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Urban ecology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347390/coalescing-colony-model-mean-field-scaling-and-geometry
#1
Giulia Carra, Kirone Mallick, Marc Barthelemy
We analyze the coalescing model where a 'primary' colony grows and randomly emits secondary colonies that spread and eventually coalesce with it. This model describes population proliferation in theoretical ecology, tumor growth, and is also of great interest for modeling urban sprawl. Assuming the primary colony to be always circular of radius r(t) and the emission rate proportional to r(t)^{θ}, where θ>0, we derive the mean-field equations governing the dynamics of the primary colony, calculate the scaling exponents versus θ, and compare our results with numerical simulations...
December 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346589/urban-evolutionary-ecology-and-the-potential-benefits-of-implementing-genomics
#2
Christopher J Schell
Urban habitats are quickly becoming exceptional models to address adaptation under rapid environmental change, given the expansive temporal and spatial scales with which anthropogenic landscape conversion occurs. Urban ecologists in the last 10-15 years have done an extraordinary job of highlighting phenotypic patterns that correspond with urban living, as well as delineating urban population structure using traditional genetic markers. The underpinning genetic mechanisms that govern those phenotypic patterns, however, are less well established...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346369/the-rise-of-neglected-tropical-diseases-in-the-new-texas
#3
REVIEW
Peter J Hotez
Within the last five years, the State of Texas has experienced either transmission or outbreaks of Ebola, chikungunya, West Nile, and Zika virus infections. Autochthonous transmission of neglected parasitic and bacterial diseases has also become increasingly reported. The rise of such emerging and neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) has not occurred by accident but instead reflects rapidly evolving changes and shifts in a "new" Texas beset by modern and globalizing forces that include rapid expansions in population together with urbanization and human migrations, altered transportation patterns, climate change, steeply declining vaccination rates, and a new paradigm of poverty known as "blue marble health...
January 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344824/brucellosis-risk-in-urban-and-agro-pastoral-areas-in-tanzania
#4
Shingo Asakura, George Makingi, Rudovick Kazwala, Kohei Makita
Epidemiology of human and animal brucellosis may depend on ecological conditions. A cross-sectional study was conducted to compare prevalence and risk factors of bovine brucellosis, and risky behaviours for the human infection between urban and agro-pastoral areas in Morogoro region, Tanzania. Cattle blood sampling and interviews using a structured questionnaire were conducted with farmers. Rose-Bengal test was conducted for the cattle sera, and positive samples were confirmed with competitive ELISA. Farm-level sero-prevalences were 0...
January 17, 2018: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335575/genotypic-variability-enhances-the-reproducibility-of-an-ecological-study
#5
Alexandru Milcu, Ruben Puga-Freitas, Aaron M Ellison, Manuel Blouin, Stefan Scheu, Grégoire T Freschet, Laura Rose, Sebastien Barot, Simone Cesarz, Nico Eisenhauer, Thomas Girin, Davide Assandri, Michael Bonkowski, Nina Buchmann, Olaf Butenschoen, Sebastien Devidal, Gerd Gleixner, Arthur Gessler, Agnès Gigon, Anna Greiner, Carlo Grignani, Amandine Hansart, Zachary Kayler, Markus Lange, Jean-Christophe Lata, Jean-François Le Galliard, Martin Lukac, Neringa Mannerheim, Marina E H Müller, Anne Pando, Paula Rotter, Michael Scherer-Lorenzen, Rahme Seyhun, Katherine Urban-Mead, Alexandra Weigelt, Laura Zavattaro, Jacques Roy
Many scientific disciplines are currently experiencing a 'reproducibility crisis' because numerous scientific findings cannot be repeated consistently. A novel but controversial hypothesis postulates that stringent levels of environmental and biotic standardization in experimental studies reduce reproducibility by amplifying the impacts of laboratory-specific environmental factors not accounted for in study designs. A corollary to this hypothesis is that a deliberate introduction of controlled systematic variability (CSV) in experimental designs may lead to increased reproducibility...
February 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334637/contamination-characteristics-and-source-apportionment-of-heavy-metals-in-topsoil-from-an-area-in-xi-an-city-china
#6
Xiuduan Chen, Xinwei Lu
As soil-extractable elements potentially pose ecological and health risks, identifying their contamination characteristics and sources is crucial. Therefore, to understand topsoil trace elements in the urban ring zone from the Second Ring Road to the Third Ring of Xi'an city in China, we determined the concentrations of Zn, Co, V, As, Cu, Mn, Ba, Ni and Pb, and analyzed the sources of the contamination. The results showed that the individual pollution indices of Pb, Co, Cu, Zn, Ba, Ni, Mn, As, and V were 1...
January 11, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332273/pollution-and-ecological-risk-assessment-of-nutrients-associated-with-deposited-sediments-collected-from-roof-and-road-surfaces
#7
Xiao Wu, Jianghua Yu, Hui Qiu, Hua Fang
Surface-deposited sediment in urban areas is an essential environmental medium for assessing nutrient contamination. The total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) pollution associated with surface-deposited sediments can be transported into urban water bodies by runoff and can cause eutrophication of those water bodies. By analyzing the samples collected on roof surfaces and road surfaces, this study provides a comparison of the differences in TN and TP pollution loading in sediments on these two different impervious surface materials...
