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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667872/detecting-european-rabbit-oryctolagus-cuniculus-disease-outbreaks-by-monitoring-digital-media
#1
David E Peacock, Tiggy L Grillo
  Digital media and digital search tools offer simple and effective means to monitor for pathogens and disease outbreaks in target organisms. Using tools such as Rich Site Summary feeds, and Google News and Google Scholar specific key word searches, international digital media were actively monitored from 2012 to 2016 for pathogens and disease outbreaks in the taxonomic order Lagomorpha, with a specific focus on the European rabbit ( Oryctolagus cuniculus). The primary objective was identifying pathogens for assessment as potential new biocontrol agents for Australia's pest populations of the European rabbit...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667575/a-cluster-of-two-human-cases-of-tick-borne-encephalitis-tbe-transmitted-by-unpasteurised-goat-milk-and-cheese-in-germany-may-2016
#2
S O Brockmann, R Oehme, T Buckenmaier, M Beer, A Jeffery-Smith, M Spannenkrebs, S Haag-Milz, C Wagner-Wiening, C Schlegel, J Fritz, S Zange, M Bestehorn, A Lindau, D Hoffmann, S Tiberi, U Mackenstedt, G Dobler
In May 2016, two cases of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) were confirmed by serology (positive IgM and IgG antibodies against TBE virus (TBEV) in serum), with a possible link to raw milk and cheese from a goat farm in a region in Baden-Württemberg, Germany not previously known as TBE-endemic. The outbreak investigation identified 32 consumers of goat dairy products (29 consumers, one farm employee, two owners) of whom none had IgM antibodies against TBEV 3-8 weeks after consumption. Of the 27 notified TBE cases in the State, none reported consumption of raw goat milk or cheese from the suspected farm...
April 2018: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667574/genomic-non-coding-regions-reveal-hidden-patterns-of-mumps-virus-circulation-in-spain-2005-to-2015
#3
Ana M Gavilán, Aurora Fernández-García, Angel Rueda, Ana Castellanos, Josefa Masa-Calles, Noemí López-Perea, María V Torres de Mier, Fernando de Ory, Juan E Echevarría
BackgroundSince mumps vaccination was introduced in 1981 in Spain, the incidence of the disease has dropped significantly. However, cyclic epidemic waves and outbreaks still occur, despite high vaccination coverage. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends genotyping to trace the pattern of mumps virus (MuV) circulation. Genotype H was predominant in Spain, but was replaced in 2005 by genotype G which has subsequently remained dominant. Of the small hydrophobic protein gene sequences, 78% are identical and belong to the MuVi/ Sheffield...
April 2018: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667483/global-epidemiology-of-serogroup-b-meningococcal-disease-and-opportunities-for-prevention-with-novel-recombinant-protein-vaccines
#4
Rodolfo Villena, Marco Aurelio P Safadi, María Teresa Valenzuela, Juan P Torres, Adam Finn, Miguel O'Ryan
Meningococcal disease (MD) is a major cause of meningitis and sepsis worldwide, with a high case fatality rate and frequent sequelae. Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, B, C, W, X and Y are responsible for most of these life-threatening infections, and its unpredictable epidemiology can cause outbreaks in communities, with significant health, social and economic impact. Currently, serogroup B is the main cause of MD in Europe and North America and one of the most prevalent serogroups in Latin America. Mass vaccination strategies using polysaccharide vaccines have been deployed since the 1970s and the use of conjugate vaccines has controlled endemic and epidemic disease caused by serogroups A, C, W and Y and more recently serogroup B using geographically-specific outer membrane vesicle based vaccines...
