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Urban ecology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428858/genetic-diversity-and-spatial-structure-of-the-rufous-throated-antbird-gymnopithys-rufigula-an-amazonian-obligate-army-ant-follower
#1
Juliana Menger, Klaus Henle, William E Magnusson, Antonella Soro, Martin Husemann, Martin Schlegel
Amazonian understory antbirds are thought to be relatively sedentary and to have limited dispersal ability; they avoid crossing forest gaps, and even narrow roads through a forest may limit their territories. However, most evidence for sedentariness in antbirds comes from field observations and plot-based recapture of adult individuals, which do not provide evidence for lack of genetic dispersal, as this often occurs through juveniles. In this study, we used microsatellite markers and mitochondrial control-region sequences to investigate contemporary and infer historical patterns of genetic diversity and structure of the Rufous-throated Antbird (Gymnopithys rufigula) within and between two large reserves in central Amazonia...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413244/agricultural-intensification-the-status-in-six-african-countries
#2
Hans P Binswanger-Mkhize, Sara Savastano
Boserup and Ruthenberg (BR) provided the framework to analyze the impact of population growth and market access on the intensification of farming systems. Prior evidence in Africa is consistent with the framework. Over the past two decades, rapid population growth has put farming systems under stress, while rapid urbanization and economic growth have provided new market opportunities. New measures of agro-ecological potential and urban gravity are developed to analyze their impact on population density and market access...
February 2017: Food Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412626/quantification-of-heat-shock-protein-70-and-acetylcholinesterase-over-a-time-course-suggests-environmental-adaptation-in-a-foundational-molluscan-species
#3
Andrew Ravaschiere, Caroline Cutler, Kristi Edleson, Zachery Halem, Henry Magun, Fred Meckler, Rachel Cox
Waterways in urban areas often act as repositories for sewage, industrial waste, and environmental contaminants. In response, inhabitants of these watersheds undergo physiological adaptations specific to their respective environments. Effects of these stressors can be assayed by quantification of various well-documented biomarkers in sentinel species such as the Atlantic Ribbed mussel, Geukensia demissa, a native to the Bronx River Estuary, Bronx, NY, USA. Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) is a universally expressed biomarker for an array of environmental stressors including toxins and low dissolved oxygen...
April 13, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411568/projecting-biodiversity-and-wood-production-in-future-forest-landscapes-15-key-modeling-considerations
#4
Adam Felton, Thomas Ranius, Jean-Michel Roberge, Karin Öhman, Tomas Lämås, Jari Hynynen, Artti Juutinen, Mikko Mönkkönen, Urban Nilsson, Tomas Lundmark, Annika Nordin
A variety of modeling approaches can be used to project the future development of forest systems, and help to assess the implications of different management alternatives for biodiversity and ecosystem services. This diversity of approaches does however present both an opportunity and an obstacle for those trying to decide which modeling technique to apply, and interpreting the management implications of model output. Furthermore, the breadth of issues relevant to addressing key questions related to forest ecology, conservation biology, silviculture, economics, requires insights stemming from a number of distinct scientific disciplines...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411319/fifty-year-spatiotemporal-analysis-of-landscape-changes-in-the-mont-saint-hilaire-unesco-biosphere-reserve-quebec-canada
#5
Marc Béliveau, Daniel Germain, Ana-Neli Ianăş
Diachronic analysis with a GIS-based classification of land-use changes based on aerial photographs, orthophotos, topographic maps, geotechnical reports, urban plans, and using landscape metrics has permitted insight into the driving forces responsible for landscape fragmentation in the Mont Saint-Hilaire (MSH) Biosphere Reserve over the period 1958-2015. Although the occurrence of exogenous factors, such as extreme weather and fires, can have a significant influence on the fragmentation of the territory in time and space, the accelerated development of the built environment (+470%) is nevertheless found to be primarily responsible for landscape fragmentation and the loss of areas formerly occupied by orchards, agriculture, and woodlands...
May 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408543/determinants-of-institutional-delivery-among-young-married-women-in-nepal-evidence-from-the-nepal-demographic-and-health-survey-2011
#6
Asm Shahabuddin, Vincent De Brouwere, Ramesh Adhikari, Alexandre Delamou, Azucena Bardaj, Therese Delvaux
OBJECTIVES: To identify the determinants of institutional delivery among young married women in Nepal. DESIGN: Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) data sets 2011 were analysed. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed using a subset of 1662 ever-married young women (aged 15-24 years). OUTCOME MEASURE: Place of delivery. RESULTS: The rate of institutional delivery among young married women was 46%, which is higher than the national average (35%) among all women of reproductive age...
April 13, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402782/ecology-and-pathology-of-phytophthora-its-clade-3-species-in-forests-in-western-oregon-usa
#7
Everett M Hansen, Paul W Reeser, Wendy Sutton
Phytophthora species are widespread and diverse in forest ecosystems, but little is known about their ecology. We explore ecological attributes of the closely related clade 3 species that occur sympatrically in western North American forests. We address the population structure, pathology, and epidemiology of P. ilicis, P. nemorosa, P. pluvialis, P. pseudosyringae, and P. psychrophila. Phytophthora species were isolated from plant tissues, rainwater falling through the forest canopy, streams, and soils in forests in western Oregon...
