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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647765/epidemiology-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-target-population-for-surveillance-and-diagnosis
#1
REVIEW
An Tang, Oussama Hallouch, Victoria Chernyak, Aya Kamaya, Claude B Sirlin
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Incidence rates of liver cancer vary widely between geographic regions and are highest in Eastern Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. In the United States, the incidence of HCC has increased since the 1980s. HCC detection at an early stage through surveillance and curative therapy has considerably improved the 5-year survival. Therefore, medical societies advocate systematic screening and surveillance of target populations at particularly high risk for developing HCC to facilitate early-stage detection...
June 24, 2017: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647569/sepsis-in-alcohol-related-liver-disease
#2
REVIEW
Thierry Gustot, Javier Fernandez, Gyongyi Szabo, Agustin Albillos, Alexandre Louvet, Rajiv Jalan, Richard Moreau, Christophe Moreno
Alcohol-related liver disease (ALD) remains the most important cause of death due to alcohol. Infections, particularly bacterial infections, are one of the most frequent and severe complications of advanced ALD, as alcoholic cirrhosis and severe alcoholic hepatitis (sAH). The specific mechanisms responsible of this altered host defence become to be deciphered. The aim of the present work is to review the current knowledge about infectious complications in ALD and the pathophysiological mechanisms, distinguishing the role of alcohol consumption and the contribution of different forms of ALD...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645114/association-of-type-2-diabetes-with-liver-cirrhosis-a-nationwide-cohort-study
#3
Ping-Hsin Hsieh, Jing-Yang Huang, Oswald Ndi Nfor, Chia-Chi Lung, Chien-Chang Ho, Yung-Po Liaw
BACKGROUND: The link between the subcategories of liver cirrhosis and type 2 diabetes is not well known. We investigated the association of type 2 diabetes mellitus with alcoholic cirrhosis and cirrhosis without alcohol. METHODS: This nationwide cohort study used the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Cirrhotic individuals and their matched controls were identified from 2001-2008. In all, 9 313 cirrhotic patients aged 20 years or older were matched by age, sex, and index date with the non-cirrhotic individuals (n = 37 252)...
June 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644739/treatment-of-hepatitis-c-with-new-fixed-dose-combinations
#4
Vicente Soriano
The advent of oral direct-acting antivirals (DAA) has revolutionized the hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapeutic landscape providing cure rates over 90%. However, a subset of patients remains at higher risk for treatment failure, including those infected with: i) genotype 3 and cirrhosis; ii) resistance-associated substitutions (RAS) occurring either as natural polymorphisms or selected after prior DAA failure; and iii) poor drug adherence associated with social disabilities (homeless, psychiatric illnesses, injection drug use, alcoholism, etc...
June 23, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642299/dysfunctional-neutrophil-effector-organelle-mobilisation-and-microbicidal-protein-release-in-alcohol-related-cirrhosis
#5
Thomas Henry Tranah, Godhev K Manakkat Vijay, Jennifer M Ryan, Robin Daniel Abeles, Paul Kevin Middleton, Debbie Lindsay Shawcross
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Patients with alcohol-related cirrhosis (ALD) are prone to infection. Circulating neutrophils in ALD are dysfunctional and predict development of sepsis, organ dysfunction and survival. Neutrophil granules are important effector organelles containing a toxic array of microbicidal proteins, whose controlled release is required to kill micro-organisms whilst minimising inflammation and damage to host tissue. We investigated the role of these granular responses in contributing to immune disarray in ALD...
June 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642119/targeting-inflammation-for-the-treatment-of-alcoholic-liver-disease
#6
REVIEW
Ming-Jiang Xu, Zhou Zhou, Richard Parker, Bin Gao
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a leading cause of chronic liver disease with a wide spectrum of manifestations including simple steatosis to steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Liver injury in ALD is caused by chronic inflammation, which has been actively investigated as a therapeutic target for the treatment of ALD for over the last four decades. In this review, we summarize a wide variety of inflammatory mediators that have been shown to contribute to the pathogenesis of ALD, and discuss the therapeutic potential of these mediators for the treatment of ALD...