January 13, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331835/integrating-priority-areas-and-ecological-corridors-into-national-network-for-conservation-planning-in-china
#8
Jie Liang, Xinyue He, Guangming Zeng, Minzhou Zhong, Xiang Gao, Xin Li, Xiaodong Li, Haipeng Wu, Chunting Feng, Wenle Xing, Yilong Fang, Dan Mo
Considering that urban expansion and increase of human activities represent important threats to biodiversity and ecological processes in short and long term, developing protected area (PA) network with high connectivity is considered as a valuable conservation strategy. However, conservation planning associated with the large-scale network in China involves important information loopholes about the land cover and landscape connectivity. In this paper, we made an integrative analysis for the identification of conservation priority areas and least-cost ecological corridors (ECs) in order to promote a more representative, connected and efficient ecological PA network for this country...
January 11, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323268/evaluation-of-animal-to-human-and-human-to-human-transmission-of-influenza-a-h7n9-virus-in-china-2013-15
#9
Victor Virlogeux, Luzhao Feng, Tim K Tsang, Hui Jiang, Vicky J Fang, Ying Qin, Peng Wu, Xiling Wang, Jiandong Zheng, Eric H Y Lau, Zhibin Peng, Juan Yang, Benjamin J Cowling, Hongjie Yu
A novel avian-origin influenza A(H7N9) virus emerged in China in March 2013 and by 27 September 2017 a total of 1533 laboratory-confirmed cases have been reported. Occurrences of animal-to-human and human-to-human transmission have been previously identified, and the force of human-to-human transmission is an important component of risk assessment. In this study, we constructed an ecological model to evaluate the animal-to-human and human-to-human transmission of H7N9 during the first three epidemic waves in spring 2013, winter/spring 2013-2014 and winter/spring 2014-2015 in China based on 149 laboratory-confirmed urban cases...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316859/biocultural-predictors-of-motor-coordination-among-prepubertal-boys-and-girls
#10
Leonardo G O Luz, João Valente-Dos-Santos, Tatiana D D Luz, Paulo Sousa-E-Silva, João P Duarte, Aristides Machado-Rodrigues, André Seabra, Rute Santos, Sean P Cumming, Manuel J Coelho-E-Silva
This study aimed to predict motor coordination from a matrix of biocultural factors for 173 children (89 boys, 84 girls) aged 7-9 years who were assessed with the Körperkoordinationtest für Kinder test battery. Socioeconomic variables included built environment, area of residence, mother's educational level, and mother's physical activity level (using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire [short version]). The behavioral domain was marked by participation in organized sports and habitual physical activity measured by accelerometers ( ActiGraph GT1M)...
February 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311604/effects-of-urban-sprawl-on-arthropod-communities-in-peri-urban-farmed-landscape-in-shenbei-new-district-shenyang-liaoning-province-china
#11
Zhen-Xing Bian, Shuai Wang, Qiu-Bing Wang, Miao Yu, Feng-Kui Qian
Peri-urban farmland provides a diversity of ecological services. However, it is experiencing increasing pressures from urban sprawl. While the effects of land use associated with farming on arthropod assemblages has received increasing attention, most of this research has been conducted by comparing conventional and organic cropping systems. The present study identifies the effects of urban sprawl and the role of non-cropped habitat in defining arthropod diversity in peri-urban farmed landscapes. Multi-scale arthropod data from 30 sampling plots were used with linear-mixed models to elucidate the effects of distance from urban areas (0-13 km; 13-25 km and >25 km, zones I, II, and III, respectively) on arthropods...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305806/wintertime-carbonaceous-aerosols-over-dhauladhar-region-of-north-western-himalayas
#12
Deepika Kaushal, Ajay Kumar, Shweta Yadav, Ankit Tandon, Arun K Attri
Carbonaceous aerosols play an important role in affecting human health, radiative forcing, hydrological cycle, and climate change. As our current understanding about the carbonaceous aerosols, the source(s) and process(es) associated with them in the ecologically sensitive North-Western Himalayas are limited; this systematic study was planned to understand inherent dynamics in the mass concentration and source contribution of carbonaceous aerosols in the Dhauladhar region. During four winter months (January 2015-April 2015), 24-h PM10 samples were collected every week simultaneously at the rural site of Pohara (32...
January 6, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304251/the-role-of-leadership-in-people-centred-health-systems-a-sub-national-study-in-the-gambia
#13
Simukai Chigudu, Momodou Jasseh, Umberto d'Alessandro, Tumani Corrah, Adama Demba, Julie Balen
Recently, increasing attention has been given to behavioural and relational aspects of the people who both define and shape health systems, placing them at the core. A growing refrain includes the assertion that important decisions determining health system performance, including agenda setting, policy formulation and policy implementation, are made by people. Within this actor-oriented approach, good leadership has been identified as a key contributing factor in health systems strengthening. However, leadership remains ill-defined and under-researched, especially in resource-limited settings, and understanding the links between leadership and health outcomes remains a challenge...
