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Marco Chino, Linda Leone, Ornella Maglio, Daniele D'Alonzo, Fabio Pirro, Vincenzo Pavone, Flavia Nastri, Angela Lombardi
Metalloproteins utilize O₂ as an oxidant, and they often achieve a 4-electron reduction without H₂O₂ or oxygen radical release. Several proteins have been designed to catalyze one or two-electron oxidative chemistry, but the de novo design of a protein that catalyzes the net 4-electron reduction of O₂ has not been reported yet. We report here the construction of a diiron-binding four-helix bundle, made up of two different covalently linked α2 monomers, through click chemistry. Surprisingly, the prototype protein, DF-C1, showed a large divergence in its reactivity from earlier DFs...
October 20, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Andrew W Thorne, Rao V Chundury, Julian D Perry, Daniel B Rootman
PURPOSE: This study aims to determine if ocular dominance plays a role in predicting compensatory eyebrow elevation in cases of ptosis. METHODS: This retrospective observational cohort study screened all individuals presenting to two tertiary oculoplastics practices with complaints of ptosis for entry. Primary position photographs were obtained. Ocular dominance was assessed via a modified Porta test. Ptosis was defined in bilateral cases as marginal reflex distance of <2...
October 20, 2017: Orbit
Lisbeth Van Ruijssevelt, Stuart D Washington, Julie Hamaide, Marleen Verhoye, Georgios A Keliris, Annemie Van der Linden
Despite being commonly referenced throughout neuroscientific research on songbirds, reports of hemispheric specialization in the processing of song remain controversial. The notion of such asymmetries in songbirds is further complicated by evidence that both cerebral hemispheres in humans may be specialized for different aspects of speech perception. Some studies suggest that the auditory neural substrates in the left and right hemispheres of humans process temporal and spectral elements within speech sounds, respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Antonio Romano, Antonia Cama, Raffaele Corvino, Pasquale Graziano, Marco Friscia, Giorgio Iaconetta, Luigi Califano
AIM: Complications after parotid surgery include deficit of the facial nerve, wound complications, as sialocele and salivary fistula, and Frey syndrome; the goal of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the type of parotid surgery performed and the incidence of each of these complications. MATERIAL OF STUDY: A total of 184 patients were evaluated and 158 were included in the study. Four different kinds of intervention were made: extracapsular dissection, partial superficial parotidectomy; superficial parotidectomy and total parotidectomy...
2017: Annali Italiani di Chirurgia
Xin Li, Jing Huang, Matthew A Holden, Min Chen
Pep-1 is a cell-penetrating peptide that represents a powerful strategy for delivering large, hydrophilic therapeutic molecules into cells. Model membranes, such as lipid vesicles and planar bilayers, have been useful for investigating the direct translocation of cell-penetrating peptides. Here, we present a droplet interface bilayer-based approach to quantify pep-1-mediated β-galactosidase translocation. We found that β-galactosidase translocation is driven only by the negative transmembrane potential resulting from the asymmetric bilayers...
October 19, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Janet H Bultitude, Ian Walker, Charles Spence
See Legrain (doi:10.1093/awx188) for a scientific commentary on this article. Some patients with complex regional pain syndrome report that movements of the affected limb are slow, more effortful, and lack automaticity. These symptoms have been likened to the syndrome that sometimes follows brain injury called hemispatial neglect, in which patients exhibit attentional impairments and problems with movements affecting the contralesional side of the body and space. Psychophysical testing of patients with complex regional pain syndrome has found evidence for spatial biases when judging visual targets distanced at 2 m, but not in directions that indicate reduced attention to the affected side...
September 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Jianfeng Luo, Fengjun Tian, Hongkun Qu, Li Li, Jianzhong Zhang, Xinhua Yang, Libo Yuan
We propose a kind of square porous-core photonic crystal fiber (PCF) for polarization-maintaining terahertz (THz) wave guidance. An asymmetry is introduced by implementing rectangular array air holes in the porous core of the PCF, and ultrahigh birefringence and low effective material loss (EML) can be achieved simultaneously. The properties of THz wave propagation are analyzed numerically in detail. The numerical results indicate that the proposed fiber offers a high birefringence of 0.063 and a low EML of 0...
