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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520816/high-prevalence-of-elevated-blood-lead-levels-in-both-rural-and-urban-iowa-newborns-spatial-patterns-and-area-level-covariates
#1
Margaret Carrel, David Zahrieh, Sean G Young, Jacob Oleson, Kelli K Ryckman, Brian Wels, Donald L Simmons, Audrey Saftlas
Lead in maternal blood can cross the placenta and result in elevated blood lead levels in newborns, potentially producing negative effects on neurocognitive function, particularly if combined with childhood lead exposure. Little research exists, however, into the burden of elevated blood lead levels in newborns, or the places and populations in which elevated lead levels are observed in newborns, particularly in rural settings. Using ~2300 dried bloods spots collected within 1-3 days of birth among Iowa newborns, linked with the area of mother's residence at the time of birth, we examine the spatial patterns of elevated (>5 μg/dL) blood lead levels and the ecological-level predictors of elevated blood lead levels...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516349/anthropogenic-activities-and-coastal-environmental-quality-a-regional-quantitative-analysis-in-southeast-china-with-management-implications
#2
Kai Chen, Yan Liu, Dongren Huang, Hongwei Ke, Huorong Chen, Songbin Zhang, Shengyun Yang, Minggang Cai
Regional analysis of environmental issues has always been a hot topic in the field of sustainable development. Because the different levels of economic growth, urbanization, resource endowments, etc. in different regions generate apparently different ecological responses, a better description and comparison across different regions will provide more valuable implications for ecological improvement and policymaking. In this study, seven typical bays in southeast China that are a rapid developing area were selected to quantitatively analyze the relationship between socioeconomic development and coastal environmental quality...
May 17, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513764/vulnerability-to-the-transmission-of-human-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-a-brazilian-urban-area
#3
Celina Roma Sánchez de Toledo, Andréa Sobral de Almeida, Sergio Augusto de Miranda Chaves, Paulo Chagastelles Sabroza, Luciano Medeiros Toledo, Jefferson Pereira Caldas
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the determinants for the occurrence of human visceral leishmaniasis linked to the conditions of vulnerability. METHODS: This is an ecological study, whose spatial analysis unit was the Territorial Analysis Unit in Araguaína, State of Tocantins, Brazil, from 2007 to 2012. We have carried out an analysis of the sociodemographic and urban infrastructure situation of the municipality. Normalized primary indicators were calculated and used to construct the indicators of vulnerability of the social structure, household structure, and urban infrastructure...
May 15, 2017: Revista de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511940/comparative-efficacy-of-benthic-biotic-indices-in-assessing-the-ecological-quality-status-ecoqs-of-the-stressed-ulhas-estuary-india
#4
Jyoti Mulik, Soniya Sukumaran, Tatiparthi Srinivas, Tejal Vijapure
Ecostatus of Ulhas estuary, one of the most polluted estuaries along the industrialized and urbanized northwest coast of India, was evaluated by six widely accepted benthic indices viz. H'(log2), AMBI, M-AMBI, BENTIX, BOPA and BO2A to test their efficiency in a tropical setting. The mesohaline zone, which presented eutrophic conditions, was classified as 'bad' by all indices due to the azoic status. Despite significant correlations obtained between indices, there were discrepancies in the accurate level of EcoQS assigned to each station...
May 13, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510426/multivariate-analyses-of-phytoplankton-pigment-fluorescence-from-a-freshwater-river-network
#5
Ruchi Bhattacharya, Christopher L Osburn
Monitoring phytoplankton classes in river networks is critical to understand phytoplankton dynamics, and to predict the ecosystem response to changing land-use and seasons. Applicability of phytoplankton fluorescence as a quick and effective ecological monitoring approach is relatively unexplored in freshwater ecosystems. We used multivariate analyses of fluorescence from pigment extracted in 90 % acetone to assess the variability in phytoplankton classes, herbivory and organic matter quality in a freshwater river network...
