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Urban ecology

Alejandro Feged-Rivadeneira, Sian Evans
AIMS: Malaria in the Amazon basin is persistently more prevalent among low density populations (1-4 people/[Formula: see text]). Describing malaria transmission in small populations, such as ethnic minorities in the Amazon basin, living in reserves in groups that amount to 110-450 individuals, is fundamental for the implementation of adequate interventions. Here, we examine malaria transmission in a context of high prevalence in a small population of Nükak ethnicity (ethnic group [Formula: see text] individuals, study group, [Formula: see text] individuals) living in the peri-urban area of a city with [Formula: see text] inhabitants in the Amazon basin...
May 1, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
Dmytro M Boiko, Volodymyr H Pecherytsia, Oksana S Boiko, Svitlana M Kulyk
OBJECTIVE: Introduction: Lung sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease that can affect various organs and systems of a person. Due to the lack of a uniform standardized approach to the diagnosis of sarcoidosis, the epidemiological pattern is heterogeneous and depends on many factors. The aim: To investigate the correlation between the number of patients with sarcoidosis among the population of the Poltava region (Ukraine) and the ecological characteristics of the industrial activity of the region in comparison with the data on the availability of subspecialists in respiratory diseases...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
David R Bowne, Bradley J Cosentino, Laurel J Anderson, Christopher P Bloch, Sandra Cooke, Patrick W Crumrine, Jason Dallas, Alexandra Doran, Jerald J Dosch, Daniel L Druckenbrod, Richard D Durtsche, Danielle Garneau, Kristen S Genet, Todd S Fredericksen, Peter A Kish, Mary Beth Kolozsvary, Frank T Kuserk, Erin S Lindquist, Carol Mankiewicz, James G March, Timothy J Muir, K Greg Murray, Madeline N Santulli, Frank J Sicignano, Peter D Smallwood, Rebecca A Urban, Kathy Winnett-Murray, Craig R Zimmermann
Landscape-scale alterations that accompany urbanization may negatively affect the population structure of wildlife species such as freshwater turtles. Changes to nesting sites and higher mortality rates due to vehicular collisions and increased predator populations may particularly affect immature turtles and mature female turtles. We hypothesized that the proportions of adult female and immature turtles in a population will negatively correlate with landscape urbanization. As a collaborative effort of the Ecological Research as Education Network (EREN), we sampled freshwater turtle populations in 11 states across the central and eastern United States...
May 20, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
Maja Grubisic, Roy H A van Grunsven, Alessandro Manfrin, Michael T Monaghan, Franz Hölker
The increasing use of artificial light at night (ALAN) has led to exposure of freshwater ecosystems to light pollution worldwide. Simultaneously, the spectral composition of nocturnal illumination is changing, following the current shift in outdoor lighting technologies from traditional light sources to light emitting diodes (LED). LEDs emit broad-spectrum white light, with a significant amount of photosynthetically active radiation, and typically a high content of blue light that regulates circadian rhythms in many organisms...
May 14, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Carl Scott Clem, David W Held
This project investigated associational interactions (associational resistance or susceptibility) between native and non-native trees commonly found in urban landscapes in the southeastern United States. Non-native plants offer limited ecological services because few native herbivore species are capable of feeding on them. In a 2-yr field study, abundance and species richness of caterpillars, plant damage, and herbivore natural enemies were evaluated in plots where a native red maple (Acer rubrum L. [Sapindales: Aceraceae]) was planted singly (no neighbors) or interplanted with either non-native non-congeneric crepe myrtles (Lagerstroemia indica L...
May 15, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Shalu Thomas, Sangamithra Ravishankaran, N A Johnson Amala Justin, Aswin Asokan, T Maria Jusler Kalsingh, Manu Thomas Mathai, Neena Valecha, Jacqui Montgomery, Matthew B Thomas, Alex Eapen
BACKGROUND: Environmental factors such as temperature, relative humidity and their daily variation influence a range of mosquito life history traits and hence, malaria transmission. The standard way of characterizing environmental factors with meteorological station data need not be the actual microclimates experienced by mosquitoes within local transmission settings. METHODS: A year-long study was conducted in Chennai, India to characterize local temperature and relative humidity (RH)...
