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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727214/what-plant-functional-traits-can-reduce-nitrous-oxide-emissions-from-intensively-managed-grasslands
#1
Diego Abalos, Jan Willem van Groenigen, Gerlinde B De Deyn
Plant species exert a dominant control over the nitrogen (N) cycle of natural and managed grasslands. Although in intensively managed systems that receive large external N inputs the emission of the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2 O) is a crucial component of this cycle, a mechanistic relationship between plant species and N2 O emissions has not yet been established. Here we use a plant functional trait approach to study the relation between plant species strategies and N2 O emissions from soils. Compared to species with conservative strategies, species with acquisitive strategies have higher N uptake when there is ample N in the soil, but also trigger N mineralization when soil N is limiting...
July 20, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727028/production-management-and-the-environment-symposium-measurement-and-mitigation-of-reactive-nitrogen-species-from-swine-and-poultry-production
#2
W Powers, M Capelari
Reactive nitrogen (Nr) species include oxides of nitrogen [N; nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide and nitrous oxide (NO)], anions (nitrate and nitrite), and amine derivatives [ammonia (NH), ammonium salts and urea]. Of the different Nr species, air emissions from swine and poultry facilities are predominantly NH followed by NO. Excreta emissions are NH, ammonium ions, and urea with trace amounts of nitrate and nitrite. Farm systems and practices that handle manure as a wet product without pH modification favor almost exclusive NH production...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726270/equimolar-mixture-of-nitroux-oxyde-and-oxygen-during-post-operative-physiotherapy-in-patients-with-cerebral-palsy-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-study
#3
A Delafontaine, A Presedo, D Mohamed, D Lopes, C Wood, C Alberti
BACKGROUND: The administration of an equimolar mixture of nitrous oxide and oxygen (N2O) is recommended during painful procedures. However, the evaluation of its use during physiotherapy after surgery has not been reported, although pain may hamper physiotherapy efficiency. This study investigated whether the use of N2O improves the efficacy of post-operative physiotherapy after multilevel surgery in patients with cerebral palsy. METHOD: It was a randomized 1:1, double-blind, placebo-controlled study...
July 20, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726125/nitrogen-assimilation-in-denitrifier-bacillus-azotoformans-lmg-9581-t
#4
Yihua Sun, Paul De Vos, Anne Willems
Until recently, it has not been generally known that some bacteria can contain the gene inventory for both denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate (NO3(-))/nitrite (NO2(-)) reduction to ammonium (NH4(+)) (DNRA). Detailed studies of these microorganisms could shed light on the differentiating environmental drivers of both processes without interference of organism-specific variation. Genome analysis of Bacillus azotoformans LMG 9581(T) shows a remarkable redundancy of dissimilatory nitrogen reduction, with multiple copies of each denitrification gene as well as DNRA genes nrfAH, but a reduced capacity for nitrogen assimilation, with no nas operon nor amtB gene...
July 19, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724100/ammonia-and-nitrous-oxide-emissions-from-broiler-houses-with-downtime-windrowed-litter
#5
Kyoung S Ro, Philip A Moore, Ariel A Szogi, Patricia D Millner
An emerging poultry manure management practice is in-house windrowing to disinfect the litter. However, this practice is likely to increase emissions of ammonia (NH) and nitrous oxide (NO) from the windrowed litter. The objective of this study was to quantitatively compare NH and NO emissions from broiler houses with and without in-house windrowing. Two broiler houses at a commercial farm were used to compare the NH and NO emissions. Gas emission measurements were conducted continuously and simultaneously for both the control house (without windrowing) and the house with windrowing during the same production periods...
May 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724090/transformation-of-organic-matter-and-the-emissions-of-methane-and-ammonia-during-storage-of-liquid-manure-as-affected-by-acidification
#6
Sven G Sommer, Timothy J Clough, Nimlesh Balaine, Sasha D Hafner, Keith C Cameron
Acidification of livestock manure can reduce emission of the greenhouse gases methane (CH) and nitrous oxide (NO), as well as ammonia (NH). We examined the relation between emission of these gases and transformation of organic matter as affected by acidification. Liquid cattle manure was acidified with sulfuric acid to pH 5.5 at a pilot scale (100 L), and we measured effects on CH, NO, CO and NH emissions and on transformation of pH buffer components and organic matter. Acidification reduced NH emissions by 62% (47 d) and emission of CH by 68% (57 d)...