June 19, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641788/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-sign-of-systemic-disease
#7
REVIEW
Isabella Reccia, Jayant Kumar, Cherif Akladios, Francesco Virdis, Madhava Pai, Nagy Habib, Duncan Spalding
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common form of liver disease and leading cause of cirrhosis in the United States and developed countries. NAFLD is closely associated with obesity, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome, significantly contributing to the exacerbation of the latter. Although NAFLD represents the hepatic component of metabolic syndrome, it can also be found in patients prior to their presentation with other manifestations of the syndrome. The pathogenesis of NAFLD is complex and closely intertwined with insulin resistance and obesity...
July 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640517/hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-south-america-evaluation-of-risk-factors-demographics-and-therapy
#8
Jose D Debes, Aaron J Chan, Domingo Balderramo, Luciana Kikuchi, Esteban Gonzalez Ballerga, Jhon E Prieto, Monica Tapias, Victor Idrovo, Milagros B Davalos, Fernando Cairo, Fernando J Barreyro, Sebastian Paredes, Nelia Hernandez, Karla Avendaño, Javier Diaz Ferrer, Ju Dong Yang, Enrique Carrera, Jairo A Garcia, Angelo Z Mattos, Bruno S Hirsch, Pablo T Gonçalves, Flair J Carrilho, Lewis R Roberts
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Most studies addressing the epidemiology of HCC originate from developed countries. This study reports the preliminary findings of a multinational approach to characterize HCC in South America. METHODS: We evaluated 1336 HCC patients seen at 14 centers in six South American countries using a retrospective study design with participating centers completing a template chart of patient characteristics...
June 22, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638585/clinicopathological-study-of-seronegative-celiac-disease-in-adults-in-pakistan-a-pilot-study
#9
Mohammad Hanif Farina, Rajesh Kumar Mandhwani, Nasir Hassan Luck, Zaigham Abbas, Muhammed Mubarak, S Mudassir Laeeq, Abbas Ali Tasneem
BACKGROUND Celiac disease (CD) is usually missed, if the serology is negative. We aimed to evaluate the clinicopathological characteristics of seronegative CD (SNCD) and its response to gluten-free diet (GFD) in adult patients. METHODS This observational study was carried out at the Department of Hepatogastroenterology, Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation, Karachi, Pakistan from 2009 to 2015. All consecutive adult patients (≥17 years) with features of marked villous atrophy (Marsh class≥III) on duodenal biopsy, negative tissue transglutaminase IgA and IgG antibodies (anti-tTg IgA and IgG) and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DQ2 or DQ8 serotypes were studied...
April 2017: Middle East Journal of Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637104/-treatment-options-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#10
REVIEW
Won Kim
The prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has sharply increased over the past several decades in Korea. In most cases of NAFLD, metabolic stress and cellular apoptosis are often driven by metabolic abnormality, eventually leading to inflammation and fibrosis . Along with a dramatic surge in the obesity epidemic, 10-20% of NAFLD patients ultimately progress to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a precursor to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, as well as multi-organ systemic diseases...
June 25, 2017: Korean Journal of Gastroenterology, Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe Chi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637101/-cardiovascular-risk-in-patients-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#11
REVIEW
Hak Soo Kim, Yong Kyun Cho
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) includes a wide spectrum of diseases that range from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cirrhosis. In addition, the burden of NAFLD is rapidly growing. Previously, NAFLD was regarded as a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome, which is a traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor. However, there has been an increasing evidence that suggest NAFLD to be an independent risk factor of CVD. Therefore, currently, NAFLD should be reconsidered as not only a simple manifestation of metabolic syndrome, but also a systemic disease that contribute to CVD...
