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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452047/lessons-learned-from-ebola-vaccine-r-d-during-a-public-health-emergency
#1
Marie-Paule Kieny
In spite of a complete lack of Research and Development (R&D) preparedness, the 2013-2016 West-Africa Ebola experience demonstrated that it is possible to compress R&D timelines to less than a single year, from a more usual decade or longer. This is mostly to be credited to an unprecedented collaborative effort building on the availability of a small number of candidate diagnostic tests, drugs and vaccines that could be moved rapidly into the clinical phase evaluation. The World Health Organization (WHO) led international consultations and activities - including the organization of a successful Ebola vaccine efficacy trial in Guinea - as a contribution to the unprecedented global efforts to control the Ebola epidemic...
February 16, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451903/stability-lies-in-flowers-plant-diversification-mediating-shifts-in-arthropod-food-webs
#2
Marcelo Mendes Haro, Luís Cláudio Paterno Silveira, Andrew Wilby
Arthropod community composition in agricultural landscapes is dependent on habitat characteristics, such as plant composition, landscape homogeneity and the presence of key resources, which are usually absent in monocultures. Manipulating agroecosystems through the insertion of in-field floral resources is a useful technique to reduce the deleterious effects of habitat simplification. Food web analysis can clarify how the community reacts to the presence of floral resources which favour ecosystem services such as biological control of pest species...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451878/control-fast-or-control-smart-when-should-invading-pathogens-be-controlled
#3
Robin N Thompson, Christopher A Gilligan, Nik J Cunniffe
The intuitive response to an invading pathogen is to start disease management as rapidly as possible, since this would be expected to minimise the future impacts of disease. However, since more spread data become available as an outbreak unfolds, processes underpinning pathogen transmission can almost always be characterised more precisely later in epidemics. This allows the future progression of any outbreak to be forecast more accurately, and so enables control interventions to be targeted more precisely...
February 16, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451827/sending-the-right-message-wild-game-and-the-west-africa-ebola-outbreak
#4
Kristin Post
The unprecedented scale of the Ebola epidemic in West Africa in 2014-15 caught the world by surprise. Zaire Ebolavirus had not previously been documented in Guinea, Sierra Leone, or Liberia. However, since this strain of filovirus was first identified in 1976, scientists have been studying the disease and its origins. They have identified forest-dwelling animals that carry the virus, and some that die from it, but have yet to isolate how it is transmitted from animals to humans. During the height of the Ebola outbreak in West Africa, some public health messages addressed the link among Ebola, wild animals, and humans...
January 2018: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451659/environmental-factors-can-influence-dengue-reported-cases
#5
Marco Antonio F Carneiro, Beatriz da C A Alves, Flávia de Sousa Gehrke, José Nuno Domingues, Nelson Sá, Susana Paixão, João Figueiredo, Ana Ferreira, Cleonice Almeida, Amaury Machi, Eriane Savóia, Vânia Nascimento, Fernando Fonseca
INTRODUCTION: Global climate changes directly affect the natural environment and contribute to an increase in the transmission of diseases by vectors. Among these diseases, dengue is at the top of the list. The aim of our study was to understand the consequences of temporal variability of air temperature in the occurrence of dengue in an area comprising seven municipalities of the Greater São Paulo. METHOD: Characterization of a temporal trend of the disease in the region between 2010 and 2013 was performed through analysis of the notified number of dengue cases over this period...
November 2017: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451044/endemic-and-emerging-acute-virus-infections-in-indonesia-an-overview-of-the-past-decade-and-implications-for-the-future
#6
Wesley de Jong, Musofa Rusli, Soerajja Bhoelan, Sofie Rohde, Fedik A Rantam, Purwati A Noeryoto, Usman Hadi, Eric C M van Gorp, Marco Goeijenbier
Being the largest archipelago country in the world, with a tropical climate and a unique flora and fauna, Indonesia habitats one of the most diverse biome in the world. These characteristics make Indonesia a popular travel destination, with tourism numbers increasing yearly. These characteristics also facilitate the transmission of zoonosis and provide ideal living and breading circumstances for arthropods, known vectors for viral diseases. A review of the past 10 years of literature, reports of the Ministry of Health, Republic of Indonesia and ProMED-mail shows a significant increase in dengue infection incidence...
February 16, 2018: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449965/genetic-diversity-and-cross-species-transmission-of-kobuviruses-in-vietnam
#7
Lu Lu, Nguyen Van Dung, Alasdair Ivens, Carlijn Bogaardt, Aine O'Toole, Juliet E Bryant, Juan Carrique-Mas, Nguyen Van Cuong, Pham Hong Anh, Maia A Rabaa, Ngo Tri Tue, Guy E Thwaites, Stephen Baker, Peter Simmonds, Mark Ej Woolhouse
Cross-species transmission of viruses poses a sustained threat to public health. Due to increased contact between humans and other animal species the possibility exists for cross-species transmissions and ensuing disease outbreaks. By using conventional PCR amplification and next generation sequencing, we obtained 130 partial or full genome kobuvirus sequences from humans in a sentinel cohort in Vietnam and various mammalian hosts including bats, rodents, pigs, cats, and civets. The evolution of kobuviruses in different hosts was analysed using Bayesian phylogenetic methods...