January 1, 2018: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294680/poly-victimization-in-polish-adolescents-risk-factors-and-the-moderating-role-of-coping
#14
Faye Riley, Mark Wright, Anna Bokszczanin, Cecilia A Essau
This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of poly-victimization in Polish adolescents and assess factors associated with poly-victimization risk across different ecological levels. This study further examined whether coping styles could moderate the impact of poly-victimization on emotional well-being. Participants were 454 adolescents, aged between 13 and 19 years, from an urban region of Poland. Adolescents completed self-report measures assessing community, school, and family risks, along with a peer nomination task measuring social preference...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291103/method-to-improve-the-survival-of-night-swarming-mayflies-near-bridges-in-areas-of-distracting-light-pollution
#15
Ádám Egri, Dénes Száz, Alexandra Farkas, Ádám Pereszlényi, Gábor Horváth, György Kriska
Numerous negative ecological effects of urban lighting have been identified during the last decades. In spite of the development of lighting technologies, the detrimental effect of this form of light pollution has not declined. Several insect species are affected including the night-swarming mayfly Ephoron virgo: when encountering bridges during their mass swarming, these mayflies often fall victim to artificial lighting. We show a simple method for the conservation of these mayflies exploiting their positive phototaxis...
November 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291075/model-based-risk-assessment-and-public-health-analysis-to-prevent-lyme-disease
#16
Nasser Sharareh, Nasim S Sabounchi, Amanda Roome, Rita Spathis, Ralph M Garruto
The number of Lyme disease (LD) cases in the northeastern United States has been dramatically increasing with over 300 000 new cases each year. This is due to numerous factors interacting over time including low public awareness of LD, risk behaviours and clothing choices, ecological and climatic factors, an increase in rodents within ecologically fragmented peri-urban built environments and an increase in tick density and infectivity in such environments. We have used a system dynamics (SD) approach to develop a simulation tool to evaluate the significance of risk factors in replicating historical trends of LD cases, and to investigate the influence of different interventions, such as increasing awareness, controlling clothing risk and reducing mouse populations, in reducing LD risk...
November 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287805/role-of-environmental-climatic-risk-factors-and-livestock-animals-on-the-occurrence-of-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-in-newly-emerging-focus-in-iran
#17
Mohammad Amin Ghatee, Ali Akbar Haghdoost, Fatemeh Kooreshnia, Zahra Kanannejad, Zafar Parisaie, Mehdi Karamian, Abdolali Moshfe
INTRODUCTION: Occurrence of leishmaniasis is affected by various biological and environmental factors. Kohgiluye and Boyerahmad (K-B) province is an emerging focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Southwest Iran. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: To elucidate some angles of occurrence of CL in this province, climatic and environmental factors and close proximity to livestock were studied by univariate and two multivariate logistic regression models. The dwelling addresses of 275 CL patients were obtained from Health Centers records for a 5 years period...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287178/the-socioeconomic-factors-that-facilitate-or-constrain-restoration-management-watershed-rehabilitation-and-wet-meadow-bofedal-restoration-in-the-bolivian-andes
#18
Brett D Hartman, David A Cleveland
Restoration ecology holds promise for addressing land degradation in impoverished rural environments, provided the approach is adapted to rural development settings. While there is a need for increased integration of social dynamics in land restoration, few systematic studies exist. We explored the socioeconomic factors that influence restoration management, including local motives and perceived benefits, incentives, land tenancy, institutional factors, conflict resolution, accessibility, off-farm labor, and outmigration...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285703/phthalate-esters-in-surface-water-of-songhua-river-watershed-associated-with-land-use-types-northeast-china
#19
Zhidan Wen, Xiaoli Huang, Dawen Gao, Ge Liu, Chong Fang, Yingxin Shang, Jia Du, Ying Zhao, Lili Lv, Kaishan Song
The ubiquitous presence of phthalate esters (PAEs) in the environment and their potential role as endocrine disruptors of marine organisms has attracted much attention. The presence of PAEs in different water sources collected from the Songhua River mainstream and its tributaries has been determined in this study. The total concentration of the seven PAEs (∑PAEs) detected was found to range from 1.153 to 7.867 μg L-1, with di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) present as the predominate PAE congener. Dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), and DEHP were present in all of the water samples analyzed...
December 28, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284190/vegetation-cover-in-relation-to-socioeconomic-factors-in-a-tropical-city-assessed-from-sub-meter-resolution-imagery
#20
Sebastián Martinuzzi, Olga M Ramos-González, Tischa A Muñoz-Erickson, Dexter H Locke, Ariel E Lugo, Volker C Radeloff
Fine-scale information about urban vegetation and social-ecological relationships is crucial to inform both urban planning and ecological research, and high spatial resolution imagery is a valuable tool for assessing urban areas. However, urban ecology and remote sensing have largely focused on cities in temperate zones. Our goal was to characterize urban vegetation cover with sub-meter resolution aerial imagery, and identify social-ecological relationships of urban vegetation patterns in a tropical city, the San Juan Metropolitan Area, Puerto Rico...
December 28, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
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