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Urban ecology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725443/associations-of-short-term-exposure-to-air-pollution-with-respiratory-hospital-admissions-in-arak-iran
#1
Mostafa Vahedian, Narges Khanjani, Moghaddameh Mirzaee, Ali Koolivand
BACKGROUND: Ambient air pollution, is one of the most frequently stated environmental problems. Many epidemiological studies have documented adverse health effects for ambient air pollution. This study aimed to investigate the association between ambient air pollution and respiratory hospital admissions. METHODS: In this ecological time series study data about air pollutant concentrations including CO, NO2, O3, PM2.5, PM10 and SO2 and, respiratory hospital admissions in the urban population of Arak, from January 1st 2010 to December 31st 2015; were inquired, from the Arak Department of Environment, and two major hospitals, respectively...
2017: Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725378/ecological-role-of-vertebrate-scavengers-in-urban-ecosystems-in-the-uk
#2
Richard Inger, Daniel T C Cox, Esra Per, Briony A Norton, Kevin J Gaston
Recent research has demonstrated how scavenging, the act of consuming dead animals, plays a key role in ecosystem structure, functioning, and stability. A growing number of studies suggest that vertebrate scavengers also provide key ecosystem services, the benefits humans gain from the natural world, particularly in the removal of carcasses from the environment. An increasing proportion of the human population is now residing in cities and towns, many of which, despite being highly altered environments, contain significant wildlife populations, and so animal carcasses...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724103/nematode-community-response-to-green-infrastructure-design-in-a-semiarid-city
#3
Mitchell A Pavao-Zuckerman, Christine Sookhdeo
Urbanization affects ecosystem function and environmental quality through shifts in ecosystem fluxes that are brought on by features of the built environment. Green infrastructure (GI) has been suggested as a best management practice (BMP) to address urban hydrologic and ecological impacts of the built environment, but GI practice has only been studied from a limited set of climatic conditions and disciplinary approaches. Here, we evaluate GI features in a semiarid city from the perspective of soil ecology through the application of soil nematode community analysis...
May 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722175/how-the-community-shapes-unmet-need-for-modern-contraception-an-analysis-of-44-demographic-and-health-surveys
#4
Nicholas Metheny, Rob Stephenson
Unmet need for modern contraception is a major public health concern in resource-constrained countries. Recent research supports the application of social-ecological theories to explain how characteristics of a woman's community shape modern contraception use. However, this research focuses largely on individual countries and uses a limited number of community-level effects. We fitted three random-effects logistic regression models to examine associations between 13 community-level variables and the odds of reporting unmet need, unmet need for spacing, and unmet need for limiting for all parous, female respondents in 44 DHS surveys collected in 2010-2015 (n=528,101)...
July 19, 2017: Studies in Family Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718158/the-extent-of-heavy-metal-pollution-and-their-potential-health-risk-in-topsoils-of-the-massively-urbanized-district-of-shanghai
#5
Syed Taseer Abbas Jaffar, Long-Zhu Chen, Hassan Younas
Urbanization and industrialization increase the concentrations of heavy metals in soils, which affect human health. A total of 127 topsoil samples were collected from the massively urbanized and industrialized district of Shanghai: Baoshan District. The sampling sites were isolated based on the land-use practice: industrial area, roadside area, residential area, and agricultural area. The absolute concentrations of heavy metals (Zn, Cr, Ni, Mn, Cu, Pb, and Cd) were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry and compared with Shanghai and the National soil background values...
July 17, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717366/interrelationship-between-climatic-ecologic-social-and-cultural-determinants-affecting-dengue-emergence-and-transmission-in-puerto-rico-and-their-implications-for-zika-response
#6
REVIEW
Angela Matysiak, Amira Roess
OBJECTIVE: The global resurgence of dengue has been attributed to rapid population growth, urban expansion, increased air travel, globalization, and climate change. Dengue is now endemic in Puerto Rico. Puerto Rico is at risk for Zika, another emerging arbovirus. The interrelationship between climatic, ecological, social, and cultural factors that affect dengue and other arboviruses' transmission is understudied. DESIGN: The objective of this systematic review is to examine the interrelationship between climatic, ecological, social, and cultural factors on dengue transmission in Puerto Rico and to draw lessons for Zika response...
