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Urban ecology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149679/innovative-urban-forestry-governance-in-melbourne-investigating-green-placemaking-as-a-nature-based-solution
#1
Natalie Marie Gulsrud, Kelly Hertzog, Ian Shears
A nature-based approach to climate resilience aims to challenge and re-frame conventional environmental management methods by refocusing solutions from technological strategies to socio-ecological principles such as human well-being and community-based governance models, thereby improving and legitimizing the delivery of ecosystem services (ES). There are, however, many challenges to applying a socio-ecological agenda to urban climate resilience and thereby re-framing ES delivery as community and people focused, a knowledge gap extensively outlined in the environmental governance literature...
November 14, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145452/behavioral-climatic-and-environmental-risk-factors-for-zika-and-chikungunya-virus-infections-in-rio-de-janeiro-brazil-2015-16
#2
Trevon L Fuller, Guilherme Calvet, Camila Genaro Estevam, Jussara Rafael Angelo, Gbenga J Abiodun, Umme-Aiman Halai, Bianca De Santis, Patricia Carvalho Sequeira, Eliane Machado Araujo, Simone Alves Sampaio, Marco Cesar Lima de Mendonça, Allison Fabri, Rita Maria Ribeiro, Ryan Harrigan, Thomas B Smith, Claudia Raja Gabaglia, Patrícia Brasil, Ana Maria Bispo de Filippis, Karin Nielsen-Saines
The burden of arboviruses in the Americas is high and may result in long-term sequelae with infants disabled by Zika virus infection (ZIKV) and arthritis caused by infection with Chikungunya virus (CHIKV). We aimed to identify environmental drivers of arbovirus epidemics to predict where the next epidemics will occur and prioritize municipalities for vector control and eventual vaccination. We screened sera and urine samples (n = 10,459) from residents of 48 municipalities in the state of Rio de Janeiro for CHIKV, dengue virus (DENV), and ZIKV by molecular PCR diagnostics...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144284/integrated-assessment-and-scenarios-simulation-of-urban-water-security-system-in-the-southwest-of-china-with-system-dynamics-analysis
#3
Su Yin, Guan Dongjie, Su Weici, Gao Weijun
The demand for global freshwater is growing, while global freshwater available for human use is limited within a certain time and space. Its security has significant impacts on both the socio-economic system and ecological system. Recently, studies have focused on the urban water security system (UWSS) in terms of either water quantity or water quality. In this study, water resources, water environment, and water disaster issues in the UWSS were combined to establish an evaluation index system with system dynamics (SD) and geographic information systems (GIS)...
November 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143489/spatial-variation-in-the-parasite-communities-and-genomic-structure-of-urban-rats-in-new-york-city
#4
L P Angley, M Combs, C Firth, M J Frye, I Lipkin, J L Richardson, J Munshi-South
Brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) are a globally distributed pest. Urban habitats can support large infestations of rats, posing a potential risk to public health from the parasites and pathogens they carry. Despite the potential influence of rodent-borne zoonotic diseases on human health, it is unclear how urban habitats affect the structure and transmission dynamics of ectoparasite and microbial communities (all referred to as "parasites" hereafter) among rat colonies. In this study, we use ecological data on parasites and genomic sequencing of their rat hosts to examine associations between spatial proximity, genetic relatedness and the parasite communities associated with 133 rats at five sites in sections of New York City with persistent rat infestations...
November 16, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140260/vaccinia-virus-natural-infections-in-brazil-the-good-the-bad-and-the-ugly
#5
REVIEW
Jaqueline Silva de Oliveira, Poliana de Oliveira Figueiredo, Galileu Barbosa Costa, Felipe Lopes de Assis, Betânia Paiva Drumond, Flávio Guimarães da Fonseca, Maurício Lacerda Nogueira, Erna Geessien Kroon, Giliane de Souza Trindade
The orthopoxviruses (OPV) comprise several emerging viruses with great importance to human and veterinary medicine, including vaccinia virus (VACV), which causes outbreaks of bovine vaccinia (BV) in South America. Historically, VACV is the most comprehensively studied virus, however, its origin and natural hosts remain unknown. VACV was the primary component of the smallpox vaccine, largely used during the smallpox eradication campaign. After smallpox was declared eradicated, the vaccination that conferred immunity to OPV was discontinued, favoring a new contingent of susceptible individuals to OPV...
