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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350221/assessing-the-social-and-environmental-costs-of-institution-nitrogen-footprints
#1
Jana E Compton, Allison M Leach, Elizabeth A Castner, James N Galloway
This article estimates the damage costs associated with the institutional nitrogen (N) footprint and explores how this information could be used to create more sustainable institutions. Potential damages associated with the release of nitrogen oxides (NOx), ammonia (NH3), and nitrous oxide (N2O) to air and release of nitrogen to water were estimated using existing values and a cost per unit of nitrogen approach. These damage cost values were then applied to two universities. Annual potential damage costs to human health, agriculture, and natural ecosystems associated with the N footprint of institutions were $11...
April 1, 2017: Sustainability (New Rochelle)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340863/effects-of-urease-and-nitrification-inhibitors-on-the-soil-mineral-nitrogen-dynamics-and-nitrous-oxide-n2o-emissions-on-calcareous-soil
#2
Rui Tao, Jun Li, Yu Guan, Yongchao Liang, Baowei Hu, Jun Lv, Guixin Chu
Urease inhibitors and nitrification inhibitors can reduce nitrogen (N) loss in agriculture soil. However, the effect of inhibitors on soil N2O emissions under the drip irrigation system remains unclear. A pot and a field experiment with two inhibitors were conducted to explore how inhibitors regulate soil nitrogen transformation and N2O emissions. In the pot experiment, three treatments included control, urea, and urea + N-(n-butyl)thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT, urease inhibitor). In the field experiment, three treatments included control, urea, and urea + NBPT + 2-chloro-6-(trichloromethyl)pyridine (nitrapyrin, nitrification inhibitor)...
January 17, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339617/characteristics-of-n2o-production-and-hydroxylamine-variation-in-short-cut-nitrification-sbr-process
#3
Bo Hu, Junhong Ye, Jianqiang Zhao, Xiaoqian Ding, Liwei Yang, Xiaolei Tian
In order to study the characteristics of nitrous oxide (N2O) production and hydroxylamine (NH2OH) variation under oxic conditions, concentrations of NH2OH and N2O were simultaneously monitored in a short-cut nitrification sequencing batch reactor (SBR) operated with different influent ammonia concentrations. In the short-cut nitrification process, N2O production was increased with the increasing of ammonia concentration in influent. The maximum concentrations of dissolved N2O-N in the reactor were 0.11 mg/L and 0...
January 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337747/the-summer-of-1884-nitrous-oxide-from-drs-gross-and-basehore
#4
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333979/effect-of-anoxic-to-aerobic-duration-ratios-on-nitrogen-removal-and-nitrous-oxide-emission-in-the-multiple-anoxic-aerobic-process
#5
Huoqing Wang, Yuepeng Sun, Guangxue Wu, Yuntao Guan
Characteristics of nitrogen removal and nitrous oxide (N2O) emission in the multiple anoxic/aerobic (AO) process were examined in three sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) with different anoxic durations (50 min, SBRH; 40 min, SBRM; 30 min, SBRL) and a fixed aerobic duration of 30 min. The highest total inorganic nitrogen removal percentage of 85.8% was obtained in SBRH, while a minimum N2O emission factor of 1.9% was obtained in SBRL. During nitrification batch experiments, the N2O emission factor and emission rate were both lower in SBRH than SBRL...
January 15, 2018: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333559/oxidation-of-a-cu2s-complex-by-n2o-and-co2-insights-into-a-role-of-tetranuclearity-in-the-cuz-site-of-nitrous-oxide-reductase
#6
Sharareh Bagherzadeh, Neal P Mankad
Oxidation of a [Cu2(μ-S)] complex by N2O or CO2 generated a [Cu2(μ-SO4)] product. In the presence of a sulfur trap, a [Cu2(μ-O)] species also formed from N2O. A [Cu2(μ-CS3)] species derived from CS2 modeled initial reaction intermediates. These observations indicate that one role of tetranuclearity in the CuZ catalytic site of nitrous oxide reductase is to protect the crucial S2- ligand from oxidation.
January 15, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331895/reduction-in-soil-n2o-emissions-by-ph-manipulation-and-enhanced-nosz-gene-transcription-under-different-water-regimes
#7
Muhammad Shaaban, Yupeng Wu, Muhammad Salman Khalid, Qi-An Peng, Xiangyu Xu, Lei Wu, Aneela Younas, Saqib Bashir, Yongliang Mo, Shan Lin, Muhammad Zafar-Ul-Hye, Muhammad Abid, Ronggui Hu
Several studies have been carried out to examine nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from agricultural soils in the past. However, the emissions of N2O particularly during amelioration of acidic soils have been rarely studied. We carried out the present study using a rice-rapeseed rotation soil (pH 5.44) that was amended with dolomite (0, 1 and 2 g kg-1 soil) under 60% water filled pore space (WFPS) and flooding. N2O emissions and several soil properties (pH, NH4+N, NO3--N, and nosZ gene transcripts) were measured throughout the study...
