2
Yen-Ju Chen, Yu-Lian Chen, Yao Chang, Chung-Chun Wu, Ying-Chieh Ko, Sai Wah Tsao, Jen-Yang Chen, Su-Fang Lin
Rta, an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) immediate-early protein, reactivates viral lytic replication that is closely associated with tumorigenesis. In previous studies, we demonstrated that in epithelial cells Rta efficiently induced cellular senescence, which is an irreversible G1 arrest likely to provide a favorable environment for productive replications of EBV and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). To restrict progression of the cell cycle, Rta simultaneously upregulates CDK inhibitors and downregulates MYC, CCND1 and JUN, among others...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487730/the-methylation-status-and-expression-of-epstein-barr-virus-early-genes-barf1-and-bhrf1-in-epstein-barr-virus-associated-gastric-carcinomas
#3
Jing Li, Wen Liu, Kui Che, Yan Zhang, Zhenzhen Zhao, Bing Luo
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an important DNA virus which establishes latent infection in human malignancies. Expression of EBV-encoded genes in the associated tumors is strongly modulated by promoter CpG methylation of EBV genome. This study aimed to explore the methylation status of the promoters of EBV BamHI-A rightward frame 1 (BARF1) and BamHI-H rightward open reading frame 1 (BHRF1) and their influence on transcriptional expression, to further understand the roles of BARF1 and BHRF1 in the occurrence of EBV-associated cancer...
2017: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478837/the-spread-of-ebv-to-ectopic-lymphoid-aggregates-may-be-the-final-common-pathway-in-the-pathogenesis-of-me-cfs
#4
Willy Eriksen
According to the hypothesis presented here, myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) develops over 3 steps: Step 1 is characterized by the aggregation of lymphoid cells in dorsal root ganglia or other nervous structures. The cause of this formation of ectopic lymphoid aggregates may be an acute infection, asymptomatic reactivations of a common neurotropic virus, exposure to a neurotoxin, or physical injury to peripheral nerves. In step 2, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected lymphocytes or monocytes bring EBV from the circulation to one or several of these lymphoid aggregates, whereupon cell-to-cell transmission of EBV and proliferation of latently EBV-infected lymphocytes lead to the presence of many EBV-infected cells in the lymphoid aggregates...
May 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456021/parp1-restricts-epstein-barr-virus-lytic-reactivation-by-binding-the-bzlf1-promoter
#5
Lena N Lupey-Green, Stephanie A Moquin, Kayla A Martin, Shane M McDevitt, Michael Hulse, Lisa B Caruso, Richard T Pomerantz, Jj L Miranda, Italo Tempera
The Epstein Barr virus (EBV) genome persists in infected host cells as a chromatinized episome and is subject to chromatin-mediated regulation. Binding of the host insulator protein CTCF to the EBV genome has an established role in maintaining viral latency type, and in other herpesviruses, loss of CTCF binding at specific regions correlates with viral reactivation. Here, we demonstrate that binding of PARP1, an important cofactor of CTCF, at the BZLF1 lytic switch promoter restricts EBV reactivation. Knockdown of PARP1 in the Akata-EBV cell line significantly increases viral copy number and lytic protein expression...
April 26, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452728/cytokine-production-peculiarities-in-different-forms-of-epstein-barr-virus-infection
#6
М Popov, Т Lyadova, О Volobuyeva, N Shepileva, А Kozlov, О Sorokina
In article presented results of the study of basic levels of regulatory cytokines in patients with various forms of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. Analysis of the dynamics of cytokine profile in patients with EBV infection revealed the opposite changes studied synthesis of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, which was the basis for the establishment of the four types of immune response. The findings confirm the existence of cytokine imbalance with EBV infection. The established types of immune responses indicate inadequate cell humoral reactivity in a long persistence of EBV, which manifests a tendency to suppression of cell-mediated and humoral immune response enhancement mechanisms and displayed in the clinical and biochemical manifestations of the disease, and also leads to prolonged undulating course...
