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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040838/nutrient-sensing-and-metabolic-changes-after-methionine-deprivation-in-primary-muscle-cells-of-turbot-scophthalmus-maximus-l
#1
Haowen Jiang, Fuyun Bian, Huihui Zhou, Xuan Wang, Kaidi Wang, Kangsen Mai, Gen He
The low methionine content in plant-based diets is a major limiting factor for feed utilization by animals. However, the molecular consequences triggered by methionine deficiency have not been well characterized, especially in fish species, whose metabolism is unique in many aspects and important for aquaculture industry. In the present study, the primary muscle cells of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) were isolated and treated with or without methionine for 12 h in culture. The responses of nutrient sensing pathways, the proteomic profiling of metabolic processes, and the expressions of key metabolic molecules were systematically examined...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040823/urea-increased-nickel-and-copper-accumulation-in-the-leaves-of-egeria-densa-planch-casp-and-ceratophyllum-demersum-l-during-short-term-exposure
#2
Maria Maleva, Galina Borisova, Nadezhda Chukina, Adarsh Kumar
In the present study, two fresh water plant species Egeria densa (Planch.) Casp. and Ceratophyllum demersum L. were subjected to separate and combined action of urea (2mМ) and metals (Ni and Cu, 10μM) to investigate the phytoremediation potential of these two submerged macrophytes during short-term experiments (48h). Both submerged macrophytes demonstrated high accumulative potential for Ni and Cu (average bioconcentration factors were 2505 for Ni and 3778 for Cu). The urea (2 mM) was not significantly toxic for studied plant species...
October 14, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040806/bacterial-derived-carbohydrates-bind-cyr1-and-trigger-hyphal-growth-in-candida-albicans
#3
Jason Burch, Siavash Mashayekh, Dennis D Wykoff, Catherine Leimkuhler Grimes
The dimorphic yeast Candida albicans is the most common pathologic fungus found in humans. While this species is normally commensal, a morphological switch from budding yeast to filamentous hyphae allows the fungi to invade epithelial cells and cause infections. The phenotypic change is controlled by the adenylyl cyclase, Cyr1. Interestingly, this protein contains a leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain, which is commonly found in innate immune receptors from plants and animals. A functional and pure LRR domain was obtained in high yields from E...
October 17, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040767/contribution-of-the-s-type-anion-channel-slac1-to-stomatal-control-and-its-dependence-on-developmental-stage-in-rice
#4
Kensuke Kusumi, Ayana Hashimura, Yoshiko Yamamoto, Juntaro Negi, Koh Iba
Rice production depends on water availability and carbon fixation by photosynthesis. Therefore, optimal control of stomata, which regulate leaf transpiration and CO2 absorption, is important for high productivity. SLAC1 is an S-type anion channel protein that controls stomatal closure in response to elevated CO2. Rice slac1 mutants showed significantly increased stomatal conductance (gs) and enhanced CO2 assimilation. To discern the contribution of stomatal regulation to rice growth, we compared gs among wild-type (WT) and two mutants, slac1 and the dominant-positive mutant SLAC1-F461A, which expresses a point mutation causing an amino acid substitution (F461A) in SLAC1, at different growth stages...
October 5, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040752/expansion-of-the-dehydrin-gene-family-in-the-pinaceae-is-associated-with-considerable-structural-diversity-and-drought-responsive-expression
#5
Juliana Stival Sena, Isabelle Giguère, Philippe Rigault, Jean Bousquet, John Mackay
Temperatures are expected to increase over the next century in all terrestrial biomes and particularly in boreal forests, where drought-induced mortality has been predicted to rise. Genomics research is helping to develop hypotheses regarding the molecular basis of drought tolerance and recent work proposed that the osmo-protecting dehydrin proteins have undergone a clade-specific expansion in the Pinaceae, a major group of conifer trees. The objectives of this study were to identify all of the putative members of the gene family, trace their evolutionary origin, examine their structural diversity and test for drought-responsive expression...