May 16, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504431/the-mosquito-fauna-of-the-western-region-of-spain-with-emphasis-on-ecological-factors-and-the-characterization-of-culex-pipiens-forms
#6
Daniel Bravo-Barriga, Bruno Gomes, Antonio P G Almeida, Francisco J Serrano-Aguilera, Juan E Pérez-Martín, Rafael Calero-Bernal, David Reina, Eva Frontera, João Pinto
This study updates the diversity, distribution, and seasonal trends of mosquitoes in a western region of Spain, assesses ecological determinants of Culex pipiens s.l., and determines form composition of Cx. pipiens s.s. POPULATIONS: A total of 1,495 mosquitoes of 16 species was collected during 2012-2013, of which Cx. pipiens s.l. and Cx. theileri were the most abundant. Five new records for An. maculipennis s.s., Orthopodomyia pulcripalpis, Aedes (Ochlerotatus) punctor, Cx. europaeus, and Cx...
June 2017: Journal of Vector Ecology: Journal of the Society for Vector Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502046/adapting-the-vegetative-vigour-terrestrial-plant-test-for-assessing-ecotoxicity-of-aerosol-samples
#7
Nora Kováts, Eszter Horváth, Bettina Eck-Varanka, Eszter Csajbók, András Hoffer
Plants, being recognized to show high sensitivity to air pollution, have been long used to assess the ecological effects of airborne contaminants. However, many changes in vegetation are now generally attributed to atmospheric deposition of aerosol particles; the dose-effect relationships of this process are usually poorly known. In contrast to bioindication studies, ecotoxicological tests (or bioassays) are controlled and reproducible where ecological responses are determined quantitatively. In our study, the No...
May 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499591/chronic-exposure-to-dim-artificial-light-at-night-decreases-fecundity-and-adult-survival-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#8
L K McLay, M P Green, T M Jones
The presence of artificial light at night is expanding in geographical range and increasing in intensity to such an extent that species living in urban environments may never experience natural darkness. The negative ecological consequences of artificial night lighting have been identified in several key life history traits across multiple taxa (albeit with a strong vertebrate focus); comparable data for invertebrates is lacking. In this study, we explored the effect of chronic exposure to different night-time lighting intensities on growth, reproduction and survival in Drosophila melanogaster...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493911/long-term-fertilization-determines-different-metabolomic-profiles-and-responses-in-saplings-of-three-rainforest-tree-species-with-different-adult-canopy-position
#9
Albert Gargallo-Garriga, S Joseph Wright, Jordi Sardans, Míriam Pérez-Trujillo, Michal Oravec, Kristýna Večeřová, Otmar Urban, Marcos Fernández-Martínez, Teodor Parella, Josep Peñuelas
BACKGROUND: Tropical rainforests are frequently limited by soil nutrient availability. However, the response of the metabolic phenotypic plasticity of trees to an increase of soil nutrient availabilities is poorly understood. We expected that increases in the ability of a nutrient that limits some plant processes should be detected by corresponding changes in plant metabolome profile related to such processes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied the foliar metabolome of saplings of three abundant tree species in a 15 year field NPK fertilization experiment in a Panamanian rainforest...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493680/legacy-and-current-use-insecticides-in-agricultural-sediments-from-south-china-the-impact-of-application-pattern-on-the-occurrence-and-risk
#10
Yanli Wei, Huizhen Li, Junjie Zhang, Jingjing Xiong, Xiaoyi Yi, Jing You
Legacy and current-use insecticides were analyzed in sediments collected from a typical rice planting region in South China. Total concentrations of insecticides varied from 1.63 to 775 ng g-1 with mean and median values of 67.0 and 11.5 ng g-1, respectively. Pyrethroids predominated pesticide composition (31.7%), followed by organophosphates (23.0%) and fiproles (20.8%). Sediment risk analysis showed that pyrethroids, fiproles and abamectin posed significant risk to benthic invertebrates in one-third of sediments...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486645/neighborhood-and-depressive-symptoms-a-comparison-of-rural-and-urban-chinese-older-adults
#11
Yi Wang, Yu-Chih Chen, Huei-Wern Shen, Nancy Morrow-Howell
Background and Objectives: Individual stressors of depressive symptoms in old age are well identified, yet little is known about the neighborhood stressors of depressive symptoms. Guided by the ecological extension of the Pearlin's Stress Process Model, this study explores the rural and urban differences in neighborhood stressors of depressive symptoms among older adults in China. Research Design and Methods: Data came from two waves of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study, a nationally representative survey...