2017: Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714925/individual-and-interactive-effects-of-socio-ecological-factors-on-dengue-fever-at-fine-spatial-scale-a-geographical-detector-based-analysis
#7
Zheng Cao, Tao Liu, Xing Li, Jin Wang, Hualiang Lin, Lingling Chen, Zhifeng Wu, Wenjun Ma
Background: Large spatial heterogeneity was observed in the dengue fever outbreak in Guangzhou in 2014, however, the underlying reasons remain unknown. We examined whether socio-ecological factors affected the spatial distribution and their interactive effects. Methods: Moran's I was applied to first examine the spatial cluster of dengue fever in Guangzhou. Nine socio-ecological factors were chosen to represent the urbanization level, economy, accessibility, environment, and the weather of the 167 townships/streets in Guangzhou, and then the geographical detector was applied to analyze the individual and interactive effects of these factors on the dengue outbreak...
July 17, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711823/using-nitrogen-concentration-and-isotopic-composition-in-lichens-to-spatially-assess-the-relative-contribution-of-atmospheric-nitrogen-sources-in-complex-landscapes
#8
P Pinho, C Barros, S Augusto, M J Pereira, C Máguas, C Branquinho
Reactive nitrogen (Nr) is an important driver of global change, causing alterations in ecosystem biodiversity and functionality. Environmental assessments require monitoring the emission and deposition of both the amount and types of Nr. This is especially important in heterogeneous landscapes, as different land-cover types emit particular forms of Nr to the atmosphere, which can impact ecosystems distinctively. Such assessments require high spatial resolution maps that also integrate temporal variations, and can only be feasibly achieved by using ecological indicators...
July 13, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711000/ecosystem-services-response-to-urbanization-in-metropolitan-areas-thresholds-identification
#9
Jian Peng, Lu Tian, Yanxu Liu, Mingyue Zhao, Yi'na Hu, Jiansheng Wu
Ecosystem service is the key comprehensive indicator for measuring the ecological effects of urbanization. Although various studies have found a causal relationship between urbanization and ecosystem services degradation, the linear or non-linear characteristics are still unclear, especially identifying the impact thresholds in this relationship. This study quantified four ecosystem services (i.e. soil conservation, carbon sequestration and oxygen production, water yield, and food production) and total ecosystem services (TES), and then identified multiple advantageous area of ecosystem services in the peri-urban area of Beijing City...
July 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710690/a-preliminary-assessment-of-heavy-metals-in-sediments-from-the-cipero-and-south-oropouche-rivers-in-trinidad-west-indies
#10
Faisal K Mohammed, Jason Sieuraj, Mohindra Seepersaud
The increasing urbanization and industrial processes in Trinidad within recent years could pose a possible contamination threat to the aquatic environment. The southwestern part of the island houses numerous industrial activities, and the recent sightings of schools of dead fish and other marine organisms in that locality is cause for concern prompting research into this occurrence. Sediment and surface water samples from the Cipero and South Oropouche Rivers in South Trinidad were analyzed for their heavy metal content (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn)...
August 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706999/ecological-connectivity-networks-in-rapidly-expanding-cities
#11
Amal Najihah M Nor, Ron Corstanje, Jim A Harris, Darren R Grafius, Gavin M Siriwardena
Urban expansion increases fragmentation of the landscape. In effect, fragmentation decreases connectivity, causes green space loss and impacts upon the ecology and function of green space. Restoration of the functionality of green space often requires restoring the ecological connectivity of this green space within the city matrix. However, identifying ecological corridors that integrate different structural and functional connectivity of green space remains vague. Assessing connectivity for developing an ecological network by using efficient models is essential to improve these networks under rapid urban expansion...