February 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447898/splenic-epstein-barr-virus-associated-inflammatory-pseudotumor
#7
Chris Van Baeten, Jo Van Dorpe
Splenic inflammatory pseudotumor (IPT) is an uncommon lesion with an inflammatory morphologic aspect that often poses a diagnostic challenge. The etiology of IPT can be infectious, autoimmune, reactive, or neoplastic. Splenic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated IPTs form a subset of splenic IPTs in which there is a spindle cell component infected by EBV. The best characterized and most frequent subgroup of splenic EBV-associated IPT is IPT-like follicular dendritic cell tumor. This review also focusses on EBV-associated splenic IPTs without follicular dendritic cell marker expression...
May 2017: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435676/understanding-cd8-t-cell-responses-toward-the-native-and-alternate-hla-a-02-01-restricted-wt1-epitope
#8
Thi Ho Nguyen, Amabel Cl Tan, Sue D Xiang, Anne Goubier, Kim L Harland, E Bridie Clemens, Magdalena Plebanski, Katherine Kedzierska
The Wilms' tumor 1 (WT1) antigen is expressed in solid and hematological malignancies, but not healthy tissues, making it a promising target for cancer immunotherapies. Immunodominant WT1 epitopes, the native HLA-A2/WT1126-134 (RMFPNAPYL) (HLA-A2/RMFPNAPYL epitope (WT1A)) and its modified variant YMFPNAPYL (HLA-A2/YMFPNAPYL epitope (WT1B)), can induce WT1-specific CD8(+) T cells, although WT1B is more stably bound to HLA-A*02:01. Here, to further determine the benefits of those two targets, we assessed the naive precursor frequencies; immunogenicity and cross-reactivity of CD8(+) T cells directed toward these two WT1 epitopes...
March 2017: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414949/ebv-encoded-micrornas-profile-evaluation-in-pediatric-liver-transplant-recipients
#9
Massimiliano Bergallo, Stefano Gambarino, Michele Pinon, Veronica Barat, Paola Montanari, Valentina Daprà, Ilaria Galliano, Pier Luigi Calvo
BACKGROUND: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infects 90% of the world population, commonly causing self-limiting infectious mononucleosis or rarely inciting a range of malignancies. EBV microRNAs (miRNAs) were discovered by sequencing libraries of small RNAs generated from several EBV-positive cell lines. Little is known about their roles, but their high stability and easy quantification make these molecules potential biomarkers. OBJECTIVES: In this study a stem-loop MGB real-time RT-PCR has been used to detect and quantify miR-BART2-5p, miR-BART15 and miR-BART22 EBV miRNAs levels...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398495/a-histological-study-of-fulminant-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-related-to-human-cytomegalovirus-reactivation
#10
Sho Yoneda, Akihisa Imagawa, Kenji Fukui, Sae Uno, Junji Kozawa, Makoto Sakai, Toshiki Yumioka, Hiromi Iwahashi, Iichiro Shimomura
Context: Fulminant type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is thought to be partly caused by virus infection. Objective: This study investigated the mechanism of β cell destruction in fulminant T1DM after drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS). Methods: We determined the localization of viruses of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and the expression of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and viral receptors of Z DNA binding protein 1 (ZBP1) and retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I), together with inflammatory cells by immunohistochemistry of pancreas from an autopsy fulminant T1DM patient with DIHS or seven subjects with normal glucose tolerance who underwent pancreatectomy...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392330/viral-reactivations-and-associated-outcomes-in-context-of-immune-reconstitution-after-pediatric-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation
#11
Rick Admiraal, Coco de Koning, Caroline A Lindemans, Marc B Bierings, Annemarie M J Wensing, A Birgitta Versluys, Tom F W Wolfs, Stefan Nierkens, Jaap Jan Boelens
BACKGROUND: Viral reactivations (VR) following hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) contribute to significant morbidity and mortality. Timely immune reconstitution (IR) is suggested to prevent VR. OBJECTIVES: We studied the relation between IR (as a continuous over-time-predictor) and VR (as time-varying-predictor), and the relation between VR and other clinical outcomes. METHODS: In this retrospective analysis, all patients receiving a first HCT between January-2004 and September-2014 were included...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383790/post-transplant-lymphoproliferative-disease-in-lung-transplantation-a-nested-case-control-study
#12
Annelies Leyssens, Daan Dierickx, Eric K Verbeken, Thomas Tousseyn, Stijn E Verleden, Bart M Vanaudenaerde, Lieven J Dupont, Jonas Yserbyt, Geert M Verleden, Dirk E Van Raemdonck, Robin Vos
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) may compromise long-term outcome of lung transplant (LTx) recipients. A case-control study was performed, comparing LTx recipients with PTLD (n=31) to matched recipients without PTLD (Controls, n=62). Risk factors for PTLD and post-transplant outcomes were assessed. PTLD prevalence was 3.9%, time to PTLD 323 (166-1132) days; and 54.8% had early-onset PTLD versus 45.2% late-onset PTLD. At LTx, more Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-seronegative patients were present in PTLD (42%) compared to Controls (5%) (P<...
