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Urban ecology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329244/attrition-from-hiv-treatment-programs-in-africa-a-longitudinal-ecological-analysis-using-data-from-307-144-patients-initiating-antiretroviral-therapy-between-2005-and-2010
#1
Batya Elul, Suzue Saito, Hannah Chung, David Hoos, Wafaa El-Sadr
Background: As access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Africa has increased dramatically, concerns have been raised regarding patient attrition, an important measure of program quality. Methods: We examined aggregate data from 307,144 patients initiating ART in 5,638 successive cohorts at 638 facilities in nine African countries from 2005-2010, a period characterized by massive treatment expansion. Poisson regression assessed trends in six- and 12-month cohort attrition (i...
February 21, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327810/spatial-temporal-analysis-of-dengue-deaths-identifying-social-vulnerabilities
#2
Maria do Socorro da Silva, Maria Dos Remédios Freitas Carvalho Branco, José Aquino, Rejane Christine de Sousa Queiroz, Emanuele Bani, Emnielle Pinto Borges Moreira, Maria Nilza Lima Medeiros, Zulimar Márita Ribeiro Rodrigues
INTRODUCTION: Currently, dengue fever, chikungunya fever, and zika virus represent serious public health issues in Brazil, despite efforts to control the vector, the Aedes aegypti mosquito. METHODS: This was a descriptive and ecological study of dengue deaths occurring from 2002 to 2013 in São Luis, Maranhão, Brazil. Geoprocessing software was used to draw maps, linking the geo-referenced deaths with urban/social data at census tract level. RESULTS: There were 74 deaths, concentrated in areas of social vulnerability...
January 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327541/impacts-from-land-use-pattern-on-spatial-distribution-of-cultivated-soil-heavy-metal-pollution-in-typical-rural-urban-fringe-of-northeast-china
#3
Wenbo Li, Dongyan Wang, Qing Wang, Shuhan Liu, Yuanli Zhu, Wenjun Wu
Under rapid urban sprawl in Northeast China, land conversions are not only encroaching on the quantity of cultivated lands, but also posing a great threat to black soil conservation and food security. This study's aim is to explore the spatial relationship between comprehensive cultivated soil heavy metal pollution and peri-urban land use patterns in the black soil region. We applied spatial lag regression to analyze the relationship between PLI (pollution load index) and influencing factors of land use by taking suburban cultivated land of Changchun Kuancheng District as an empirical case...
March 22, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325664/-inequities-in-health-socio-demographic-and-spatial-analysis-of-breast-cancer-in-women-from-c%C3%A3-rdoba-argentina
#4
Natalia Tumas, Sonia Alejandra Pou, Maria Del Pilar Diaz
OBJECTIVE: To identify sociodemographic determinants associated with the spatial distribution of the breast cancer incidence in the province of Córdoba, Argentina, in order to reveal underlying social inequities. METHOD: An ecological study was developed in Córdoba (26 counties as geographical units of analysis). The spatial autocorrelation of the crude and standardised incidence rates of breast cancer, and the sociodemographic indicators of urbanization, fertility and population ageing were estimated using Moran's index...
March 18, 2017: Gaceta Sanitaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323854/the-unfinished-health-agenda-neonatal-mortality-in-cambodia
#5
Rathmony Hong, Pauline Yongeun Ahn, Frank Wieringa, Tung Rathavy, Ludovic Gauthier, Rathavuth Hong, Arnaud Laillou, Judit Van Geystelen, Jacques Berger, Etienne Poirot
BACKGROUND: Reduction of neonatal and under-five mortality rates remains a primary target in the achievement of universal health goals, as evident in renewed investments of Sustainable Development Goals. Various studies attribute declines in mortality to the combined effects of improvements in health care practices and changes in socio-economic factors. Since the early nineties, Cambodia has managed to evolve from a country devastated by war to a nation soon to enter the group of middle income countries...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323070/urbanization-and-the-dynamics-of-rna-viruses-in-mallards-anas-platyrhynchos
#6
Michelle Wille, Kristine Lindqvist, Shaman Muradrasoli, Björn Olsen, Josef D Järhult
Urbanization is intensifying worldwide, and affects the epidemiology of infectious diseases. However, the effect of urbanization on natural host-pathogen systems remains poorly understood. Urban ducks occupy an interesting niche in that they directly interact with both humans and wild migratory birds, and either directly or indirectly with food production birds. Here we have collected samples from Mallards residing in a pond in central Uppsala, Sweden, from January 2013 to January 2014. This artificial pond is kept ice-free during the winter months, and is a popular location where the ducks are fed, resulting in a resident population of ducks year-round...
March 17, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320440/ecological-niche-modeling-of-rabies-in-the-changing-arctic-of-alaska
#7
Falk Huettmann, Emily Elizabeth Magnuson, Karsten Hueffer
BACKGROUND: Rabies is a disease of global significance including in the circumpolar Arctic. In Alaska enzootic rabies persist in northern and western coastal areas. Only sporadic cases have occurred in areas outside of the regions considered enzootic for the virus, such as the interior of the state and urbanized regions. RESULTS: Here we examine the distribution of diagnosed rabies cases in Alaska, explicit in space and time. We use a geographic information system (GIS), 20 environmental data layers and provide a quantitative non-parsimonious estimate of the predicted ecological niche, based on data mining, machine learning and open access data...
