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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933153/improving-pneumococcal-vaccination-rates-of-medical-inpatients-in-urban-nepal-using-quality-improvement-measures
#1
Allison Bock, Kathan Chintamaneni, Lisa Rein, Tifany Frazer, Gyan Kayastha, Theodore MacKinney
Streptococcus pneumoniae infection is associated with high morbidity and mortality in low income countries. In Nepal, there is a high lung disease burden and incidence of pneumonia due to multiple factors including indoor air pollution, dust exposure, recurrent infections, and cigarette smoking. Despite the ready availability of effective pneumococcal vaccines (PNV), vaccine coverage rates remain suboptimal globally. Quality Improvement (QI) principles could be applied to improve compliance, but it is a virtually new technology in Nepal...
2016: BMJ Quality Improvement Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931927/owned-dog-ecology-and-demography-in-villa-de-tezontepec-hidalgo-mexico
#2
Luz Maria Kisiel, Andria Jones-Bitton, Jan M Sargeant, Jason B Coe, D T Tyler Flockhart, Alejandro Reynoso Palomar, Erick J Canales Vargas, Amy L Greer
Dog overpopulation in developing countries has negative implications for the health and safety of people, including the transmission of zoonotic diseases, physical attacks and intimidation to humans and animals, as well as impacts on canine welfare. Understanding the ecology and demographic characteristics of a dog population can help in the planning and monitoring of canine population control programs. Little data exist regarding demography and dynamics of domestic dog populations in semi-urban areas in Mexico...
December 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930659/bee-inspired-novel-optimization-algorithm-and-mathematical-model-for-effective-and-efficient-route-planning-in-railway-system
#3
Kah Huo Leong, Hamzah Abdul-Rahman, Chen Wang, Chiu Chuen Onn, Siaw-Chuing Loo
Railway and metro transport systems (RS) are becoming one of the popular choices of transportation among people, especially those who live in urban cities. Urbanization and increasing population due to rapid development of economy in many cities are leading to a bigger demand for urban rail transit. Despite being a popular variant of Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP), it appears that the universal formula or techniques to solve the problem are yet to be found. This paper aims to develop an optimization algorithm for optimum route selection to multiple destinations in RS before returning to the starting point...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926937/intensive-circulation-of-japanese-encephalitis-virus-in-peri-urban-sentinel-pigs-near-phnom-penh-cambodia
#4
Julien Cappelle, Veasna Duong, Long Pring, Lida Kong, Maud Yakovleff, Didot Budi Prasetyo, Borin Peng, Rithy Choeung, Raphaël Duboz, Sivuth Ong, San Sorn, Philippe Dussart, Arnaud Tarantola, Philippe Buchy, Véronique Chevalier
Despite the increased use of vaccination in several Asian countries, Japanese Encephalitis (JE) remains the most important cause of viral encephalitis in Asia in humans with an estimated 68,000 cases annually. Considered a rural disease occurring mainly in paddy-field dominated landscapes where pigs are amplifying hosts, JE may nevertheless circulate in a wider range of environment given the diversity of its potential hosts and vectors. The main objective of this study was to assess the intensity of JE transmission to pigs in a peri-urban environment in the outskirt of Phnom Penh, Cambodia...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924513/reproductive-health-service-utilization-and-social-determinants-among-married-female-rural-to-urban-migrants-in-two-metropolises-china
#5
Zhi-Yong Liu, Jiang Li, Yang Hong, Lan Yao
Reproductive health (RH) education and services of female migrants in China have become an important health issue. This research aimed to investigate the RH knowledge and utilization among married female migrants, and to explore the influencing factors from the perspectives of population and sociology. We conducted a cross-section survey in Shenzhen and Wuhan, China, using the purposive sampling method. A total of 1021 rural-to-urban married migrants were recruited, with 997 valid survey results obtained. A face-to-face structured questionnaire survey was used, with primary focus on knowledge of fertility, contraception, family planning policy and sexual transmitted diseases/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (STD/AIDs), and RH service utilization...
December 2016: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924107/newborn-healthcare-in-urban-india
#6
REVIEW
J Sharma, D Osrin, B Patil, S B Neogi, M Chauhan, R Khanna, R Kumar, V K Paul, S Zodpey
The rapid population growth in urban India has outpaced the municipal capacity to build essential infrastructures that make life in cities safe and healthy. Local and national governments alike are grappling with the challenges of urbanization with thousands migrating from villages to cities. Thus, urbanization in India has been accompanied by a concentration of poverty and urban public healthcare has emerged as one of the most pressing priorities facing our country. Newborn mortality rates in urban settings are lower than rural areas, early neonatal deaths account for greater proportion than late neonatal deaths...
