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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029266/investigation-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-outbreaks-among-people-who-inject-drugs-timely-diagnosis-and-molecular-surveillance-are-crucial
#1
Dimitrios Paraskevis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 5, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029262/chikungunya-fever-outbreak-identified-in-north-bali-indonesia
#2
Kartika Sari, Khin Saw Aye Myint, Ayu Rai Andayani, Putu Dwi Adi, Rama Dhenni, Aditya Perkasa, Chairin Nisa Ma'roef, Ni Putu Diah Witari, Dewi Megawati, Ann M Powers, Ungke Anton Jaya
Background: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infections have been reported sporadically within the last 5 years in several areas of Indonesia including Bali. Most of the reports, however, have lacked laboratory confirmation. Method: A recent fever outbreak in a village in the North Bali area was investigated using extensive viral diagnostic testing including both molecular and serological approaches. Results and conclusions: Ten out of 15 acute febrile illness samples were confirmed to have CHIKV infection by real-time PCR or CHIKV-specific IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
October 5, 2017: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029156/detailed-transmission-network-analysis-of-a-large-opiate-driven-outbreak-of-hiv-infection-in-the-united-states
#3
Ellsworth M Campbell, Hongwei Jia, Anupama Shankar, Debra Hanson, Wei Luo, Silvina Masciotra, S Michele Owen, Alexandra M Oster, Romeo R Galang, Michael W Spiller, Sara J Blosser, Erika Chapman, Jeremy C Roseberry, Jessica Gentry, Pamela Pontones, Joan Duwve, Paula Peyrani, Ron M Kagan, Jeannette M Whitcomb, Philip J Peters, Walid Heneine, John T Brooks, William M Switzer
In January 2015, an outbreak of undiagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections among persons who inject drugs (PWID) was recognized in rural Indiana. By September 2016, 205 persons in this community of approximately 4400 had received a diagnosis of HIV infection. We report results of new approaches to analyzing epidemiologic and laboratory data to understand transmission during this outbreak. HIV genetic distances were calculated using the polymerase region. Networks were generated using data about reported high-risk contacts, viral genetic similarity, and their most parsimonious combinations...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029154/interrogating-resilience-in-health-systems-development
#4
Remco van de Pas, Majdi Ashour, Anuj Kapilashrami, Suzanne Fustukian
The Fourth Global Symposium on Health Systems Research was themed around 'Resilient and responsive health systems for a changing world.' This commentary is the outcome of a panel discussion at the symposium in which the resilience discourse and its use in health systems development was critically interrogated. The 2014-15 Ebola outbreak in West-Africa added momentum for the wider adoption of resilient health systems as a crucial element to prepare for and effectively respond to crisis. The growing salience of resilience in development and health systems debates can be attributed in part to development actors and philanthropies such as the Rockefeller Foundation...
September 23, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029133/rapid-determination-of-ebolavirus-infectivity-in-clinical-samples-using-a-novel-reporter-cell-line
#5
Markus H Kainulainen, Stuart T Nichol, César G Albariño, Christina F Spiropoulou
Modern ebolavirus diagnostics rely primarily on qRT-PCR, a sensitive method to detect viral genetic material in the acute phase of the disease. However, qRT-PCR does not confirm presence of infectious virus, presenting limitations in patient and outbreak management. Attempts to isolate infectious virus rely on in vivo or basic cell culture approaches, which prohibit rapid results and screening. Here we present a novel reporter cell line capable of detecting live ebolaviruses. These cells permit sensitive large-scale screening and titration of infectious virus in experimental and clinical samples, independent of ebolavirus species and variant...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029084/penicillin-binding-protein-encoded-by-pbp4-is-involved-in-mediating-copper-stress-in-listeria-monocytogenes
#6
Cameron Parsons, Ben Costolo, Phillip Brown, Sophia Kathariou
Listeria monocytogenes raises major food safety and public health concerns due its potential for severe foodborne disease and persistent colonization of food processing facilities. Copper is often employed to control pathogens in agriculture and is increasingly used in healthcare facilities, but mechanisms mediating tolerance of L. monocytogenes to copper remain poorly understood. A mariner-based mutant library of L. monocytogenes 2011L-2858, implicated in the 2011 listeriosis outbreak via whole cantaloupe, was screened for growth at sublethal levels of copper yielding mutant G2B4 with decreased copper tolerance...