April 6, 2017: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376031/the-immune-response-to-epstein-barr-virus-and-implications-for-posttransplant-lymphoproliferative-disorder
#13
Olivia M Martinez, Sheri M Krams
Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a serious complication in organ transplant recipients and is most often associated with the Epstein Barr virus (EBV). EBV is a common gammaherpes virus with tropism for B lymphocytes and infection in immunocompetent individuals is typically asymptomatic and benign. However, infection in immunocompromised or immunosuppressed individuals can result in malignant B cell lymphoproliferations such as PTLD. EBV+ PTLD can arise following primary EBV infection, or because of reactivation of a prior infection, and represents a leading malignancy in the transplant population...
April 4, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364845/using-item-response-theory-to-optimize-measurement-of-chronic-stress-in-pregnancy
#14
Ann E B Borders, Jin-Shei Lai, Kaitlin Wolfe, Sameen Qadir, Jie Peng, Kwang-Youn Kim, Lauren Keenan-Devlin, Jane Holl, William Grobman
OBJECTIVE: Utilize Rasch analysis to develop an optimized self-reported measure of stress in pregnancy and examine the association with patient demographics and biologic measures of stress. STUDY DESIGN: Measured self-reported stress in pregnant women using 12 existing scales. Collected blood for biologic measures of stress (Epstein Barr Virus [EBV], C-Reactive Protein [CRP], Corticotropin Reactive Hormone [pCRH], and Adenocorticotropin Hormone [ACTH]). Used multidimensional scaling and Rasch analysis to produce an item reduced self-report measure...
May 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355720/-the-clinical-characteristics-of-adult-hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis-treated-with-haploidentical-donor-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#15
L Fu, N Wei, J S Wang, L Wu, Y N Wang, D Y Huang, J L Liu, Z Wang
Objective: To analyze the clinical characteristics of adult patients with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) receiving haploidentical donor hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HID HSCT). Method: We retrospectively reviewed 20 adult patients with HLH from August 2009 to August 2014.The clinical features and outcome were analyzed. Results: Conditioning regimens consisted of total body irradiation/etoposide/cyclophosphamide (TBI/VP-16/CTX) and busulfan (Bu)/VP-16/CTX in HLH with anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) 8 mg/kg...
April 1, 2017: Zhonghua Nei Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333576/epstein-barr-virus-lytic-reactivation-activates-b-cells-polyclonally-and-induces-activation-induced-cytidine-deaminase-expression-a-mechanism-underlying-autoimmunity-and-its-contribution-to-graves-disease
#16
Keiko Nagata, Keisuke Kumata, Yuji Nakayama, Yukio Satoh, Hirotsugu Sugihara, Sayuri Hara, Michiko Matsushita, Satoshi Kuwamoto, Masako Kato, Ichiro Murakami, Kazuhiko Hayashi
Graves' disease is an autoimmune disease that results in and is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism, and the reactivation of persisting Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in B lymphocytes induces the differentiation of host B cells into plasma cells. We previously reported that some EBV-infected B cells had thyrotropin receptor antibodies (TRAbs) as surface immunoglobulins (Igs), and EBV reactivation induced these TRAb+EBV+ cells to produce TRAbs. EBV reactivation induces Ig production from host B cells. The purpose of the present study was to examine total Ig productions from B cell culture fluids and to detect activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), and EBV latent membrane protein (LMP) 1 in culture B cells during EBV reactivation induction and then we discussed the mechanisms of EBV reactivation-induced Ig production in relation to autoimmunity...
