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Urban planning

Jenny Q Ouyang, Scott Davies, Davide Dominoni
Alternation between day and night is a predictable environmental fluctuation that organisms use to time their activities. Since the invention of artificial lighting, this predictability has been disrupted and continues to change in a unidirectional fashion with increasing urbanization. As hormones mediate individual responses to changing environments, endocrine systems might be one of the first systems affected, as well as being the first line of defense to ameliorate any negative health impacts. In this Review, we first highlight how light can influence endocrine function in vertebrates...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Ashley H Snyder, Carol S Weisman, Guodong Liu, Douglas Leslie, Cynthia H Chuang
OBJECTIVES: The Affordable Care Act (ACA) contraceptive coverage mandate issued in August 2012 requires most private health insurance plans to cover all U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved contraceptive methods without cost sharing. We evaluate the impact of this policy on out-of-pocket costs and use of long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) and other prescription methods through 2014. METHODS: Data from Truven Health MarketScan were used to examine out-of-pocket costs and contraceptive use patterns for all reversible prescription contraceptives before and after the implementation of the contraceptive mandate for privately insured women ages 13 to 45...
March 2, 2018: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
Marguerite A Renouf, Steven J Kenway, Ka Leung Lam, Tony Weber, Estelle Roux, Silvia Serrao-Neumann, Darryl Low Choy, Edward A Morgan
Water sensitive interventions are being promoted to reduce the adverse impacts of urban development on natural water cycles. However it is currently difficult to know the best strategy for their implementation because current and desired urban water performance is not well quantified. This is particularly at the city-region scale, which is important for strategic urban planning. This work aimed to fill this gap by quantifying the water performance of urban systems within city-regions using 'urban water metabolism' evaluation, to inform decisions about water sensitive interventions...
February 8, 2018: Water Research
Monica Guo, Kathleen O'Connor Duffany, Fatma M Shebl, Alycia Santilli, Danya E Keene
Perceptions of neighborhood safety shape the well-being of individuals and communities, affecting neighborhood walkability, associated physical activity behaviors, and health conditions. However, less is known about the factors that determine perceptions of safety. One factor that may affect perceptions of neighborhood safety is the length of time someone has lived in their neighborhood. We use a representative, adult sample of urban low-income residents from the 2015 New Haven Health Survey (n = 1189) to investigate the associations between length of residence (new residents of < 1 year in neighborhood versus longer-term residents of 1 or more years in neighborhood) and perceptions of neighborhood safety (whether feeling unsafe to walk at night)...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
J C Stagnaro, A H Cia, H Vommaro, S Sustas, N Vázquez, E Serfaty, R C Kessler, C Benjet
AIMS: While there are effective treatments for psychiatric disorders, many individuals with such disorders do not receive treatment and those that do often take years to get into treatment. Information regarding treatment contact failure and delay in Argentina is needed to guide public health policy and planning. Therefore, this study aimed to provide data on prompt treatment contact, lifetime treatment contact, median duration of treatment delays and socio-demographic predictors of treatment contact after the first onset of a mental disorder...
March 15, 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
Mikko Kärmeniemi, Tiina Lankila, Tiina Ikäheimo, Heli Koivumaa-Honkanen, Raija Korpelainen
Background: Physical inactivity is a global problem that increases the risk of many chronic diseases and shortens life expectancy. The built environment contributes to physical inactivity through accessibility of amenities and transportation patterns. With better urban planning, cities could be designed to enhance active transportation and population health on a permanent basis. Purpose: We conducted a systematic review to identify determinants of the built environment associated with physical activity and to evaluate how changes in the built environment are associated with changes in physical activity...