June 25, 2017: Korean Journal of Gastroenterology, Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe Chi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635128/development-of-a-classification-model-for-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-nash-using-confocal-raman-micro-spectroscopy
#12
Jie Yan, Yang Yu, Jeon Woong Kang, Zhi Yang Tam, Shuoyu Xu, Eliza Li Shan Fong, Surya Pratap Singh, Ziwei Song, Lisa Tucker-Kellogg, Peter T C So, Hanry Yu
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disorder in developed countries [1]. A subset of individuals with NAFLD progress to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), an advanced form of NAFLD which predisposes individuals to cirrhosis, liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma. The current gold standard for NASH diagnosis and staging is based on histological evaluation, which is largely semi-quantitative and subjective. To address the need for an automated and objective approach to NASH detection, we combined Raman micro-spectroscopy and machine learning techniques to develop a classification model based on a well-established NASH mouse model, using spectrum pre-processing, biochemical component analysis (BCA) and logistic regression...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632778/over-expressing-the-soluble-gp130-fc-does-not-ameliorate-methionine-and-choline-deficient-diet-induced-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-in-mice
#13
Helene L Kammoun, Tamara Louise Allen, Darren Colin Henstridge, Michael James Kraakman, Lone Peijs, Stefan Rose-John, Mark Anthony Febbraio
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a liver disease with the potential to lead to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of NASH, with the so-called IL-6 'trans-signaling' cascade being responsible for the pro-inflammatory actions of this cytokine. We aimed to block IL-6 'trans-signaling', using a transgenic mouse that overexpresses human soluble glycoprotein130 (sgp130Fc Tg mice) fed a commonly used dietary model of inducing NASH (methionine and choline deficient-diet; MCD diet) and hypothesized that markers of NASH would be ameliorated in such mice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628497/predicting-short-term-and-long-term-mortality-of-hospitalized-portuguese-patients-with-alcoholic-hepatitis
#14
Samuel R Fernandes, Pedro Marques da Costa, Sofia Vítor, Joana R Carvalho, Patrícia Santos, Carlos M Moura, Helena Cortez-Pinto, Fernando Ramalho, José Velosa
BACKGROUND: Alcohol abuse can result in a spectrum of liver injury that ranges from mild fatty infiltration to alcoholic hepatitis (AH), cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. The present study aimed to evaluate current scoring systems in predicting short-term and long-term mortality because of AH. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Records of 170 consecutive patients with AH admitted to a tertiary center between January 2005 and October 2015 were reviewed. Clinical and biochemical parameters were retrieved for the assessment of AH scores for the day of admission (D1) and for the seventh day of hospitalization (D7)...
June 16, 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626375/intravenous-bevacizumab-therapy-in-a-patient-with-hereditary-hemorrhagic-telangiectasia-eng-e137k-alcoholic-cirrhosis-and-portal-hypertension
#15
Luigi F Bertoli, Pauline L Lee, Lauren Lallone, James C Barton
Intravenous bevacizumab decreased mucosal bleeding in some patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). We treated a 47-year-old male who had HHT, severe epistaxis, and gastrointestinal bleeding, alcoholic cirrhosis, and portal hypertension with intravenous bevacizumab 2.5 mg/kg every 2 weeks. We tabulated these measures weekly during weeks 1-33 (no bevacizumab); 34-57 (bevacizumab); and 58-97 (no bevacizumab): hemoglobin (Hb) levels; platelet counts; units of transfused packed erythrocytes (PRBC units); and quantities of iron infused as iron dextran to support erythropoiesis...
