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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545139/an-example-of-host-plant-expansion-of-host-specialized-aphis-gossypii-glover-in-the-field
#1
Dao-Wu Hu, Shuai Zhang, Jun-Yu Luo, Li-Min Lü, Jin-Jie Cui, Xiao Zhang
The host plant expansion of host-specialized Aphis gossypii (Glover) has been well studied in the laboratory; however, this phenomenon is poorly understood in the field. Here, we provide a series of laboratory and field experiments to assess the role of zucchini in the host plant expansion of cotton-specialized aphids. We observed that cotton-specialized aphids possessed the ability to expand on a new host plant (cucumber), with individuals first recorded on June 12 and consequently increasing exponentially in number in a field cage...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545083/simultaneous-inference-of-phylogenetic-and-transmission-trees-in-infectious-disease-outbreaks
#2
Don Klinkenberg, Jantien A Backer, Xavier Didelot, Caroline Colijn, Jacco Wallinga
Whole-genome sequencing of pathogens from host samples becomes more and more routine during infectious disease outbreaks. These data provide information on possible transmission events which can be used for further epidemiologic analyses, such as identification of risk factors for infectivity and transmission. However, the relationship between transmission events and sequence data is obscured by uncertainty arising from four largely unobserved processes: transmission, case observation, within-host pathogen dynamics and mutation...
May 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545034/characterization-of-sudan-ebolavirus-infection-in-ferrets
#3
Andrea Kroeker, Shihua He, Marc-Antoine de La Vega, Gary Wong, Carissa Embury-Hyatt, Xiangguo Qiu
Sudan virus (SUDV) outbreaks in Africa are highly lethal; however, the development and testing of novel antivirals and vaccines for this virus has been limited by a lack of suitable animal models. Non-human primates (NHP) remain the gold standard for modeling filovirus disease, but they are not conducive to screening large numbers of experimental compounds and should only be used to test the most promising candidates. Therefore, other smaller animal models are a valuable asset. We have recently developed a guinea-pig adapted SUDV virus that is lethal in guinea pigs...
May 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544501/emergence-of-novel-seneca-valley-virus-strains-in-china-2017
#4
Z Zhu, F Yang, P Chen, H Liu, W Cao, K Zhang, X Liu, H Zheng
Since early 2017, several outbreaks of Seneca Valley virus (SVV) infection have re-emerged in China. We report the identification of novel SVV KS15-01-like strains showing a notable distinction with previous Chinese SVV strains. The determined SVV strains are currently causing new outbreaks in two provinces in China where no SVV infection has been reported previously, implying the increased epidemic regions and potential threat to local pig breeds of SVV in China.
May 23, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544364/influenza-associated-delays-in-patient-throughput-and-premature-patient-departure-in-emergency-departments-in-new-south-wales-australia-a-time-series-analysis
#5
David J Muscatello, Kendall J Bein, Michael M Dinh
OBJECTIVES: Influenza outbreaks cause overcrowding in EDs. We aimed to quantify the impact of influenza on the National Emergency Access Targets and premature patient departure in New South Wales, Australia. METHODS: This was a retrospective observational study of 11 million presentations to 115 hospitals during 2010-2014, using routinely collected administrative records. A time series generalised additive regression model was used to assess the correlation between weekly influenza activity and the weekly proportion of patients leaving the ED in >4 h and the proportion that departed before commencing or completing treatment ('did not wait'), after controlling for background winter and holiday effects...
May 24, 2017: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544099/genetic-signatures-coupled-with-lineage-shift-characterize-endemic-evolution-of-dengue-virus-serotype-2-during-2015-outbreak-in-delhi-india
#6
Manish Chandra Choudhary, Ekta Gupta, Shvetank Sharma, Nadeem Hasnain, Pragya Agarwala
OBJECTIVE: In 2015 New Delhi witnessed a massive outbreak of Dengue virus (DENV) resulting in high morbidity and mortality. We report the molecular characterization of the dominant circulating DENV strain to understand its evolution and dispersal. MATERIALS AND METHODS: DENV infections were diagnosed by detection of IgM/NS1 antigen and serotyping was performed by C-PrM PCR. Envelope gene was amplified and variation(s) in envelope gene were analyzed. Phylogenetic tree construction, time-based phylogeny and origin of DENV were analyzed...