February 17, 2018: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
Anastacia Southland, Seana Dowling-Guyer, Emily McCobb
This study investigated the visitor experience at one urban animal shelter. While several previous studies have examined the reasons particular nonhuman animals are chosen by adopters, few have investigated the possible reasons one would visit a shelter and leave without adopting. Over a two-month period, 158 visitors were surveyed after they were finished touring the shelter. One quarter of those exiting the shelter had adopted a pet (companion animal) compared to 11% who had been planning to adopt that day but did not...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Jung-Hwa Ha, Gavin W Hougham, David O Meltzer
OBJECTIVES: To examine the prevalence of social isolation among older patients admitted to a hospital, and the effects of sociodemographic and health-related factors on the availability of their family, friends, and neighbor networks. METHODS: Analyses are based on interviews with a sample of 2,449 older patients admitted to an urban academic medical center in the United States. A nine-item version of Lubben's Social Network Scale was developed and used to assess the availability of different social networks...
March 2, 2018: Clinical Gerontologist
M Brouri, N Ouadahi, D Nibouche, Y Benabbas, M El Hassar, S Bouraoui, N Abad, P C Abreu, L Ikardouchene
OBJECTIVES: This cross-sectional epidemiological study aimed at determining the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF; including obesity, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, diabetes and smoking), among patients from the Algerian sub-population of the "Africa/Middle East Cardiovascular Epidemiological" study attending general practitioners at primary healthcare facilities, and stratified according to their environment (rural/urban), sex and age. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study sites, located in 10 wilayas (administrative regions), were situated in urban and rural areas (rural populations defined as living at least 50km away from urban centres, or lacking access to suburban transport)...
March 9, 2018: Annales de Cardiologie et D'angéiologie
Katy B Kozhimannil, Peiyin Hung, Carrie Henning-Smith, Michelle M Casey, Shailendra Prasad
Importance: Hospital-based obstetric services have decreased in rural US counties, but whether this has been associated with changes in birth location and outcomes is unknown. Objective: To examine the relationship between loss of hospital-based obstetric services and location of childbirth and birth outcomes in rural counties. Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective cohort study, using county-level regression models in an annual interrupted time series approach...
March 8, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Oluwatomilayo O Daodu, Julia O'Keefe, John A Heine
BACKGROUND: The ideal management for fistula-in-ano would resolve the disease while preserving anal continence. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of draining seton alone in achieving resolution or significant amelioration of symptoms for patients with fistula-in-ano. DESIGN: This was a retrospective case series involving chart review and telephone interviews. A single colorectal surgeon performed surgeries between June 1, 2005, and June 30, 2014...
April 2018: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
Judy Keefe, Kathy Cern, Sharon Wiita, Amy Raubenolt, Elizabeth Atkins
Disaster preparedness has come to the forefront for hospitals since the 9/11 attacks in 2001. Many improvements have been made in emergency management and planning for catastrophic events. Both urban and community hospitals have the same responsibilities and commitments to their patients and communities. When the announcement was made that the 2016 Republican National Convention was going to be held in Cleveland, OH, Cleveland Clinic Akron General (CCAG) had to be confident in its abilities to handle any situation that might arise not just as a community hospital but also as a Level I trauma center...
March 2018: Journal of Trauma Nursing: the Official Journal of the Society of Trauma Nurses
Robert Micieli, Raed Alhusayen
BACKGROUND: Changes in the practice patterns and demographics of Canadian dermatologists remain largely unknown and would be helpful in assessing the future practice of dermatology across Canada. OBJECTIVE: To assess changes in the population of Ontario dermatologists over time and the factors that influence their practice patterns, caseload, and the procedures they perform. METHODS: A retrospective population-based analysis was performed using comprehensive administrative data on Ontario Health Insurance Plan insured dermatology visits and procedures from April 1, 2009, to March 31, 2015...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery
Poh-Chin Lai, Si Chen, Chien-Tat Low, Ester Cerin, Robert Stimson, Pui Yun Paulina Wong
Compact cities and their urban forms have implications on sustainable city development because of high density urban settlement, increased accessibility, and a balanced land use mix. This paper uses quantitative means of understanding urban morphological characteristics with reference to the differing qualities of the urban form (i.e., street patterns, building volumes, land uses and greenery). The results, based on 89 neighborhood communities of Hong Kong, show varying degrees of regional differences in the urban built form supported by numerical statistics and graphical illustrations...