November 15, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129757/respiration-based-monitoring-of-metabolic-rate-following-cold-exposure-in-two-invasive-anoplophora-species-depending-on-acclimation-regime
#6
M Javal, A Roques, G Roux, M Laparie
The Asian andCitrus longhorned beetles, Anoplophora glabripennis (ALB) and A. chinensis (CLB) respectively, are two closely related invasive species with overlapping native ranges. Although both species have rather similar biological characteristics, they differ in their invasion patterns. ALB shows numerous, but local, outbreaks in urban areas of North-East America, Western andCentral Europe, whereas CLB has colonized a large part of Northern Italy. Temperature is pivotal in setting distribution limits of ectotherms...
November 9, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127640/single-and-combined-metal-contamination-in-coastal-environments-in-china-current-status-and-potential-ecological-risk-evaluation
#7
Romana Manzoor, Tingwan Zhang, Xuejiao Zhang, Min Wang, Jin-Fen Pan, Zhumei Wang, Bo Zhang
With the development of industrialization and urbanization, metal and metalloid pollution is one of the most serious environmental problems in China. Current contamination status of metals and metalloid and their potential ecological risks along China's coasts were reviewed in the present paper by a comprehensive study on metal contents in marine waters and sediments in the past few decades. The priority metals/metalloid cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), and arsenic (As), which were the target elements of the designated project "Comprehensive Prevention and Control of Heavy Metal Pollution" issued by the Chinese government in 2011, were selected considering their high toxicity, persistence, and prevalent existence in coastal environment...
November 10, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127631/the-impact-of-urbanization-on-co2-emissions-in-china-an-empirical-study-using-1980-2014-provincial-data
#8
Shijin Wang, Cunfang Li
Towns and cities are not only the focus of attention for their consumption of energy and resources; they are also scrutinized closely for their emissions of greenhouse gases. China's urbanization level now exceeds 50%, but there is still much disparity compared with the level of urbanization in developed countries. This study selects China's urban population and carbon emissions data for the years 1980-2014 and discusses the timing and cause effect of urbanization and the corresponding carbon emissions using the Granger causality test and an error correction model (ECM) then uses STIRPAT models to extract six indicators to measure the quality of urbanization, namely, the level of urbanization, area of built-up regions, added value of tertiary industries, disposable income per capita, green areas per capita, and energy intensity...
November 10, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124644/spatial-trends-and-pollution-assessment-for-mercury-in-the-surface-soils-of-the-nansi-lake-catchment-china
#9
Ming-Yi Ren, Li-Yuan Yang, Long-Feng Wang, Xue-Mei Han, Jie-Rui Dai, Xu-Gui Pang
Surface soil samples collected from Nansi Lake catchment were analyzed for mercury (Hg) to determine its spatial trends and environmental impacts. Results showed that the average soil Hg contents were 0.043 mg kg(-1). A positive correlation was shown between TOC and soil Hg contents. The main type of soil with higher TOC contents and lower pH values showed higher soil Hg contents. Soil TOC contents and CV values were both higher in the eastern catchment. The eastern part of the catchment, where the industry is developed, had relatively high soil Hg contents and a banding distribution of high Hg contents was corresponded with the southwest-northeast economic belt...