May 9, 2017: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482116/pollution-tolerant-invertebrates-enhance-greenhouse-gas-flux-in-urban-wetlands
#12
Andrew S Mehring, Perran L M Cook, Victor Evrard, Stanley B Grant, Lisa A Levin
One of the goals of urban ecology is to link community structure to ecosystem function in urban habitats. Pollution-tolerant wetland invertebrates have been shown to enhance greenhouse gas (GHG) flux in controlled laboratory experiments, suggesting that they may influence urban wetland roles as sources or sinks of GHG. However, it is unclear if their effects can be detected in highly variable conditions in a field setting. Here we use an extensive dataset on carbon dioxide (CO2 ), methane (CH4 ), and nitrous oxide (N2 O) flux in sediment cores (n = 103) collected from ten urban wetlands in Melbourne, Australia during summer and winter in order to test for invertebrate enhancement of GHG flux...
May 8, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481452/hepatitis-b-in-egypt-a-cross-sectional-analysis-of-prevalence-and-risk-factors-for-active-infection-from-a-nationwide-survey
#13
Sharif A Ismail, Diego F Cuadros, Lenka Benova
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: viral hepatitis is a major public health challenge in Egypt but little is known about the epidemiology of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, its geographical distribution, or risk factors for infection in the Egyptian context. This study addresses this deficit using data from a nationally-representative survey. METHODS: cross-sectional analysis of data gathered from men and women aged 15-59 in the Egypt Health Issues Survey (EHIS) 2015, including logistic regression to evaluate the contribution of different factors to risk of HBV infection...
May 8, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477238/identifying-societal-preferences-for-river-restoration-in-a-densely-populated-urban-environment-evidence-from-a-discrete-choice-experiment-in-central-brussels
#14
Wendy Y Chen, Inge Liekens, Steven Broekx
One of the major challenges facing river restoration in densely populated urban areas has been the disparity between the expectations of policy-makers and societal preferences. This study aimed to elicit public preferences and elucidate underlying sources of preference heterogeneity, using the Zenne River in central Brussels, Belgium, as a case study. A discrete choice experiment was administered to a representative sample of the Brussels population. Five attributes were specified, including water quality, ecological status, hydromorphological features of channels, recreational opportunities, and monetary cost...
May 5, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468022/from-conflict-and-misunderstanding-to-respect
#15
Ivan Cvitković
Sociologists of the 19(th) and the 20(th) centuries were tackling the relation between science and religion. A few models of these relations were offered, by which the monopoly over the truth by any one of those is crashed. Therefore, there are a few models but each is with lots of limitations. None is sufficient to explain the relation between the science and religion, but each contributes to certain extent to better understanding of those relations. Almost every one of the interpretations was under the influence of the social (particularly ideological and political) conditions in which they were emerging...
