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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212379/distribution-and-abundance-of-key-vectors-of-rift-valley-fever-and-other-arboviruses-in-two-ecologically-distinct-counties-in-kenya
#1
Rosemary Sang, Samwel Arum, Edith Chepkorir, Gladys Mosomtai, Caroline Tigoi, Faith Sigei, Olivia Wesula Lwande, Tobias Landmann, Hippolyte Affognon, Clas Ahlm, Magnus Evander
BACKGROUND: Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne viral zoonosis of ruminants and humans that causes outbreaks in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula with significant public health and economic consequences. Humans become infected through mosquito bites and contact with infected livestock. The virus is maintained between outbreaks through vertically infected eggs of the primary vectors of Aedes species which emerge following rains with extensive flooding. Infected female mosquitoes initiate transmission among nearby animals, which amplifies virus, thereby infecting more mosquitoes and moving the virus beyond the initial point of emergence...
February 17, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210987/antiviral-activity-of-ctn-15-34-a-cathelicidin-derived-eicosapeptide-against-infectious-myonecrosis-virus-in-litopenaeus-vannamei-primary-hemocyte-cultures
#2
P R N Vieira-Girão, C B Falcão, I R C B Rocha, H M R Lucena, F H F Costa, G Rádis-Baptista
The shrimp farming has been converted into a mature aquaculture industry dealing with over millions of metric tonnes of processed commodities. Nevertheless, the global shrimp productions are constantly threatened by disease outbreaks, mainly triggered by rapidly disseminating viruses. Infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV) is one of these epizootic agents affecting shrimp production in Brazil, of which no treatment exists. Herein, the antiviral activity against IMNV of an eicosapeptide, named Ctn[15-34], derived from a member of the cathelicidin family of antimicrobial peptides, was demonstrated...
February 16, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210572/endobronchial-solitary-fibrous-tumor
#3
Cristiano Claudino Oliveira, Marcelo Padovani Toledo de Moraes, Thomas Colby, Gilmar Felisberto Oliveira, Erica Nishida Hasimoto, Daniele Cristina Cataneo, Antônio José Maria Cataneo, Julio De Faveri
Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a mesenchymal neoplasm that appears primarily in the pleura and rarely in intrapulmonary or endobronchial topography. The authors report the case of a 47-year-old woman who presented obstructive respiratory symptoms for 4 years. The chest computed tomography and bronchoscopy showed an obstructive polypoid lesion located between the trachea and the left main bronchus associated with distal atelectasis of the left lung. A resection of the lesion was performed and, macroscopically, the mass was oval, encapsulated, and firm, measuring 2...
October 2016: Autopsy & case reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210531/the-daniel-k-inouye-college-of-pharmacy-scripts-updates-on-clostridium-difficile-infection-advances-in-laboratory-testing-to-aid-diagnosis-and-treatment
#4
Louis Lteif
Clostridium difficile remains a major source of nosocomial infections and associated diarrhea. More recently, community-acquired cases are on the rise creating a concern for a serious public health threat. Appropriate infection control precautions as well as prevention and optimal management may help to avoid detrimental outbreaks. A key step is utilizing laboratory testing for quick and accurate diagnosis of potential cases. This overview article describes Clostridium difficile infection control and prevention methods and updates the most recent management strategies including a focus on the utilization and interpretation of laboratory diagnostic testing and appropriate treatment...
February 2017: Hawai'i Journal of Medicine & Public Health: a Journal of Asia Pacific Medicine & Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210461/the-epidemiology-and-antimicrobial-resistance-of-cholera-cases-in-iran-during-2013
#5
Hossein Masoumi-Asl, Mohammad Mehdi Gouya, Mohammad Rahbar, Roghieh Sabourian
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cholera is an endemic diarrheal disease in Iran, caused by Vibrio Cholerae. The epidemiology, transmission route, environmental determinants and antimicrobial resistant pattern of cholera have been changed during recent years. In this study the epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance of cholera in Iran during 2013 outbreak was investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective, cross-sectional study was carried out using cholera national surveillance system collected data in 2013...
August 2016: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210292/the-challenges-of-research-nursing-in-an-outbreak-setting
#6
EDITORIAL
Susie Ferguson
The challenges of research nursing in an outbreak setting http://ow.ly/jOFu301NzRh.
September 2016: Breathe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209836/draft-genome-sequence-of-a-vibrio-harveyi-strain-associated-with-vibriosis-in-pacific-white-shrimp-litopenaeus-vannamei
#7
Emille Moreno, Marci Parks, Lee J Pinnell, James J Tallman, Jeffrey W Turner
Vibrio harveyi is a Gram-negative bacterium associated with vibriosis in penaeid shrimp. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of a V. harveyi strain isolated from Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) during a vibriosis outbreak. The availability of this genome will aid future studies of vibriosis in shrimp aquaculture.