April 18, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667207/whole-genomic-analysis-of-human-g8p-14-group-a-rotavirus-detected-from-community-gastroenteritis-outbreak
#5
Mori Kohji, Nakazawa Haruyuki, Hase Shinichi, Nagano Miyuki, Kimoto Kana, Oda Mayuko, Somura Yoshiko, Akiba Tetsuya, Hayashi Yukinao, Shinkai Takayuki, Sadamasu Kenji
Several suspected cases of zoonotic transmission of group A rotavirus (RVA)-related gastroenteritis were reported previously. In August 2012, G8P[14] RVA was detected in fecal specimens from a community gastroenteritis outbreak occurring during a school trip. In this study, additional analyses were performed and it was found that this strain had the G8-P[14]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A3-N2-T6-E2-H3 sequence, similar to bovine-like RVA strains. Some contamination by emesis and diarrheic feces was observed near a rest room in the lodging area...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667206/surveillance-of-donated-blood-during-the-2016-arbovirus-outbreak-in-brazil
#6
Rohit Sharma, Larissa Costa Santos, Robson Amaro da Silva, Caroline Vieira Gonçalves, Stéfano de Melo Calado, Denisar P Santos, Josana Passos de Andrade de Melo, Rita de Cássia Pontello Rampazzo, Luciana Requião, Marco Aurélio Krieger, Manoel Barral-Netto, Camila I de Oliveira
Reports of arboviral transmission via blood transfusion may be a cause of concern among asymptomatic infected donors. This study evaluated the presence of arboviruses in donated blood products during the 2016 outbreak in Vitória da Conquista (Bahia-Brazil). Serum samples (n = 676) were screened for ZIKV, CHIKV and the four DENV serotypes using a one-step reverse transcriptase-based Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). No samples tested positive for any of the targets, whereas positive controls performed as expected...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666748/mass-gathering-enhanced-syndromic-surveillance-for-the-8th-micronesian-games-in-2014-pohnpei-state-federated-states-of-micronesia
#7
Paul White, Salanieta Saketa, Eliaser Johnson, Sameer V Gopalani, Eliashib Edward, Charles Loney, Alize Mercier, Tebuka Toatu, Richard Wojcik, Sheri Lewis, Damian Hoy
Pohnpei State's Division of Primary Health Care implemented enhanced surveillance for early warning and detection of disease to support the 8th Micronesian Games (the Games) in July 2014. The surveillance comprised 11 point-of-care sentinel sites around Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia, collecting data daily for eight syndromes using standard case definitions. Each sentinel site reported total acute care encounters, total syndrome cases and the total for each syndrome. A public health response, including epidemiological investigation and laboratory testing, followed when syndrome counts reached predetermined threshold levels...
January 2018: Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666401/overwintering-of-west-nile-virus-in-a-bird-community-with-a-communal-crow-roost
#8
Diego Montecino-Latorre, Christopher M Barker
In temperate climates, transmission of West Nile virus (WNV) is detectable rarely during the coldest months (late fall through early spring), yet the virus has reappeared consistently during the next warm season. Several mechanisms may contribute to WNV persistence through winter, including bird-to-bird transmission among highly viremic species. Here we consider whether, under realistic scenarios supported by field and laboratory evidence, a winter bird community could sustain WNV through the winter in the absence of mosquitoes...
April 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666287/the-blast-fungus-decoded-genomes-in-flux
#9
Thorsten Langner, Aleksandra Białas, Sophien Kamoun
Plant disease outbreaks caused by fungi are a chronic threat to global food security. A prime case is blast disease, which is caused by the ascomycete fungus Magnaporthe oryzae (syn. Pyricularia oryzae ), which is infamous as the most destructive disease of the staple crop rice. However, despite its Linnaean binomial name, M. oryzae is a multihost pathogen that infects more than 50 species of grasses. A timely study by P. Gladieux and colleagues (mBio 9:e01219-17, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01219-17) reports the most extensive population genomic analysis of the blast fungus thus far...
April 17, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666284/biofilms-comprise-a-component-of-the-annual-cycle-of-vibrio-cholerae-in-the-bay-of-bengal-estuary
#10
Marzia Sultana, Suraia Nusrin, Nur A Hasan, Abdus Sadique, Kabir U Ahmed, Atiqul Islam, Anwar Hossain, Ira Longini, Azhar Nizam, Anwar Huq, Abul K Siddique, David A Sack, Richard B Sack, Rita R Colwell, Munirul Alam
Vibrio cholerae , an estuarine bacterium, is the causative agent of cholera, a severe diarrheal disease that demonstrates seasonal incidence in Bangladesh. In an extensive study of V. cholerae occurrence in a natural aquatic environment, water and plankton samples were collected biweekly between December 2005 and November 2006 from Mathbaria, an estuarine village of Bangladesh near the mangrove forests of the Sundarbans. Toxigenic V. cholerae exhibited two seasonal growth peaks, one in spring (March to May) and another in autumn (September to November), corresponding to the two annual seasonal outbreaks of cholera in this region...
