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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471367/evolution-of-genes-associated-with-gynoecium-patterning-and-fruit-development-in-solanaceae
#1
Clara Inés Ortiz-Ramírez, Sayonara Plata-Arboleda, Natalia Pabón-Mora
Background and Aims: The genetic basis of fruit development has been extensively studied in Arabidopsis, where major transcription factors controlling valve identity (i.e. FRUITFULL), replum development (i.e. REPLUMLESS) and the differentiation of the dehiscence zones (i.e. SHATTERPROOF, INDEHISCENT and ALCATRAZ) have been identified. This gene regulatory network in other flowering plants is influenced by duplication events during angiosperm diversification. Here we aim to characterize candidate fruit development genes in the Solanaceae and compare them with those of Brassicaceae...
February 17, 2018: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471272/gene-architecture-and-expression-analyses-provide-insights-into-the-role-of-glutathione-peroxidases-gpxs-in-bread-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l
#2
Shivi Tyagi, Himani, Jaspreet K Sembi, Santosh Kumar Upadhyay
Glutathione peroxidases (GPXs) are redox sensor proteins that maintain a steady-state of H2 O2 in plant cells. They exhibit distinct sub-cellular localization and have diverse functionality in response to different stimuli. In this study, a total of 14 TaGPX genes and three splice variants were identified in the genome of Triticum aestivum and evaluated for various physicochemical properties. The TaGPX genes were scattered on the various chromosomes of the A, B, and D sub-genomes and clustered into five homeologous groups based on high sequence homology...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470862/arabidopsis-hipp27-is-a-host-susceptibility-gene-for-the-beet-cyst-nematode-heterodera-schachtii
#3
Zoran S Radakovic, Muhammad Shahzad Anjam, Elizabeth Escobar, Divykriti Chopra, Javier Cabrera, Ana Cláudia Silva, Carolina Escobar, Miroslaw Sobczak, Florian M W Grundler, Shahid Siddique
Sedentary plant-parasitic cyst nematodes are obligate biotrophs that infect the roots of their host plant. Their parasitism is based on modification of root cells to form a hypermetabolic syncytium from which the nematodes draw their nutrients. The aim of this study was to identify nematode susceptibility genes in Arabidopsis thaliana and to characterize their roles in supporting the parasitism of Heterodera schachtii. By selecting genes that were most strongly upregulated in response to cyst nematode infection, we identified HIPP27 (HEAVY METAL-ASSOCIATED ISOPRENYLATED PLANT PROTEIN 27) as a host susceptibility factor required for beet cyst nematode infection and development...
February 22, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470695/a-banana-nac-transcription-factor-musasnac1-impart-drought-tolerance-by-modulating-stomatal-closure-and-h-2-o-2-content
#4
Sanjana Negi, Himanshu Tak, T R Ganapathi
MusaSNAC1 function in H2 O2 mediated stomatal closure and promote drought tolerance by directly binding to CGT[A/G] motif in regulatory region of multiple stress-related genes. Drought is a abiotic stress-condition, causing reduced plant growth and diminished crop yield. Guard cells of the stomata control photosynthesis and transpiration by regulating CO2 exchange and water loss, thus affecting growth and crop yield. Roles of NAC (NAM, ATAF1/2 and CUC2) protein in regulation of stress-conditions has been well documented however, their control over stomatal aperture is largely unknown...
February 22, 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470644/two-genes-encoding-gh10-xylanases-are-essential-for-the-virulence-of-the-oomycete-plant-pathogen-phytophthora-parasitica
#5
Ming-Wei Lai, Ruey-Fen Liou
Plant cell walls are pivotal battlegrounds between microbial pathogens and their hosts. To penetrate the cell wall and thereby to facilitate infection, microbial pathogens are equipped with a wide array of cell wall-degrading enzymes to depolymerize the polysaccharides in the cell wall. However, many of these enzymes and their role in the pathogenesis of microbial pathogens are not characterized, especially those from Oomycetes. In this study, we analyzed the function of four putative endo-beta-1,4-xylanase-encoding genes (ppxyn1-ppxyn4) from Phytophthora parasitica, an oomycete plant pathogen known to cause severe disease in a wide variety of plant species...
