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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923259/-established-therapies-and-new-therapeutic-strategies-in-alcoholic-liver-disease
#1
Helmut Karl Seitz, Sebastian Mueller
Chronical alcohol abuse causes more than 200 diseases and/or symptoms and among these alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is of special importance since it occurs frequently and may be life-threatening. In Europe alcohol consumption as well as ALD increased as compared to the rest of the world. It has been estimated that in Europe approximately 500 000 people die every year due to ALD. ALD consists of alcoholic fatty liver, alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH), alcoholic cirrhosis and hepatocellar cancer (HCC ). Alcohol hepatitis (AH) is a clinical feature with jaundice and liver failure and a high mortality...
December 6, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920470/nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-multisystem-disease
#2
REVIEW
Ivana Mikolasevic, Sandra Milic, Tamara Turk Wensveen, Ivana Grgic, Ivan Jakopcic, Davor Stimac, Felix Wensveen, Lidija Orlic
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common comorbidities associated with overweight and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Importantly, NAFLD is one of its most dangerous complications because it can lead to severe liver pathologies, including fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatic cellular carcinoma. Given the increasing worldwide prevalence of obesity, NAFLD has become the most common cause of chronic liver disease and therefore is a major global health problem. Currently, NAFLD is predominantly regarded as a hepatic manifestation of MetS...
November 21, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918312/physician-patient-communication-is-associated-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma-screening-in-chronic-liver-disease-patients
#3
Deborah J Li, Yikyung Park, Neeta Vachharajani, Wint Yan Aung, Jacqueline Garonzik-Wang, William C Chapman
BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic liver disease are at high risk for developing liver cancer. Factors associated with screening awareness and doctor-patient communication regarding liver cancer were examined. STUDY: Four hundred sixty-seven patients with chronic liver disease at a tertiary-care clinic participated in a phone survey regarding awareness of cancer screening, doctor-patient communication, and health behaviors. Medical records were retrospectively reviewed for data on liver disease etiology and dates of liver imaging tests...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916144/non-communicable-diseases-at-a-regional-hospital-in-nepal-findings-of-a-high-burden-of-alcohol-related-disease
#4
M S Amundsen, T M G Kirkeby, S Giri, R Koju, S S Krishna, B Ystgaard, E Solligård, K Risnes
Recent global burden of disease reports find that a major proportion of global deaths and disability worldwide can be attributed to alcohol use. Thus, it may be surprising that very few studies have reported on the burden of alcohol-related disease in low income settings. The evidence of non-communicable disease (NCD) burden in Nepal was recently reviewed and concluded that data is still lacking, particularly to describe the burden of alcohol-related diseases (ARDs). Therefore, here we report on NCD burden and specifically ARDs, in hospitalized patients at a regional hospital in Nepal...
December 2016: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903585/autophagy-in-chronic-liver-diseases-the-two-faces-of-janus
#5
Philippe Gual, Helene Gilgenkrantz, Sophie Lotersztajn
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are the leading causes of cirrhosis and increase the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma and liver-related death. ALD and NAFLD share common pathogenic features extending from isolated steatosis to steatohepatitis, steatofibrosis, which can progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The pathophysiological mechanisms of the progression of NAFLD and ALD are complex and still unclear. Important links between the regulation of autophagy (Macroautophagy and Chaperome-mediated autophagy) and chronic liver diseases have been reported...
November 30, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899923/community-metabolome-correlations-of-gut-microbiota-from-child-turcotte-pugh-of-a-and-b-patients
#6
Xiao Wei, Shan Jiang, Xiangna Zhao, Huan Li, Weishi Lin, Boxing Li, Jing Lu, Yansong Sun, Jing Yuan
The gut flora are widely involved in the cometabolism with the host and have evident effects on the metabolic phenotype of host. This study performed a metabolome analysis of the intestinal microbiota specific for liver cirrhosis. The study population included patients with Child-Turcotte-Pugh score of A (AP, n = 5) and B (BP, n = 5), and control subjects (NM, n = 3). Metagenomic DNA from fecal microbiota was extracted followed by metagenomic sequencing through Illumina MiSeq high throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA regions...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896931/risk-of-empyema-in-patients-with-chronic-liver-disease-and-cirrhosis-a-nationwide-population-based-cohort-study
#7
Te-Chun Shen, Chia-Hung Chen, Hsueh-Chou Lai, Cheng-Li Lin, Chih-Yen Tu, Te-Chun Hsia, Chuen-Ming Shih, Wu-Huei Hsu, Fung-Chang Sung
BACKGROUND: Empyema is an important complication for patients with chronic liver disease and cirrhosis (CLDC). However, no study has investigated this relationship by using a population-based cohort study. METHODS: We used the National Health Insurance Research Data of Taiwan to identify a cohort of 76,027 CLDC patients newly diagnosed in 2000-2010 and a comparison cohort without CLDC of same size matched by age, gender and the year of diagnosis. The occurrence of empyema was monitored until the end of 2011...