January 2018: Virus Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449938/molecular-characteristics-and-successful-management-of-a-respiratory-syncytial-virus-outbreak-among-pediatric-patients-with-hemato-oncological-disease
#8
Claas Baier, Sibylle Haid, Andreas Beilken, Astrid Behnert, Martin Wetzke, Richard J P Brown, Corinna Schmitt, Ella Ebadi, Gesine Hansen, Thomas F Schulz, Thomas Pietschmann, Franz-Christoph Bange
Background: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is responsible for upper and lower respiratory tract infection in adults and children. Especially immunocompromised patients are at high risk for a severe course of infection, and mortality is increased. Moreover RSV can spread in healthcare settings and can cause outbreaks. Herein we demonstrate the successful control and characteristics of a RSV outbreak that included 8 patients in our Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology. Methods: We performed an epidemiologic investigation and a molecular analysis of the outbreak strains...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449723/an-outbreak-of-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-in-modena-province-northern-italy-report-of-35-cases
#9
A M Cesinaro, S Nosseir, E Mataca, M C Mengoli, C Cavatorta, W Gennari
Canine Leishmaniasis is a disease endemic in many parts of Europe, carried by insects of phlebotomous species. Humans are occasional hosts of the parasites. Cases of human leishmaniasis have been registered in Italy, particularly in the southern and coastal regions. In the period 1997-2016, we collected a series of 35 patients affected by cutaneous leishmaniasis, uncovered by skin biopsy and histological examination, 21 of them found in last 3 years. The patients, 28 males and 7 female, aged between 19 and 91, resided in a restricted area of Northern Italy, and none, but two, had travelled abroad...
December 2017: Pathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449565/amphibian-chytridiomycosis-outbreak-dynamics-are-linked-with-host-skin-bacterial-community-structure
#10
Kieran A Bates, Frances C Clare, Simon O'Hanlon, Jaime Bosch, Lola Brookes, Kevin Hopkins, Emilia J McLaughlin, Olivia Daniel, Trenton W J Garner, Matthew C Fisher, Xavier A Harrison
Host-associated microbes are vital for combatting infections and maintaining health. In amphibians, certain skin-associated bacteria inhibit the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), yet our understanding of host microbial ecology and its role in disease outbreaks is limited. We sampled skin-associated bacteria and Bd from Pyrenean midwife toad populations exhibiting enzootic or epizootic disease dynamics. We demonstrate that bacterial communities differ between life stages with few shared taxa, indicative of restructuring at metamorphosis...
February 15, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449384/complete-genome-sequences-of-five-foot-and-mouth-disease-viruses-of-serotype-a-isolated-from-cattle-in-nigeria-between-2013-and-2015
#11
Frank Vandenbussche, Elisabeth Mathijs, Hussaini G Ularamu, David O Ehizibolo, Andy Haegeman, David Lefebvre, Annebel R De Vleeschauwer, Steven Van Borm, Kris De Clercq
The complete genome sequences of 5 foot-and-mouth disease viruses of serotype A are reported here. These viruses originate from outbreaks in northern Nigeria in 2013 to 2015 and belong to the A/AFRICA/G-IV lineage.
February 15, 2018: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449069/repercussions-of-the-great-east-japan-earthquake-tsunami-on-ellipsoidal-alexandrium-cysts-dinophyceae-in-ofunato-bay-japan
#12
Kazumi Matsuoka, Yuri Ikeda, Shinnosuke Kaga, Yoshimasa Kaga, Takehiko Ogata
Shellfish aquaculture in Ofunato Bay, Northeast Japan, was seriously damaged by a tsunami generated by the Great East Japan Earthquake, March 11th, 2011, accompanied by paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) outbreaks caused by Alexandrium tamarense (Dinophyceae). To understand longer future trends of PSP, an investigation was made of the historical occurrence and causes of Alexandrium outbreaks after the tsunami. Vertical distributions of Alexandrium cysts in two sediment-cores from Ofunato Bay revealed that the sediments above ca...
January 4, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448965/temporo-spatial-dynamics-and-behavioural-patterns-of-2012-cholera-epidemic-in-the-african-mega-city-of-conakry-guinea
#13
Alexandre Blake, Veronique Sarr Keita, Delphine Sauvageot, Mamadou Saliou, Berthe Marie Njanpop, Fode Sory, Bertrand Sudre, Koivogui Lamine, Martin Mengel, Bradford D Gessner, Keita Sakoba
BACKGROUND: Cholera is endemic in Guinea, having suffered consecutive outbreaks from 2004 to 2008 followed by a lull until the 2012 epidemic. Here we describe the temporal-spatial and behavioural characteristics of cholera cases in Conakry during a three-year period, including the large-scale 2012 epidemic. METHODS: We used the national and African Cholera Surveillance Network (Africhol) surveillance data collected from every cholera treatment centre in Conakry city from August 2011 to December 2013...
