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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088225/using-low-cost-drones-to-map-malaria-vector-habitats
#1
Andy Hardy, Makame Makame, Dónall Cross, Silas Majambere, Mwinyi Msellem
BACKGROUND: There is a growing awareness that if we are to achieve the ambitious goal of malaria elimination, we must compliment indoor-based vector control interventions (such as bednets and indoor spraying) with outdoor-based interventions such as larval source management (LSM). The effectiveness of LSM is limited by our capacity to identify and map mosquito aquatic habitats. This study provides a proof of concept for the use of a low-cost (< $1000) drone (DJI Phantom) for mapping water bodies in seven sites across Zanzibar including natural water bodies, irrigated and non-irrigated rice paddies, peri-urban and urban locations...
January 14, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088198/does-equity-in-healthcare-spending-exist-among-indian-states-explaining-regional-variations-from-national-sample-survey-data
#2
Rinshu Dwivedi, Jalandhar Pradhan
BACKGROUND: Equity and justice in healthcare payment form an integral part of health policy and planning. In the majority of low and middle-income countries (LMICs), healthcare inequalities are further aggravated by Out of Pocket Expenditure (OOPE). This paper examines the pattern of health equity and regional disparities in healthcare spending among Indian states by applying Andersen's behavioural model of healthcare utilization. METHODS: The present study uses data from the 66(th) quinquennial round of Consumer Expenditure Survey, of the National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO), conducted in 2009-10 by Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (MoSPI), Government of India (GoI)...
January 14, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088011/particulates-and-noise-exposure-during-bicycle-bus-and-car-commuting-a-study-in-three-european-cities
#3
Enembe O Okokon, Tarja Yli-Tuomi, Anu W Turunen, Pekka Taimisto, Arto Pennanen, Ilias Vouitsis, Zissis Samaras, Marita Voogt, Menno Keuken, Timo Lanki
BACKGROUND: In order to curb traffic-related air pollution and its impact on the physical environment, contemporary city commuters are encouraged to shift from private car use to active or public transport modes. However, personal exposures to particulate matter (PM), black carbon and noise during commuting may be substantial. Therefore, studies comparing exposures during recommended modes of transport versus car trips are needed. METHODS: We measured personal exposure to various-sized particulates, soot, and noise during commuting by bicycle, bus and car in three European cities: Helsinki in Finland, Rotterdam in the Netherlands and Thessaloniki in Greece using portable monitoring devices...
January 11, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086971/characteristics-and-use-of-urban-health-indicator-tools-by-municipal-built-environment-policy-and-decision-makers-a-systematic-review-protocol
#4
Helen Pineo, Ketevan Glonti, Harry Rutter, Nicole Zimmermann, Paul Wilkinson, Michael Davies
BACKGROUND: There is wide agreement that there is a lack of attention to health in municipal environmental policy-making, such as urban planning and regeneration. Explanations for this include differing professional norms between health and urban environment professionals, system complexity and limited evidence for causality between attributes of the built environment and health outcomes. Data from urban health indicator (UHI) tools are potentially a valuable form of evidence for local government policy and decision-makers...
January 13, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079646/public-health-agency-accreditation-among-rural-local-health-departments-influencers-and-barriers
#5
Kate E Beatty, Paul Campbell Erwin, Ross C Brownson, Michael Meit, James Fey
OBJECTIVE: Health department accreditation is a crucial strategy for strengthening public health infrastructure. The purpose of this study was to investigate local health department (LHD) characteristics that are associated with accreditation-seeking behavior. This study sought to ascertain the effects of rurality on the likelihood of seeking accreditation through the Public Health Accreditation Board (PHAB). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study using secondary data from the 2013 National Association of County & City Health Officials (NACCHO) National Profile of Local Health Departments Study (Profile Study)...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077097/what-patients-really-think-about-asthma-guidelines-barriers-to-guideline-implementation-from-the-patients-perspective
#6
H Lingner, B Burger, P Kardos, C P Criée, H Worth, E Hummers-Pradier
BACKGROUND: Treatment of asthma does not always comply with asthma guidelines (AG). This may be rooted in direct or indirect resistance on the doctors' and/or patients' side or be caused by the healthcare system. To assess whether patients' concepts and attitudes are really an implementation barrier for AG, we analysed the patients' perspective of a "good asthma therapy" and contrasted their wishes with current recommendations. METHODS: Using a qualitative exploratory design, topic centred focus group (FG) discussions were performed until theoretical saturation was reached...
January 11, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076659/an-empirical-agent-based-model-to-simulate-the-adoption-of-water-reuse-using-the-social-amplification-of-risk-framework
#7
Venu Kandiah, Andrew R Binder, Emily Z Berglund
Water reuse can serve as a sustainable alternative water source for urban areas. However, the successful implementation of large-scale water reuse projects depends on community acceptance. Because of the negative perceptions that are traditionally associated with reclaimed water, water reuse is often not considered in the development of urban water management plans. This study develops a simulation model for understanding community opinion dynamics surrounding the issue of water reuse, and how individual perceptions evolve within that context, which can help in the planning and decision-making process...