November 9, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121060/the-effects-of-demographic-social-and-environmental-characteristics-on-pathogen-prevalence-in-wild-felids-across-a-gradient-of-urbanization
#10
Jesse S Lewis, Kenneth A Logan, Mat W Alldredge, Scott Carver, Sarah N Bevins, Michael Lappin, Sue VandeWoude, Kevin R Crooks
Transmission of pathogens among animals is influenced by demographic, social, and environmental factors. Anthropogenic alteration of landscapes can impact patterns of disease dynamics in wildlife populations, increasing the potential for spillover and spread of emerging infectious diseases in wildlife, human, and domestic animal populations. We evaluated the effects of multiple ecological mechanisms on patterns of pathogen exposure in animal populations. Specifically, we evaluated how ecological factors affected the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii (Toxoplasma), Bartonella spp...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118405/extreme-behavioural-shifts-by-baboons-exploiting-risky-resource-rich-human-modified-environments
#11
Gaelle Fehlmann, M Justin O'Riain, Catherine Kerr-Smith, Stephen Hailes, Adrian Luckman, Emily L C Shepard, Andrew J King
A range of species exploit anthropogenic food resources in behaviour known as 'raiding'. Such behavioural flexibility is considered a central component of a species' ability to cope with human-induced environmental changes. Here, we study the behavioural processes by which raiding male chacma baboons (Papio ursinus) exploit the opportunities and mitigate the risks presented by raiding in the suburbs of Cape Town, South Africa. Ecological sampling and interviews conducted with 'rangers' (employed to manage the baboons' space use) revealed that baboons are at risk of being herded out of urban spaces that contain high-energy anthropogenic food sources...
November 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117381/assessment-of-feeding-acceptance-and-injury-of-kerman-pistachios-pistacia-vera-by-brown-marmorated-stink-bug-hemiptera-pentatomidae
#12
Jesús R Lara, Matthew T Kamiyama, Gabriel Hernandez, Justin Nay, Mark S Hoddle, Yulin Gao
In the United States, California (CA) is the primary commercial producer of pistachio nuts, Pistacia vera L. (Anacardiaceae). The brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), an invasive and polyphagous insect pest from Asia, has established in urban areas in several pistachio-growing counties in CA. Breeding BMSB populations have not been detected in commercial pistachio acreage. However, the detection of BMSB in Kern and Fresno counties, major Kerman pistachio producing areas in CA, underscored key knowledge gaps on BMSB ecology in CA and motivated investigations on the susceptibility of pistachio nuts to BMSB feeding...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117243/virome-analysis-of-two-sympatric-bat-species-desmodus-rotundus-and-molossus-molossus-in-french-guiana
#13
Arielle Salmier, Sourakhata Tirera, Benoit de Thoisy, Alain Franc, Edith Darcissac, Damien Donato, Christiane Bouchier, Vincent Lacoste, Anne Lavergne
Environmental disturbances in the Neotropics (e.g., deforestation, agriculture intensification, urbanization) contribute to an increasing risk of cross-species transmission of microorganisms and to disease outbreaks due to changing ecosystems of reservoir hosts. Although Amazonia encompasses the greatest diversity of reservoir species, the outsized viral population diversity (virome) has yet to be investigated. Here, through a metagenomic approach, we identified 10,991 viral sequences in the saliva and feces of two bat species, Desmodus rotundus (hematophagous), trapped in two different caves surrounded by primary lowland forest, and Molossus molossus (insectivorous), trapped in forest and urban habitats...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117235/variability-of-surface-and-underwater-nocturnal-spectral-irradiance-with-the-presence-of-clouds-in-urban-and-peri-urban-wetlands
#14
Jean Secondi, Valentin Dupont, Aurélie Davranche, Nathalie Mondy, Thierry Lengagne, Marc Théry
Artificial light at night (ALAN) is an increasing phenomenon worldwide. It causes a wealth of biological and ecological effects that may eventually affect populations and ecosystems. Despite the growing concern about ALAN, little is known about the light levels species are exposed to at night, especially for wetlands and underwater habitats. We determined nocturnal irradiance in urban and peri-urban wetlands above and under water, and assessed the effect of cloud cover on the variability of ALAN across the urban gradient...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108988/urban-rural-differences-in-breast-and-cervical-cancer-incidence-the-mediating-roles-of-socioeconomic-status-and-provider-density
#15
Jennifer L Moss, Benmei Liu, Eric J Feuer
BACKGROUND: Breast and cervical cancer incidence vary by urbanicity, and several ecological factors could contribute to these patterns. In particular, cancer screening or other sociodemographic and health care system variables could explain geographic disparities in cancer incidence. METHODS: Governmental and research sources provided data on 612 counties in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program for rural-urban continuum code, socioeconomic status (SES) quintile, percent non-Hispanic White residents, density of primary care physicians, cancer screening, and breast and cervical cancer incidence rates (2009-2013)...