February 22, 2018: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470639/arabinogalactan-proteins-and-their-sugar-chains-functions-in-plant-reproduction-research-methods-and-biosynthesis
#6
REVIEW
Shihao Su, Tetsuya Higashiyama
The arabinogalactan protein (AGP) family is one of the most complex protein families and is ubiquitous in the plant kingdom. Moreover, it has been demonstrated to play various roles during plant reproduction. A typical AGP contains a hydroxyproline-rich core protein with high heterogeneity and varying numbers of polysaccharide side chains. However, the functions of the polysaccharide components (i.e. AG sugar chains) remain largely unknown due to the general difficulties associated with studying sugar chains in glycobiology...
February 22, 2018: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470543/translational-autoregulation-of-bzw1-and-bzw2-expression-by-modulating-the-stringency-of-start-codon-selection
#7
Gary Loughran, Andrew E Firth, John F Atkins, Ivaylo P Ivanov
The efficiency of start codon selection during ribosomal scanning in eukaryotic translation initiation is influenced by the context or flanking nucleotides surrounding the AUG codon. The levels of eukaryotic translation initiation factors 1 (eIF1) and 5 (eIF5) play critical roles in controlling the stringency of translation start site selection. The basic leucine zipper and W2 domain-containing proteins 1 and 2 (BZW1 and BZW2), also known as eIF5-mimic proteins, are paralogous human proteins containing C-terminal HEAT domains that resemble the HEAT domain of eIF5...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468962/plant-derived-polyphenols-in-human-health-biological-activity-metabolites-and-putative-molecular-targets
#8
Marilo Olivares-Vicente, Enrique Barrajon-Catalan, Maria Herranz-Lopez, Antonio Segura-Carretero, Jorge Joven, Jose Antonio Encinar, Vicente Micol
Edible plants such as Hibiscus sabdariffa, Lippia citriodora, Rosmarinus officinalis and Olea europaea, are rich in bioactive compounds that represent most of the phenolic compounds families and have exhibited potential benefits in human health. These plants have been commonly used in folk medicine for their potential therapeutic properties in human chronic diseases. Recent evidence on these plants leads to postulate that polyphenols may account for such effects. Nevertheless, the compounds or metabolites that are responsible for reaching the molecular targets are still unknown...
February 19, 2018: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468851/isolates-from-alpinia-officinarum-hance-attenuate-lps-induced-inflammation-in-hepg2-evidence-from-in-silico-and-in-vitro-studies
#9
Abdullah A Elgazar, Nabil M Selim, Nabil M Abdel-Hamid, Mohammed A El-Magd, Hala M El Hefnawy
In an attempt to connect the legacy of centuries of invaluable knowledge from traditional medicine and the current understanding to the molecular mechanism of diseases, we took the advantage of the emergence of in silico screening as a promising tool for identification of potential leads from libraries of natural products. Traditional Chinese Medicine database was subjected to structure based virtual screening for identification of anti-inflammatory compounds using the 3D crystal structure of p38 alpha mitogen activated protein kinase...
February 22, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468804/vps9-domain-containing-proteins-are-essential-for-autophagy-and-endocytosis-in-pyricularia-oryzae
#10
Xue-Ming Zhu, Shuang Liang, Huan-Bin Shi, Jian-Ping Lu, Bo Dong, Qian-Sheng Liao, Fu-Cheng Lin, Xiao-Hong Liu
Pyricularia oryzae is the causal pathogen of rice blast disease. Autophagy has been shown to play important roles in P. oryzae development and plant infection. The P. oryzae endosomal system is highly dynamic and has been shown to be associated with conidiogenesis and pathogenicity as well. To date, the crosstalk between autophagy and endocytosis has not been explored in P. oryzae. Here, we identified three P. oryzae VPS9 domain-containing proteins, PoVps9, PoMuk1, and PoVrl1. We found that PoVps9 and PoMuk1 are localized to vesicles and are each co-localized with PoVps21, a recognized marker of early endosomes...