December 2016: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919555/benefits-on-public-health-from-transport-related-greenhouse-gas-mitigation-policies-in-southeastern-european-cities
#7
D A Sarigiannis, P Kontoroupis, S Nikolaki, A Gotti, D Chapizanis, S Karakitsios
Climate change is a major environmental threat of our time. Cities have a significant impact on greenhouse gas emissions as most of the traffic, industry, commerce and more than 50% of world population is situated in urban areas. Southern Europe is a region that faces financial turmoil, enhanced migratory fluxes and climate change pressure. The case study of Thessaloniki is presented, one of the only two cities in Greece with established climate change action plans. The effects of feasible traffic policies in year 2020 are assessed and their potential health impact is compared to a business as usual scenario...
December 2, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917617/chronic-oedema-a-prevalent-health-care-problem-for-uk-health-services
#8
Christine J Moffatt, Vaughan Keeley, Peter J Franks, Anna Rich, Lorraine L Pinnington
Chronic oedema (CO) is a major clinical problem worldwide, which has many important secondary consequences for health, activity and participation. Effective treatment planning and organisation of services is dependent on an understanding of the condition and its epidemiology. This cross-sectional study was designed to estimate the point prevalence of CO within the health services of one UK urban population and to determine the proportions that have concurrent leg ulceration. Patients with CO in all anatomic sites were ascertained by health care professionals in one acute and one community hospital, all relevant outpatient and community nursing services, general practices and all nursing/residential homes in one urban catchment area (Derby City)...
December 4, 2016: International Wound Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917532/do-women-have-a-choice-care-providers-and-decision-makers-perspectives-on-barriers-to-access-of-health-services-for-birth-after-a-previous-cesarean
#9
Sarah Munro, Jude Kornelsen, Kitty Corbett, Elizabeth Wilcox, Nick Bansback, Patricia Janssen
BACKGROUND: Repeat cesarean delivery is the single largest contributor to the escalating cesarean rate worldwide. Approximately 80 percent of women with a past cesarean are candidates for vaginal birth after a cesarean (VBAC), but in Canada less than one-third plan VBAC. Emerging evidence suggests that these trends may be due in part to nonclinical factors, including care provider practice patterns and delays in access to surgical and anesthesia services. This study sought to explore maternity care providers' and decision makers' attitudes toward and experiences with providing and planning services for women with a previous cesarean...
December 5, 2016: Birth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914247/antenatal-depressive-symptoms-among-pregnant-women-evidence-from-a-southern-brazilian-population-based-cohort-study
#10
Carolina de Vargas Nunes Coll, Mariângela Freitas da Silveira, Diego Garcia Bassani, Elena Netsi, Fernando César Wehrmeister, Fernando César Barros, Alan Stein
BACKGROUND: Antenatal depression (AD) is a major public health issue but evidence regarding its prevalence and associated factors in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) is limited. The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence and identify risk factors for AD among Brazilian pregnant women. METHODS: All women living in the urban area of the city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil, with confirmed pregnancy and estimated delivery date in the year 2015, were invited to take part...
November 26, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913084/quality-of-communication-about-medicines-in-united-states-hospitals-a-national-retrospective-study
#11
Lauren Mullings, Jayashri Sankaranarayanan
BACKGROUND: Despite the benefits of improving transitions across care, literature is very limited on inpatient "Communication about Medicines" (ComMed) by staff across United States (U.S.) hospitals. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate ComMed quality variations by hospital characteristics. METHODS: In a cross-sectional, retrospective study of publicly available U.S. Medicare's Hospital Consumer Assessment of Health Care Plans Survey (HCAHPS) data (January 2013-September 2014), ComMed quality (high = above average/excellent vs...
October 26, 2016: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912135/attenuating-the-surface-urban-heat-island-within-the-local-thermal-zones-through-land-surface-modification
#12
Jiong Wang, Wanlu Ouyang
Inefficient mitigation of excessive heat is attributed to the discrepancy between the scope of climate research and conventional planning practice. This study approaches this problem at both domains. Generally, the study, on one hand, claims that the climate research of the temperature phenomenon should be at local scale, where implementation of planning and design strategies can be more feasible. On the other hand, the study suggests that the land surface factors should be organized into zones or patches, which conforms to the urban planning and design manner...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912134/uncertainties-in-mapping-forest-carbon-in-urban-ecosystems
#13
Gang Chen, Emre Ozelkan, Kunwar K Singh, Jun Zhou, Marilyn R Brown, Ross K Meentemeyer
Spatially explicit urban forest carbon estimation provides a baseline map for understanding the variation in forest vertical structure, informing sustainable forest management and urban planning. While high-resolution remote sensing has proven promising for carbon mapping in highly fragmented urban landscapes, data cost and availability are the major obstacle prohibiting accurate, consistent, and repeated measurement of forest carbon pools in cities. This study aims to evaluate the uncertainties of forest carbon estimation in response to the combined impacts of remote sensing data resolution and neighborhood spatial patterns in Charlotte, North Carolina...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909953/the-pe%C3%A3-alosa-principle-of-transportation-democracy-lessons-from-bogot%C3%A3-on-the-morality-of-urban-mobility
#14
Shane Epting
The mayor of Bogotá, Enrique Peñalosa strives to deliver transit services that promote social equity through bicycle lanes, improved sidewalks, and a world-famous Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) system, "TransMilenio." Through examining the principles that guide his planning, we can flesh out a starting point for socially just transit systems. While such measures can alleviate several harms that transit systems cause, they rest on an incomplete foundation due to their top-down nature. To amend this situation, the author argues for a restorative justice approach to transportation democracy, using examples from Peñalosa's mayoral tenure...