October 13, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040741/identification-of-new-protein-protein-and-protein-dna-interactions-linked-with-wood-formation-in-populus-trichocarpa
#6
H Earl Petzold, Stephen B Rigoulot, Chengsong Zhao, Bidisha Chanda, Xiaoyan Sheng, Mingzhe Zhao, Xiaoyan Jia, Allan W Dickerman, Eric P Beers, Amy M Brunner
Cellular processes, such as signal transduction and cell wall deposition, are organized by macromolecule interactions. Experimentally determined protein-protein interactions (PPIs) and protein-DNA interactions (PDIs) relevant to woody plant development are sparse. To begin to develop a Populus trichocarpa Torr. & A. Gray wood interactome, we applied the yeast-two-hybrid (Y2H) assay in different ways to enable the discovery of novel PPIs and connected networks. We first cloned open reading frames (ORFs) for 361 genes markedly upregulated in secondary xylem compared with secondary phloem and performed a binary Y2H screen with these proteins...
October 10, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040725/protein-s-nitrosylation-regulates-xylem-vessel-cell-differentiation-in-arabidopsis
#7
Harunori Kawabe, Misato Ohtani, Tetsuya Kurata, Tomoaki Sakamoto, Taku Demura
Post-translational modifications of proteins have important roles in the regulation of protein activity. One such modification, S-nitrosylation, involves the covalent binding of nitric oxide (NO)-related species to a cysteine residue. Recent work showed that protein S-nitrosylation has crucial functions in plant development and environmental responses. In the present study, we investigated the importance of protein S-nitrosylation for xylem vessel cell differentiation using a forward-genetics approach. We performed ethyl methanesulfonate mutagenesis of a transgenic Arabidopsis 35S::VND7-VP16-GR line in which the activity of VASCULAR-RELATED NAC-DOMAIN7 (VND7), a key transcription factor involved in xylem vessel cell differentiation, can be induced posttranslationally by glucocorticoid treatment, with the goal of obtaining suppressor mutants that failed to differentiate ectopic xylem vessel cells; we named these mutants suppressor of ectopic vessel cell differentiation induced by VND7 (seiv) mutants...
October 13, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040704/in-planta-processing-of-the-spcas9-grna-complex
#8
Masafumi Mikami, Seiichi Toki, Masaki Endo
In CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing in plants, Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 (SpCas9) protein and the required guide RNA (gRNA) are, in most cases, expressed from a stably integrated transgene. Generally, SpCas9 protein is expressed from an RNA polymerase (pol) II promoter, while gRNA is expressed from a pol III promoter. However, pol III promoters have not been much characterized other than in model plants, making it difficult to select appropriate promoters for specific applications, while pol II transcripts have to be processed to generate functional gRNAs...
October 12, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040651/the-chlamydomonas-mex1-mutant-shows-impaired-starch-mobilization-without-maltose-accumulation
#9
Justin Findinier, Hande Tunçay, Miriam Schulz-Raffelt, Philippe Deschamps, Corentin Spriet, Jean-Marie Lacroix, Thierry Duchêne, Nicolas Szydlowski, Yonghua Li-Beisson, Gilles Peltier, Christophe D'Hulst, Fabrice Wattebled, David Dauvillée
The MEX1 locus of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was identified in a genetic screen as a factor that affects starch metabolism. Mutation of MEX1 causes a slow-down in the mobilization of storage polysaccharide. Cosegregation and functional complementation analyses were used to assess the involvement of the Mex1 protein in starch degradation. Heterologous expression experiments performed in Escherichia coli and Arabidopsis thaliana allowed us to test the capacity of the algal protein in maltose export. In contrast to the A...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040052/partial-or-entire-distinct-responses-of-two-types-of-chloroplast-autophagy
#10
Masanori Izumi, Sakuya Nakamura
Autophagy carries out intracellular degradation of cytoplasmic components, which is important for the removal of dysfunctional organelles and for efficient nutrient recycling in eukaryotic cells. Most proteins in plant green tissues are found in chloroplasts, mainly as photosynthetic proteins that constantly accumulate damage caused by sunlight. Our recent study investigated the involvement of autophagy in the turnover of damaged chloroplasts and found that entire photodamaged chloroplasts are transported into the vacuole for degradation via an autophagy process termed chlorophagy...