May 16, 2018: Malaria Journal
Xiaojun Ma, Changxin Wang, Yuanbo Yu, Yudong Li, Biying Dong, Xinyu Zhang, Xueqi Niu, Qian Yang, Ruimin Chen, Yifan Li, Yihan Gu
Ecological problem is one of the core issues that restrain China's economic development at present, and it is urgently needed to be solved properly and effectively. Based on panel data from 30 regions, this paper uses a super efficiency slack-based measure (SBM) model that introduces the undesirable output to calculate the ecological efficiency, and then uses traditional and metafrontier-Malmquist index method to study regional change trends and technology gap ratios (TGRs). Finally, the Tobit regression and principal component analysis methods are used to analysis the main factors affecting eco-efficiency and impact degree...
May 15, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Benjamin Daniels, Barbara S Zaunbrecher, Bastian Paas, Richard Ottermanns, Martina Ziefle, Martina Roß-Nickoll
Facing the growing amount of people living in cities and, at the same time, the need for a compact and sustainable urban development to mitigate urban sprawl, it becomes increasingly important that green spaces in compact cities are designed to meet the various needs within an urban environment. Urban green spaces have a multitude of functions: Maintaining ecological processes and resulting services, e.g. providing habitat for animals and plants, providing a beneficial city microclimate as well as recreational space for citizens...
February 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Lingran Meng, Jiu Huang, Jihong Dong
Quantitative analysis of rural ecosystem health (REH) is required to comprehend the spatial differentiation of rural landscape and promote rural sustainable development under the pressure of urbanization and industrialization, especially those with dramatic changes in rural ecology of China and other developing countries. In this study, taking Jiangsu province as the case study, appropriate indicators were selected in the perspective of compound ecosystem and the rural ecosystem health index (REHI) was developed including four rural ecological subsystems of resource, environmental, social and economic...
February 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Ina Geedicke, Jens Oldeland, Michelle R Leishman
Subtropical and temperate coastal saltmarsh of Australia is listed as an endangered ecological community under the Commonwealth Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act (EPBC Act). Saltmarshes are under threat from sea level rise, landward migration of mangroves, and in urban regions from habitat loss, input of litter, nutrients, and other contaminants. In urbanised catchments, saltmarsh areas receive nutrient-enriched and pollutant-contaminated run-off, such as heavy metals, through the stormwater system...
May 8, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Katarzyna Puczko, Piotr Zieliński, Szymon Jusik, Anita Kołakowska, Elżbieta Jekatierynczuk-Rudczyk
Many freshwater ecosystems face severe threats from anthropogenic disturbances. In the field, we investigated the morphology of spring niches and the species richness of vascular plants and bryophytes in 16 springs, draining the quaternary aquifers, located in two different environments-an urban area (city of Białystok) and a protected area (Knyszyn Forest Landscape Park, NE Poland). In total, 47 vascular plant and 45 bryophyte species were recorded, representing mostly crenophytes including protected species...
May 10, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Mufutau Opeyemi Bello, Sakiru Adebola Solarin, Yuen Yee Yen
The primary objective of this paper is to investigate the isolated impacts of hydroelectricity consumption on the environment in Malaysia as an emerging economy. We use four different measures of environmental degradation including ecological footprint, carbon footprint, water footprint and CO2 emission as target variables, while controlling for GDP, GDP square and urbanization for the period 1971 to 2016. A recently introduced unit root test with breaks is utilized to examine the stationarity of the series and the bounds testing approach to cointegration is used to probe the long run relationships between the variables...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Misha Leong, Robert R Dunn, Michelle D Trautwein
The ecological dynamics of cities are influenced not only by geophysical and biological factors, but also by aspects of human society. In cities around the world, a pattern of higher biodiversity in affluent neighbourhoods has been termed 'the luxury effect'. The luxury effect has been found globally regarding plant diversity and canopy or vegetative cover. Fewer studies have considered the luxury effect and animals, yet it has been recognized in the distributions of birds, bats, lizards and indoor arthropods...
May 2018: Biology Letters
Bettina Bringolf-Isler, Kees de Hoogh, Christian Schindler, Bengt Kayser, L Suzanne Suggs, Alain Dössegger, Nicole Probst-Hensch
Identifying correlates of sedentary behaviour across all levels of the ecological model and understanding their interrelations is a promising method to plan effective interventions. The present study examined whether the objectively assessed and the perceived neighbourhood are associated with children’s sedentary behaviour time (SBT). A comprehensive set of factors at different levels of influence across the ecological model were taken into account and analysed for mediating and modifying effects...