March 20, 2017: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319653/the-ecology-of-human-microbiota-dynamics-and-diversity-in-health-and-disease
#8
Antti Karkman, Jenni Lehtimäki, Lasse Ruokolainen
Social welfare, better health care, and urbanization have greatly improved human health and well-being. On the other hand, Western societies suffer from the downsides of the elevated standard of living. Among other factors, the Western diet (poor in dietary fiber), lack of contact with natural biodiversity, and excessive antibiotic use are known to be associated with the increase in chronic inflammatory disorders. Limited exposure to microbial biodiversity, in combination with severe lifestyle-related disturbances to commensal microbial communities, especially during early life, is changing the diversity and composition of human microbiota...
March 20, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306717/barriers-to-dog-rabies-vaccination-during-an-urban-rabies-outbreak-qualitative-findings-from-arequipa-peru
#9
Ricardo Castillo-Neyra, Joanna Brown, Katty Borrini, Claudia Arevalo, Michael Z Levy, Alison Buttenheim, Gabrielle C Hunter, Victor Becerra, Jere Behrman, Valerie A Paz-Soldan
BACKGROUND: Canine rabies was reintroduced to the city of Arequipa, Peru in March 2015. The Ministry of Health has conducted a series of mass dog vaccination campaigns to contain the outbreak, but canine rabies virus transmission continues in Arequipa's complex urban environment, putting the city's 1 million inhabitants at risk of infection. The proximate driver of canine rabies in Arequipa is low dog vaccination coverage. Our objectives were to qualitatively assess barriers to and facilitators of rabies vaccination during mass campaigns, and to explore strategies to increase participation in future efforts...
March 17, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302999/human-pressures-and-ecological-status-of-european-rivers
#10
B Grizzetti, A Pistocchi, C Liquete, A Udias, F Bouraoui, W van de Bund
Humans have increased the discharge of pollution, altered water flow regime and modified the morphology of rivers. All these actions have resulted in multiple pressures on freshwater ecosystems, undermining their biodiversity and ecological functioning. The European Union has adopted an ambitious water policy to reduce pressures and achieve a good ecological status for all water bodies. However, assessing multiple pressures on aquatic ecosystems and understanding their combined impact on the ecological status is challenging, especially at the large scale, though crucial to the planning of effective policies...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302261/cities-and-mental-health
#11
Oliver Gruebner, Michael A Rapp, Mazda Adli, Ulrike Kluge, Sandro Galea, Andreas Heinz
BACKGROUND: More than half of the global population currently lives in cities, with an increasing trend for further urbanization. Living in cities is associated with increased population density, traffic noise and pollution, but also with better access to health care and other commodities. METHODS: This review is based on a selective literature search, providing an overview of the risk factors for mental illness in urban centers. RESULTS: Studies have shown that the risk for serious mental illness is generally higher in cities compared to rural areas...
February 24, 2017: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294365/prevalence-of-prenatal-alcohol-exposure-in-the-state-of-texas-as-assessed-by-phosphatidylethanol-in-newborn-dried-blood-spot-specimens
#12
Ludmila N Bakhireva, Janet Sharkis, Shikhar Shrestha, Tristan J Miranda-Sohrabji, Sonnie Williams, Rajesh C Miranda
BACKGROUND: While 2-5% of school-aged children in the U.S. are estimated to be affected by Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD), the prevalence of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) might be substantially under-reported. Our objective was to systematically estimate the prevalence of PAE in Texas by measuring a direct ethanol metabolite, phosphatidylethanol (PEth), in 1,000 infant residual dried blood spots (irDBS) in the Texas Newborn Screening Repository. METHODS: All Public Health Regions were represented proportional to their 2014 birth rate (~0...
March 13, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292644/resilient-landscapes-in-mediterranean-urban-areas-understanding-factors-influencing-forest-trends
#13
Antonio Tomao, Valerio Quatrini, Piermaria Corona, Agostino Ferrara, Raffaele Lafortezza, Luca Salvati
Urban and peri-urban forests are recognized as basic elements for Nature-Based Solutions (NBS), as they preserve and may increase environmental quality in urbanized contexts. For this reason, the amount of forest land per inhabitant is a pivotal efficiency indicator to be considered in the sustainable governance, land management, planning and design of metropolitan areas. The present study illustrates a multivariate analysis of per-capita forest area (PFA) in mainland Attica, the urban region surrounding Athens, Greece...
March 11, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290496/transcriptome-analysis-of-a-wild-bird-reveals-physiological-responses-to-the-urban-environment
#14
Hannah Watson, Elin Videvall, Martin N Andersson, Caroline Isaksson
Identifying the molecular basis of environmentally induced phenotypic variation presents exciting opportunities for furthering our understanding of how ecological processes and the environment can shape the phenotype. Urban and rural environments present free-living organisms with different challenges and opportunities, which have marked consequences for the phenotype, yet little is known about responses at the molecular level. We characterised transcriptomes from an urban and a rural population of great tits Parus major, demonstrating striking differences in gene expression profiles in both blood and liver tissues...