June 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704731/random-forests-as-cumulative-effects-models-a-case-study-of-lakes-and-rivers-in-muskoka-canada
#12
F Chris Jones, Rachel Plewes, Lorna Murison, Mark J MacDougall, Sarah Sinclair, Christie Davies, John L Bailey, Murray Richardson, John Gunn
Cumulative effects assessment (CEA) - a type of environmental appraisal - lacks effective methods for modeling cumulative effects, evaluating indicators of ecosystem condition, and exploring the likely outcomes of development scenarios. Random forests are an extension of classification and regression trees, which model response variables by recursive partitioning. Random forests were used to model a series of candidate ecological indicators that described lakes and rivers from a case study watershed (The Muskoka River Watershed, Canada)...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704668/performance-and-implementation-of-low-impact-development-a-review
#13
REVIEW
Kyle Eckart, Zach McPhee, Tirupati Bolisetti
Climate change, urbanization, and ecological concerns are all driving the need for new stormwater management strategies. The effects of urbanization are exaggerated by climate change and thus the development of innovative stormwater management techniques are necessary to mitigate these impacts. One emerging stormwater management philosophy is low impact development (LID). LID utilizes distributed stormwater controls (often green infrastructure) as well as green spaces and natural hydrologic features in order to bring the hydrology of urban catchments closer to pre-development conditions...
July 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704434/urbanization-is-a-main-driver-for-the-larval-ecology-of-aedes-mosquitoes-in-arbovirus-endemic-settings-in-south-eastern-c%C3%A3-te-d-ivoire
#14
Julien B Z Zahouli, Benjamin G Koudou, Pie Müller, David Malone, Yao Tano, Jürg Utzinger
BACKGROUND: Failure in detecting naturally occurring breeding sites of Aedes mosquitoes can bias the conclusions drawn from field studies, and hence, negatively affect intervention outcomes. We characterized the habitats of immature Aedes mosquitoes and explored species dynamics along a rural-to-urban gradient in a West Africa setting where yellow fever and dengue co-exist. METHODOLOGY: Between January 2013 and October 2014, we collected immature Aedes mosquitoes in water containers in rural, suburban, and urban areas of south-eastern Côte d'Ivoire, using standardized sampling procedures...
July 13, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701194/characterization-and-productivity-profiles-of-aedes-aegypti-l-breeding-habitats-across-rural-and-urban-landscapes-in-western-and-coastal-kenya
#15
Harun N Ngugi, Francis M Mutuku, Bryson A Ndenga, Peter S Musunzaji, Joel O Mbakaya, Peter Aswani, Lucy W Irungu, Dunstan Mukoko, John Vulule, Uriel Kitron, Angelle D LaBeaud
BACKGROUND: Aedes aegypti, the principal vector for dengue and other emerging arboviruses, breeds preferentially in various man-made and natural container habitats. In the absence of vaccine, epidemiological surveillance and vector control remain the best practices for preventing dengue outbreaks. Effective vector control depends on a good understanding of larval and adult vector ecology of which little is known in Kenya. In the current study, we sought to characterize breeding habitats and establish container productivity profiles of Ae...
July 12, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699559/aedes-aegypti-breeding-ecology-in-guerrero-cross-sectional-study-of-mosquito-breeding-sites-from-the-baseline-for-the-camino-verde-trial-in-mexico
#16
Arcadio Morales-Pérez, Elizabeth Nava-Aguilera, Alejandro Balanzar-Martínez, Antonio Juan Cortés-Guzmán, David Gasga-Salinas, Irma Esther Rodríguez-Ramos, Alba Meneses-Rentería, Sergio Paredes-Solís, José Legorreta-Soberanis, Felipe Gil Armendariz-Valle, Robert J Ledogar, Anne Cockcroft, Neil Andersson
BACKGROUND: Understanding the breeding patterns of Aedes aegypti in households and the factors associated with infestation are important for implementing vector control. The baseline survey of a cluster randomised controlled trial of community mobilisation for dengue prevention in Mexico and Nicaragua collected information about the containers that are the main breeding sites, identified possible actions to reduce breeding, and examined factors associated with household infestation. This paper describes findings from the Mexican arm of the baseline survey...
