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Raúl Cassia, Macarena Nocioni, Natalia Correa-Aragunde, Lorenzo Lamattina
Here, we review information on how plants face redox imbalance caused by climate change, and focus on the role of nitric oxide (NO) in this response. Life on Earth is possible thanks to greenhouse effect. Without it, temperature on Earth's surface would be around -19°C, instead of the current average of 14°C. Greenhouse effect is produced by greenhouse gasses (GHG) like water vapor, carbon dioxide (CO2 ), methane (CH4 ), nitrous oxides (Nx O) and ozone (O3 ). GHG have natural and anthropogenic origin. However, increasing GHG provokes extreme climate changes such as floods, droughts and heat, which induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress in plants...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Benoit Talbot, Maarten J Vonhof, Hugh G Broders, Brock Fenton, Nusha Keyghobadi
Parasite-host relationships create strong selection pressures that can lead to adaptation and increasing specialization of parasites to their hosts. Even in relatively loose host-parasite relationships, such as between generalist ectoparasites and their hosts, we may observe some degree of specialization of parasite populations to one of the multiple potential hosts. Salivary proteins are used by blood-feeding ectoparasites to prevent hemostasis in the host and maximize energy intake. We investigated the influence of association with specific host species on allele frequencies of salivary protein genes in Cimex adjunctus, a generalist blood-feeding ectoparasite of bats in North America...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Wan Yang, Shilong He, Ming Han, Bingbing Wang, Qigui Niu, Yujia Xu, Yi Chen, Haibo Wang
In this study, the nitrogen removal performance and microbial community structure were investigated during the start-up, instability, and recovery stages of an anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) reactor loaded with compound carriers (shale ceramsite and suspended ball carrier). The results indicated that the anammox reactor successfully started up on 116th d when the nitrogen loading rate (NLR) reached 0.72 ± 0.05 kg N m-3  d-1 . The anammox reactor ran well with free ammonia (FA) at 13.65 ± 2...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Anesthesiology
W Scott Beattie, Duminda N Wijeysundera, Matthew T V Chan, Philip J Peyton, Kate Leslie, Michael J Paech, Daniel I Sessler, Sophie Wallace, Paul S Myles, W Galagher, C Farrington, A Ditoro, S Baulch, S Sidiropoulos, R Bulach, D Bryant, E O'Loughlin, V Mitteregger, S Bolsin, C Osborne, R McRae, M Backstrom, R Cotter, S March, B Silbert, S Said, R Halliwell, J Cope, D Fahlbusch, D Crump, G Thompson, A Jefferies, M Reeves, N Buckley, T Tidy, T Schricker, R Lattermann, D Iannuzzi, J Carroll, M Jacka, C Bryden, N Badner, M W Y Tsang, B C P Cheng, A C M Fong, L C Y Chu, E G Y Koo, N Mohd, L E Ming, D Campbell, D McAllister, S Walker, S Olliff, R Kennedy, A Eldawlatly, T Alzahrani, N Chua, R Sneyd, H McMillan, I Parkinson, A Brennan, P Balaji, J Nightingale, G Kunst, M Dickinson, B Subramaniam, V Banner-Godspeed, J Liu, A Kurz, B Hesler, A Y Fu, C Egan, A N Fiffick, M T Hutcherson, A Turan, A Naylor, D Obal, E Cooke
BACKGROUND: Globally, >300 million patients have surgery annually, and ≤20% experience adverse postoperative events. We studied the impact of both cardiac and noncardiac adverse events on 1-year disability-free survival after noncardiac surgery. METHODS: We used the study cohort from the Evaluation of Nitrous oxide in Gas Mixture of Anesthesia (ENIGMA-II) trial, an international randomized trial of 6992 noncardiac surgical patients. All were ≥45 years of age and had moderate to high cardiac risk...
March 12, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Omid Ahmadi, Amir Shirvani Dehkordi, Farhad Heydari, Mohammad Nasr Esfahani, Behzad Mahaki
Background: Renal colic is a painful medical emergency, needs urgent intervention to reduce pain. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, opioids, and entonox are pain-relieving agents. This study was aimed to compare fentanyl + entonox (nitrous oxide + O2 ) versus fentanyl + oxygen. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty patients with acute renal colic presenting to the emergency department were enrolled. First, 50 μg fentanyl was infused for all patients...
2018: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
V Lew, E McKay, M Maze
Introduction: For a drug that has been omnipresent for nearly 200 years, nitrous oxide's (N2O) future seems less certain than its illustrious past. Environmental concerns are coming to the fore and may yet outweigh important clinical benefits. Sources of data: After determining the scope of the review, the authors used PubMed with select phrases encompassing the words in the scope. Both preclinical and clinical reports were considered. Areas of agreement: The analgesic and anaesthetic advantages of N2O remain despite a plethora of newer agents...