May 23, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543433/mumps-outbreak-in-a-tribal-population-from-the-union-territory-of-dadra-and-nagar-haveli-india
#7
Siddharth M Tilavat, Sunil R Vaidya, Venkat S Hamde
A cluster of parotitis cases (n=13) were observed in a tribal population of Vansda village from the Union Territory of Dadra and Nagar Haveli, India between 20(th) and 22(nd) week of 2016. Primary information was received by the local Infectious Disease Surveillance Program team, and subsequently field investigations were carried out in the affected area. Active surveillance was conducted till twice the incubation period from onset of the last surveyed case. For the laboratory investigations, 19 serum samples were collected from 11-suspected cases and their close contacts (n=8)...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543273/differential-dispersal-and-the-allee-effect-create-power-law-behavior-distribution-of-spot-infestations-during-mountain-pine-beetle-outbreaks
#8
James A Powell, Martha J Garlick, Barbara J Bentz, Nicholas Friedenberg
Mountain pine beetles (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) are aggressive insects attacking Pinus host trees. Pines use defensive resin to overwhelm attackers, creating an Allee effect requiring beetles to attack en masse to successfully reproduce. MPB kill hosts, leaving observable, dying trees with red needles. Landscape patterns of infestation depend on MPB dispersal, which decreases with host density. Away from contiguously impacted patches (low beetle densities), infestations are characterized by apparently random spots (of 1-10 trees)...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542609/potent-and-selective-inhibition-of-pathogenic-viruses-by-engineered-ubiquitin-variants
#9
Wei Zhang, Ben A Bailey-Elkin, Robert C M Knaap, Baldeep Khare, Tim J Dalebout, Garrett G Johnson, Puck B van Kasteren, Nigel J McLeish, Jun Gu, Wenguang He, Marjolein Kikkert, Brian L Mark, Sachdev S Sidhu
The recent Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), Ebola and Zika virus outbreaks exemplify the continued threat of (re-)emerging viruses to human health, and our inability to rapidly develop effective therapeutic countermeasures. Many viruses, including MERS-CoV and the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) encode deubiquitinating (DUB) enzymes that are critical for viral replication and pathogenicity. They bind and remove ubiquitin (Ub) and interferon stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) from cellular proteins to suppress host antiviral innate immune responses...
May 18, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542463/insights-into-reston-virus-spillovers-and-adaption-from-virus-whole-genome-sequences
#10
César G Albariño, Lisa Wiggleton Guerrero, Harley M Jenks, Ayan K Chakrabarti, Thomas G Ksiazek, Pierre E Rollin, Stuart T Nichol
Reston virus (family Filoviridae) is unique among the viruses of the Ebolavirus genus in that it is considered non-pathogenic in humans, in contrast to the other members which are highly virulent. The virus has however, been associated with several outbreaks of highly lethal hemorrhagic fever in non-human primates (NHPs), specifically cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) originating in the Philippines. In addition, Reston virus has been isolated from domestic pigs in the Philippines. To better understand virus spillover events and potential adaption to new hosts, the whole genome sequences of representative Reston virus isolates were obtained using a next generation sequencing (NGS) approach and comparative genomic analysis and virus fitness analyses were performed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542360/evaluating-the-effects-of-common-control-measures-for-influenza-a-h1n1-outbreak-at-school-in-china-a-modeling-study
#11
Tianmu Chen, Yuanxiu Huang, Ruchun Liu, Zhi Xie, Shuilian Chen, Guoqing Hu
BACKGROUND: Influenza A (H1N1) outbreaks have become common at schools in China since 2009. However, the effects of common countermeasures for school influenza outbreak have not been quantified so far, including isolation, vaccination, antivirus and school closure. We conducted a mathematically modeling study to address this unsolved issue. METHODS: We collected data of all small-scale school outbreaks caused by influenza A that occurred in Changsha city between January 2009 and December 2013...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542321/early-protection-events-in-swine-immunized-with-an-experimental-live-attenuated-classical-swine-fever-marker-vaccine-flagt4g