November 29, 2016: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895861/an-unusual-cause-of-anemia-in-cirrhosis-spur-cell-anemia-a-case-report-with-review-of-literature
#8
Graziella Privitera, Giovanni Meli
Chronic anemia is common in liver cirrhosis. In this setting, the pathogenesis of anemia is complex and multifactorial. Spur cell anemia is a serious disorder in cirrhotic patients and is associated with poor prognosis. Liver transplantation constitutes the only therapeutic tool. We report a case with severe spur cell anemia in alcoholic liver cirrhosis. In the attempt to investigate the origin of the disorder, we have evaluated the lipoprotein profile and found a significant reduction of apolipoprotein AI and HDL3 subclass as a possible cause of the disease...
2016: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895393/emerging-role-of-obeticholic-acid-in-the-management-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#9
EDITORIAL
Evangelia Makri, Evangelos Cholongitas, Konstantinos Tziomalos
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the commonest chronic liver disease and its prevalence is increasing driven by the pandemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. NAFLD can progress to cirrhosis and is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease and hepatocellular cancer. Diet and exercise are limited by suboptimal long-term adherence in patients with NAFLD. On the other hand, current pharmacological treatment of NAFLD has limited efficacy and unfavorable safety profile. In this context, obeticholic acid (OCA), a selective agonist of the farnesoid X receptors, might represent a useful option in these patients...
November 7, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894795/histological-parameters-and-alcohol-abstinence-determine-long-term-prognosis-in-patients-with-alcoholic-liver-disease
#10
Carolin Lackner, Walter Spindelboeck, Johannes Haybaeck, Philipp Douschan, Florian Rainer, Luigi Terracciano, Josef Haas, Andrea Berghold, Ramon Bataller, Rudolf E Stauber
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Few data exist on predictors of long-term prognosis in patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Most studies have only assessed short-term prognosis in patients with advanced ALD. We aimed to assess the prognostic impact of clinical, biochemical and histological parameters on long-term prognosis in patients with early/compensated and decompensated ALD. METHODS: Consecutive patients (n=192) with biopsy-proven liver disease due to alcohol abuse were analyzed retrospectively...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892720/association-between-chronic-pancreatitis-and-pyogenic-liver-abscess-a-nationwide-population-study
#11
Chih-Wei Tseng, Yu-Tso Chen, Cheng-Li Lin, Ji-An Liang
BACKGROUND: The relationship between chronic pancreatitis (CP) and subsequent pyogenic liver abscess (PLA) is not well understood. METHODS: We investigated the risk of PLA in patients with CP using inpatient claims data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program for the period 2000-2010, we identified 17,810 patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP group) and 71,240 patients without CP (non-CP group). Both cohorts were followed until a diagnosis of PLA, until they were censored from the study because of loss to follow-up, death, or termination of insurance, or until the study cut-off date of December 31, 2011...
November 28, 2016: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891128/immune-imbalances-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-from-general-biomarkers-and-neutrophils-to-interleukin-17-axis-activation-and-new-therapeutic-targets
#12
REVIEW
Feliciano Chanana Paquissi
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an increasing problem worldwide and is associated with negative outcomes such as cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular events. Current evidence shows that the immune response has an important participation driving the initiation, maintenance, and progression of the disease. So, various immune imbalances, from cellular to cytokines levels, have been studied, either for better compression of the disease pathophysiology or as biomarkers for severity assessment and outcome prediction...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889327/epigenetics-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#13
REVIEW
Jooho Lee, Yuri Kim, Simonetta Friso, Sang-Woon Choi
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a common hepatic disorder ranging from simple steatosis through steatohepatitis to fibrosis and cirrhosis, is an emerging health concern. NAFLD is a pathologic condition characterized by the buildup of extra fat in liver cells that is not caused by alcohol consumption. Excess hepatic fat accumulation results from increased delivery of triglycerides (TG) to the liver or conversion of surplus carbohydrates to TG. Importantly, a subgroup of NAFLD results in hepatocellular injury and inflammation, which is referred to as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and may progress to irreversible cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)...
November 23, 2016: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888819/lost-life-years-due-to-premature-deaths-caused-by-diseases-of-the-digestive-system-in-poland-in-2013
#14
Paulina Paciej, Beata Ciabiada, Irena Maniecka-Bryła
BACKGROUND: In order to evaluate the health status of a population, besides indicators measuring the incidence of diseases and deaths, potential measures are becoming more frequently used, ie. measures that take into account life-time potential of the individuals in the population. They can particularly by applied to analyse the problem of premature mortality, which is measured by lost life years. AIM: The aim of the study was to evaluate life years lost due to diseases of digestive system in Polish population in 2013...
