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Seong Cheol Hong, Dhiraj P Murale, Se-Young Jang, Md Mamunul Haque, Minah Seo, Seok Lee, Deok Ha Woo, Junghoon Kwon, Chang-Seon Song, Yun Kyung Kim, Jun-Seok Lee
Avian Influenza (AI) caused an annual epidemic outbreak that led to destroying tens of millions of poultry worldwide. Current gold standard AI diagnosis method is an embryonic egg-based hemagglutination assay followed by immunoblotting or PCR sequencing to confirm subtypes. It requires, however, specialized facilities to handle egg inoculation and incubation, and the subtyping methods relied on costly reagents. Here, we demonstrated the first differential sensing approach to distinguish AI subtypes using series of cell lines and fluorescent sensor...
June 22, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Eman M Hussein, Shahira A Ahmed, Amira B Mokhtar, Sherine M Elzagawy, Samah H Yahi, Abdalla M Hussein, Farid Al-Tantawey
Outbreaks of Cyclospora cayetanensis infection have been linked to consumption of food and water contaminated by oocysts that can survive both physical and chemical disinfectants. Magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoparticles (NPs) can be potentially used in food as bactericides. In this study, C. cayetanensis pre- and post-sporulated oocysts were exposed to MgO NPs with different doses ranging from 1.25-25 mg/ml. With comparison to control, the antiprotozoal activity of MgO NPs was evaluated by identifying the median effective concentration dose (EC50 ), lethal concentration dose (LC90 ), microscopically changes on treated oocysts and rates of sporulation...
June 19, 2018: Parasitology International
Dong Jiang, Mengmeng Hao, Fangyu Ding, Jingying Fu, Meng Li
Zika virus, which has been linked to severe congenital abnormalities, is exacerbating global public health problems with its rapid transnational expansion fueled by increased global travel and trade. Suitability mapping of the transmission risk of Zika virus is essential for drafting public health plans and disease control strategies, which are especially important in areas where medical resources are relatively scarce. Predicting the risk of Zika virus outbreak has been studied in recent years, but the published literature rarely includes multiple model comparisons or predictive uncertainty analysis...
June 19, 2018: Acta Tropica
Paul A Gastañaduy, Emily Banerjee, Chas DeBolt, Pamela Bravo-Alcántara, Samia A Samad, Desiree Pastor, Paul A Rota, Manisha Patel, Natasha S Crowcroft, David N Durrheim
In late September 2016, the Americas became the first region in the world to have eliminated endemic transmission of measles virus. Several other countries have also verified measles elimination, and countries in all six World Health Organization regions have adopted measles elimination goals. The public health strategies used to respond to measles outbreaks in elimination settings are thus becoming relevant to more countries. This review highlights the strategies used to limit measles spread in elimination settings: (1) assembly of an outbreak control committee; (2) isolation of measles cases while infectious; (3) exclusion and quarantining of individuals without evidence of immunity; (4) vaccination of susceptible individuals; (5) use of immunoglobulin to prevent measles in exposed susceptible high-risk persons; (6) and maintaining laboratory proficiency for confirmation of measles...
June 22, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
A Sprygin, Y Pestova, P Prutnikov, A Kononov
Since 2012, lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) has been spreading from the Middle East to south-east Europe and Russia. Although vaccination campaigns have managed to contain LSDV outbreaks, the risk of further spread is still high. The most likely route of LSDV transmission in short distance spread is vector-borne. Several arthropod species have been suggested as potential vectors, but no proven vector has yet been identified. To check whether promiscuous-landing synanthropic flies such as the common housefly (Musca domestica) could be involved, we carried out entomological trapping at the site of a recent LSDV outbreak caused by a vaccine-like LSDV strain...
June 22, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Christian R Wewer, Himanshu Khandelia
The flavivirus Zika virus (ZV) became an international emergency within two years of its outbreak in the Americas. Dengue virus (DENV), which is also a flavivirus, causes significant clinical harm in equatorial regions. A common feature amongst flaviviruses like ZV and DENV is an icosahedral shell of exactly 180 copies of the envelope (E) and membrane (M) proteins anchored in a lipid membrane, which engulfs the viral RNA and capsid proteins. Host recognition by both ZV and DENV is linked to the presence of phosphatidylserine (PS) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) lipids in the viral lipidome...