August 20, 2017: Applied Optics
Rui Lü, Xingna Yu, Hailing Jia, Sihan Xiao
Ground-based characteristics (optical, type, size, and radiative properties) of aerosols measured between 2005 and 2012 were investigated over the Taihu rim region, which encompasses the cities of Shanghai, Suzhou, Wuxi, and Changzhou. The aerosol optical depth (AOD) showed a distinct seasonal variation with the highest value in summer and the lowest AOD in winter. There was broadest frequency distribution with a multimodal structure in summer. The Ångström exponent (AE) showed high values during spring; the relative frequency of AE in the range of 0-0...
September 1, 2017: Applied Optics
Jose Ignacio Priego Quesada, Marina Gil-Calvo, Irene Jimenez-Perez, Ángel G Lucas-Cuevas, Pedro Pérez-Soriano
The main instruments to assess foot eversion have some limitations (especially for field applications), and therefore it is necessary to explore new methods. The objective was to determine the relationship between foot eversion and skin temperature asymmetry of the foot sole (difference between medial and lateral side), using infrared thermography. Twenty-two runners performed a running test lasting 30 min. Skin temperature of the feet soles was measured by infrared thermography before and after running. Foot eversion during running was measured by kinematic analysis...
July 1, 2017: Applied Optics
Yin-Jung Chang, Ren-Wei Feng
The theoretical formulation based on rigorous transmission-line networks is developed for a general mode conversion problem and lays the groundwork for a simpler yet more efficient graphical design approach for hybrid plasmonic mode converters (HPMCs). The concurrence of co- and cross-polarization conversion to and among higher-order photonic and HP modes followed by subsequent power redistributions and losses over the course of the HPMC can lead to performance degradation and largely determines the silicon core thickness...
July 1, 2017: Applied Optics
Qadeer Arshad, Angela Bonsu, Rhannon Lobo, Anne-Sophie Fluri, Rahuman Sheriff, Peter Bain, Nicola Pavese, Adolfo M Bronstein
OBJECTIVE: Previous findings suggest a context-dependent bihemispheric allocation of numerical magnitude. Accordingly, we predicted that lateralized motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD), which reflect hemispheric asymmetries, would induce systematic lateralized biases in numerical cognition and have a subsequent influence on decision-making. METHODS: In 20 PD patients and matched healthy controls we assessed numerical cognition using a number-pair bisection and random number generation task...
October 2017: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Albert Le Floch, Guy Ropars
In human vision, the brain has to select one view of the world from our two eyes. However, the existence of a clear anatomical asymmetry providing an initial imbalance for normal neural development is still not understood. Using a so-called foveascope, we found that for a cohort of 30 normal adults, the two blue cone-free areas at the centre of the foveas are asymmetrical. The noise-stimulated afterimage dominant eye introduced here corresponds to the circular blue cone-free area, while the non-dominant eye corresponds to the diffuse and irregular elliptical outline...
October 25, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Wei-Wei Pan, Xiao-Mei Tong
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the possible causes of plagiocephaly in infants and the therapeutic effect of postural correction training on plagiocephaly. METHODS: A total of 101 infants who were diagnosed with plagiocephaly were enrolled. According to the age at diagnosis, these infants were divided into 1-4 month group (31 infants), 5-8 month group (40 infants), and 9-12 month group (30 infants). The possible causes of plagiocephaly were analyzed in three groups. The cranial vault asymmetry index (CVAI) before and after postural correction training was compared in three groups...