March 1, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
Liang Li, Yihua Dong, Guangsheng Qian, Xiaomin Hu, Linlin Ye
A pair of Fe-C electrodes was installed in a traditional submerged membrane bioreactor (MBR, Rc), and a novel asynchronous periodic reversal bio-electrocoagulation system (Re) was developed. The simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) performance was discussed under limited dissolved oxygen (DO). Results showed that electrocoagulation enhanced total nitrogen (TN) removal from 59.48% to 75.09% at 1.2 mg/L DO. Additionally, Fe electrode could increase sludge concentration, particle size, and enzyme activities related to nitrogen removal...
February 28, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Kang-Yi Su, Liang-In Lin, Steven D Goodman, Rong-Syuan Yen, Cho-Yuan Wu, Wei-Chen Chang, Ya-Chien Yang, Wern-Cherng Cheng, Woei-Horng Fang
Deamination of adenine can occur spontaneously under physiological conditions to generate the highly mutagenic lesion, deoxyinosine (hypoxanthine deoxyribonucleotide, dI). In DNA, dI preferably pairs with cytosine rather than thymine and results in A:T to G:C transition mutations after DNA replication. The deamination of adenine is enhanced by ROS from exposure of DNA to ionizing radiation, UV light, nitrous acid, or heat. In Escherichia coli, dI repair is initiated by endonuclease V (endo V; nfi gene product) nicking but a complete repair mechanism has yet to be elucidated...
February 17, 2018: DNA Repair
Ya-Dong Yang, Yue-Gao Hu, Zhi-Min Wang, Zhao-Hai Zeng
Denitrification causes nitrogen loss from agricultural soils and emission of nitrous oxide (N2 O). Water addition leads to an increase in soil moisture which greatly influenced soil denitrification. However, it is unclear how irrigation management affected the denitrifying bacterial communities in agricultural systems. In the present study, we investigated the abundance, diversity, and composition of the nirS-, nirK-, and nosZ-denitrifying bacterial communities in the soil under different long-term irrigation regimes by using real-time PCR (qPCR) and Illumina MiSeq sequencing approaches...
March 8, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Jens Leifeld
Nitrous oxide (N2 O) contributes substantially to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the agricultural and land-use sectors. Owing to the high effort needed for measuring N2 O emissions and the resulting lack of sufficient field measurements to apply at country-wide scale, soil-borne N2 O emissions are often estimated by applying published IPCC default emission factors. To examine the data reported in the national GHG inventory, the current study utilizes a large data set of soil C/N ratios to predict N2 O emissions and their distribution from drained organic soils in Switzerland...
March 5, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Xing Fan, Jie Chang, Yuan Ren, Xu Wu, Yuanyuan Du, Ronghua Xu, Dong Liu, Scott X Chang, Laura A Meyerson, Changhui Peng, Ying Ge
Dairy production is becoming more industrialized globally, especially in developing countries. The large amount of animal wastes from industrial feedlots cannot be fully used on nearby farmlands, leading to severe environmental problems. Using China as a case study, we found that most dairy feedlots employ a semi-coupled mode that only recycles solid manure to farmlands, and only a few dairy feedlots employ a fully-coupled mode that recycles both solid and liquid animal manure. To produce one ton of milk, the fully-coupled mode could reduce greenhouse gas (including carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide in this paper) emissions by 24%, ammonia emissions by 14%, and N discharge into water by 29%, compared with the semi-coupled systems...
March 8, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Arif Ullah, Dilawar Khan, Imran Khan, Shaofeng Zheng
The increasing trend of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 ) is the main cause of harmful anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, which may result in environmental pollution, global warming, and climate change. These issues are expected to adversely affect the agricultural ecosystem and well-being of the society. In order to minimize food insecurity and prevent hunger, a timely adaptation is desirable to reduce potential losses and to seek alternatives for promoting a global knowledge system for agricultural sustainability...
March 7, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Chawki Jebali, Lotfi Boukadida, Ali Ousgi, Wael Chaabene, Borhen Shili, Mohamed Amin Naggara, Riadh Boukef
INTRODUCTION: Inhaled nitrous oxide (MEOPA) ensures short-term analgesia of a patient in spontaneous ventilation through a mask. It ensures analgesic coverage during the painful gesture while saving to the patient the phenomena of memorization. AIM: To study the efficacy and safety of the use of MEOPA during the make stitches. METHODS: Randomized double blind prospective study including any patient aged > 16 years admitted to the emergency for make stitches during a period of 3 months...