2016: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888664/ebv-associated-but-hhv8-unrelated-double-hit-effusion-based-lymphoma
#15
Bo-Jung Chen, David Yen-Ting Chen, Chun-Chi Kuo, Shih-Sung Chuang
Effusion-based lymphoma is a rare and unique type of large B-cell lymphoma presenting in effusion without a mass lesion. It shares many clinicopathological features with primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), but is distinct from PEL by the absence of HHV8 association. Double hit lymphoma (DHL) is an aggressive B-cell lymphoma, defined by concurrent rearrangement of MYC and BCL2 or BCL6. DHL often presents as lymphadenopathy or an extranodal mass, but rarely occurs in effusion. Here we report a 61-year-old male with alcoholic cirrhosis presenting as massive ascites and left pleural effusion...
November 26, 2016: Diagnostic Cytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888630/the-association-of-variants-in-pnpla3-and-grp78-and-the-risk-of-developing-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-an-italian-population
#16
Daniele Balasus, Michael Way, Caterina Fusilli, Tommaso Mazza, Marsha Y Morgan, Melchiorre Cervello, Lydia Giannitrapani, Maurizio Soresi, Rosalia Agliastro, Manlio Vinciguerra, Giuseppe Montalto
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has one of the worst prognoses amongst all malignancies. It commonly arises in patients with established liver disease and the diagnosis often occurs at an advanced stage. Genetic variations, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), may alter disease risk and thus may have use as predictive markers of disease outcome. The aims of this study were (i) to assess the association of two SNPs, rs430397 in GRP78 and rs738409 in PNPLA3 with the risk of developing HCC in a Sicilian association cohort and, (ii) to use a machine learning technique to establish a predictive combinatorial phenotypic model for HCC including rs430397 and rs738409 genotypes and clinical and laboratory attributes...
November 24, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882180/concentrations-of-fetuin-a-osteoprotegerin-and-%C3%AE-klotho-in-patients-with-alcoholic-liver-cirrhosis
#17
Andrzej Prystupa, Anna Dąbrowska, Jarosław Jerzy Sak, Jerzy Tarach, Anna Toruń-Jurkowska, Patrycja Lachowska-Kotowska, Grzegorz Dzida
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the concentrations of fetuin-A, osteoprotegerin (OPG) and α-Klotho protein in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis at different stages of the disease, and to demonstrate that fetuin-A, osteoprotegin and α-Klotho may be used as markers of the severity of cirrhosis. A total of 54 patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis treated in various hospitals in the Lublin region of Poland were randomly enrolled. The control group consisted of 18 healthy individuals without liver disease, who did not drink alcohol...
November 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878730/mesenchymal-epithelial-transition-in-culture-of-stromal-progenitor-cells-isolated-from-the-liver-of-a-patient-with-alcoholic-cirrhosis
#18
I V Kholodenko, R V Kholodenko, G V Manukyan, V V Burunova, K N Yarygin
The cells isolated from biopsy specimen of a patient with alcoholic liver cirrhosis and cultured under standard conditions for obtaining stromal cell culture clearly diverged during early passages into two morphologically and phenotypically different subtypes: epithelial and mesenchymal. Mesenchymal cells expressed CD90 and CD44 and epithelial cells expressed CD166, CD227, and hepatocyte growth factor receptor Met. Starting from passage 6, the culture underwent spontaneous morphological changes and by passages 8-10 contained only epithelium-like cells...
November 23, 2016: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873750/persistent-spontaneous-fungal-peritonitis-secondary-to-candida-albicans-in-a-patient-with-alcoholic-cirrhosis-and-review-of-the-literature
#19
Aneela Majeed, Waqas Ullah, Umar Zahid, Mayar Al Mohajer
Candida albicans is a common human pathogen. Occasionally, it can cause peritonitis in immunocompromised and postsurgical patients. We report a case of a male patient who presented with abdominal pain and distention. He had a history of end-stage liver disease secondary to alcoholism. His peritoneal fluid culture revealed C albicans, and (1-3)-β-d glucan (BDG) level was elevated. His hospital course was complicated by sepsis and renal failure. He was treated with antifungals for spontaneous fungal peritonitis...
November 8, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870642/hepatocellular-carcinoma-surveillance-among-patients-with-cirrhosis-in-a-population-based-integrated-health-care-delivery-system
#20
Amit G Singal, Jasmin Tiro, Xilong Li, Beverley Adams-Huet, Jessica Chubak
PURPOSE: Fewer than 1 in 5 patients with cirrhosis receive hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) surveillance; however, most studies were performed in select patient populations, which may not be informative of practice patterns in population-based community practices. Further, few reported guideline-concordant consistent surveillance rates. GOALS: Characterize guideline-concordant HCC surveillance rates and patient-level factors associated with surveillance among a population-based cohort of patients with cirrhosis...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
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