April 17, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666282/listeria-monocytogenes-source-distribution-analysis-indicates-regional-heterogeneity-and-ecological-niche-preference-among-serotype-4b-clones
#11
Sangmi Lee, Yi Chen, Lisa Gorski, Todd J Ward, Jason Osborne, Sophia Kathariou
Biodiversity analysis of the foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes recently revealed four serotype 4b major hypervirulent clonal complexes (CCs), i.e., CC1, CC2, CC4, and CC6. Hypervirulence was indicated by overrepresentation of these clones, and serotype 4b as a whole, among human clinical isolates in comparison to food. However, data on potential source-dependent partitioning among serotype 4b clones in diverse regions are sparse. We analyzed a panel of 347 serotype 4b isolates, primarily from North America, to determine the distribution of clones in humans, other animals, food, and water...
April 17, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666240/urbanization-prolongs-hantavirus-epidemics-in-cities
#12
Huaiyu Tian, Shixiong Hu, Bernard Cazelles, Gerardo Chowell, Lidong Gao, Marko Laine, Yapin Li, Huisuo Yang, Yidan Li, Qiqi Yang, Xin Tong, Ru Huang, Ottar N Bjornstad, Hong Xiao, Nils Chr Stenseth
Urbanization and rural-urban migration are two factors driving global patterns of disease and mortality. There is significant concern about their potential impact on disease burden and the effectiveness of current control approaches. Few attempts have been made to increase our understanding of the relationship between urbanization and disease dynamics, although it is generally believed that urban living has contributed to reductions in communicable disease burden in industrialized countries. To investigate this relationship, we carried out spatiotemporal analyses using a 48-year-long dataset of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome incidence (HFRS; mainly caused by two serotypes of hantavirus in China: Hantaan virus and Seoul virus) and population movements in an important endemic area of south China during the period 1963-2010...
April 17, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665862/environmental-and-social-demographic-predictors-of-the-southern-house-mosquito-culex-quinquefasciatus-in-new-orleans-louisiana
#13
Imelda K Moise, Claudia Riegel, Ephantus J Muturi
BACKGROUND: Understanding the major predictors of disease vectors such as mosquitoes can guide the development of effective and timely strategies for mitigating vector-borne disease outbreaks. This study examined the influence of selected environmental, weather and sociodemographic factors on the spatial and temporal distribution of the southern house mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus Say in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. METHODS: Adult mosquitoes were collected over a 4-year period (2006, 2008, 2009 and 2010) using CDC gravid traps...
April 17, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665783/surveillance-on-the-endemic-of-zika-virus-infection-by-meteorological-factors-in-colombia-a-population-based-spatial-and-temporal-study
#14
Lung-Chang Chien, Ro-Ting Lin, Yunqi Liao, Francisco S Sy, Adriana Pérez
BACKGROUND: Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is a pandemic and a public health emergency. It is transmitted by mosquitoes, primarily the Aedes genus. In light of no treatment currently, it is crucial to develop effective vector control programs to prevent the spread of ZIKV infection earlier when observing possible risk factors, such as weather conditions enhancing mosquito breeding and surviving. METHODS: This study collected daily meteorological measurements and weekly ZIKV infectious cases among 32 departments of Colombia from January 2015-December 2016...
April 17, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665435/neuraminidase-inhibitor-susceptibility-and-evolutionary-analysis-of-human-influenza-b-isolates-from-three-asian-countries-during-2012-2015
#15
Akinobu Hibino, Elie Massaad, Hiroki Kondo, Reiko Saito, Takashi Odagiri, Nobuhiro Takemae, Ryota Tsunekuni, Takehiko Saito, Yadanar Kyaw, Nay Lin, Yi Yi Myint, Htay Htay Tin, Nguyen Le Khanh Hang, Le Quynh Mai, Ren Yagami, Yugo Shobugawa, Tommy Lam, Hassan Zaraket
Influenza B viruses of both the Yamagata and the Victoria lineages are implicated in a large proportion of the morbidity and mortality associated with influenza outbreaks. In this study, we characterized the full genomes of 53 influenza B viruses isolated during 2012-2015 in three Asian countries: Japan, Myanmar, and Vietnam. Analysis of the hemagglutinin (HA) genes revealed co-circulation of both the Yamagata and Victoria lineages within the same season in these countries. Our analysis revealed, that a large proportion of viruses circulating during 2013-2014 in Japan and Vietnam were mismatched to the vaccine supporting the rationale for using quadrivalent vaccines...