May 2017: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624106/alcohol-use-and-smoking-after-liver-transplantation-complications-and-prevention
#16
REVIEW
José Ursic-Bedoya, Hélène Donnadieu-Rigole, Stéphanie Faure, Georges-Philippe Pageaux
The last thirty years have been very prosperous in the field of liver transplantation (LT), with great advances in organ conservation, surgical techniques, peri-operative management and long-term immunosuppression, resulting in improved patient and graft survival rates as well as quality of life. However, substance addiction after LT, namely alcohol and tobacco, results in short term morbidity together with medium and long-term mortality. The main consequences can be vascular (increased risk of hepatic artery thrombosis in smokers), hepatic (recurrent alcoholic cirrhosis in alcohol relapsers) and oncological (increased risk of malignancy in patients consuming tobacco and/or alcohol after LT)...
April 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624101/reversal-of-liver-fibrosis-from-fiction-to-reality
#17
REVIEW
Miguel Eugenio Zoubek, Christian Trautwein, Pavel Strnad
In chronic liver diseases, an ongoing hepatocellular injury together with inflammatory reaction results in activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and increased deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) termed as liver fibrosis. It can progress to cirrhosis that is characterized by parenchymal and vascular architectural changes together with the presence of regenerative nodules. Even at late stage, liver fibrosis is reversible and the underlying mechanisms include a switch in the inflammatory environment, elimination or regression of activated HSCs and degradation of ECM...
April 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618039/serum-galectin-9-levels-are-correlated-to-liver-fibrosis-regardless-of-chronic-inflammation-or-hepatocellular-carcinoma-complications
#18
Koji Fujita, Toshiro Niki, Takako Nomura, Kyoko Oura, Tomoko Tadokoro, Teppei Sakamoto, Joji Tani, Hirohito Yoneyama, Asahiro Morishita, Noriyuki Kuroda, Takeshi Arai, Naoki Nishimoto, Takashi Himoto, Mitsuomi Hirashima, Tsutomu Masaki
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Chronic liver diseases (CLDs) progress from chronic inflammation to fibrosis to tumorigenesis. Galectin-9, a β-galactoside-specific animal lectin, is indicated to contribute to all three steps of progression. The aim of this study was to determine which of the three steps was most dominant in elevating the serum galectin-9 concentration and to test the possibility of galectin-9 as a serum biomarker. METHODS: Japanese patients with chronic hepatitis (CH), liver cirrhosis (LC), hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), nonalcoholic fatty liver disease or alcoholic liver disease who provided informed consent were enrolled in this study...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614536/implications-of-alcoholic-cirrhosis-in-atherosclerosis-of-autopsied-patients
#19
Luciano Alves Matias da Silveira, Bianca Gonçalves Silva Torquato, Mariana Silva Oliveira, Guilherme Ribeiro Juliano, Lívia Ferreira Oliveira, Camila Lourencini Cavellani, Luciana Santos Ramalho, Ana Paula Espindula, Vicente de Paula Antunes Teixeira, Mara Lúcia Fonseca Ferraz
Introduction: Alcoholism is a major public health problem, which has a high social cost and affects many aspects of human activity. Liver disease is one of the first consequences of alcohol abuse, and steatosis, liver cirrhosis and hepatitis may occur. Other organs are also affected with pathological changes, such as pancreatitis, cardiomyopathies, dyslipidemias and atherosclerosis. Objective: To identify the occurrence and degree of atherosclerosis in alcohol-dependent individuals with liver cirrhosis, observing macroscopic and microscopic changes in lipid and collagen deposits and in the liver...
April 2017: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612750/genetic-and-epigenetic-profile-of-patients-with-alcoholic-liver-disease
#20
Luigi Boccuto, Ludovico Abenavoli
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a definition encompassing a spectrum of disorders ranging from simple steatosis to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Excessive alcohol consumption triggers a series of metabolic reactions that affect the liver by inducing lipogenesis, increasing oxidative stress, and causing abnormal inflammatory responses. The metabolic pathways regulating lipids, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and immune system are closely related and in some cases cross-regulate each other. Therefore, it must be taken into account that major genetic and epigenetic abnormalities affecting enzymes involved in one of such pathways can play a pivotal role in ALD pathogenesis...
August 1, 2017: Annals of Hepatology
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