2017: Mycologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400605/an-evaluation-of-the-ecological-and-environmental-security-on-china-s-terrestrial-ecosystems
#8
Hongqi Zhang, Erqi Xu
With rapid economic growth, industrialization, and urbanization, various ecological and environmental problems occur, which threaten and undermine the sustainable development and domestic survival of China. On the national scale, our progress remains in a state of qualitative or semi-quantitative evaluation, lacking a quantitative evaluation and a spatial visualization of ecological and environmental security. This study collected 14 indictors of water, land, air, and biodiversity securities to compile a spatial evaluation of ecological and environmental security in terrestrial ecosystems of China...
April 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399263/ecological-niche-model-for-predicting-distribution-of-disease-vector-mosquitoes-in-yucat%C3%A3-n-state-m%C3%A3-xico
#9
Carlos M Baak-Baak, David A Moo-Llanes, Nohemi Cigarroa-Toledo, Fernando I Puerto, Carlos Machain-Williams, Guadalupe Reyes-Solis, Yoshinori J Nakazawa, Armando Ulloa-Garcia, Julian E Garcia-Rejon
The majority of the Yucatán State, México, presents subtropical climate that is suitable for many species of mosquitoes that are known to be vectors of diseases, including those from the genera Aedes and Culex. The objective of this study is to identify the geographic distribution of five species from these two genera and estimate the human population at risk of coming in contact with them. We compiled distributional data for Aedes aegypti (L.), Aedes (Howardina) cozumelensis (Diaz Najera), Culex coronator Dyar and Knab, Culex quinquefasciatus Say, and Culex thriambus Dyar from several entomological studies in Yucatán between March 2010 and September 2014...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393382/-maybe-i-will-give-some-help%C3%A2-maybe-not-to-help-the-eyes-but-different-help-an-analysis-of-care-and-support-of-children-with-visual-impairment-in-community-settings-in-malawi
#10
M Gladstone, M McLinden, G Douglas, E Jolley, E Schmidt, J Chimoyo, H Magombo, P Lynch
BACKGROUND: Visual impairment in children is common in low and middle-income settings. Whilst visual impairment (VI) can impact on the development of children, many reach full potential with appropriate early intervention programmes. Although there is increased emphasis on early child development globally, it is not yet clear how to provide specific programmes for children with VI in low and middle-income settings. This study aims to identify facilitators and barriers to the provision of a developmental stimulation programme for children with VI in rural and urban Malawi...
April 9, 2017: Child: Care, Health and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388643/effects-of-childhood-experience-with-nature-on-tolerance-of-urban-residents-toward-hornets-and-wild-boars-in-japan
#11
Tetsuro Hosaka, Koun Sugimoto, Shinya Numata
Urban biodiversity conservation often aims to promote the quality of life for urban residents by providing ecosystem services as well as habitats for diverse wildlife. However, biodiversity inevitably brings some disadvantages, including problems and nuisances caused by wildlife. Although some studies have reported that enhancement of nature interaction among urban children promotes their affective attitude toward of favorable animals, its effect on tolerance toward problem-causing wildlife is unknown. In this study, we assessed the tolerance of 1,030 urban residents in Japan toward hornets and wild boar, and analyzed the effects of childhood experience with nature on tolerance using a structural equation model...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388329/new-records-of-aedes-aegypti-in-southern-oklahoma-2016
#12
David L Bradt, Kristy K Bradley, W Wyatt Hoback, Bruce H Noden
Aedes aegypti is an important subtropical vector species and is predicted to have a limited year-round distribution in the southern United States. Collection of the species has not been officially verified in Oklahoma since 1940. Adult mosquitoes were collected in 42 sites across 7 different cities in Oklahoma using 3 different mosquito traps between May and September 2016. Between July and September 2016, 88 Ae. aegypti adults were collected at 18 different sites in 4 different cities across southern Oklahoma...
March 2017: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386514/improving-urban-water-environment-in-eastern-china-by-blending-traditional-with-modern-landscape-planning
#13
Jiajie Cao, Junjun Yu, Yuan Tian, Cai Zhao, Hao Wang
As a fundamental part of greenspace, urban water landscape contributes greatly to the ecological system and at the same time supplies a leisure area for residents. The paper did an analysis on the number of aquatic plant communities, the form of water spaces, and water quality condition by investigating 135 quadrats (90 at amphibious boundary and the land, 45 in the water) in 45 transects of 15 urban and suburban parks. We found that water spaces had monotonous forms with low biodiversity and poor water quality...