October 4, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028962/clinical-features-of-acute-flaccid-myelitis-temporally-associated-with-an-enterovirus-d68-outbreak-results-of-a-nationwide-survey-of-acute-flaccid-paralysis-in-japan-august-december-2015
#7
Pin Fee Chong, Ryutaro Kira, Harushi Mori, Akihisa Okumura, Hiroyuki Torisu, Sawa Yasumoto, Hiroyuki Shimizu, Tsuguto Fujimoto, Nozomu Hanaoka, Susumu Kusunoki, Toshiyuki Takahashi, Kazunori Oishi, Keiko Tanaka-Taya
Backgroud: Acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) is an acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) syndrome with spinal motor neuron involvement of unknown etiology. We investigated the characteristics and prognostic factors of AFM clusters coincident with an enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) outbreak in Japan during autumn 2015. Methods: An AFM case series study was conducted following a nationwide survey from August to December 2015. Radiographic and neurophysiologic data were subjected to centralized review, and virology studies were conducted for available specimens...
October 6, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028959/effectiveness-of-measles-vaccination-and-immune-globulin-post-exposure-prophylaxis-in-an-outbreak-setting-new-york-city-2013
#8
Robert J Arciuolo, Rachel R Jablonski, Jane R Zucker, Jennifer B Rosen
Background: Measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR) or immune globulin (IG) are routinely used for measles post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). However, current literature on the effectiveness of measles PEP is limited and variable. Here, we examined the effectiveness of MMR and IG PEP among children exposed to measles during an outbreak in New York City (NYC) in 2013. Methods: Contacts were identified by the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene between 13 March 2013 and 30 June 2013...
September 23, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028841/efficacies-of-prevention-and-control-measures-applied-during-an-outbreak-in-southwest-madrid-spain
#9
Anaiá da Paixão Sevá, Maia Martcheva, Necibe Tuncer, Isabella Fontana, Eugenia Carrillo, Javier Moreno, James Keesling
Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease of worldwide distribution, currently present in 98 countries. Since late 2010, an unusual increase of human visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis cases has been observed in the south-western Madrid region, totaling more than 600 cases until 2015. Some hosts, such as human, domestic dog and cat, rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), and hare (Lepus granatensis), were found infected by the parasite of this disease in the area. Hares were described as the most important reservoir due to their higher prevalence, capacity to infect the vector, and presence of the same strains as in humans...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028812/occurrence-of-the-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-mers-cov-across-the-gulf-corporation-council-countries-four-years-update
#10
Mahmoud Aly, Mohamed Elrobh, Maha Alzayer, Sameera Aljuhani, Hanan Balkhy
The emergence of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infections has become a global issue of dire concerns. MERS-CoV infections have been identified in many countries all over the world whereas high level occurrences have been documented in the Middle East and Korea. MERS-CoV is mainly spreading across the geographical region of the Middle East, especially in the Arabian Peninsula, while some imported sporadic cases were reported from the Europe, North America, Africa, and lately Asia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028804/a-recombinase-polymerase-amplification-assay-for-rapid-detection-of-crimean-congo-haemorrhagic-fever-virus-infection
#11
Laura C Bonney, Robert J Watson, Babak Afrough, Manija Mullojonova, Viktoriya Dzhuraeva, Farida Tishkova, Roger Hewson
BACKGROUND: Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic fever Virus (CCHFV) is a rapidly emerging vector-borne pathogen and the cause of a virulent haemorrhagic fever affecting large parts of Europe, Africa, the Middle East and Asia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: An isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assay was successfully developed for molecular detection of CCHFV. The assay showed rapid (under 10 minutes) detection of viral extracts/synthetic virus RNA of all 7 S-segment clades of CCHFV, with high target specificity...