January 11, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076541/private-health-care-coverage-in-the-brazilian-population-according-to-the-2013-brazilian-national-health-survey
#8
Deborah Carvalho Malta, Sheila Rizzato Stopa, Cimar Azeredo Pereira, Célia Landmann Szwarcwald, Martha Oliveira, Arthur Chioro Dos Reis
This study aims to present the percentages of the Brazilian population holding health insurance plans, itemized by social-demographic characteristics, based on the data of the National Health Survey carried out in 2013, and to compare this information with the administrative data of the National Supplementary Health Agency for the same year. Data from the National Health Survey, and from the Beneficiaries Information System of the National Health Agency for the year 2013, were used. The percentage of people having a health plan was described according to stratification for: all of Brazil, urban/rural, Brazilian official Regions, Brazilian States and state capitals, gender, age group, level of schooling, position in the workforce, ethnic classification, and self-assessed state of health...
January 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076320/solid-waste-management-in-thailand-an-overview-and-case-study-tha-khon-yang-sub-district
#9
Nachalida Yukalang, Beverley Dawn Clarke, Kirstin Elizabeth Ross
Due to rapid urbanization, solid waste management (SWM) has become a significant issue in several developing countries including Thailand. Policies implemented by the Central Thai Government to manage SWM issues have had only limited success. This article reviews current municipal waste management plans in Thailand and examines municipal waste management at the local level, with focus on the Tha Khon Yang sub-district surrounding Mahasarakham University in Mahasarakham Province. Within two decades this area has been converted from a rural to an urban landscape featuring accommodation for over 45,000 university students and a range of business facilities...
January 11, 2017: Reviews on Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074402/riparian-rehabilitation-planning-in-an-urban-rural-gradient-integrating-social-needs-and-ecological-conditions
#10
Bárbara Guida-Johnson, Gustavo A Zuleta
In the present context of global change and search for sustainability, we detected a gap between restoration and society: local communities are usually only considered as threats or disturbances when planning for restoration. To bridge this gap, we propose a landscape design framework for planning riparian rehabilitation in an urban-rural gradient. A spatial multi-criteria analysis was used to assess the priority of riversides by considering two rehabilitation objectives simultaneously-socio-environmental and ecological-and two sets of criteria were designed according to these objectives...
January 10, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068411/projected-impacts-of-climate-urbanization-water-management-and-wetland-restoration-on-waterbird-habitat-in-california-s-central-valley
#11
Elliott L Matchett, Joseph P Fleskes
The Central Valley of California is one of the most important regions for wintering waterbirds in North America despite extensive anthropogenic landscape modification and decline of historical wetlands there. Like many other mediterranean-climate ecosystems across the globe, the Central Valley has been subject to a burgeoning human population and expansion and intensification of agricultural and urban development that have impacted wildlife habitats. Future effects of urban development, changes in water supply management, and precipitation and air temperature related to global climate change on area of waterbird habitat in the Central Valley are uncertain, yet potentially substantial...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065964/future-priorities-of-interns-in-public-and-private-tertiary-care-hospitals-of-a-mega-city-in-a-developing-country
#12
Shiraz Shaikh, Munnaza Obaid, Sobia Memon, Kulsoom Shaikh, Hafsa Siddiqui
OBJECTIVE: To determine the future priorities of young medical doctors in tertiary care hospitals in a major urban centre. METHODS: This multi-centre cross-sectional study was conducted at four tertiary care hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan, from January to June 2015, and comprised medical interns. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted. The participants were inquired about their demographics, preferred places and hospitals for training in the future and reason for their choices...
January 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065195/programming-maternal-and-child-overweight-and-obesity-in-the-context-of-undernutrition-current-evidence-and-key-considerations-for-low-and-middle-income-countries
#13
Lindsay M Jaacks, Justine Kavle, Abigail Perry, Albertha Nyaku
The goals of the present targeted review on maternal and child overweight and obesity were to: (i) understand the current situation in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) with regard to recent trends and context-specific risk factors; and (ii) building off this, identify entry points for leveraging existing undernutrition programmes to address overweight and obesity in LMIC. Trends reveal that overweight and obesity are a growing problem among women and children in LMIC; as in Ghana, Kenya, Niger, Sierra Leone, Tanzania and Zimbabwe, where the prevalence among urban women is approaching 50 %...