January 11, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330894/structure-function-and-evolution-of-the-hemerythrin-like-domain-superfamily
#8
Claudia Alvarez-Carreño, Vikram Alva, Arturo Becerra, Antonio Lazcano
Hemerythrin-like proteins have generally been studied for their ability to reversibly bind oxygen through their binuclear non-heme iron centers. However, in recent years, it has become increasingly evident that some members of the hemerythrin-like superfamily also participate in many other biological processes. For instance, the binuclear non-heme iron site of YtfE, a hemerythrin-like protein involved in the repair of iron centers in Escherichia coli, catalyzes the reduction of nitric oxide to nitrous oxide, and the human F-box/LRR-repeat protein 5, which contains a hemerythrin-like domain, is involved in intracellular iron homeostasis...
January 13, 2018: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330647/absence-of-the-nitrous-oxide-reductase-gene-cluster-in-commercial-alfalfa-inoculants-is-probably-due-to-the-extensive-loss-of-genes-during-rhizobial-domestication
#9
Silvina Brambilla, Romina Frare, Gabriela Soto, Cintia Jozefkowicz, Nicolás Ayub
As other legume crops, alfalfa cultivation increases the emission of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). Since legume-symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria play a crucial role in this emission, it is important to understand the possible impacts of rhizobial domestication on the evolution of denitrification genes. In comparison with the genomes of non-commercial strains, those of commercial alfalfa inoculants exhibit low total genome size, low number of ORFs and high numbers of both frameshifted genes and pseudogenes, suggesting a dramatic loss of genes during bacterial domestication...
January 12, 2018: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316032/optimum-time-for-intravenous-cannulation-after-induction-with-sevoflurane-oxygen-and-nitrous-oxide-in-children-without-any-premedication
#10
Abm Kamrul Hasan, Raman Sivasankar, Salil G Nair, Wamia U Hasan, Zulaidi Latif
BACKGROUND: Intravenous cannulation is usually done in children after inhalational induction with volatile anesthetic agents. The optimum time for safe intravenous cannulation after induction with sevoflurane, oxygen, and nitrous oxide has been studied in premedicated children, but there is no information for the optimum time for cannulation with inhalational induction in children without premedication. AIMS: The aim of this study was to determine the optimum time for intravenous cannulation after the induction of anesthesia with sevoflurane, oxygen, and nitrous oxide in children without any premedication...
February 2018: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315308/mac-sparing-effect-of-nitrous-oxide-in-sevoflurane-anesthetized-sheep-and-its-reversal-with-systemic-atipamezole-administration
#11
Lauren Duffee, Nicolò Columbano, Antonio Scanu, Valentino Melosu, Giovanni Mario Careddu, Giovanni Sotgiu, Bernd Driessen
INTRODUCTION: Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an anesthetic gas with antinociceptive properties and reduces the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) for volatile anesthetic agents, potentially through mechanisms involving central alpha2-adrenoceptors. We hypothesized that 70% N2O in the inspired gas will significantly reduce the MAC of sevoflurane (MACSEVO) in sheep, and that this effect can be reversed by systemic atipamezole. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Animals were initially anesthetized with SEVO in oxygen (O2) and exposed to an electrical current as supramaximal noxious stimulus in order to determine MACSEVO (in duplicates)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313375/nitrous-oxide-abuse-presenting-with-acute-psychosis-and-peripheral-neuropathy
#12
Anthony Hew, Eugene Lai, Emma Radford
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2018: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306831/annual-n2o-emissions-from-conventionally-grazed-typical-alpine-grass-meadows-in-the-eastern-qinghai-tibetan-plateau
#13
Han Zhang, Zhisheng Yao, Kai Wang, Xunhua Zheng, Lei Ma, Rui Wang, Chunyan Liu, Wei Zhang, Bo Zhu, Xiangyu Tang, Zhenghua Hu, Shenghui Han
Annual nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from high-altitude alpine meadow grasslands have not been effectively characterized because of the scarcity of whole-year measurements. The authors performed a year-round measurement of N2O fluxes from three conventionally grazed alpine meadows that represent the typical meadow landscape in the eastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). The results showed that annual N2O emissions averaged 0.123±0.053 (2SD, i.e., the double standard deviation indicating the 95% confidence interval) kgNha-1yr-1 across the three meadow sites...
January 4, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306612/optimization-of-free-nitrous-acid-pre-treatment-on-waste-activated-sludge
#14
S Zahedi, M Romero-Güiza, Pilar Icaran, Z Yuan, M Pijuan
The effectiveness of the Free Nitrous Acid (FNA) sludge treatment was tested in the range from 0 to 3.0 mg N-HNO2/L with acidified and neutral pH. 4 h pre-treatment times were used and the specific methane production (SMP) investigated. Results show that between 50 and 100 mg/L of N-NO2-/L disappeared during the FNA pre-treatment, reducing its effectiveness. A minimum level of nitrite (174 mg N-NO2-/L tested in this study), independently of pH/FNA, was necessary to assure the presence of the chemical throughout the duration of the pre-treatment...