December 1, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909849/monitoring-contaminants-of-emerging-concern-from-tertiary-wastewater-treatment-plants-using-passive-sampling-modelled-with-performance-reference-compounds
#15
Tamanna Sultana, Craig Murray, M Ehsanul Hoque, Chris D Metcalfe
The Lake Simcoe watershed in Ontario, Canada is an important recreational area and a recharge zone for groundwater resources. Lake Simcoe is a relatively shallow lotic system that has been impacted by urban development, recreation, industry and agriculture. As part of a watershed management plan, six wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) located in this catchment basin were selected to measure the inputs of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) of wastewater origin. These WWTPs were recently upgraded to tertiary treatment for phosphorus removal...
December 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906041/implementation-of-the-better-2-program-a-qualitative-study-exploring-barriers-and-facilitators-of-a-novel-way-to-improve-chronic-disease-prevention-and-screening-in-primary-care
#16
Nicolette Sopcak, Carolina Aguilar, Mary Ann O'Brien, Candace Nykiforuk, Kris Aubrey-Bassler, Richard Cullen, Eva Grunfeld, Donna Patricia Manca
BACKGROUND: BETTER (Building on Existing Tools to Improve Chronic Disease Prevention and Screening in Primary Care) is a patient-based intervention to improve chronic disease prevention and screening (CDPS) for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, and associated lifestyle factors in patients aged 40 to 65. The key component of BETTER is a prevention practitioner (PP), a health care professional with specialized skills in CDPS who meets with patients to develop a personalized prevention prescription, using the BETTER toolkit and Brief Action Planning...
December 1, 2016: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899126/new-epidemiological-aspects-of-visceral-and-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-in-taza-morocco
#17
Maryam Hakkour, Asmae Hmamouch, Mohamed Mahmoud El Alem, Abdelkbir Rhalem, Fatima Amarir, Mohamed Touzani, Abderrahim Sadak, Hajiba Fellah, Faiza Sebti
BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis is considered among the main endemic diseases in Morocco. However, further knowledge about epidemiological aspects of this disease is needed in several provinces to plan control and preventive strategies to tackle the disease. The present study aims to determine the epidemiological aspect of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis in Taza Province from 2007-2014 and to identify the circulating species in this province. RESULTS: The temporal study from 2007 to 2014 showed that the number of cutaneous leishmaniasis cases increased since 2010...
November 29, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894015/examining-associations-between-area-level-spatial-measures-of-housing-with-selected-health-and-wellbeing-behaviours-and-outcomes-in-an-urban-context
#18
Hannah Badland, Sarah Foster, Rebecca Bentley, Carl Higgs, Rebecca Roberts, Christopher Pettit, Billie Giles-Corti
Adequate and affordable housing is a major social determinant of health; yet no work has attempted to conceptually map and spatially test area-level measures of housing with selected health and wellbeing outcomes. Sourcing data from 7,753 adults from Melbourne, Australia, we tested associations between area-level measures of housing density, tenure, and affordability with individual-level measures of neighbourhood safety, community satisfaction, and self-rated health. Compared with the reference groups, the odds of: feeling unsafe was higher for residents living in areas with less affordable housing; community dissatisfaction was ~30% higher in those living in areas with >36% residential properties assigned as rentals, and was significantly higher in the least affordable areas (OR =1...
November 25, 2016: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888922/thermal-sensation-prediction-by-soft-computing-methodology
#19
Srđan Jović, Nebojša Arsić, Jovana Vilimonović, Dalibor Petković
Thermal comfort in open urban areas is very factor based on environmental point of view. Therefore it is need to fulfill demands for suitable thermal comfort during urban planning and design. Thermal comfort can be modeled based on climatic parameters and other factors. The factors are variables and they are changed throughout the year and days. Therefore there is need to establish an algorithm for thermal comfort prediction according to the input variables. The prediction results could be used for planning of time of usage of urban areas...
December 2016: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888423/assessment-of-land-use-and-land-cover-change-using-spatiotemporal-analysis-of-landscape-case-study-in-south-of-tehran
#20
Abutaleb Sabr, Mazaher Moeinaddini, Hossein Azarnivand, Benjamin Guinot
In the recent years, dust storms originating from local abandoned agricultural lands have increasingly impacted Tehran and Karaj air quality. Designing and implementing mitigation plans are necessary to study land use/land cover change (LUCC). Land use/cover classification is particularly relevant in arid areas. This study aimed to map land use/cover by pixel- and object-based image classification methods, analyse landscape fragmentation and determine the effects of two different classification methods on landscape metrics...
December 0: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
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