February 16, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209681/stockpile-use-during-outbreaks-restock-repeat
#8
Michael R Kolber, Christina Korownyk
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209680/why-early-detection-of-outbreaks-is-so-important
#9
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209336/analysis-of-blood-from-zika-virus-infected-fetuses-a-prospective-case-series
#10
Bruno Schaub, Manon Vouga, Fatiha Najioullah, Michèle Gueneret, Alice Monthieux, Caroline Harte, Françoise Muller, Eugénie Jolivet, Clara Adenet, Sophie Dreux, Isabelle Leparc-Goffart, Raymond Cesaire, Jean-Luc Volumenie, David Baud
BACKGROUND: Zika virus has spread through the Americas and the Caribbean since early 2015 and was rapidly declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern by WHO because of the potential association with fetal anomalies. We analysed fetal and maternal fluids and tissues in fetuses with confirmed Zika virus infection prospectively monitored in Martinique, a French Caribbean island. METHODS: Since the beginning of the Zika virus outbreak in Martinique, all pregnant women undergo monthly fetal ultrasound examination surveillance...
February 10, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208857/emergence-of-hospital-acquired-carbapenem-resistant-non-fermenters-in-teaching-institute
#11
Hariom Sharan, Neeraj Katare, Aparna Pandey, Ganesh Shivmurti Bhatambare, Trupti Bajpai
INTRODUCTION: Non-Fermenting Gram Negative Bacilli (NFGNB) are emerging now-a-days because of their tendency to colonize various surfaces and inherent resistance to commonly used disinfectants. They are responsible for multi-drug resistant hospital acquired infections. Detection of carbapenem resistance mechanisms is essential for treatment and infection control purpose as can spread to other organisms causing hospital outbreaks. AIM: To characterize non-fermenters from various clinical samples and to detect different carbapenem resistance mechanisms in meropenem resistant isolates...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208856/seroprevalence-of-common-viral-diseases-a-hospital-based-study-from-amritsar-india
#12
Kanwardeep Singh, Shailpreet K Sidhu, Pushpa Devi, Manpreet Kaur, Maninder Kaur, Nachhatarjit Singh
INTRODUCTION: There is a paucity of published data on epidemiology of the viral infections in Punjab, India. The Viral Research and Diagnostic Laboratory (VRDL) located at Government Medical College (GMC), Amritsar conducts the initial diagnosis of common viruses circulating in the region. AIM: To report the seroprevalence of various viral diseases in Amritsar and neighboring districts of Punjab along with the demographic and geographical data of the patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Whole blood sera samples from a total of 5781 patients suspected of various viral diseases (chikungunya, dengue, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, hepatitis E, herpes simplex-1 or herpes simplex-2) were received at VRDL, GMC, Amritsar from January 2015 to April 2016 and a cross sectional study was conducted...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208721/evolution-and-divergence-of-h3n8-equine-influenza-viruses-circulating-in-the-united-kingdom-from-2013-to-2015
#13
Adam Rash, Rachel Morton, Alana Woodward, Olivia Maes, John McCauley, Neil Bryant, Debra Elton
Equine influenza viruses (EIV) are a major cause of acute respiratory disease in horses worldwide and occasionally also affect vaccinated animals. Like other influenza A viruses, they undergo antigenic drift, highlighting the importance of both surveillance and virus characterisation in order for vaccine strains to be kept up to date. The aim of the work reported here was to monitor the genetic and antigenic changes occurring in EIV circulating in the UK from 2013 to 2015 and to identify any evidence of vaccine breakdown in the field...
February 8, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208339/fundamental-difference-between-superblockers-and-superspreaders-in-networks
#14
Filippo Radicchi, Claudio Castellano
Two important problems regarding spreading phenomena in complex topologies are the optimal selection of node sets either to minimize or maximize the extent of outbreaks. Both problems are nontrivial when a small fraction of the nodes in the network can be used to achieve the desired goal. The minimization problem is equivalent to a structural optimization. The "superblockers," i.e., the nodes that should be removed from the network to minimize the size of outbreaks, are those nodes that make connected components as small as possible...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208277/ultrasensitive-ebola-virus-detection-based-on-electroluminescent-nanospheres-and-immunomagnetic-separation
#15
Zhen Wu, Jiao Hu, Tao Zeng, Zhi-Ling Zhang, Jianjun Chen, Gary Wong, Xiangguo Qiu, Wenjun Liu, George F Gao, Yuhai Bi, Dai-Wen Pang
The 2014-16 Ebola virus (EBOV) outbreak in West Africa has attracted widespread concern. Rapid and sensitive detection methods are urgently needed for diagnosis and treatment of the disease. Here, we propose a novel method for EBOV detection based on efficient amplification of electroluminescent nanospheres (ENs) coupled with immunomagnetic separation. Uniform ENs are made by embedding abundant amounts of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) into copolymer nanospheres through simple ultrasound. Compared to QDs, ENs can enhance electroluminescence (ECL) signals by approximately 85-fold, achieving a signal-to-background ratio high enough for EBOV detection...
