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FAS 酒精 神经

Kristina H Jackson, William S Harris
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Fatty acid (FA) profiles in different blood compartments are reflections of both diet and metabolism, and some FA levels are related to disease risk. RECENT FINDINGS: Perhaps the most studied FA-disease relationship is between long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Despite null results from recent large omega-3 FA supplementation trials, new research continues to support past studies showing that blood levels of EPA + DHA are inversely related to risk for total mortality and fatal CVD events...
March 20, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Yu Fu, Yingze Wang
Serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins are a family of important splicing factors, which are involved in multiple aspects of RNA processing, including splicing, mRNA nuclear export, mRNA stability and translation. Previous studies have identified a number of SR proteins that exhibit abnormal expression in various tumor types. In the present study, the expression and function of serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 7 (SRSF7) were investigated in colon and lung cancer. Using tissue immunohistochemistry, it was observed that SRSF7 was overexpressed in colon and lung cancer tissues...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Jun He, Heyang Zheng, Daodong Pan, Tao Liu, Yangying Sun, Jinxuan Cao, Zhen Wu, Xiaoqun Zeng
Sheldrake is a duck breed widely used for its meat and eggs. In this study, the quantities of abdominal fat, sebum, intramuscular fat and liver fat, meat quality (pH, cooking loss, drip loss, and shear force), and expression and activity of several enzymes at different ages were determined. The results showed that the fat content increased (P < 0.05) during the aging process (90 d, 180 d, 270 d, and 360 d). Fatty acid synthase (FAS) and malic enzyme (ME) were chosen to represent the activity of lipid biosynthesis in Sheldrake ducks...
March 15, 2018: Poultry Science
Yogi Umbarawan, Mas Rizky A A Syamsunarno, Norimichi Koitabashi, Aiko Yamaguchi, Hirofumi Hanaoka, Takako Hishiki, Yoshiko Nagahata-Naito, Hideru Obinata, Motoaki Sano, Hiroaki Sunaga, Hiroki Matsui, Yoshito Tsushima, Makoto Suematsu, Masahiko Kurabayashi, Tatsuya Iso
Aims: The metabolism of the failing heart is characterized by an increase in glucose uptake with reduced fatty acid (FA) oxidation. We previously found that the genetic deletion of fatty acid binding protein-4 and -5 (DKO) induces an increased myocardial reliance on glucose with decreased FA uptake in mice. However, whether this fuel switch confers functional benefit during the hypertrophic response remains open to debate. To address this question, we investigated the contractile function and metabolic profile of DKO hearts subjected to pressure overload...
March 15, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
Taewon Yuk, Younghwa Kim, Jinwoo Yang, Jeehye Sung, Heon Sang Jeong, Junsoo Lee
We aimed to investigate the effects of nobiletin on hepatic lipogenesis in high glucose-induced lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells. Nobiletin, a citrus polymethoxyflavonoid with six methoxy groups, is present abundantly in the peels of citrus fruits. HepG2 cells were incubated in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium containing high glucose (25 mM) and subsequently treated with nobiletin at different concentrations (5, 25, and 50  μ M). Results showed that nobiletin markedly inhibited high glucose-induced hepatic lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Dongxia Fu, Haibin Cui, Yunna Zhang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease. This study aims to investigate whether chloride channel 2 (ClC-2) is involved in high fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD and possible molecular mechanisms. METHODS: ClC-2 expression was liver-specifically downregulated using adeno-associated virus in C57BL/6 mice treated with a chow diet or HFD for 12 weeks. Peripheral blood and liver tissues were collected for biochemical and pathological estimation respectively...