May 4, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
An Liu, Nian Hong, Panfeng Zhu, Yuntao Guan
Benzene series (BTEX) pollutants are toxic and can pose high ecological and human health risk. BTEX pollutants can accumulate on urban road surfaces during dry periods and then be washed-off by stormwater runoff into receiving waters, degrading water quality. In this context, designing effective stormwater treatment systems to remove BTEX pollutants before entering urban water bodies is essential to safeguard urban water environment and this is closely dependent on an in-depth understanding of characteristics of pollutant loads accumulated on urban catchment surfaces...
April 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Cristiano V M Araújo, Daniel M Griffith, Victoria Vera-Vera, Paul Vargas Jentzsch, Laura Cervera, Beatriz Nieto-Ariza, David Salvatierra, Santiago Erazo, Rusbel Jaramillo, Luis A Ramos, Matilde Moreira-Santos, Rui Ribeiro
Aquatic ecotoxicity assays used to assess ecological risk assume that organisms living in a contaminated habitat are forcedly exposed to the contamination. This assumption neglects the ability of organisms to detect and avoid contamination by moving towards less disturbed habitats, as long as connectivity exists. In fluvial systems, many environmental parameters vary spatially and thus condition organisms' habitat selection. We assessed the preference of zebra fish (Danio rerio) when exposed to water samples from two western Ecuadorian rivers with apparently distinct disturbance levels: Pescadillo River (highly disturbed) and Oro River (moderately disturbed)...
April 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Elsa Varela, Kris Verheyen, Alicia Valdés, Mario Soliño, Jette B Jacobsen, Pallieter De Smedt, Steffen Ehrmann, Stefanie Gärtner, Elena Górriz, Guillaume Decocq
Small forest patches embedded in agricultural (and peri-urban) landscapes in Western Europe play a key role for biodiversity conservation with a recognized capacity of delivering a wide suite of ecosystem services. Measures aimed to preserve these patches should be both socially desirable and ecologically effective. This study presents a joint ecologic and economic assessment conducted on small forest patches in Flanders (Belgium) and Picardie (N France). In each study region, two contrasted types of agricultural landscapes were selected...
April 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Hoonchong Yi, Burak Güneralp, Urs P Kreuter, İnci Güneralp, Anthony M Filippi
A fundamental premise of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment is that biodiversity and ecosystem services are key determinants of long-term sustainability of social-ecological systems. With a continuing decline in local and global biodiversity and ecosystem services, it is crucial to understand how biodiversity and various ecosystem services interact and how land change may modify these interactions over time. However, few studies have been conducted to quantify these relationships. In this study, we present the first empirical comparative results to analyze how spatial associations between biodiversity and ecosystem services (BES) changed at multiple scales between 1984 and 2010 in the rapidly urbanizing San Antonio River Basin (SARB), Texas, USA...
April 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Duong H Nong, Christopher A Lepczyk, Tomoaki Miura, Jefferson M Fox
Urbanization has been driven by various social, economic, and political factors around the world for centuries. Because urbanization continues unabated in many places, it is crucial to understand patterns of urbanization and their potential ecological and environmental impacts. Given this need, the objectives of our study were to quantify urban growth rates, growth modes, and resultant changes in the landscape pattern of urbanization in Hanoi, Vietnam from 1993 to 2010 and to evaluate the extent to which the process of urban growth in Hanoi conformed to the diffusion-coalescence theory...
2018: PloS One
Lucy Katherine McLay, Venkatesh Nagarajan-Radha, Mark Philip Green, Therésa Melanie Jones
Humans are lighting the night-time environment with ever increasing extent and intensity, resulting in a variety of negative ecological effects in individuals and populations. Effects of light at night on reproductive fitness traits are demonstrated across taxa however, the mechanisms underlying these effects are largely untested. One possible mechanism is that light at night may result in perturbed reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress levels. Here, we reared Drosophila melanogaster under either dim (10 lx) light or no light (0 lx) at night for three generations and then compared mating and lifetime oviposition patterns...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
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