April 14, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664388/epidemic-dynamics-of-vibrio-parahaemolyticus-illness-in-a-hotspot-of-disease-emergence-galicia-spain
#16
Jaime Martinez-Urtaza, Joaquin Trinanes, Michel Abanto, Antonio Lozano-Leon, Jose Llovo-Taboada, Marta Garcia-Campello, Anxela Pousa, Andy Powell, Craig Baker-Austin, Narjol Gonzalez-Escalona
Galicia in northwestern Spain has been considered a hotspot for Vibrio parahaemolyticus infections. Infections abruptly emerged in 1998 and, over the next 15 years, were associated with large outbreaks caused by strains belonging to a single clone. We report a recent transition in the epidemiologic pattern in which cases throughout the region have been linked to different and unrelated strains. Global genome-wide phylogenetic analysis revealed that most of the pathogenic strains isolated from infections were associated with globally diverse isolates, indicating frequent episodic introductions from disparate and remote sources...
May 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664387/cholera-epidemic-in-south-sudan-and-uganda-and-need-for-international-collaboration-in-cholera-control
#17
Abdinasir Abubakar, Godfrey Bwire, Andrew S Azman, Malika Bouhenia, Lul L Deng, Joseph F Wamala, John Rumunu, Atek Kagirita, Jean Rauzier, Lise Grout, Stephen Martin, Christopher Garimoi Orach, Francisco J Luquero, Marie-Laure Quilici
Combining the official cholera line list data and outbreak investigation reports from the ministries of health in Uganda and South Sudan with molecular analysis of Vibrio cholerae strains revealed the interrelatedness of the epidemics in both countries in 2014. These results highlight the need for collaboration to control cross-border outbreaks.
May 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664371/foodborne-outbreaks-caused-by-human-norovirus-gii-p17-gii-17-contaminated-nori-japan-2017
#18
Naomi Sakon, Kenji Sadamasu, Takayuki Shinkai, Yousuke Hamajima, Hideaki Yoshitomi, Yuki Matsushima, Rika Takada, Fumio Terasoma, Asako Nakamura, Jun Komano, Koo Nagasawa, Hideaki Shimizu, Kazuhiko Katayama, Hirokazu Kimura
Seven foodborne norovirus outbreaks attributable to the GII.P17-GII.17 strain were reported across Japan in 2017, causing illness in a total of 2,094 persons. Nori (dried shredded seaweed) was implicated in all outbreaks and tested positive for norovirus. Our data highlight the stability of norovirus in dehydrated food products.
May 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664367/epizootic-hemorrhagic-disease-virus-serotype-6-infection-in-cattle-japan-2015
#19
Yuka Kamomae, Masahiro Kamomae, Yasuyuki Ohta, Mikoto Nabe, Yuichi Kagawa, Yuji Ogura, Tomoko Kato, Shogo Tanaka, Tohru Yanase, Hiroaki Shirafuji
During October-December 2015, an epizootic hemorrhagic disease outbreak occurred in cattle in Japan. Forty-six animals displayed fever, anorexia, cessation of rumination, salivation, and dysphagia. Virologic, serologic, and pathologic investigations revealed the causative agent was epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotype 6. Further virus characterization is needed to determine virus pathogenicity.
May 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664205/selective-and-sensitive-escherichia-coli-detection-based-on-a-t4-bacteriophage-immobilized-multimode-microfiber
#20
Yanpeng Li, Hui Ma, Lin Gan, Andong Gong, Haibin Zhang, Deming Liu, Qizhen Sun
Escherichia coli (E.coli) bacteria have been found to be responsible for various health outbreaks caused by contaminated food and water. Accurate and rapid test of E.coli is thus crucial for protecting the public health. A fast-response, label-free bacteriophage-based detection of E.coli using multimode microfiber probe is proposed and demonstrated in this paper. Due to the abrupt taper and subwavelength diameter, different modes are excited and guided in the microfiber as evanescent field that can interact with surrounding E...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Biophotonics
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