March 10, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Jiaxing Kong, Jialei Shi, Zheyan Chen, Yuan Zeng, Hui Chang, Jiannong Ye, Qingcui Chu
A tributyl phosphate assisted hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction coupled with capillary electrophoresis-contactless coupled conductivity detection (HF-LPME/CE-C4 D) method has been developed for trace analysis of common short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) without derivatization. Under the optimum conditions, ten SCFAs including a pair of isomers were well separated from their homologous FAs and the main coexisting inorganic anions within 40 min. Tributyl phosphate assisted HF-LPME produced excellent purification and enrichment for the model sample with high-salt matrix, microbial degradation fluid, and the limits of detection could reach 0...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Meng Xin, Yang Sun, Haijiao Chen, Quancai Li, Yunlou Dun, Huashi Guan, Jiejie Hao, Chunxia Li
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the No. 1 cause of death worldwide. Hyperlipidemia is one of the major risk factors for CVD. Maintaining lipid homeostasis is an effective way to prevent CVD. We prepared propylene glycol guluronate sulfate (PGGS), a sulfated polysaccharide, and investigated its effect on lipid metabolism in HepG2 cells. We found that total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG) were significantly decreased in the cells after PGGS treatment. We have also shown that the AMPK signaling is activated after PGGS treatment as evidenced by changes in the expression of many AMPK downstream targets including SREBP-1c, SIRT-1, CPT1, PPARα, and FAS...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Tobias Boch, Thomas Luft, Georgia Metzgeroth, Maximilian Mossner, Johann-Christoph Jann, Daniel Nowak, Franziska La Meir, Christiane Schumann, Jennifer Klemmer, Susanne Brendel, Harald Fricke, Claudia Kunz, Christel Weiß, Wolf-Karsten Hofmann, Florian Nolte
In low risk MDS, increased apoptosis of erythroid progenitors mediated via CD95 (Fas) activation has been described to result in peripheral cytopenia. Blockade of the CD95 system can improve erythropoiesis in MDS. Asunercept (APG101) is a fusion protein consisting of the extracellular domain of human CD95 and the Fc domain of human IgG1 blocking the interaction between CD95 and its ligand. Here we report on results from a phase I study in 20 transfusion-dependent low and intermediate risk MDS patients treated with intravenous asunercept (EudraCT 2012-003027-37)...
March 10, 2018: Leukemia Research
David Asuzu, Kevin Y Pei, Kimberly A Davis
BACKGROUND: Small bowel obstruction is common and often requires surgical management. Simple preoperative models are lacking to predict post-operative complications after surgical management of adhesive small bowel obstruction. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed data from 15,036 patients who underwent open lysis of adhesions for small bowel obstruction from 2005 to 2013 using the American College of Surgeons (ACS) National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database...
March 6, 2018: American Journal of Surgery
S Yurchenko, A Sats, V Tatar, T Kaart, H Mootse, I Jõudu
Recent years have had an increased demand for goat milk and its products. The quality of goat milk is determined, in part, by the fatty acid (FA) profile, but there is little information about breed influence on the FA profile of goat milk. The aim of this study was to describe and compare FA profiles of goat milk produced by Saanen and Swedish Landrace breeds. FA profiles were analysed by gas chromatography with a flame ionisation detector using 100 m capillary column coated with ionic liquids of extreme polarity (SLB-IL111)...
July 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Hilal Ahmad Parray, Jameel Lone, Jong Pil Park, Jang Won Choi, Jong Won Yun
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the browning and antioxidative effects of magnolol in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, as recruitment of beige-like adipocytes (browning) by natural compounds is being considered as a promising strategy to fight against obesity. METHODS: Magnolol-induced browning effect was evaluated by determining the expression levels of specific marker genes and proteins using real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting, respectively...
February 5, 2018: Nutrition
Gary J Hausman
Adipose tissue exists in many locations or depots that differ from one another based on numerous and various characteristics. The unique "layered" anatomical feature of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) in man and the pig is reviewed and discussed. The origin of fetal pig adipose tissue subcutaneous layers is reviewed before the onset of adipogenesis and after the overt adipogenesis. Furthermore, the distinguishing characteristics of developing outer SAT layer (OSQ) and middle SAT layer (MSQ) in pigs are reviewed...
March 16, 2018: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
Kaitlin Roke, Jodi Rattner, Paula Brauer, David M Mutch
PURPOSE: To assess awareness of omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) and their possible health effects among young adults. METHODS: An online survey was deployed to young adults. Questionnaire development involved identification of topic areas by content experts and adaptation of questions from previous consumer surveys. Focus groups and cognitive interviews ensured face validity, feasibility, and clarity of survey questions. Degrees of awareness and self-reported consumption were assessed by descriptive statistics and associations by Cochran's Q tests, Pearson's χ2 tests, Z-tests, and logistic regression...