May 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723161/phosphines-as-efficient-dioxygen-scavengers-in-nitrous-oxide-sensors
#7
Steffen Gralert Sveegaard, Michael Nielsen, Mikkel Holmen Andersen, Kurt Vesterager Gothelf
A current challenge for development of amperometric sensors for the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) is their sensitivity toward dioxygen and trace water. The need for aqueous dioxygen scavengers in front of the sensor implies a background signal from penetrating water vapor. In this paper, we introduce substituted phosphines as dioxygen scavengers and demonstrate the application in a dioxygen-insensitive N2O sensor. Suitably substituted phosphines have been synthesized to achieve good solubility properties in the electrochemically inert solvent propylene carbonate...
May 26, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720474/nitrous-oxide-cryotherapy-for-treatment-of-esophageal-squamous-cell-neoplasia-initial-multicenter-international-experience-with-a-novel-portable-cryoballoon-ablation-system-with-video
#8
Marcia Irene Canto, Julian Abrams, Hannah Kunzli, Bas Weusten, Yoshihiro Komatsu, Blair Jobe, Charles J Lightdale
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Early esophageal squamous cell neoplasia (ESCN) can be successfully treated by endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR), endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), or radiofrequency ablation (RFA). A new portable, battery-powered cryotherapy system using nitrous oxide (cryoballoon focal ablation system (CbFAS) has been used for Barrett's esophagus. It consists of a small hand-held device containing liquid nitrous oxide, which converts to gas within a low-pressure-compliant through-the-scope balloon and freezes targeted mucosa in contact with the balloon...
July 15, 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719523/stramonium-for-extending-the-anesthetic-duration-of-nitrous-oxide
#9
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719430/high-sensitivity-cardiac-troponin-t-improves-the-diagnosis-of-perioperative-mi
#10
Jamie C Brown, Eslam Samaha, Srikar Rao, Mohammad A Helwani, Andreas Duma, Frank Brown, Brian F Gage, J Philip Miller, Allan S Jaffe, Fred S Apple, Mitchell G Scott, Peter Nagele
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of myocardial infarction (MI) after noncardiac surgery has traditionally relied on using relatively insensitive contemporary cardiac troponin (cTn) assays. We hypothesized that using a recently introduced novel high-sensitivity cTnT (hscTnT) assay would increase the detection rate of perioperative MI. METHODS: In this ancillary study of the Vitamins in Nitrous Oxide trial, readjudicated incidence rates of myocardial injury (new isolated cTn elevation) and MI were compared when diagnosed by contemporary cTnI versus hscTnT...
July 14, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718461/-multidisciplinary-treatment-approach-in-a-patient-with-a-severe-gag-reflex
#11
C Borsjé
A patient was referred to a centre for special care dentistry due to problems with a severe gag reflex and dental care-related anxiety. A regular treatment was started with gradual exposure in vivo in combination with breathing exercises, which involved the patient doing exercises at home. In addition, she was referred to an (external) speech therapist. During the treatment the patient suffered from pain in [molar] tooth 27 and a short-term solution was necessary. Regular treatment was not (yet) possible due to the existing severe gag reflex...
July 2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Tandheelkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716929/nitric-oxide-is-an-obligate-bacterial-nitrification-intermediate-produced-by-hydroxylamine-oxidoreductase
#12
Jonathan D Caranto, Kyle M Lancaster
Ammonia (NH3)-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) emit substantial amounts of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous oxide (N2O), both of which contribute to the harmful environmental side effects of large-scale agriculture. The currently accepted model for AOB metabolism involves NH3 oxidation to nitrite (NO2(-)) via a single obligate intermediate, hydroxylamine (NH2OH). Within this model, the multiheme enzyme hydroxylamine oxidoreductase (HAO) catalyzes the four-electron oxidation of NH2OH to NO2(-) We provide evidence that HAO oxidizes NH2OH by only three electrons to NO under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions...
July 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716411/genetic-mitigation-strategies-to-tackle-agricultural-ghg-emissions-the-case-for-biological-nitrification-inhibition-technology
#13
REVIEW
G V Subbarao, J Arango, K Masahiro, A M Hooper, T Yoshihashi, Y Ando, K Nakahara, S Deshpande, I Ortiz-Monasterio, M Ishitani, M Peters, N Chirinda, L Wollenberg, J C Lata, B Gerard, S Tobita, I M Rao, H J Braun, V Kommerell, J Tohme, M Iwanaga
Accelerated soil-nitrifier activity and rapid nitrification are the cause of declining nitrogen-use efficiency (NUE) and enhanced nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from farming. Biological nitrification inhibition (BNI) is the ability of certain plant roots to suppress soil-nitrifier activity, through production and release of nitrification inhibitors. The power of phytochemicals with BNI-function needs to be harnessed to control soil-nitrifier activity and improve nitrogen-cycling in agricultural systems. Transformative biological technologies designed for genetic mitigation are needed, so that BNI-enabled crop-livestock and cropping systems can rein in soil-nitrifier activity, to help reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and globally make farming nitrogen efficient and less harmful to environment...