October 13, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028799/modeling-the-environmental-suitability-of-anthrax-in-ghana-and-estimating-populations-at-risk-implications-for-vaccination-and-control
#12
Ian T Kracalik, Ernest Kenu, Evans Nsoh Ayamdooh, Emmanuel Allegye-Cudjoe, Paul Nokuma Polkuu, Joseph Asamoah Frimpong, Kofi Mensah Nyarko, William A Bower, Rita Traxler, Jason K Blackburn
Anthrax is hyper-endemic in West Africa. Despite the effectiveness of livestock vaccines in controlling anthrax, underreporting, logistics, and limited resources makes implementing vaccination campaigns difficult. To better understand the geographic limits of anthrax, elucidate environmental factors related to its occurrence, and identify human and livestock populations at risk, we developed predictive models of the environmental suitability of anthrax in Ghana. We obtained data on the location and date of livestock anthrax from veterinary and outbreak response records in Ghana during 2005-2016, as well as livestock vaccination registers and population estimates of characteristically high-risk groups...
October 13, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028435/evaluation-of-agricultural-interventions-on-human-and-poultry-related-salmonella-enteritidis-in-british-columbia
#13
Marsha Taylor, William Cox, Michael Otterstatter, Nancy de With, Eleni Galanis
A collaborative investigation between public health and animal health led to numerous interventions along the food chain in response to an outbreak of human salmonellosis and increased incidence of Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) among poultry. Incidence of both human and chicken SE decreased substantially in 2012 and 2013 following these interventions. We used time series analysis to assess the impact of three interventions: vaccination of broiler breeder flocks, separation in the hatchery of breeder eggs, and an industry order to stop farm-gate sales of ungraded broiler hatching eggs...
October 13, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028174/could-frequent-carbapenem-use-be-a-risk-factor-for-colistin-resistance
#14
Aycan Gundogdu, Aysegul Ulu-Kilic, Huseyin Kilic, Esra Ozhan, Dilek Altun, Ozlem Cakir, Emine Alp
AIMS: The antibiotic colistin, which had been previously abandoned, is being brought back as a last line of defense against bacterial infection. However, colistin resistance was reported shortly after its reintroduction. This study evaluated the risk factors for colonization/infections due to colistin-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (ColR-Ab) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (ColR-Kp) strains and characterized the molecular epidemiology of these two strains. RESULTS: Age, previous hospitalization duration, and previous use of carbapenem and colistin were risk factors for ColR-Kp, whereas previous use of carbapenem and colistin was a risk factor for ColR-Ab...
October 13, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027742/disentangling-causation-complex-roles-of-coral-associated-microorganisms-in-disease
#15
Hanaka Mera, David G Bourne
Rapidly changing climate regimes combined with other anthropogenic pressures are implicated in increased disease epizootics among reef building corals, resulting in changing habitat structure. These accumulated stressors directly contribute to disease outbreaks by compromising the coral host immune system, modulating virulence of microbial pathogens, and/or disrupting the balance within the microbiome of the holobiont. Disentangling coral disease causation has been challenging, and while progress has been made for certain diseases in terms of the roles the associated microorganisms play, it is evident that like in other marine or terrestrial systems, compromised host health cannot always be attributed to a single causative agent...