February 22, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468687/genome-wide-association-mapping-of-the-architecture-of-susceptibility-to-the-root-knot-nematode-meloidogyne-incognita-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#11
Sonja Warmerdam, Mark G Sterken, Casper van Schaik, Marian E P Oortwijn, Octavina C A Sukarta, Jose L Lozano-Torres, Marcel Dicke, Johannes Helder, Jan E Kammenga, Aska Goverse, Jaap Bakker, Geert Smant
Susceptibility to the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita in plants is thought to be a complex trait based on multiple genes involved in cell differentiation, growth and defence. Previous genetic analyses of susceptibility to M. incognita have mainly focused on segregating dominant resistance genes in crops. It is not known if plants harbour significant genetic variation in susceptibility to M. incognita independent of dominant resistance. To study the genetic architecture of susceptibility to M. incognita, we analysed nematode reproduction on a highly diverse set of 340 natural inbred lines of Arabidopsis thaliana with genome-wide association mapping...
February 22, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468429/comparative-genomic-analysis-of-the-lipase3-gene-family-in-five-plant-species-reveals-distinct-evolutionary-origins
#12
Dan Wang, Lin Zhang, JunFeng Hu, Dianshuai Gao, Xin Liu, Yan Sha
Lipases are physiologically important and ubiquitous enzymes that share a conserved domain and are classified into eight different families based on their amino acid sequences and fundamental biological properties. The Lipase3 family of lipases was reported to possess a canonical fold typical of α/β hydrolases and a typical catalytic triad, suggesting a distinct evolutionary origin for this family. Genes in the Lipase3 family do not have the same functions, but maintain the conserved Lipase3 domain. There have been extensive studies of Lipase3 structures and functions, but little is known about their evolutionary histories...
February 22, 2018: Genetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468393/growth-performance-metal-accumulation-and-biochemical-responses-of-palak-beta-vulgaris-l-var-allgreen-h-1-grown-on-soil-amended-with-sewage-sludge-fly-ash-mixtures
#13
Bhavisha Sharma, Richa Kothari, Rajeev Pratap Singh
Agricultural utilization of sewage sludge (SS) and fly ash (FA) has become both, a common practice and an alternative disposal method for these wastes all around the world. The present study was conducted to assess the effect and viability of co-application of SS and FA (SLASH) in four mixing ratios denoted as A [4 (SS): 1(FA)], B [4 (SS): 2 (FA)], C [4 (SS): 3 (FA)] and D [4 (SS): 4(FA)] at three application rates viz. 20, 40 and 60% (w/w) with agricultural soil on biochemical, physiological and growth response of Palak (Beta vulgaris L...
February 21, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468273/evolution-functional-differentiation-and-co-expression-of-the-rlk-gene-family-revealed-in-jilin-ginseng-panax-ginseng-c-a-meyer
#14
Yanping Lin, Kangyu Wang, Xiangyu Li, Chunyu Sun, Rui Yin, Yanfang Wang, Yi Wang, Meiping Zhang
Most genes in a genome exist in the form of a gene family; therefore, it is necessary to have knowledge of how a gene family functions to comprehensively understand organismal biology. The receptor-like kinase (RLK)-encoding gene family is one of the most important gene families in plants. It plays important roles in biotic and abiotic stress tolerances, and growth and development. However, little is known about the functional differentiation and relationships among the gene members within a gene family in plants...