June 22, 2018: Soft Matter
Shehana Thahir-Silva, Mariet Liliana Betancourt-Trejos, Carlos Julián García-Loaiza, Soraya Villegas-Rojas, Jaime A Cardona-Ospina, Guillermo J Lagos-Grisales, Alicia Soto-Arbelaez, Alfonso J Rodriguez-Morales
Not available.
June 1, 2018: Le Infezioni in Medicina
Thomas Vogel, Rebekka Maria Wrobel, Oliver Graupner, Silvia Lobmaier, Hubertus Feussner, Bettina Kuschel
INTRODUCTION: Little is known concerning the interaction of achalasia and pregnancy and about an optimal time and type for treatment. Achalatic women of our collective of patients with at least one pregnancy in their history resulting in confinement or miscarriage were invited for a structured interview. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 43 of 109 female patients were included. Questionnaire contained questions on symptoms, type of symptoms, whether patients could link a specific event with outbreak of disease...
June 21, 2018: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
Jonathan P Moorman, Matthew R Krolikowski, Stephanie M Mathis, Robert P Pack
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to address infection with HIV and hepatitis C in the Appalachian region of the USA and the driving forces underlying this epidemic. We seek to discuss epidemiology of disease and the possible interventions to reduce incidence and burden of disease in this resource-limited area. RECENT FINDINGS: The rise of the opioid crisis has fueled a rise in new hepatitis C infection, and a rise in new HIV infection is expected to follow...
June 21, 2018: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Sumeeta Khurana, Preeti Chaudhary
Cryptosporidiosis is a major etiology of persistent and chronic diarrhea in children and immunocompromised patients. In addition, it is also one of the important pathogens causing zoonotic or waterborne outbreaks. A number of conventional and molecular tests are available, but each test is riddled with few limitations. Further, there is a need to develop point of care tests and multiplexed tests for simultaneous detection of multiple pathogens.
January 2018: Tropical Parasitology
Moges Ayehu, Misganu Endriyas, Emebet Mekonnen, Mekonen Shiferaw, Tebeje Misganaw
Background: Outbreaks of mass psychogenic illness (MPI), which are a constellation of physical signs and symptoms suggestive of organic illness with no identifiable causes. MPI has been documented in numerous cultural, ethnic, and religious groups throughout the world. The aims of this study were to document the nature and impacts of the illness, to assess interventions, and to come up with recommendations and management formulations for dealing with such kinds of outbreaks in the future...
2018: International Journal of Mental Health Systems
María E Rivarola, Soledad de Olmos, Guillermo Albrieu-Llinás, Laura B Tauro, Melisa Gorosito-Serrán, Brenda S Konigheim, Marta S Contigiani, Adriana Gruppi
Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) is a neglected flavivirus that causes severe neurological disorders. The epidemic strain of SLEV, CbaAr-4005, isolated during an outbreak in Córdoba city (Argentina), causes meningitis and encephalitis associated with neurological symptoms in a murine experimental model. Here, we identified the affected brain areas and the damage triggered by this neurotropic arbovirus. We performed a detailed analysis of brain neurodegeneration associated with CbaAr-4005 SLEV infection in mice...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Kuo-Ming Lee, Yu-Nong Gong, Tzu-Hsuan Hsieh, Andrew Woodman, Nynke H Dekker, Craig E Cameron, Shin-Ru Shih
Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) is an important nonpolio enterovirus that causes severe neurological complications. In 1998, Taiwan experienced an EV-A71 outbreak that caused 78 deaths. Since then, periodic epidemics of EV-A71 associated with newly emerging strains have occurred. Several of these strains are known to be recombinant; however, how these strains arose within such a short period of time remains unknown. Here, we sequenced 64 full-length genomes from clinical isolates collected from 2005 to 2016 and incorporated all 91 Taiwanese genomes downloaded from the Virus Pathogen Resource to extensively analyze EV-A71 recombination in Taiwan...