March 16, 2018: Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research
Milad Moloudizargari, Esmaeil Mortaz, Mohammad Hossein Asghari, Ian M Adcock, Frank A Redegeld, Johan Garssen
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have well established anti-cancer properties. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are among this biologically active family of macromolecules for which various anti-cancer effects have been explained. These PUFAs have a high safety profile and can induce apoptosis and inhibit growth of cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo , following a partially selective manner. They also increase the efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents by increasing the sensitivity of different cell lines to specific anti-neoplastic drugs...
February 20, 2018: Oncotarget
Allison M Weis, Raymond Soto, June L Round
The commensal microbiota influences many aspects of immune system regulation, including T cells, but molecular details of how this occurs are largely unknown. Here we review our findings that the microbiota regulates Erdr1, a secreted apoptotic factor, to control T cell survival. Erdr1 is highly upregulated in CD4+ T cells from germfree mice and antibiotic treated animals, and our study shows that Erdr1 is suppressed by the microbiota via Toll-like receptor signaling and MyD88 dependent pathways. Erdr1 functions in an autocrine fashion and promotes apoptosis through the FAS/FASL pathway...
March 15, 2018: Gut Microbes
Marco M Manni, Marion L Tiberti, Sophie Pagnotta, Hélène Barelli, Romain Gautier, Bruno Antonny
Phospholipid membranes form cellular barriers but need to be flexible enough to divide by fission. Phospholipids generally contain a saturated fatty acid (FA) at position sn1 whereas the sn2 -FA is saturated, monounsaturated or polyunsaturated. Our understanding of the impact of phospholipid unsaturation on membrane flexibility and fission is fragmentary. Here, we provide a comprehensive view of the effects of the FA profile of phospholipids on membrane vesiculation by dynamin and endophilin. Coupled to simulations, this analysis indicates that: (i) phospholipids with two polyunsaturated FAs make membranes prone to vesiculation but highly permeable; (ii) asymmetric sn1 -saturated- sn2 -polyunsaturated phospholipids provide a tradeoff between efficient membrane vesiculation and low membrane permeability; (iii) When incorporated into phospholipids, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; omega-3) makes membranes more deformable than arachidonic acid (omega-6)...
March 15, 2018: ELife
Rezvan Asgari, Kheirollah Yari, Kamran Mansouri, Mitra Bakhtiari
The interaction of FAS/FAS ligand (FASL) serves an important role in the upregulation of apoptotic processes through different mechanisms in cells. Previous studies have established that the polymorphisms FAS -670A/G and FASL -844C/T are associated with risk of generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAP) in different ethnic populations. Therefore, in the present study, it was investigated for the first time whether FAS -670A/G and FASL -844C/T polymorphisms were associated with risk of GAP in Iran. This case-control study performed the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method in 25 patients with GAP and 110 normal subjects as controls...
April 2018: Biomedical Reports
Kosuke Dodo, Tadashi Shimizu, Jun Sasamori, Kazuyuki Aihara, Naoki Terayama, Shuhei Nakao, Katsuya Iuchi, Masahiro Takahashi, Mikiko Sodeoka
We previously developed IM-54 as a novel type of inhibitor of hydrogen-peroxide-induced necrotic cell death. Here, we examined its cell death inhibition profile. IM-54 was found to selectively inhibit oxidative stress-induced necrosis, but it did not inhibit apoptosis induced by various anticancer drugs or Fas ligand, or necroptosis. IM-17 , an IM derivative having improved water-solubility and metabolic stability, was developed and confirmed to retain necrosis-inhibitory activity. IM-17 showed cardioprotective effects in an isolated rat heart model and an in vivo arrhythmia model, suggesting that IM derivatives may have therapeutic potential...
March 8, 2018: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Xiaoxing Kou, Xingtian Xu, Chider Chen, Maria Laura Sanmillan, Tao Cai, Yanheng Zhou, Claudio Giraudo, Anh Le, Songtao Shi
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are capable of secreting exosomes, extracellular vesicles, and cytokines to regulate cell and tissue homeostasis. However, it is unknown whether MSCs use a specific exocytotic fusion mechanism to secrete exosomes and cytokines. We show that Fas binds with Fas-associated phosphatase-1 (Fap-1) and caveolin-1 (Cav-1) to activate a common soluble N -ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) attachment protein receptor (SNARE)-mediated membrane fusion mechanism to release small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) in MSCs...
March 14, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
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