March 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289048/health-risk-of-inhalation-exposure-to-sub-10%C3%A2-%C3%A2%C2%B5m-particulate-matter-and-gaseous-pollutants-in-an-urban-industrial-area-in-south-africa-an-ecological-study
#15
Oyewale Mayowa Morakinyo, Ayo Stephen Adebowale, Matlou Ingrid Mokgobu, Murembiwa Stanley Mukhola
OBJECTIVE: To assess the health risks associated with exposure to particulate matter (PM10), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO) and ozone (O3). DESIGN: The study is an ecological study that used the year 2014 hourly ambient pollution data. SETTING: The study was conducted in an industrial area located in Pretoria West, South Africa. The area accommodates a coal-fired power station, metallurgical industries such as a coke plant and a manganese smelter...
March 13, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284134/development-and-validation-of-a-bacteria-based-index-of-biotic-integrity-for-assessing-the-ecological-status-of-urban-rivers-a-case-study-of-qinhuai-river-basin-in-nanjing-china
#16
Jie Li, Yi Li, Bao Qian, Lihua Niu, Wenlong Zhang, Wei Cai, Hainan Wu, Peifang Wang, Chao Wang
With the increasing human disturbance to urban rivers, the extinction and biodiversity losses of some macroorganism species decreased the accuracy of bioassessment. In this study, a novel index of biotic integrity based on bacteria (Ba-IBI) was first developed for Qinhuai River in Nanjing city, China. Thirty-two biofilm samples were collected along the river bank and the bacterial communities were identified by high-throughput sequencing. By the range, responsive, and redundancy tests, four core metrics were selected from the dataset of 78 candidate metrics, including Pielou's evenness index, proportion of Paenibacillus, proportion of OTUs tolerant to organic pollution and proportion of Nitrosomonas...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283295/global-metabolome-changes-induced-by-cyanobacterial-blooms-in-three-representative-fish-species
#17
Benoît Sotton, Alain Paris, Séverine Le Manach, Alain Blond, Gérard Lacroix, Alexis Millot, Charlotte Duval, Qin Qiao, Arnaud Catherine, Benjamin Marie
Cyanobacterial blooms induce important ecological constraints for aquatic organisms and strongly impact the functioning of aquatic ecosystems. In the past decades, the effects of the cyanobacterial secondary metabolites, so called cyanotoxins, have been extensively studied in fish. However, many of these studies have used targeted approaches on specific molecules, which are thought to react to the presence of these specific cyanobacterial compounds. Since a few years, untargeted metabolomic approaches provide a unique opportunity to evaluate the global response of hundreds of metabolites at a glance...
March 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281667/differentiating-littering-urban-runoff-and-marine-transport-as-sources-of-marine-debris-in-coastal-and-estuarine-environments
#18
Kathryn Willis, Britta Denise Hardesty, Lorne Kriwoken, Chris Wilcox
Marine debris is a burgeoning global issue with economic, ecological and aesthetic impacts. While there are many studies now addressing this topic, the influence of urbanisation factors such as local population density, stormwater drains and roads on the distribution of coastal litter remains poorly understood. To address this knowledge gap, we carried out standardized surveys at 224 transect surveys at 67 sites in two estuaries and along the open coast in Tasmania, Australia. We explored the relative support for three hypotheses regarding the sources of the debris; direct deposition by beachgoers, transport from surrounding areas via storm water drains and coastal runoff, and onshore transport from the marine system...
March 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281565/changes-in-land-use-driven-by-urbanization-impact-nitrogen-cycling-and-the-microbial-community-composition-in-soils
#19
Haitao Wang, Christopher W Marshall, Minying Cheng, Huijuan Xu, Hu Li, Xiaoru Yang, Tianling Zheng
Transition of populations from rural to urban living causes landscape changes and alters the functionality of soil ecosystems. It is unclear how this urbanization disturbs the microbial ecology of soils and how the disruption influences nitrogen cycling. In this study, microbial communities in turfgrass-grown soils from urban and suburban areas around Xiamen City were compared to microbial communities in the soils from rural farmlands. The potential N2O emissions, potential denitrification activity, and abundances of denitrifiers were higher in the rural farmland soils compared with the turfgrass soils...
March 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281139/spatial-distributions-source-apportionment-and-ecological-risk-of-svocs-in-water-and-sediment-from-xijiang-river-pearl-river-delta
#20
Jiao Tang, Taicheng An, Guiying Li, Chaohai Wei
Xijiang River is an important drinking water source in Guangxi Province, China. Along the Xijiang River and surrounding tributary, the pollution profile of three important groups of semi-volatile organic compounds, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and phthalate esters (PAEs), was analyzed. Relatively low levels of PAHs (64-3.7 × 10(2) ng L(-1)) and OCPs (16-70 ng L(-1)), but high levels of PAEs (7.9 × 10(2)-6.8 × 10(3) ng L(-1)) occurred in the water...
March 9, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
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