March 7, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Marinella Palmiotto, Sara Castiglioni, Ettore Zuccato, Angela Manenti, Francesco Riva, Enrico Davoli
The use and discharge of personal care products (PCPs) result in their presence in the aquatic environment. This study investigates the occurrence and fate of some PCPs in wastewater, surface and groundwater in an urbanized area in the North of Italy. We investigated four UV filters: phenylbenzimidazole sulfonic acid (PBSA), benzophenone-3 (BP3), benzophenone-4 (BP4) and 4 methyl-benzilidine-camphor (4-MBC), and two antibacterial agents: triclosan (TCS) and triclocarban (TCC). BP3, BP4 and PBSA were detected in all WWTPs and concentrations ranged 27-822 ng/L (BP4 > PBSA > BP3)...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Joy Ebonwu, Alexandra Mumbauer, Margot Uys, Milton L Wainberg, Andrew Medina-Marino
OBJECTIVE: To investigate and compare determinates for delayed first presentation to antenatal care (ANC) services. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted amongst pregnant women attending their first ANC visit in rural Capricorn District and peri-urban Tlokwe sub-district communities in South Africa. Data collection included questionnaires and medical record abstraction. Bivariate and multivariate analyses assessed factors associated with late ANC presentation...
2018: PloS One
Amy Tyberg, Isaac Raijman, Ali Siddiqui, Urban Arnelo, Douglas G Adler, Ming-Ming Xu, Najib Nassani, Divyesh V Sejpal, Prashant Kedia, Yun Nah Lee, Frank G Gress, Sammy Ho, Monica Gaidhane, Michel Kahaleh
INTRODUCTION: In patients with pancreaticobiliary lesions anticipating surgical resection, digital pancreaticocholangioscopy can be used to identify the extent of disease. This presurgical"mapping" could change the surgical plan and optimize patient care. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with pancreaticobiliary lesions anticipating surgery who underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography with digital pancreaticocholangioscopy from 9 international centers were included...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Taty Tshimangani, Jean Pongo, Joseph Bodi Mabiala, Marcel Yotebieng, Nicole F O'Brien
Empirical knowledge suggests that acute neurologic disorders are common in sub-Saharan Africa, but studies examining the true burden of these diseases in children are scarce. We performed this prospective, observational study to evaluate the prevalence, clinical characteristics, treatment approaches, and outcomes of children suffering acute neurologic illness or injury (ANI) in an urban and rural site in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Over 12 months, 471 out of 6,563 children admitted met diagnostic criteria for ANI, giving a hospital-based prevalence of 72/1,000 admissions...
March 5, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Wendy A Davis, Kirsten E Peters, Ashley Makepeace, Shaye Griffiths, Christine Bundell, Struan F A Grant, Sian Ellard, Andrew T Hattersley, S A Paul Chubb, David G Bruce, Timothy Me Davis
BACKGROUND: Accurate diabetes prevalence estimates are important for health service planning and prioritisation. Available data have limitations, suggesting that the contemporary burden of diabetes in Australia is best assessed from multiple sources. AIMS: To use systematic active detection of diabetes cases in a postcode-defined urban area through the Fremantle Diabetes Study Phase II (FDS2) to complement other epidemiological and survey data in estimating the national prevalence of diabetes and its types...
March 7, 2018: Internal Medicine Journal
Fernanda Ewerling, Cesar G Victora, Anita Raj, Carolina V N Coll, Franciele Hellwig, Aluisio J D Barros
BACKGROUND: Family planning is key for reducing unintended pregnancies and their health consequences and is also associated with improvements in economic outcomes. Our objective was to identify groups of sexually active women with extremely low demand for family planning satisfied with modern methods (mDFPS) in low- and middle-income countries, at national and subnational levels to inform the improvement and expansion of programmatic efforts to narrow the gaps in mDFPS coverage. METHODS: Analyses were based on Demographic and Health Survey and Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey data...
March 6, 2018: Reproductive Health
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