October 13, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027679/high-prevalence-of-betanodavirus-barfin-flounder-nervous-necrosis-virus-as-well-as-red-spotted-grouper-nervous-necrosis-virus-genotype-in-shellfish
#16
Y C Kim, W J Kwon, M S Kim, K I Kim, J G Min, H D Jeong
Using two serially executed PCRs, the discriminative multiplex two-step RT-PCR (DMT-2 RT-PCR) following the detection seminested two-step RT-PCR (DSN-2 RT-PCR), we found a high frequency presence of BFNNV genotype as well as RGNNV in various domestic and imported shellfish. This was definitely different from the previous reports of outbreaks and asymptomatic infection only by the RGNNV genotype in cultured finfish in Korea. Cultivation of NNV entrapped in shellfish was performed successfully by a blind passage...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026660/comparison-of-classical-multi-locus-sequence-typing-software-for-next-generation-sequencing-data
#17
REVIEW
Andrew J Page, Nabil-Fareed Alikhan, Heather A Carleton, Torsten Seemann, Jacqueline A Keane, Lee S Katz
Multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) is a widely used method for categorizing bacteria. Increasingly, MLST is being performed using next-generation sequencing (NGS) data by reference laboratories and for clinical diagnostics. Many software applications have been developed to calculate sequence types from NGS data; however, there has been no comprehensive review to date on these methods. We have compared eight of these applications against real and simulated data, and present results on: (1) the accuracy of each method against traditional typing methods, (2) the performance on real outbreak datasets, (3) the impact of contamination and varying depth of coverage, and (4) the computational resource requirements...
August 2017: Microbial Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026659/emergence-and-genomic-diversification-of-a-virulent-serogroup-w-st-2881-cc175-neisseria-meningitidis-clone-in-the-african-meningitis-belt
#18
Araceli Lamelas, Julia Hauser, Jean-Pierre Dangy, Abdul-Wahab M Hamid, Katharina Röltgen, Mohamad R Abdul Sater, Abraham Hodgson, Ali Sie, Thomas Junghanss, Simon R Harris, Julian Parkhill, Stephen D Bentley, Gerd Pluschke
Countries of the African 'meningitis belt' are susceptible to meningococcal meningitis outbreaks. While in the past major epidemics have been primarily caused by serogroup A meningococci, W strains are currently responsible for most of the cases. After an epidemic in Mecca in 2000, W:ST-11 strains have caused many outbreaks worldwide. An unrelated W:ST-2881 clone was described for the first time in 2002, with the first meningitis cases caused by these bacteria reported in 2003. Here we describe results of a comparative whole-genome analysis of 74 W:ST-2881 strains isolated within the framework of two longitudinal colonization and disease studies conducted in Ghana and Burkina Faso...
August 2017: Microbial Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026657/whole-genome-sequencing-to-investigate-a-non-clonal-melioidosis-cluster-on-a-remote-australian-island
#19
Derek S Sarovich, Stephanie N J Chapple, Erin P Price, Mark Mayo, Matthew T G Holden, Sharon J Peacock, Bart J Currie
Melioidosis is a tropical disease caused by the bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei. Outbreaks are uncommon and can generally be attributed to a single point source and strain. We used whole-genome sequencing to analyse B. pseudomallei isolates collected from an historical 2-year long case cluster that occurred in a remote northern Australian indigenous island community, where infections were previously linked to a contaminated communal water supply. We analysed the genome-wide relatedness of the two most common multilocus sequence types (STs) involved in the outbreak, STs 125 and 126...
August 2017: Microbial Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026651/snvphyl-a-single-nucleotide-variant-phylogenomics-pipeline-for-microbial-genomic-epidemiology
#20
Aaron Petkau, Philip Mabon, Cameron Sieffert, Natalie C Knox, Jennifer Cabral, Mariam Iskander, Mark Iskander, Kelly Weedmark, Rahat Zaheer, Lee S Katz, Celine Nadon, Aleisha Reimer, Eduardo Taboada, Robert G Beiko, William Hsiao, Fiona Brinkman, Morag Graham, Gary Van Domselaar
The recent widespread application of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) for microbial disease investigations has spurred the development of new bioinformatics tools, including a notable proliferation of phylogenomics pipelines designed for infectious disease surveillance and outbreak investigation. Transitioning the use of WGS data out of the research laboratory and into the front lines of surveillance and outbreak response requires user-friendly, reproducible and scalable pipelines that have been well validated...
June 30, 2017: Microbial Genomics
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