#12
Lauren G Holinka, Vivian O'Donnell, Guillermo R Risatti, Paul Azzinaro, Jonathan Arzt, Carolina Stenfeldt, Lauro Velazquez-Salinas, Jolene Carlson, Douglas P Gladue, Manuel V Borca
Prophylactic vaccination using live attenuated classical swine fever (CSF) vaccines has been a very effective method to control the disease in endemic regions and during outbreaks in previously disease-free areas. These vaccines confer effective protection against the disease at early times post-vaccination although the mechanisms mediating the protection are poorly characterized. Here we present the events occurring after the administration of our in-house developed live attenuated marker vaccine, FlagT4Gv...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542242/-we-do-not-bury-dead-livestock-like-human-beings-community-behaviors-and-risk-of-rift-valley-fever-virus-infection-in-baringo-county-kenya
#13
Edna N Mutua, Salome A Bukachi, Bernard K Bett, Benson A Estambale, Isaac K Nyamongo
BACKGROUND: Rift Valley Fever (RVF), is a viral zoonotic disease transmitted by Aedes and Culex mosquitoes. In Kenya, its occurrence is associated with increased rains. In Baringo County, RVF was first reported in 2006 resulting in 85 human cases and 5 human deaths, besides livestock losses and livelihood disruptions. This study sought to investigate the county's current RVF risk status. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross-sectional study on the knowledge, attitudes and practices of RVF was conducted through a mixed methods approach utilizing a questionnaire survey (n = 560) and 26 focus group discussions (n = 231)...
May 24, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542240/wmel-limits-zika-and-chikungunya-virus-infection-in-a-singapore-wolbachia-introgressed-ae-aegypti-strain-wmel-sg
#14
Cheong Huat Tan, PeiSze Jeslyn Wong, Meizhi Irene Li, HuiTing Yang, Lee Ching Ng, Scott Leslie O'Neill
BACKGROUND: Zika (ZIKV) and Chikungunya (CHIKV) viruses are emerging Aedes-borne viruses that are spreading outside their known geographic range and causing wide-scale epidemics. It has been reported that these viruses can be transmitted efficiently by Ae. aegypti. Recent studies have shown that Ae. aegypti when transinfected with certain Wolbachia strains shows a reduced replication and dissemination of dengue (DENV), Chikungunya (CHIKV), and Yellow Fever (YFV) viruses. The aim of this study was to determine whether the wMel strain of Wolbachia introgressed onto a Singapore Ae...
May 19, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542182/modelling-the-transmission-and-control-strategies-of-varicella-among-school-children-in-shenzhen-china
#15
Xiujuan Tang, Shi Zhao, Alice P Y Chiu, Hanwu Ma, Xu Xie, Shujiang Mei, Dongfeng Kong, Yanmin Qin, Zhigao Chen, Xin Wang, Daihai He
OBJECTIVES: Varicella (chickenpox) is a highly transmissible childhood disease. Between 2010 and 2015, it displayed two epidemic waves annually among school populations in Shenzhen, China. However, their transmission dynamics remain unclear and there is no school-based vaccination programme in Shenzhen to-date. In this study, we developed a mathematical model to compare a school-based vaccination intervention scenario with a baseline (i.e. no intervention) scenario. METHODS: Data on varicella reported cases were downloaded from the Infectious Disease Reporting Information Management System...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542125/notes-from-the-field-measles-outbreak-at-a-united-states-immigration-and-customs-enforcement-facility-arizona-may-june-2016
#16
Heather Venkat, Ahmed M Kassem, Chia-Ping Su, Clancey Hill, Evan Timme, Graham Briggs, Kenneth Komatsu, Susan Robinson, Rebecca Sunenshine, Manisha Patel, Diana Elson, Paul Gastañaduy, Shane Brady
On May 25, 2016, a detainee at a U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) detention center in Arizona who had been hospitalized with fever and a generalized maculopapular rash was confirmed to have measles by real-time polymerase chain reaction (rPCR). A second case of measles in a staff member was confirmed by rPCR the next day. The privately operated, city-contracted facility housed 1,425 detainees, and employed 510 staff members, including 95 federal ICE staff and 415 contract staff of four distinct employers...