June 21, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Vânia Ferreira, Rui Magalhães, Gonçalo Almeida, Didier Cabanes, Moritz Fritzenwanker, Trinad Chakraborty, Torsten Hain, Paula Teixeira
We report here the draft genome sequence of Listeria monocytogenes 2542, a serotype 4b clinical strain recovered from a placental sample during a cheese-related listeriosis outbreak in Portugal.
June 21, 2018: Genome Announcements
Mushal Allam, Nomsa Tau, Shannon L Smouse, Phillip S Mtshali, Florah Mnyameni, Zamantungwa T H Khumalo, Arshad Ismail, Nevashan Govender, Juno Thomas, Anthony M Smith
We report whole-genome sequences for 10 Listeria monocytogenes sequence type 6 isolates associated with a large listeriosis outbreak in South Africa, which occurred over the period of 2017 to 2018. The possibility of listeriosis spreading beyond South Africa's borders as a result of exported contaminated food products prompted us to make the genome sequences publicly available.
June 21, 2018: Genome Announcements
Lu Tang, Bijie Bie, Degui Zhi
BACKGROUND: The public increasingly uses social media not only to look for information about emerging infectious diseases (EIDs), but also to share opinions, emotions, and coping strategies. Identifying the frames used in social media discussion about EIDs will allow public health agencies to assess public opinions and sentiments. METHOD: This study examined how the public discussed measles during the measles outbreak in the United States during early 2015 that originated in Disneyland Park in Anaheim, CA, through a semantic network analysis of the content of around 1 million tweets using KH coder...
June 18, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
Timothy Letsa, Charles Lwanga Noora, George Khumalo Kuma, Ernest Asiedu, Gideon Kye-Duodu, Edwin Afari, Osei Afreh Kuffour, Joseph Opare, Kofi Mensah Nyarko, Donne Kofi Ameme, Emmanuel G Bachan, Kofi Issah, Franklin Aseidu-Bekoe, Moses Aikins, Ernest Kenu
BACKGROUND: Meningitis, a disease of the Central Nervous System is described as inflammation of the covering of the brain and spinal cord (meninges). It is characterised by fever, severe headache, nausea, vomiting, stiff neck, photophobia, altered consciousness, convulsion/seizures and coma. In December, 2015, twelve suspected cases of meningitis were reported in Tain district in Brong Ahafo region (BAR). Subsequently, dozens of suspected cases were hospitalized in five district hospitals in BAR...
June 22, 2018: BMC Public Health
Joel Aik, Anita E Heywood, Anthony T Newall, Lee-Ching Ng, Martyn D Kirk, Robin Turner
Climate change is expected to bring about global warming and an increase in the frequency of extreme weather events. This may consequently influence the transmission of food-borne diseases. The short term associations between climatic conditions and Salmonella infections are well documented in temperate climates but not in the tropics. We conducted an ecological time series analysis to estimate the short term associations between non-outbreak, non-travel associated reports of Salmonella infections and observed climatic conditions from 2005 to 2015 for Singapore...
October 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Huan Zhang, Liurong Fang, Xinyu Zhu, Dang Wang, Shaobo Xiao
Protein lysine ubiquitination is a dynamic reversible post-translational modification that plays key roles in modulating different cellular processes. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a notorious pathogen, causing tremendous economic losses for the global swine industry. The possible involvement of ubiquitination in PRRSV infection is unclear. So anti-ubiquitination-based enrichment and LC-MS were performed to investigate the global ubiquitination events triggered by PRRSV infection in pulmonary alveolar macrophages...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
Lihua Qi, Weihong Fan, Xian Xia, Lu Yao, Lirui Liu, Haiyan Zhao, Xiangyong Kong, Jie Liu
BACKGROUND: Candida parapsilosis is a common agew2nt of fungemia, but few outbreaks of Candida parapsilosis infection have been reported in China. AIM: This study aimed to elaborate an outbreak of nosocomial Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto fungemia in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of a comprehensive hospital in China from July to October 2017. METHODS: Epidemics and characteristics of fungemia cases were investigated. Surveillance samples were collected...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
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