April 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467479/mechanistic-modeling-of-insecticide-risks-to-breeding-birds-in-north-american-agroecosystems
#16
Matthew Etterson, Kristina Garber, Edward Odenkirchen
Insecticide usage in the United States is ubiquitous in urban, suburban, and rural environments. There is accumulating evidence that insecticides adversely affect non-target wildlife species, including birds, causing mortality, reproductive impairment, and indirect effects through loss of prey base, and the type and magnitude of such effects differs by chemical class, or mode of action. In evaluating data for an insecticide registration application and for registration review, scientists at the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) assess the fate of the insecticide and the risk the insecticide poses to the environment and non-target wildlife...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451519/a-longitudinal-ecological-study-of-household-firearm-ownership-and-firearm-related-deaths-in-the-united-states-from-1999-through-2014-a-specific-focus-on-gender-race-and-geographic-variables
#17
David A Geier, Janet K Kern, Mark R Geier
Firearms have a longstanding tradition in the United States (US) and are viewed by many with iconic stature with regards to safety and personal freedom. Unfortunately, from a public health point of view, firearm-related deaths (FRDs) in the US have reached a crisis point with an estimated > 31,000 deaths and 74,000 nonfatal injuries resulting from firearms each year. This longitudinal ecological study analyzed variations in FRDs following firearm assaults (FAs) and law enforcement incidents involving a firearm (LEIF) in comparison to variations in household firearm ownership (HFO) among different geographic and demographic groups in the US from 1999 to 2014...
June 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446187/characterisation-of-the-natural-environment-quantitative-indicators-across-europe
#18
Graham Smith, Marta Cirach, Wim Swart, Audrius Dėdelė, Christopher Gidlow, Elise van Kempen, Hanneke Kruize, Regina Gražulevičienė, Mark J Nieuwenhuijsen
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization recognises the importance of natural environments for human health. Evidence for natural environment-health associations comes largely from single countries or regions, with varied approaches to measuring natural environment exposure. We present a standardised approach to measuring neighbourhood natural environment exposure in cities in different regions of Europe. METHODS: The Positive Health Effects of the Natural Outdoor environment in TYPical populations of different regions in Europe (PHENOTYPE) study aimed to explore the mechanisms linking natural environment exposure and health in four European cities (Barcelona, Spain; Doetinchem, the Netherlands; Kaunas, Lithuania; and Stoke-on-Trent, UK)...
April 26, 2017: International Journal of Health Geographics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445642/predictive-power-of-clean-bed-filtration-theory-for-fecal-indicator-bacteria-removal-in-stormwater-biofilters
#19
Emily A Parker, Megan A Rippy, Andrew S Mehring, Brandon K Winfrey, Richard F Ambrose, Lisa A Levin, Stanley B Grant
Green infrastructure (also referred to as low impact development, or LID) has the potential to transform urban stormwater runoff from an environmental threat to a valuable water resource. In this paper we focus on the removal of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB, a pollutant responsible for runoff-associated inland and coastal beach closures) in stormwater biofilters (a common type of green infrastructure). Drawing on a combination of previously published and new laboratory studies of FIB removal in biofilters, we find that 66% of the variance in FIB removal rates can be explained by clean bed filtration theory (CBFT, 31%), antecedent dry period (14%), study effect (8%), biofilter age (7%), and the presence or absence of shrubs (6%)...
May 8, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444516/trap-nesting-hymenoptera-and-their-network-with-parasites-in-recovered-riparian-forests-brazil
#20
G J Araujo, R Fagundes, Y Antonini
Different aspects of human activities can cause environmental change that endanger species persistence, alter species distributions, and lead to changes in antagonistic and mutualistic interactions, whereas deforestation and flooding of riparian forest results in landscapes consisting of patchily distributed riparian forest fragments in a matrix of pastures, plantations, and urban areas. Therefore, we assessed the richness, abundance, and trophic interactions of trap-nesting Hymenoptera and their parasites at four patches of restored riparian forest and at one reference natural fragment, of different sizes and ages, located at the Volta Grande Reservoir, in Minas Gerais and São Paulo states to answer the following questions: (1) Does the richness and abundance of cavity-nesting bees and wasps differ in riparian forest fragments according to the seasonal periods? (2) Does the composition of cavity-nesting bees and wasps vary among restoration and reference sites and between climate seasons (wet and dry)? (3) How do the degrees of specialization of the parasites vary among the patches of forest? We recorded 12 species of wasps, eight of bees, and nine species of parasites...
April 25, 2017: Neotropical Entomology
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