December 28, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303256/high-precision-measurement-of-n2o-concentration-in-ice-cores
#15
Yeongjun Ryu, Jinho Ahn, Ji-Woong Yang
Atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O) is a greenhouse gas and ozone-depleting substance whose emissions are substantially perturbed by current human activities. Although air trapped in polar ice cores can provide direct information about N2O evolution, analytical precision was not previously sufficient for high temporal resolution studies. In this work, we present a highly improved analytical technique with which to study N2O concentrations in ancient-air-trapped ice cores. We adopt a melt-refreezing method to extract air and use a gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD) to determine N2O concentrations...
January 5, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302193/management-of-trauma-pain-in-the-emergency-setting-low-dose-methoxyflurane-or-nitrous-oxide-a-systematic-review-and-indirect-treatment-comparison
#16
REVIEW
Keith M Porter, Mohd Kashif Siddiqui, Ikksheta Sharma, Sara Dickerson, Alice Eberhardt
Background: Low-dose methoxyflurane and nitrous oxide (N2O; 50:50 with oxygen) are both self-administered, self-titrated, rapid-acting, nonnarcotic, and noninvasive inhalational agents with similar onset times of pain relief. The aim of this review was to compare the clinical efficacy, safety, and tolerability of these analgesics in emergency care. Materials and methods: A systematic literature search and review according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines were performed using Embase, Medline, the Cochrane Library, several clinical trial registers, and emergency-medicine conference material...
2018: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297760/silk-fibroin-porous-scaffolds-by-n2o-foaming
#17
Devid Maniglio, Walter Bonani, Claudio Migliaresi, Antonella Motta
Silk fibroin has acquired increasing interest for biomedical applications, and namely for the fabrication of scaffolds for tissue engineering, because of its highly positive biological interaction and the possibility to adapt the material to several application requirements by adopting different fabrication methods, in order to make films, sponges, fibers, nets or gels with predictable degradation times. For tissue engineering, in most cases porous scaffolds are required, in some cases possibly in situ forming and therefore fabricated in mild body-compatible conditions...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Biomaterials Science. Polymer Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291531/restoration-of-real-sewage-partial-nitritation-anammox-process-from-nitrate-accumulation-using-free-nitrous-acid-treatment
#18
Zhibin Wang, Shujun Zhang, Liang Zhang, Bo Wang, Wenlong Liu, Shuqing Ma, Yongzhen Peng
This study presented a strategy for recovering partial nitritation-anammox (PN/A) of real sewage from nitrate accumulation using free nitrous acid (FNA) treatment. Sewage PN/A was successfully achieved in an integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFAS) reactor but effluent nitrate gradually increased. For recovering the system performance, flocculent sludge of the reactor was collected and treated with FNA of 1.35 mg/L for 24 h. After FNA treatment, effluent nitrate decreased from 17.6 to 6.1 mg/L with an increase of total nitrogen removal efficiency from 29...
December 27, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284146/antioxidative-and-immunostimulatory-effect-of-dietary-cinnamon-nanoparticles-on-the-performance-of-nile-tilapia-oreochromis-niloticus-l-and-its-susceptibility-to-hypoxia-stress-and-aeromonas-hydrophila-infection
#19
Mohsen Abdel-Tawwab, Fatma Samir, Asmaa S Abd El-Naby, Mohamed N Monier
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary cinnamon nanoparticles (CNP) on growth performance, antioxidant and digestive enzymes activities, and innate immunity of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.). Fish (9.7 ± 0.3 g) were fed on diets enriched with 0.0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0, and 10.0 g CNP/kg diet for 8 weeks. After the feeding trial, fish were challenged against hypoxia stress or pathogenic bacteria (Aeromonas hydrophila) infection. Fish performance was significantly improved with increasing CNP levels over the control diet...
December 25, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282001/nitrous-oxide-induced-subacute-combined-degeneration-with-longitudinally-extensive-myelopathy-with-inverted-v-sign-on-spinal-mri-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#20
Jun Liang Yuan, Shuang Kun Wang, Tao Jiang, Wen Li Hu
BACKGROUND: Nitrous oxide (N2O), a long-standing anesthetic, is also neurotoxic by interfering with the bioavailability of vitamin B12 if abused. A few case studies have reported the neurological and psychiatric complications of N2O. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we reported a patient of N2O induced subacute combined degeneration (SCD) with longitudinally extensive myelopathy with inverted V-sign exhibiting progressive limb paresthesia and unsteady gait. CONCLUSIONS: This case raises the awareness of an important mechanism of neural toxicity of N2O, and clinical physicians should be well recognized this in the field of substance-related disorders...
December 28, 2017: BMC Neurology
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