February 7, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208250/simultaneous-voltammetric-determination-of-acetaminophen-and-isoniazid-hepatotoxicity-related-drugs-utilizing-bismuth-oxide-nanorod-modified-screen-printed-electrochemical-sensing-platforms
#16
Bahaa G Mahmoud, Mohamed Khairy, Farouk A Rashwan, Craig E Banks
To overcome the recent outbreaks of hepatotoxicity-related drugs, a new analytical tool for the continuously determination of these drugs in human fluids is required. Electrochemical-based analytical methods offer an effective, rapid, and simple tool for on-site determination of various organic and inorganic species. However, the design of a sensitive, selective, stable, and reproducible sensor is still a major challenge. In the present manuscript, a facile, one-pot hydrothermal synthesis of bismuth oxide (Bi2O2...
February 7, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208132/an-outbreak-of-acute-hepatitis-caused-by-genotype-ib-hepatitis-a-viruses-contaminating-the-water-supply-in-thailand
#17
Kriangsak Ruchusatsawat, Jongkonnee Wongpiyabovorn, Chonthicha Kawidam, Laddawan Thiemsing, Somchai Sangkitporn, Sayaka Yoshizaki, Masashi Tatsumi, Naokazu Takeda, Koji Ishii
BACKGROUND: In 2000, an outbreak of acute hepatitis A was reported in a province adjacent to Bangkok, Thailand. AIMS: To investigate the cause of the 2000 hepatitis A outbreaks in Thailand using molecular epidemiological analysis. METHODS: Serum and stool specimens were collected from patients who were clinically diagnosed with acute viral hepatitis. Water samples from drinking water and deep-drilled wells were also collected. These specimens were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and sequencing of the VP1/2A region of the hepatitis A virus (HAV) genome...
February 17, 2017: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207932/detecting-signals-of-chronic-shedding-to-explain-pathogen-persistence-leptospira-interrogans-in-california-sea-lions
#18
M G Buhnerkempe, K C Prager, C C Strelioff, D J Greig, J L Laake, S R Melin, R L DeLong, F M D Gulland, J O Lloyd-Smith
Identifying mechanisms driving pathogen persistence is a vital component of wildlife disease ecology and control. Asymptomatic, chronically infected individuals are an oft-cited potential reservoir of infection but demonstrations of the importance of chronic shedding to pathogen persistence at the population level remain scarce. Studying chronic shedding using commonly collected disease data is hampered by numerous challenges, including short-term surveillance that focuses on single epidemics and acutely ill individuals, the subtle dynamical influence of chronic shedding relative to more obvious epidemic drivers, and poor ability to differentiate between the effects of population prevalence of chronic shedding versus intensity and duration of chronic shedding in individuals...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207905/the-one-health-approach-to-identify-knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-that-affect-community-involvement-in-the-control-of-rift-valley-fever-outbreaks
#19
Osama Ahmed Hassan, Hippolyte Affognon, Joacim Rocklöv, Peter Mburu, Rosemary Sang, Clas Ahlm, Magnus Evander
Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a viral mosquito-borne disease with the potential for global expansion, causes hemorrhagic fever, and has a high case fatality rate in young animals and in humans. Using a cross-sectional community-based study design, we investigated the knowledge, attitudes and practices of people living in small village in Sudan with respect to RVF outbreaks. A special One Health questionnaire was developed to compile data from 235 heads of household concerning their knowledge, attitudes, and practices with regard to controlling RVF...
February 16, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207867/thermal-stability-and-structural-changes-in-bacterial-toxins-responsible-for-food-poisoning
#20
Paulina Regenthal, Jesper S Hansen, Ingemar André, Karin Lindkvist-Petersson
The staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) are secreted by the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and are the most common causative agent in staphylococcal food poisoning. The staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) has been associated with large staphylococcal food poisoning outbreaks, but newer identified SEs, like staphylococcal enterotoxin H (SEH) has recently been shown to be present at similar levels as SEA in food poisoning outbreaks. Thus, we set out to investigate the thermo-stability of the three-dimensional structures of SEA, SEH and staphylococcal enterotoxin E (SEE), since heat inactivation is a common method to inactivate toxins during food processing...
2017: PloS One
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