October 17, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040017/aralia-elata-miq-seem-extract-decreases-o-glcnac-transferase-expression-and-retinal-cell-death-in-diabetic-mice
#11
Yoon Sook Kim, Minjun Kim, Mee Young Choi, Dong Hoon Lee, Gu Seob Roh, Hyun Joon Kim, Sang Soo Kang, Gyeong Jae Cho, Ki Hun Park, Seong-Jae Kim, Ji-Myong Yoo, Wan Sung Choi
Aralia elata (Miq) Seem (AES) is a medicinal plant used in traditional Chinese and Korean medicine for the treatment of several diseases, including diabetes. This study aimed to investigate the neuroprotective effect of AES extract against high glucose-induced retinal injury in diabetic mice. AES extract (20 and 100 mg/kg body weight) was orally administered to control mice or mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Protein levels of O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) transferase (OGT), carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP), sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1, thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC) were analyzed by western blotting...
October 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040016/centella-asiatica-fraction-3-suppresses-the-nuclear-factor-erythroid-2-related-factor-2-anti-oxidant-pathway-and-enhances-reactive-oxygen-species-mediated-cell-death-in-cancerous-lung-a549-cells
#12
Dhaneshree Bestinee Naidoo, Alisa Phulukdaree, Krishnan Anand, Vikash Sewram, Anil Amichund Chuturgoon
Centella asiatica is a tropical medicinal plant that is commonly used in traditional medicine. Medicinal properties of C. asiatica include anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer activity. We investigated the anti-oxidant and anti-proliferative/cytotoxic effects of a semi-purified fraction of C. asiatica ethanolic leaf extract (C3) in cancerous lung A549 cells. C3 was obtained by silica column fractionation and identified by using thin-layer chromatography and gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Cytotoxicity of C3 in A549 cells was evaluated (cell viability assay-WST-1; 24 h; [0...
October 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039994/cell-type-dependent-localization-of-mlo-proteins
#13
Daniel S Jones, Sharon A Kessler
Mildew resistance locus O (MLO) proteins are transmembrane proteins that mediate cell-cell communication in plants. We recently demonstrated the importance of subcellular localization to MLO function during pollen tube reception. NORTIA (NTA), the MLO protein involved in this process, localizes to the Golgi of the synergid cell before interaction with the pollen tube. MLO proteins that can substitute for NTA's function in this pathway all partially localize with the same Golgi marker in the synergid cell. In this study, we report that MLO subcellular localization is cell type-dependent, with different distributions of some MLOs observed when ectopically expressed in the epidermal cells of tobacco and Arabidopsis compared to synergids...
October 17, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036710/a-disulfide-bond-a-like-oxidoreductase-is-a-strong-candidate-gene-for-self-incompatibility-in-apricot-prunus-armeniaca-pollen
#14
Juan Vicente Muñoz-Sanz, Elena Zuriaga, María L Badenes, Carlos Romero
S-RNase based gametophytic self-incompatibility (SI) is a widespread prezygotic reproductive barrier in flowering plants. In the Solanaceae, Plantaginaceae and Rosaceae gametophytic SI is controlled by the pistil-specific S-RNases and the pollen S-locus F-box proteins but non-S-specific factors, namely modifiers, are also required. In apricot, Prunus armeniaca (Rosaceae), we previously mapped two pollen-part mutations that confer self-compatibility in cultivars Canino and Katy at the distal end of chromosome 3 (M-locus) unlinked to the S-locus...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036694/efficient-modulation-of-photosynthetic-apparatus-confers-desiccation-tolerance-in-the-resurrection-plant-boea-hygrometrica
#15
Tinghong Tan, Yanni Sun, Shishuai Luo, Chao Zhang, Huapeng Zhou, Honghui Lin
Boea hygrometrica (B. hygrometrica) can tolerate severe desiccation and resume photosynthetic activity rapidly upon water availability. However, little is known about the mechanisms by which B. hygrometrica adapts to dehydration and resumes competence upon rehydration. Here we determined how B. hygrometrica to deal with oxidative stress, excessive excitation/electron pressures as well as photosynthetic apparatus modulation during dehydration/rehydration. By measuring ROS generation and scavenging efficiency, we found that B...