June 2017: La Tunisie Médicale
Yohei Katsuyama, Yukari Sato, Yoshinori Sugai, Yousuke Higashiyama, Miki Senda, Toshiya Senda, Yasuo Ohnishi
Enzymes belonging to the aspartase/fumarase superfamily catalyze elimination of various functional groups from succinate derivatives and play an important role in primary metabolism and aromatic compound degradation. Recently, an aspartase/fumarase superfamily enzyme, CreD, was discovered in cremeomycin biosynthesis. This enzyme catalyzes the elimination of nitrous acid from nitrosuccinate synthesized from aspartate by CreE, a flavin-dependent monooxygenase. Nitrous acid generated by this pathway is an important precursor of the diazo group of cremeomycin...
March 5, 2018: FEBS Journal
Yi-Qing Zou, Xiao-Bao Li, Zhi-Xing Yang, Jing-Min Zhou, Yi-Nan Wu, Zhi-Hu Zhao, Xiang-Zhu Liu, Chang-Li Hu
BACKGROUND: Conflict findings of the impact of inhalational anesthetics on postoperative cognitive function are reported. No systematic review has been performed to solve the problem. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of different inhalational anesthetics on postoperative cognitive function in a network meta-analysis. METHODS: We will search MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Central Register of Controlled Trials in the Cochrane library, and CINAHL for randomized controlled trials or cohort studies assessing the short-term or long-term cognitive function of elderly patients (over 60 years) receiving major surgeries and inhalational anesthetics (desflurane, isoflurane, sevoflurane, halothane, and nitrous oxide) during surgery...
January 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Stephen Keddie, Ashok Adams, Andrew R C Kelso, Benjamin Turner, Klaus Schmierer, Sharmilee Gnanapavan, Andrea Malaspina, Gavin Giovannoni, Ian Basnett, Alastair J Noyce
BACKGROUND: Whilst the dangers of 'legal highs' have been widely publicised in the media, very few cases of the neurological syndrome associated with the inhalation of nitrous oxide (N2 O) have been reported. Here we set out to raise awareness of subacute degeneration of the spinal cord arising from recreational N2 O use so that formal surveillance programs and public health interventions can be designed. METHODS: Case series documenting the clinical and investigational features of ten consecutive cases of subacute degeneration of the spinal cord presenting to a hospital with a tertiary neurosciences service in East London...
March 3, 2018: Journal of Neurology
Raika Yamagiwa, Takuya Kurahashi, Mariko Takeda, Mayuho Adachi, Hiro Nakamura, Hiroyuki Arai, Yoshitsugu Shiro, Hitomi Sawai, Takehiko Tosha
Membrane-integrated nitric oxide reductase (NOR) reduces nitric oxide (NO) to nitrous oxide (N2 O) with protons and electrons. This process is essential for the elimination of the cytotoxic NO that is produced from nitrite (NO2 - ) during microbial denitrification. A structure-guided mutagenesis of NOR is required to elucidate the mechanism for NOR-catalyzed NO reduction. We have already solved the crystal structure of cytochrome c-dependent NOR (cNOR) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In this study, we then constructed its expression system using cNOR-gene deficient and wild-type strains for further functional study...
February 27, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
George Rhoderick, Michael Edwin Kelley, Walter R Miller, James E Norris, Jennifer Carney, Lyn Gameson, Christina Cecelski, Kimberly Harris, Cassie Goodman, Abneesh Srivastava, Joseph T Hodges
There are many gas phase compounds present in the atmosphere that effect and influence the earth's climate. These compounds absorb and emit radiation, a process which is the fundamental cause of the greenhouse effect. The major greenhouse gases in the earth's atmosphere are carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and ozone. Some halocarbons are also strong greenhouse gases and are linked to stratospheric ozone depletion. Hydrocarbons and monoterpenes are precursors and contributors to atmospheric photochemical processes which leads to the formation of particulates and secondary photo oxidants such as ozone leading to photochemical smog...
March 2, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Zhu-Wei Zhang, Dong-Ping Zhang, Hai-Ying Li, Zhong Wang, Gang Chen
Stroke that is caused by poor blood flow into the brain results in cell death, including ischemia stroke due to lack of blood into brain tissue, and hemorrhage due to bleeding. Both of them will give rise to the dysfunction of brain. In general, the signs and symptoms of stroke are the inability of feeling or moving on one side of body, sometimes loss of vision to one side. Above symptoms will appear soon after the stroke has happened. If the symptoms and signs happen in 1 or 2 hours, we often call them as transient ischemic attack...
October 2017: Medical Gas Research
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