January 9, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064035/a-ranking-system-for-prescribed-burn-prioritization-in-table%C3%A2-mountain-national-park-south-africa
#14
Carly Ruth Cowell, Chad Cheney
To aid prescribed burn decision making in Table Mountain National Park, in South Africa a priority ranking system was tested. Historically a wildfire suppression strategy was adopted due to wildfires threatening urban areas close to the park, with few prescribed burns conducted. A large percentage of vegetation across the park exceeded the ecological threshold of 15 years. We held a multidisciplinary workshop, to prioritize areas for prescribed burning. Fire Management Blocks were mapped and assessed using the following seven categories: (1) ecological, (2) management, (3) tourism, (4) infrastructure, (5) invasive alien vegetation, (6) wildland-urban interface and (7) heritage...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063850/patient-education-about-the-affordable-care-act-contraceptive-coverage-requirement-increases-interest-in-using-long-acting-reversible-contraception
#15
Julia C Durante, Elisabeth J Woodhams
BACKGROUND: The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) requires health insurance to cover all Food and Drug Administration-approved contraceptives at no cost to patients, including highly effective long-acting reversible contraception (LARC). Our objective was to determine whether a brief educational intervention about these provisions would increase interest in LARC use. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional survey of women seeking contraceptive care in an urban outpatient obstetrics/gynecology clinic...
January 4, 2017: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060140/gynecologic-oncologist-views-influencing-referral-to-outpatient-specialty-palliative-care
#16
Casey M Hay, Carolyn Lefkowits, Megan Crowley-Matoka, Marie A Bakitas, Leslie H Clark, Linda R Duska, Renata R Urban, Lee-May Chen, Stephanie L Creasy, Yael Schenker
OBJECTIVE: Early specialty palliative care is underused for patients with advanced gynecologic malignancies. We sought to understand how gynecologic oncologists' views influence outpatient specialty palliative care referral to help inform strategies for improvement. METHODS/MATERIALS: We conducted a qualitative interview study at 6 National Cancer Institute-designated cancer centers with well-established outpatient palliative care services. Between September 2015 and March 2016, 34 gynecologic oncologists participated in semistructured telephone interviews focused on attitudes, experiences, and preferences related to outpatient specialty palliative care...
January 4, 2017: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056140/benefits-and-limitations-of-entry-level-3-dimensional-printing-of-maxillofacial-skeletal-models
#17
Alex T Legocki, Andrew Duffy-Peter, Andrew R Scott
Importance: A protocol for creating exceptionally low-cost 3-dimensional (3-D) maxillofacial skeletal models does not require proficiency with computer software or intensive labor. Small and less affluent centers can produce models with little loss in accuracy and clinical utility. Objectives: To highlight the feasibility and methods of introducing in-house, entry-level additive manufacturing (3-D printing) technology to otolaryngologic craniofacial reconstruction and to describe its clinical applications and limitations, including a comparison with available vendor models...
January 5, 2017: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053222/improving-exclusive-breastfeeding-in-an-urban-academic-hospital
#18
Laura P Ward, Susan Williamson, Stephanie Burke, Ruby Crawford-Hemphill, Amy M Thompson
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Breastfeeding has many well-established health benefits for infants and mothers. There is greater risk reduction in health outcomes with exclusive breastfeeding (EBF). Our urban academic facility has had long-standing low EBF rates, serving a population with breastfeeding disparities. We sought to improve EBF rates through a Learning Collaborative model by participating in the Best Fed Beginnings project. METHODS: Formal improvement science methods were used, including the development of a key driver diagram and plan-do-study-act cycles...
January 4, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052212/caries-prevalence-in-korean-children-and-adolescents-from-2000-to-2012
#19
Ah-Hyeon Kim, Youn-Soo Shim, Jong-Bin Kim, So-Youn An
OBJECTIVES: National oral health data is required to assess a population's oral health needs, monitor oral health, plan effective intervention community programs and health policies, and evaluate progress toward health objectives. The study aimed to estimate the prevalence, severity, and inequality in dental caries distribution among Korean young people. STUDY DESIGN: Trained, calibrated examiners at the Korea Ministry of Health & Welfare conducted epidemiological surveys in 2000, 2006, and 2012 during which dental caries were assessed according to World Health Organization (WHO) diagnostic criteria...
2017: Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051366/mapping-of-malaria-vectors-at-district-level-in-india-changing-scenario-and-identified-gaps
#20
Poonam Singh, Mercy Aparna L Lingala, Soma Sarkar, Ramesh C Dhiman
Malaria is one of the six major vector-borne diseases in India, the endemicity of which changes with changes in ecological, climatic, and sociodevelopmental conditions. The anopheline vectors are greatly affected by ecological conditions such as deforestation, urbanization, climate and lifestyle. Despite the advent of tools such as Geographic Information System (GIS), the updated information on the distribution of anopheline vectors of malaria is not available. In India, the plan for vector control is organized at subcentral level but information about vectors is unavailable even at the district level...
January 4, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
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