September 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713224/low-frequency-aeration-of-pig-slurry-affects-slurry-characteristics-and-emissions-of-greenhouse-gases-and-ammonia
#14
Salvador Calvet, John Hunt, Tom H Misselbrook
Low frequency aeration of slurries may reduce ammonia (NH3) and methane (CH4) emissions without increasing nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. The aim of this study was to quantify this potential reduction and to establish the underlying mechanisms. A batch experiment was designed with 6 tanks with 1 m(3) of pig slurry each. After an initial phase of 7 days when none of the tanks were aerated, a second phase of 4 weeks subjected three of the tanks to aeration (2 min every 6 h, airflow 10 m(3) h(-1)), whereas the other three tanks remained as a control...
July 2017: Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712366/letter-to-the-editor-exposure-to-nitrous-oxide-and-intrusive-memory-formation-in-psychological-trauma
#15
K Fluegge
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 17, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711849/fertilizer-efficiency-in-wheat-is-reduced-by-ozone-pollution
#16
Malin C Broberg, Johan Uddling, Gina Mills, Håkan Pleijel
Inefficient use of fertilizers by crops increases the risk of nutrient leaching from agro-ecosystems, resulting in economic loss and environmental contamination. We investigated how ground-level ozone affects the efficiency by which wheat used applied nitrogen (N) fertilizer to produce grain protein (NEP, N efficiency with respect to protein yield) and grain yield (NEY, N efficiency with respect to grain yield) across a large number of open-top chamber field experiments. Our results show significant negative ozone effects on NEP and NEY, both for a larger data set obtained from data mining (21 experiments, 70 treatments), and a subset of data for which stomatal ozone flux estimates were available (7 experiments, 22 treatments)...
July 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709008/iatrogenic-b12-deficient-peripheral-neuropathy-following-nitrous-oxide-administration-for-functional-tonic-leg-spasm-a-case-report
#17
Diego Kaski, Prateek Kumar, Elaine Murphy, Thomas T Warner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 6, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704665/effect-of-temperature-on-n2o-emissions-from-a-highly-enriched-nitrifying-granular-sludge-performing-partial-nitritation-of-a-low-strength-wastewater
#18
Clara Reino, Mark C M van Loosdrecht, Julián Carrera, Julio Pérez
In the race to achieve a sustainable urban wastewater treatment plant, not only the energy requirements have to be considered but also the environmental impact of the facility. Thus, nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions are a key-factor to pay attention to, since they can dominate the total greenhouse gases emissions from biological wastewater treatment. In this study, N2O production factors were calculated during the operation of a granular sludge airlift reactor performing partial nitritation treating a low-strength synthetic influent, and furthermore, the effect of temperature on N2O production was assessed...
July 5, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702012/community-composition-of-nitrous-oxide-consuming-bacteria-in-the-oxygen-minimum-zone-of-the-eastern-tropical-south-pacific
#19
Xin Sun, Amal Jayakumar, Bess B Ward
The ozone-depleting and greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide (N2O), is mainly consumed by the microbially mediated anaerobic process, denitrification. N2O consumption is the last step in canonical denitrification, and is also the least O2 tolerant step. Community composition of total and active N2O consuming bacteria was analyzed based on total (DNA) and transcriptionally active (RNA) nitrous oxide reductase (nosZ) genes using a functional gene microarray. The total and active nosZ communities were dominated by a limited number of nosZ archetypes, affiliated with bacteria from marine, soil and marsh environments...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700590/greenhouse-gas-emissions-from-dung-pats-vary-with-dung-beetle-species-and-with-assemblage-composition
#20
Irene Piccini, Fabrizio Arnieri, Enrico Caprio, Beatrice Nervo, Simone Pelissetti, Claudia Palestrini, Tomas Roslin, Antonio Rolando
Cattle farming is a major source of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Recent research suggests that GHG fluxes from dung pats could be affected by biotic interactions involving dung beetles. Whether and how these effects vary among beetle species and with assemblage composition is yet to be established. To examine the link between GHGs and different dung beetle species assemblages, we used a closed chamber system to measure fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) from cattle dung pats. Targeting a total of four dung beetle species (a pat-dwelling species, a roller of dung balls, a large and a small tunnelling species), we ran six experimental treatments (four monospecific and two mixed) and two controls (one with dung but without beetles, and one with neither dung nor beetles)...
2017: PloS One
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