May 26, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542124/virologic-monitoring-of-poliovirus-type-2-after-oral-poliovirus-vaccine-type-2-withdrawal-in-april-2016-worldwide-2016-2017
#17
Ousmane M Diop, Humayun Asghar, Evgeniy Gavrilin, Nicksy Gumede Moeletsi, Gloria Rey Benito, Fem Paladin, Sirima Pattamadilok, Yan Zhang, Ajay Goel, Arshad Quddus
The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) has made substantial progress since its launch in 1988; only 37 wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases were detected in 2016, the lowest annual count ever. Wild poliovirus type 3 has not been detected since November 2012, and wild poliovirus type 2 was officially declared eradicated in September 2015. This success is attributable to the wide use of live oral poliovirus vaccines (OPVs). Since 2001, numerous outbreaks were caused by the emergence of genetically divergent vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) whose genetic drift from the parental OPV strains indicates prolonged replication or circulation (1)...
May 26, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541150/evaluation-of-pathogen-specific-biomarkers-for-the-diagnosis-of-tuberculosis-in-white-tailed-deer-odocoileus-virginianus
#18
Sylvia I Wanzala, Mitchell V Palmer, Wade R Waters, Tyler C Thacker, Michelle Carstensen, Dominic A Travis, Srinand Sreevatsan
OBJECTIVE To develop a noninvasive biomarker-based detection system specific for Mycobacterium bovis for monitoring infection in wild animals. SAMPLE Serum samples from 8 experimentally infected yearling white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and 3 age-matched control deer and from 393 Minnesota Department of Natural Resources hunter-harvested white-tailed deer in northwest Minnesota. PROCEDURES 8 yearling deer were inoculated with 2 × 10(8) CFUs of virulent M bovis strain 1315 (day 0), and sera were obtained on days 0, 19, 48, and 60; sera were obtained from 3 uninoculated control deer on those same days...
June 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540706/multiplex-detection-of-food-borne-pathogens
#19
Germán Villamizar-Rodríguez, Felipe Lombó
Detection of food-borne pathogens is traditionally carried out by plating out techniques in selective or differential media using Petri agar dishes or other culture-dependent methods, usually designed for each pathogen to be detected. These classical methods are time and personnel consuming and also may last for up to 5 days in the case of final confirmation of some specific pathogens.Here we describe a method for fast multiplex detection of nine food-borne pathogens (all species usually required under most countrylegislations) by means of a single multiplex PCR reaction coupled to a capillary electrophoresis detection, in just 2-2...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539533/evaluation-of-control-measures-for-bovine-viral-diarrhea-implemented-in-nemuro-district-hokkaido-japan-using-a-scenario-tree-model
#20
Norikazu Isoda, Akihiro Asano, Michiru Ichijo, Shiho Wakamori, Hiroshi Ohno, Kazuhiko Sato, Hirokazu Okamoto, Shigeru Nakao, Hajime Kato, Kazuma Saito, Naoki Ito, Akira Usui, Hiroaki Takayama, Yoshihiro Sakoda
A scenario tree model was developed to propose efficient bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) control measures. The model used field data in eastern Hokkaido where the risk of BVDV infection in cattle has been reduced by an eradication program including mass vaccination, individual tests prior to communal pasture grazing, herd screening tests using bulk milk, and outbreak investigations of newly infected herds. These four activities were then used as hypothesized control measures in the simulation. In each simulation, the numbers of cattle infected persistently and transiently with BVDV detected by clinical manifestations and diagnosis tests and of missed by all of the diagnosis tests were calculated, and the numbers were used as indicators to be compared for the efficacy of the control measures...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
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