May 30, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693560/ecophysiological-characterization-and-molecular-differentiation-of-culex-pipiens-forms-diptera-culicidae-in-tunisia
#17
Marwa Beji, Adel Rhim, David Roiz, Ali Bouattour
BACKGROUND: The Culex pipiens complex (Diptera: Culicidae) includes the most widespread mosquito species in the world. Members of this complex are the primary enzootic and epidemic vectors of the West Nile virus (genus Flavivirus) in several countries. The two recognized forms of Cx. pipiens (Linnaeus, 1758) - pipiens and molestus - exhibit behavioral and physiological differences. Natural populations of Cx. pipiens were investigated in several sites in Tunisia to evaluate the ecophysiological and molecular characteristics of their forms...
July 10, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693109/spatial-and-temporal-distribution-of-urban-heat-islands
#18
Alexandre Rosa Dos Santos, Felício Santos de Oliveira, Aderbal Gomes da Silva, José Marinaldo Gleriani, Wantuelfer Gonçalves, Giselle Lemos Moreira, Felipe Gimenes Silva, Elvis Ricardo Figueira Branco, Marks Melo Moura, Rosane Gomes da Silva, Ronie Silva Juvanhol, Kaíse Barbosa de Souza, Carlos Antonio Alvares Soares Ribeiro, Vagner Tebaldi de Queiroz, Adilson Vidal Costa, Alexandre Simões Lorenzon, Getulio Fonseca Domingues, Gustavo Eduardo Marcatti, Nero Lemos Martins de Castro, Rafael Tassinari Resende, Duberli Elera Gonzales, Lucas Arthur de Almeida Telles, Thaisa Ribeiro Teixeira, Gleissy Mary Amaral Dino Alves Dos Santos, Pedro Henrique Santos Mota
The formation of an urban heat island (UHI) is one of the most common impacts of the urbanization process. To mitigate the effects of UHI, the planning of urban forests (e.g., creation of parks, forests and afforestation streets) has been the major tool applied in this context. Thus, the aim of this study is to evaluate the spatial and temporal distribution of heat islands in Vila Velha, ES, Brazil using the mono-window algorithm. The study followed these methodological steps: 1) mapping of urban green areas through a photointerpretation screen; 2) application of the mono-window algorithm to obtain the spatial and temporal patterns of land surface temperature (LST); 3) correlation between LST and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and normalized difference build-up index (NDBI); 4) application of ecological evaluation index...
July 5, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692834/using-national-ambient-air-quality-standards-for-fine-particulate-matter-to-assess-regional-wildland-fire-smoke-and-air-quality-management
#19
Don Schweizer, Ricardo Cisneros, Samuel Traina, Teamrat A Ghezzehei, Glenn Shaw
Wildland fire is an important ecological process in the California Sierra Nevada. Personal accounts from pre-20th century describe a much smokier environment than present day. The policy of suppression beginning in the early 20th century and climate change are contributing to increased megafires. We use a single particulate monitoring site at the wildland urban interface to explore impacts from prescribed, managed, and full suppression wildland fires from 2006 to 2015 producing a contextual assessment of smoke impacts over time at the landscape level...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689735/green-to-gray-silicon-valley-of-india
#20
H A Bharath, S Vinay, M C Chandan, B A Gouri, T V Ramachandra
Rapid growth, population concentration and the expansion of urban areas towards peri-urban regions have led to changes in urban structure and composition, and consequently changes in urban ecology. The purpose of this study is to estimate trees in the urban environment through quantification of vegetation cover using multi resolution spatial data supplemented with tree data acquired from field using pre-calibrated GPS. Optimal resolution for extracting trees was attained through fusion of multi resolution (spectral and spatial) data...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
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