September 19, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036673/enhanced-desiccation-tolerance-in-mature-cultures-of-the-streptophytic-green-alga-zygnema-circumcarinatum-revealed-by-transcriptomics
#16
Martin Rippin, Burkhard Becker, Andreas Holzinger
Desiccation tolerance is commonly regarded as one of the key features for the colonization of terrestrial habitats by green algae and the evolution of land plants. Extensive studies, focused mostly on physiology, have been carried out assessing the desiccation tolerance and resilience of the streptophytic genera Klebsormidium and Zygnema. Here we present transcriptomic analyses of Zygnema circumcarinatum exposed to desiccation stress. Cultures of Z. circumcarinatum, grown in liquid medium or on agar plates, were desiccated at ∼86% relative air humidity until Y(II) ceased...
September 22, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036645/genomic-and-transcriptomic-compilation-of-chloroplast-ionic-transporters-of-physcomitrella-patens-study-of-nhad-transporters-in-na-and-k-homeostasis
#17
Nancy Ruiz-Lau, Ángela Sáez, Mónica Lanza, Begoña Benito
K+ is widely used by plant cells, whereas Na+ can easily reach toxic levels during plant growth, which typically occurs in saline environments; however, the effects and functions in the chloroplast have been only roughly estimated. Traditionally, the occurrence of ionic fluxes across the chloroplast envelope or the thylakoid membranes has been mostly deduced from physiological measurements or from knowledge of chloroplast metabolism. However, many of the proteins involved in these fluxes have not yet been characterized...
October 3, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036620/fe-controls-the-transcription-of-downstream-flowering-regulators-through-two-distinct-mechanisms-in-leaf-phloem-companion-cells
#18
Mio Shibuta, Mitsutomo Abe
In facultative long-day plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) encoding a mobile hormone florigen plays an essential role in modulating the optimal timing of flowering to ensure reproductive success. Under inductive long-day conditions, the transcription of FT is activated by the CONSTANS (CO)/NUCLEAR FACTOR-Y (NF-Y) protein complex in leaf phloem companion cells. FT is transported to the shoot apical meristem through interaction with florigen transporters, such as SODIUM POTASSIUM ROOT DEFECTIVE 1 (NaKR1)...
September 25, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036578/the-roles-of-membranes-and-associated-cytoskeleton-in-plant-virus-replication-and-cell-to-cell-movement
#19
Nicolas Pitzalis, Manfred Heinlein, Gian Pietro Di Sansebastiano
The infection of plants by viruses depends on cellular mechanisms that support the replication of the viral genomes, and the cell-to-cell and systemic movement of the virus via plasmodesmata (PD) and the connected phloem. While the propagation of some viruses requires the conventional endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi pathway, others replicate and spread between cells in association with the ER and are independent of this pathway. Using selected viruses as examples, this review re-examines the involvement of membranes and the cytoskeleton during virus infection and proposes potential roles of class VIII myosins and membrane-tethering proteins in controlling viral functions at specific ER subdomains, such as cortical microtubule-associated ER sites, ER-plasma membrane contact sites, and PD...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036515/the-jasmonate-zim-domain-gene-family-mediates-ja-signaling-and-stress-response-in-cotton
#20
Heng Sun, Lin Chen, Jianying Li, Meiling Hu, Abid Ullah, Xin He, Xiyan Yang, Xianlong Zhang
JASMONATE ZIM-domain (JAZ) family proteins are involved in regulating diverse biological processes in plants. However, their functions have not been well characterized in cotton (Gossypium spp.). In the present study, 13, 15, 25, and 30 JAZ genes were identified in Gossypium arboretum, Gossypium raimondii, Gossypium barbadense and Gossypium hirsutum respectively, based on gene homology. Selection and variation analyses showed that the SNP density of GhJAZ genes in wild species was much higher than that in domesticated species...
October 3, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
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