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alcoholic cirrhosis

Thomas Gilliland, Sylvie Dufour, Gerald I Shulman, Kitt Falk Petersen, Sukru H Emre
NAFLD is a common condition linked to obesity, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. Simple hepatic steatosis is a risk factor for inflammatory reactions in the liver (NASH), which may lead to cirrhosis. While the mechanism is unclear, NAFLD and NASH are associated with panhypopituitarism, which in the pediatric population often results from craniopharyngioma or pituitary adenoma and the sequelae of treatment, causing hypothyroidism, adrenal insufficiency, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and GH deficiency...
October 20, 2016: Pediatric Transplantation
Ahmed Kamel Abdel-Aal, Nabila Dawoud, Amr Soliman Moustafa, Maysoon F Hamed, Souheil Saddekni
We report a case of 59-year-old female with non-alcoholic-steato-hepatitis (NASH) induced cirrhosis, who presented with hematochezia. The patient had a history of bleeding esophageal varices treated with endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL). Colonoscopy showed large rectal varices which were the source of her lower gastrointestinal bleeding (LGIB). Since endoscopic treatment for LGIB are limited, and because the patient had portal vein thrombosis which contraindicated transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS), we performed percutaneous transhepatic embolization of her rectal varices using a new mixture of embolic and sclerotic agents, followed by Amplatzer plug 2 (AVP 2)...
September 2016: Journal of Radiology Case Reports
Jennie Ka Ching Lau, Xiang Zhang, Jun Yu
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a continuous spectrum of diseases characterized by excessive lipid accumulation in hepatocytes. NAFLD progresses from simple liver steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and in more severe cases to liver fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Due to its growing worldwide prevalence, various animal models that mirror both the histopathology and pathophysiology of each stage of human NAFLD have been developed. The selection of appropriate animal models continues to be one of the key questions faced in this field...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Pathology
Barbara J Turner, Yuanyuan Liang, Amit Singal
OBJECTIVES: Noninvasive measures are widely used to assess fibrosis and may be used to prioritize hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment. We examined risks for likely fibrosis in patients with chronic HCV infection using fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) and imaging. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A HCV screening program diagnosed chronic HCV in patients born from 1945 to 1965 admitted in a safety net hospital. Likely fibrosis was based on FIB-4 (≥1.45) alone or combined with imaging interpreted as fibrosis or cirrhosis...
October 17, 2016: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Jem Ma Ahn, Chang Ha Kim, Soon Ho Um, Kyung Mee Kim, Tae Hyung Kim, Sun Young Yim, Hyuk Soon Choi, Eun Sun Kim, Bora Keum, Yeon Seok Seo, Hyung Joon Yim, Yoon Tae Jeen, Hong Sik Lee, Hoon Jai Chun, Chang Duck Kim, Ho Sang Ryu
BACKGROUND AND AIM: In a recent study, microsatellite variations (GCA tandem repeats) in the promoter region of the (kidney-type) glutaminase gene were associated with the development of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) in Spanish patients with cirrhosis. The objective of this study was to validate the relation between microsatellite variations in the glutaminase promoter region and the development of overt HE in Korean patients with liver cirrhosis. METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study of 154 cirrhotic patients who underwent a glutaminase microsatellite study without previous overt HE history at baseline...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Joanna Kozlowska, Tomasz Mikula, Magdalena Suchacz, Joanna Jabnonska, Wojciech Stanczak, Janusz Cianciara, Alicja Wiercinska-Drapalo
BACKGROUND/AIM: The aim of this study was to assess the role of serum pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in progression of liver cirrhosis and development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Serum levels of PEDF and MMP-9 were tested in 212 patients with liver cirrhosis and in a control group of 30 healthy volunteers. HCC was diagnosed in 45 of the 212 patients studied (21%). RESULTS: Serum PEDF and MMP-9 were higher in the study group than that in the control group (P < 0...
September 2016: Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Saudi Gastroenterology Association
Shiv Kumar Sarin, Ashok Choudhury
Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a distinct entity that differs from acute liver failure and decompensated cirrhosis in timing, presence of treatable acute precipitant, and course of disease, with a potential for self-recovery. The core concept is acute deterioration of existing liver function in a patient of chronic liver disease with or without cirrhosis in response to an acute insult. The insult should be a hepatic one and presentation in the form of liver failure (jaundice, encephalopathy, coagulopathy, ascites) with or without extrahepatic organ failure in a defined time frame...
December 2016: Current Gastroenterology Reports
Vijendra Kirnake, Anil Arora, Varun Gupta, Praveen Sharma, Vikas Singla, Naresh Bansal, Mohan Goyal, Romesh Chawlani, Ashish Kumar
BACKGROUND: Non-selective beta-blockers (NSBBs), e.g. propranolol, are recommended for prophylaxis of variceal bleeding in cirrhosis. Carvedilol, a newer NSBB with additional anti-α1-adrenergic activity, is superior to propranolol in reducing portal pressure. Repeated HVPG measurements are required to identify responders to NSBB. We aimed to determine whether a single-time HVPG measurement, using acute-hemodynamic-response-testing, is sufficient to predict long-term response to carvedilol, and whether these responders have better clinical outcome...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
Zheng-Jie Xu, Jun-Ping Shi, De-Rong Yu, Li-Juan Zhu, Ji-Dong Jia, Jian-Gao Fan
INTRODUCTION: Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a serious form of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) that can progress to advanced fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Differentiating between non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) and NASH/advanced fibrosis is an important step in the management of NAFLD. Metabolic syndrome (MS) and its components are important risk factors for NAFLD, and NASH is thought to be the hepatic injury of MS. The prevalence of NASH among NAFLD patients with MS is thought to be high...