February 15, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447840/microbial-dormancy-and-boom-and-bust-population-dynamics-under-starvation-stress
#14
A C Fowler, H F Winstanley
We propose a model for the growth of microbial populations in the presence of a rate-limiting nutrient which accounts for the switching of cells to a dormant phase at low densities in response to decreasing concentration of a putative biochemical signal. We then show that in conditions of nutrient starvation, self-sustained oscillations can occur, thus providing a natural explanation for such phenomena as plankton blooms. However, unlike results of previous studies, the microbial population minima do not become unrealistically small, being buffered during minima by an increased dormant phase population...
February 12, 2018: Theoretical Population Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447694/an-additive-sugar-helps-the-c-diff-go-round
#15
Michael C Abt
Outbreaks of hypervirulent strains of Clostridium difficile began to be reported in healthcare facilities worldwide around 20 years ago. Concurrently, trehalose became a common additive used by the global food industry. A new study provides evidence that these two observations are a linked phenomenon (Collins et al., 2018).
February 14, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447477/inhibition-of-the-lethality-of-shiga-like-toxin-1-by-functional-gold-nanoparticles
#16
Chun-Hsien Li, Yi-Ling Bai, Yu-Chie Chen
Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a pathogen, which can generate Shiga-like toxins (SLTs) and cause hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Foodborne illness outbreaks caused by E. coli O157:H7 have become a global issue. Since SLTs are quite toxic, effective medicines that can reduce the damage caused by SLTs should be explored. SLTs consist of a single A and five B subunits, which can inhibit ribosome activity for protein synthesis and bind with the cell membrane of host cells, respectively. Pigeon ovalbumin (POA), i.e. a glycoprotein, is abundant in pigeon egg white (PEW) proteins...
February 15, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447169/occurrence-of-measles-in-a-country-with-elimination-status-amplifying-measles-infection-in-hospitalized-children-due-to-imported-virus
#17
HyeEun Eom, YoungJoon Park, JooWhee Kim, Jeong-Sun Yang, HaeJi Kang, Kisoon Kim, Byung Chul Chun, Ok Park, Jeong Ik Hong
The Republic of Korea declared measles elimination in 2006. However, a measles outbreak occurred in 2013. This study aimed to identify the epidemiological characteristics of the sources of infection and the pattern of measles transmission in 2013 in South Korea. We utilized surveillance data, epidemiological data, immunization registry data, and genetic information. We describe the epidemiological characteristics of all measles case patients (sex, age distribution, vaccination status, sources of infection) as well as details of the outbreak (the pattern of transmission, duration, mean age of patients, and generation time)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447156/west-nile-and-st-louis-encephalitis-viral-genetic-determinants-of-avian-host-competence
#18
Payal D Maharaj, Angela M Bosco-Lauth, Stanley A Langevin, Michael Anishchenko, Richard A Bowen, William K Reisen, Aaron C Brault
West Nile virus (WNV) and St. Louis encephalitis (SLEV) virus are enzootically maintained in North America in cycles involving the same mosquito vectors and similar avian hosts. However, these viruses exhibit dissimilar viremia and virulence phenotypes in birds: WNV is associated with high magnitude viremias that can result in mortality in certain species such as American crows (AMCRs, Corvus brachyrhynchos) whereas SLEV infection yields lower viremias that have not been associated with avian mortality. Cross-neutralization of these viruses in avian sera has been proposed to explain the reduced circulation of SLEV since the introduction of WNV in North America; however, in 2015, both viruses were the etiologic agents of concurrent human encephalitis outbreaks in Arizona, indicating the need to re-evaluate host factors and cross-neutralization responses as factors potentially affecting viral co-circulation...
February 15, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446801/emergence-ecology-and-dispersal-of-the-pandemic-generating-vibrio-cholerae-lineage
#19
REVIEW
Mohammad T Islam, Munirul Alam, Yan Boucher
Although cholera is an ancient disease that first arose at least half a millennium ago, it remains a major health threat globally. Its pandemic form is caused by strains from a single lineage of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. The ancestor of this lineage harbored several distinctive characteristics, the most notable being the O1 antigen polysaccharide. This lineage generated two biotypes, first Classical, responsible for six pandemics, and later El Tor, responsible for the seventh and ongoing pandemic. Just as El Tor replaced Classical as the main cause of outbreaks in the last fifty years, several variants of El Tor have evolved and displaced their predecessors worldwide...
September 2017: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446470/hev-and-hav-seroprevalence-in-men-that-have-sex-with-men-msm-an-update-from-milan-italy
#20
Letizia Greco, Sara Colonia Uceda Renteria, Davide Guarneri, Anna Orlandi, Antonella Zoccoli, Susanna Benardon, Marco Cusini, Giovanna Lunghi
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a feco-orally transmitted pathogen and one of the most common cause of acute hepatitis worldwide. Recent studies in developed countries suggested that a direct human-to-human contact such as for sexually transmitted diseases may play a significant role in the HEV spread. The aim of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of HEV and HAV in a group of MSM, including subjects HIV and Treponema infected, in Milan, Italy. The overall anti HEV IgG seroprevalence in MSM was 10.2% (65/636), instead in the control group the detection rate was 5...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
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