February 21, 2018: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467823/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-characterization-of-three-cellvibrio-japonicus-glycoside-hydrolase-family-5-members-reveals-potent-xyloglucan-backbone-cleaving-functions
#15
Mohamed A Attia, Cassandra E Nelson, Wendy A Offen, Namrata Jain, Gideon J Davies, Jeffrey G Gardner, Harry Brumer
Background: Xyloglucan (XyG) is a ubiquitous and fundamental polysaccharide of plant cell walls. Due to its structural complexity, XyG requires a combination of backbone-cleaving and sidechain-debranching enzymes for complete deconstruction into its component monosaccharides. The soil saprophyte Cellvibrio japonicus has emerged as a genetically tractable model system to study biomass saccharification, in part due to its innate capacity to utilize a wide range of plant polysaccharides for growth...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467821/function-analysis-of-5-utr-of-the-cellulosomal-xyl-doc-cluster-in-clostridium-papyrosolvens
#16
Xia Zou, Zhenxing Ren, Na Wang, Yin Cheng, Yuanyuan Jiang, Yan Wang, Chenggang Xu
Background: Anaerobic, mesophilic, and cellulolytic Clostridium papyrosolvens produces an efficient cellulolytic extracellular complex named cellulosome that hydrolyzes plant cell wall polysaccharides into simple sugars. Its genome harbors two long cellulosomal clusters: cip - cel operon encoding major cellulosome components (including scaffolding) and xyl - doc gene cluster encoding hemicellulases. Compared with works on cip - cel operon, there are much fewer studies on xyl - doc mainly due to its rare location in cellulolytic clostridia...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467795/genome-wide-study-of-yabby-genes-in-upland-cotton-and-their-expression-patterns-under-different-stresses
#17
Zhaoen Yang, Qian Gong, Lingling Wang, Yuying Jin, Jianping Xi, Zhi Li, Wenqiang Qin, Zuoren Yang, Lili Lu, Quanjia Chen, Fuguang Li
Members of the YABBY gene family, a small plant-specific family of genes, have been proposed to function in specifying abaxial cell fate. Although to date little has been learned about cotton YABBY genes, completion of the cotton genome enables a comprehensive genome-wide analysis of YABBY genes in cotton. Here, a total of 12, 12, and 23 YABBY genes were identified in Gossypium arboreum (2n = 26, A2 ), G. raimondii (2n = 26, D5 ), and G. hirsutum (2n = 4x = 52, [AD]t ), respectively. Sequence analysis showed that the N-terminal zinc-finger and C-terminal YABBY domains in YABBY proteins are highly conserved among cotton, Arabidopsis , and rice...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467788/toxicological-and-biochemical-analyses-demonstrate-the-absence-of-lethal-or-sublethal-effects-of-cry1c-or-cry2a-expressing-bt-rice-on-the-collembolan-folsomia-candida
#18
Yan Yang, Bing Zhang, Xiang Zhou, Jörg Romeis, Yufa Peng, Yunhe Li
Assessing the potential effects of insect-resistant genetically engineered (GE) plants on collembolans is important because these common soil arthropods may be exposed to insecticidal proteins produced in GE plants by ingestion of plant residues, crop pollen, or root exudates. Laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate the potential effects of two Bacillus thuringiensis ( Bt )-rice lines expressing Cry1C and Cry2A in pollen and leaves and of their non- Bt conventional isolines on the fitness of the collembolan Folsomia candida and on the activities of its antioxidant-related enzymes, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase, and of its detoxification-related enzymes, glutathione reductase and glutathione S -transferase...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467783/a-genomic-view-of-alternative-splicing-of-long-non-coding-rnas-during-rice-seed-development-reveals-extensive-splicing-and-lncrna-gene-families
#19
Edward A Kiegle, Alex Garden, Elia Lacchini, Martin M Kater
Alternative splicing (AS) is a key modulator of development in many eukaryotic organisms. In plants, alternative splice forms of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are known to modulate flowering time in Arabidopsis and fertility in rice. Here we demonstrate that alternative splicing of coding and long non-coding RNAs occurs during rice seed development by comparing AS in immature seeds vs. embryo and endosperm of mature seeds. Based on computational predictions of AS events determined from a Bayesian analysis of junction counts of RNA-seq datasets, differential splicing of protein-coding, and non-coding RNAs was determined...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467750/the-peroxygenase-activity-of-the-aspergillus-flavus-caleosin-afpxg-modulates-the-biosynthesis-of-aflatoxins-and-their-trafficking-and-extracellular-secretion-via-lipid-droplets
#20
Abdulsamie Hanano, Mari Alkara, Ibrahem Almousally, Mouhnad Shaban, Farzana Rahman, Mehedi Hassan, Denis J Murphy
Aflatoxins (AF) are highly detrimental to human and animal health. We recently demonstrated that the Aspergillus flavus caleosin, AfPXG, had peroxygenase activity and mediated fungal development and AF accumulation. We now report the characterization of an AfPXG -deficient line using reference strain NRRL3357. The resulting fungal phenotype included a severe decrease in mycelium growth, failure to sporulate, and reduced AF production. Increasing cellular oxidative status by administration of hydrogen peroxide and cumene hydroperoxide did not restore the AfPXG -deficient phenotype, which suggests that AfPXG -deficiency is not directly related to oxidative stress...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
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