October 14, 2016: Advances in Therapy
Ha-Na Kim, Sung-Goo Kang, Yong Kyun Roh, Min-Kyu Choi, Sang-Wook Song
PURPOSE: Alcoholic liver disease or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease/non-alcoholic steatohepatitis are well-known risk factors for liver fibrosis or cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma; it is a major global health concern, but there are few effective and safe management options. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effects of fermented garlic extracts (FGEs) on hepatic function in adults with mild hepatic dysfunction without underlying hepatic disease. METHODS: In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study, seventy-five adults with elevated serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) levels were included in a FGE-administered group (n = 36) or a placebo group (n = 39), and received either two sachets/day containing FGEs or placebo over a 12-week period...
October 14, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
H C C de Felício, R C A M da Silva, A M da Costa, P C Arroyo, W J Duca, R F da Silva, R Dos Santos, E T Miyazaki, N M Domingos, M C O S Miyazaki
INTRODUCTION: Adherence to treatment is essential for a successful liver transplantation (LT) because LT requires information, abilities, and competencies of patients and family members. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to identify whether the information received about the LT process was enough for either patients or family members who attended a liver transplant center in a school hospital. METHODS: This was a transversal study using questionnaires to verify received information on LT...
September 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
Gerald Y Minuk, Jessica Sanders, Meaghan O'Brien, Julia Uhanova
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Annals of Hepatology
Terry D Hinds, Katherine A Burns, Peter A Hosick, Lucien McBeth, Andrea Nestor-Kalinoski, Heather A Drummond, Adbulhadi A AlAmodi, Michael W Hankins, John P Vanden Heuvel, David E Stec
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most rapidly growing form of liver disease, and if left untreated can result in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) ultimately resulting in liver cirrhosis and failure. Biliverdin reductase-A (BVRA) is a multi-functioning protein primarily responsible for the reduction of biliverdin to bilirubin. Also, BVRA can function as a kinase and transcription factor, regulating several cellular functions. We report here that liver BVRA protects against hepatic steatosis by inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) by enhancing serine 9 phosphorylation, which inhibits its activity...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
R Hofman, W J Nusselder, I K Veldhuijzen, J H Richardus
OBJECTIVE: To estimate mortality due to chronic hepatitis B-virus (HBV) and hepatitis C-virus (HCV) infections in the Netherlands from 2002 to 2015. DESIGN: A cross-sectional analysis based on cause-of-death statistics. METHOD: From Statistics Netherlands we obtained detailed data regarding the number of deaths per year in the following ICD-10 categories: chronic viral hepatitis; malignant neoplasm of the liver and intrahepatic bile ducts; fibrosis and cirrhosis of the liver; and alcoholic liver disease...
2016: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
Qichao Tu, Jiabao Li, Zhou Shi, Yanfei Chen, Lu Lin, Juan Li, Hongling Wang, Jianbo Yan, Qingming Zhou, Xiangzhen Li, Lanjuan Li, Jizhong Zhou, Zhili He
With the massive data generated by the Human Microbiome Project, how to transform such data into useful information and knowledge remains challenging. Here, with currently available sequencing information (reference genomes and metagenomes), we have developed a comprehensive microarray, HuMiChip2, for strain-level identification and functional characterization of human microbiomes. HuMiChip2 was composed of 29,467 strain-specific probes targeting 2063 microbial strains/species and 133,924 sequence- and group-specific probes targeting 157 key functional gene families involved in various metabolic pathways and host-microbiome interaction processes...
October 12, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Jennifer Chi Lo, Anne E O'Connor, Zane B Andrews, Camden Lo, Tony Tiganis, Matthew J Watt, Moira K O'Bryan
Fatty liver, or hepatic steatosis, is an alarmingly common pathology in western societies, in large part because if left unheaded it can lead to life-threatening forms of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, including non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. As such, it is essential that we attain a greater understanding of the pathways that control energy partitioning in the liver, and ultimately how they are impacted by environmental factors. Herein, we define the essential requirement for a member of the RAB-like clade of small GTPases, RABL2, in fatty acid metabolism including in microtubule-associated mitochondrial movement within the liver...
October 12, 2016: Endocrinology
J E Nelson, P Handa, B Aouizerat, L Wilson, L A Vemulakonda, M M Yeh, K V Kowdley
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a complex, multifactorial disease affected by diet, lifestyle and genetics. Proinflammatory cytokines like IL-1β and IL-6 have been shown to be elevated in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). AIM: To investigate the relationship between IL1B and IL6 gene polymorphisms and histological features of NAFLD in the NASH CRN cohort. METHODS: A total of 604 adult (≥18 years) non-Hispanic Caucasians with biopsy-proven NAFLD were genotyped for the following SNPs: IL1B, rs16944, rs1143634; IL6, rs1800795, rs10499563...
October 11, 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Carrie R Wong, Mindie H Nguyen, Joseph K Lim
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in the United States and represents an increasingly important etiology of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with annual cumulative incidence rates ranging from 2% to 12% in cohorts of NAFLD cirrhosis. While the risk of progression of NAFLD to HCC remains higher among patients with fibrosis or cirrhosis, an increasing amount of literature describes NAFLD-HCC as a disease that can occur in the absence of cirrhosis. Efforts to characterize the pathogenesis of NAFLD-HCC have suggested mechanisms that strongly associate with states of hyperinsulinemia and chronic inflammation, cellular mechanisms including adaptive immune responses and hepatic progenitor cell populations, and genetic polymorphisms including mutations of PNPLA3...
October 7, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Mohammed Mudassir Ali, B Prahlad, M Gopinath, Juwairia Mohammed Fariduddin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Avinash Rao U, H K Aggarwal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
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