April 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332898/herpes-simplex-virus-1-and-cytomegalovirus-dnas-detection-in-the-inner-ear-of-implanted-patients-with-non-congenital-infection
#17
Walter Di Nardo, Roberta Anzivino, Paola Cattani, Rosaria Santangelo, Eugenio De Corso, Gaetano Paludetti
CONCLUSIONS: The detection of cytomegalovirus (CMV) and herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) genome in perilymph of patients with negative serology or clinical history for congenital infections supports the hypothesis that Herpesviridae, even after acquired postnatal infections, could remain in latent phase in the spiral ganglion and damage the cochlea by a possible subsequent reactivation. Further studies are needed to identify the markers of such reactivation. OBJECTIVE: To identify the presence of certain viral species in the endolabyrinthic fluid of deaf patients with non-congenital infection...
March 23, 2017: Acta Oto-laryngologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328987/a-novel-recombinant-variant-of-latent-membrane-protein-1-from-epstein-barr-virus-in-argentina-denotes-phylogeographical-association
#18
Magdalena Gantuz, Mario Alejandro Lorenzetti, Paola Andrea Chabay, María Victoria Preciado
AIM: To study LMP1 variants distribution among children with EBV+ malignant and benign conditions as well as in healthy carriers. METHODS: Oral secretions and blood cells from 31 children with IM, and biopsies from 14 EBV+ reactive lymphoid hyperplasia and 33 EBV+ lymphomas were included. LMP1 was amplified by nested PCR and sequenced. Phylogenetic reconstructions were made under Maximun Likelihood, Bayesian and coalescent algorithms. RESULTS: Six clades were defined (China1, China2, Med-, Alaskan, B95...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280938/viral-load-of-ebv-dnaemia-is-a-predictor-of-ebv-related-post-transplant-lymphoproliferative-disorders-in-pediatric-renal-transplant-recipients
#19
Elisa Colombini, Isabella Guzzo, Federica Morolli, Germana Longo, Cristina Russo, Alessandra Lombardi, Pietro Merli, Luisa Barzon, Luisa Murer, Simone Piga, Marta Luisa Ciofi Degli Atti, Franco Locatelli, Luca Dello Strologo
BACKGROUND: Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a severe complication of solid organ transplantation that can be classified into two major subtypes, namely, early lesions and non-early lesions, based on histopathological findings. In the vast majority of cases, proliferating cells are B lymphocytes and, most frequently, proliferation is induced by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. METHODS: The aim of our study was to evaluate the natural history of EBV infection and its possible evolution toward PTLD in a pediatric cohort of patients who received a renal transplant between January 2000 and December 2013...
March 9, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271981/understanding-epstein-barr-virus-life-cycle-with-proteomics-a-temporal-analysis-of-ubiquitination-during-virus-reactivation
#20
Dong-Wen Lv, Jun Zhong, Kun Zhang, Akhilesh Pandey, Renfeng Li
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a human γ-herpesvirus associated with cancer, including Burkitt lymphoma, nasopharyngeal, and gastric carcinoma. EBV reactivation in latently infected B cells is essential for persistent infection whereby B cell receptor (BCR) activation is a physiologically relevant stimulus. Yet, a global view of BCR activation-regulated protein ubiquitination is lacking when EBV is actively replicating. We report here, for the first time, the long-term effects of IgG cross-linking-regulated protein ubiquitination and offer a basis for dissecting the cellular environment during the course of EBV lytic replication...
January 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
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