November 3, 2017: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104821/estimating-the-potential-biodiversity-impact-of-redeveloping-small-urban-spaces-the-natural-history-museum-s-grounds
#16
Helen R P Phillips, Sandra Knapp, Andy Purvis
Background: With the increase in human population, and the growing realisation of the importance of urban biodiversity for human wellbeing, the ability to predict biodiversity loss or gain as a result of land use change within urban settings is important. Most models that link biodiversity and land use are at too coarse a scale for informing decisions, especially those related to planning applications. Using the grounds of the Natural History Museum, London, we show how methods used in global models can be applied to smaller spatial scales to inform urban planning...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104770/association-between-urbanisation-and-type-2-diabetes-an-ecological-study
#17
Zakariah Gassasse, Dianna Smith, Sarah Finer, Valentina Gallo
Introduction: Previous studies have explored the effect of urbanisation on the prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) at regional/national level. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between urbanisation and T2D at country level, worldwide, and to explore the role of intermediate variables (physical inactivity, sugar consumption and obesity). The potential effect modification of gross domestic product (GDP) was also assessed. Methods: Data for 207 countries were collected from accessible datasets...
2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104250/a-pilot-study-in-cameroon-to-understand-safe-uses-of-pesticides-in-agriculture-risk-factors-for-farmers-exposure-and-management-of-accidental-cases
#18
Guy Bertrand Pouokam, William Lemnyuy Album, Alice S Ndikontar, Mohamed El Hady Sidatt
Chemical pesticides are widely used in Cameroon for agricultural production. In 2015, more than 600 pesticide products were approved for use in various foodstuffs. Much misuse of these chemicals by farmers has been documented in rural and urban settings. This pilot study aims to contribute to the improvement of the health of the population and the environmental preservation by identifying pesticide-poisoning cases, the most incriminated products and critical risk factors of exposure. Questionnaires were administered to pesticide vendors, farmers and health personnel, and observations made on farmers' practices at their work places...
November 1, 2017: Toxics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103644/tracking-heavy-metal-contamination-in-a-complex-river-oxbow-lake-system-middle-odra-valley-germany-poland
#19
Jakub Ciazela, Marcin Siepak, Piotr Wojtowicz
Oxbow lakes have received much attention in recent years due to their ecological importance and vulnerability for contamination. Sediment cores collected from the floor of oxbow lakes indicate the increasing contamination of lakes with heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn, Ni, Cr) over the last fifty years, owing to the development of transport and industry. Little is known, however, about how various factors can enhance or impede the migration of metallic contaminants between the pollution source and lake ecosystems...
November 2, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097731/temporal-consistency-between-gross-primary-production-and-solar-induced-chlorophyll-fluorescence-in-the-ten-most-populous-megacity-areas-over-years
#20
Yaoping Cui, Xiangming Xiao, Yao Zhang, Jinwei Dong, Yuanwei Qin, Russell B Doughty, Geli Zhang, Jie Wang, Xiaocui Wu, Yaochen Qin, Shenghui Zhou, Joanna Joiner, Berrien Moore
The gross primary production (GPP) of vegetation in urban areas plays an important role in the study of urban ecology. It is difficult however, to accurately estimate GPP in urban areas, mostly due to the complexity of impervious land surfaces, buildings, vegetation, and management. Recently, we used the Vegetation Photosynthesis Model (VPM), climate data, and satellite images to estimate the GPP of terrestrial ecosystems including urban areas. Here, we report VPM-based GPP (GPPvpm) estimates for the world's ten most populous megacities during 2000-2014...
November 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
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