October 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Nathan Tompkins, Kateri J Spinelli, Dongseok Choi, Peter G Barr-Gillespie
Tip links are thought to gate the mechanically sensitive transduction channels of hair cells, but how they form during development and regeneration remains mysterious. In particular, it is unclear how tip links are strung between stereocilia so that they are oriented parallel to a single axis; why their polarity is uniform despite their constituent molecules' intrinsic asymmetry; and why only a single tip link is present at each tip-link position. We present here a series of simple rules that reasonably explain why these phenomena occur...
October 17, 2017: Biophysical Journal
Alex Heyam, Claire E Coupland, Clément Dégut, Ruth A Haley, Nicola J Baxter, Leonhard Jakob, Pedro M Aguiar, Gunter Meister, Michael P Williamson, Dimitris Lagos, Michael J Plevin
Double-stranded RNA-binding domains (dsRBDs) are commonly found in modular proteins that interact with RNA. Two varieties of dsRBD exist: canonical Type A dsRBDs interact with dsRNA, while non-canonical Type B dsRBDs lack RNA-binding residues and instead interact with other proteins. In higher eukaryotes, the microRNA biogenesis enzyme Dicer forms a 1:1 association with a dsRNA-binding protein (dsRBP). Human Dicer associates with HIV TAR RNA-binding protein (TRBP) or protein activator of PKR (PACT), while Drosophila Dicer-1 associates with Loquacious (Loqs)...
October 17, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
Paula L Croxson, Stephanie J Forkel, Leonardo Cerliani, Michel Thiebaut de Schotten
A large amount of variability exists across human brains; revealed initially on a small scale by postmortem studies and, more recently, on a larger scale with the advent of neuroimaging. Here we compared structural variability between human and macaque monkey brains using grey and white matter magnetic resonance imaging measures. The monkey brain was overall structurally as variable as the human brain, but variability had a distinct distribution pattern, with some key areas showing high variability. We also report the first evidence of a relationship between anatomical variability and evolutionary expansion in the primate brain...
October 13, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
Lauren T English
Dermal ossifications, including osteoderms, are present in many vertebrates and are frequently interpreted as a defense against predators. Nevertheless, osteoderms remain ubiquitous in adult crocodilians while being absent in hatchlings, even though adults rarely experience predation. In other biological systems, increased variation, particularly fluctuating asymmetry, have proven useful for identifying biological structures likely to have evolved under relaxed selection, which in turn may inform their function...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Morphology
Tomonari Sumi
A chemomechanical-network model for myosin V is presented on the basis of both the nucleotide-dependent binding affinity of the head to an actin filament (AF) and asymmetries and similarity relations among the chemical transitions due to an intramolecular strain of the leading and trailing heads. The model allows for branched chemomechanical cycles and takes into account not only two different force-generating mechanical transitions between states wherein the leading head is strongly bound and the trailing head is weakly bound to the AF but also load-induced mechanical-slip transitions between states in which both heads are strongly bound...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
Neelam Pawar, Devendra Maheshwari, Meenakshi Ravindran, Renagappa Ramakrishnan
PURPOSE: To determine interocular differences in the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and optic nerve head (ONH) parameters in a pediatric population using Cirrus high-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT). METHODS: Seventy normal Indian children aged 5-17 years presenting to the Pediatric Clinic were included in this observational cross-sectional study. All subjects underwent a comprehensive ophthalmologic examination and an evaluation of the RNFL and ONH by Cirrus HD-OCT...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
Ei Ei Hsu Hlaing, Yoshihito Ishihara, Chikako Hara, Hiroshi Kamioka
The rare developmental defect, Goldenhar syndrome is characterized by complex craniofacial and dentofacial anomalies. Here we describe the successful orthodontic treatment of a 5-year-old Japanese Goldenhar syndrome patient with mild facial asymmetry, right microtia, right-side hearing loss, and tongue-thrusting by a modification of dentofacial growth using a non-surgical orthopedic treatment approach. Improvement of the vertical discrepancies on the affected side and canted occlusal plane as well as mandibular deviation were achieved with a functional orthopaedic approach...
October 2017: Acta Medica Okayama
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