2017: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383758/applying-network-theory-to-prioritize-multi-species-habitat-networks-that-are-robust-to-climate-and-land-use-change
#14
Cécile H Albert, Bronwyn Rayfield, Maria Dumitru, Andrew Gonzalez
Designing connected landscapes is among the most widespread strategies for achieving biodiversity conservation targets. The challenge lies in simultaneously satisfying the connectivity needs of multiple species at multiple spatial scales under uncertain climate and land-use change. To evaluate the contribution of remnant habitat fragments to the connectivity of regional habitat networks, we develop a framework integrating uncertainty in climate and land-use change projections with the latest developments in network connectivity research and spatial, multi-purpose conservation prioritization...
April 6, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382936/ecological-connectivity-in-the-three-dimensional-urban-green-volume-using-waveform-airborne-lidar
#15
Stefano Casalegno, Karen Anderson, Daniel T C Cox, Steven Hancock, Kevin J Gaston
The movements of organisms and the resultant flows of ecosystem services are strongly shaped by landscape connectivity. Studies of urban ecosystems have relied on two-dimensional (2D) measures of greenspace structure to calculate connectivity. It is now possible to explore three-dimensional (3D) connectivity in urban vegetation using waveform lidar technology that measures the full 3D structure of the canopy. Making use of this technology, here we evaluate urban greenspace 3D connectivity, taking into account the full vertical stratification of the vegetation...
April 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381617/winter-range-expansion-of-a-hummingbird-is-associated-with-urbanization-and-supplementary-feeding
#16
Emma I Greig, Eric M Wood, David N Bonter
Anthropogenic changes to the landscape and climate cause novel ecological and evolutionary pressures, leading to potentially dramatic changes in the distribution of biodiversity. Warm winter temperatures can shift species' distributions to regions that were previously uninhabitable. Further, urbanization and supplementary feeding may facilitate range expansions and potentially reduce migration tendency. Here we explore how these factors interact to cause non-uniform effects across a species's range. Using 17 years of data from the citizen science programme Project FeederWatch, we examined the relationships between urbanization, winter temperatures and the availability of supplementary food (i...
April 12, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381228/mesocarnivores-and-macroparasites-altitude-and-land-use-predict-the-ticks-occurring-on-red-foxes-vulpes-vulpes
#17
Attila D Sándor, Gianluca D'Amico, Călin M Gherman, Mirabela O Dumitrache, Cristian Domșa, Andrei Daniel Mihalca
BACKGROUND: The red fox Vulpes vulpes is the most common mesocarnivore in Europe and with a wide geographical distribution and a high density in most terrestrial habitats of the continent. It is fast urbanising species, which can harbor high numbers of different tick species, depending on the region. Here we present the results of a large-scale study, trying to disentangle the intricate relationship between environmental factors and the species composition of ectoparasites in red foxes...
April 5, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375726/schooling-and-children-s-mental-health-realigning-resources-to-reduce-disparities-and-advance-public-health
#18
Marc S Atkins, Elise Cappella, Elisa S Shernoff, Tara G Mehta, Erika L Gustafson
Schools have long been the primary setting for children's mental health services but have neither the resources nor the expertise to manage these services independently. The critical importance of school success for children's adjustment provides a strong rationale for schooling as an essential component of children's mental health services. In this article, we review evidence for how schooling and mental health coalesce, suggesting an alignment of school and community mental health resources that prioritizes successful schooling as a key mental health outcome...
March 24, 2017: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375177/how-to-tackle-key-challenges-in-the-promotion-of-physical-activity-among-older-adults-65-the-aequipa-network-approach
#19
Sarah Forberger, Karin Bammann, Jürgen Bauer, Susanne Boll, Gabriele Bolte, Tilman Brand, Andreas Hein, Frauke Koppelin, Sonia Lippke, Jochen Meyer, Claudia R Pischke, Claudia Voelcker-Rehage, Hajo Zeeb
The paper introduces the theoretical framework and methods/instruments used by the Physical Activity and Health Equity: Primary Prevention for Healthy Ageing (AEQUIPA) prevention research network as an interdisciplinary approach to tackle key challenges in the promotion of physical activity among older people (65+). Drawing on the social-ecological model, the AEQUIPA network developed an interdisciplinary methodological design including quantitative/qualitative studies and systematic reviews, while combining expertise from diverse fields: public health, psychology, urban planning, sports sciences, health technology and geriatrics...
April 4, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373560/contrasting-nitrogen-and-phosphorus-budgets-in-urban-watersheds-and-implications-for-managing-urban-water-pollution
#20
Sarah E Hobbie, Jacques C Finlay, Benjamin D Janke, Daniel A Nidzgorski, Dylan B Millet, Lawrence A Baker
Managing excess nutrients remains a major obstacle to improving ecosystem service benefits of urban waters. To inform more ecologically based landscape nutrient management, we compared watershed inputs, outputs, and retention for nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in seven subwatersheds of the Mississippi River in St. Paul, Minnesota. Lawn fertilizer and pet waste dominated N and P inputs, respectively, underscoring the importance of household actions in influencing urban watershed nutrient budgets. Watersheds retained only 22% of net P inputs versus 80% of net N inputs (watershed area-weighted averages, where net inputs equal inputs minus biomass removal) despite relatively low P inputs...
April 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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