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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103271/early-stages-of-sea-level-rise-lead-to-decreased-salt-marsh-plant-diversity-through-stronger-competition-in-mediterranean-climate-marshes
#1
Akana E Noto, Jonathan B Shurin
Climate change shuffles species ranges and creates novel interactions that may either buffer communities against climate change or exacerbate its effect. For instance, facilitation can become more prevalent in salt marshes under stressful conditions while competition is stronger in benign environments. Sea-level rise (SLR) is a consequence of climate change that affects the distribution of stress from inundation and salinity. To determine how interactions early in SLR are affected by changes in these two stressors in Mediterranean-climate marshes, we transplanted marsh turfs to lower elevations to simulate SLR and manipulated cover of the dominant plant species, Salicornia pacifica (formerly Salicornia virginica)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046102/the-effects-of-algal-turf-sediments-and-organic-loads-on-feeding-by-coral-reef-surgeonfishes
#2
Sterling B Tebbett, Christopher H R Goatley, David R Bellwood
Herbivorous and detritivorous fishes interact closely with the epilithic algal matrix (EAM) on coral reefs. While sediment and organic detrital loads within the EAM might influence this interaction, the responses of functionally distinct fishes to changing sediment and organic loads have not been investigated. Aquarium based feeding trials were performed to assess how different sediment and organic loads affected feeding by the highly abundant surgeonfishes, Ctenochaetus striatus, a detritivore, and Acanthurus nigrofuscus, a herbivore...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027580/effects-of-predation-and-nutrient-enrichment-on-the-success-and-microbiome-of-a-foundational-coral
#3
Elizabeth C Shaver, Andrew A Shantz, Ryan McMinds, Deron E Burkepile, Rebecca L Vega Thurber, Brian R Silliman
By inflicting damage to prey tissues, consumer species may increase stress in prey hosts and reduce overall fitness (i.e., primary effects, such as growth or reproduction) or cause secondary effects by affecting prey interactions with other species such as microbes. However, little is known about how abiotic conditions affect the outcomes of these biotic interactions. In coral reef communities, both nutrient enrichment and predation have been linked to reduced fitness and disease facilitation in corals, yet no study to date has tested their combined effects on corals or their associated microbial communities (i...
December 27, 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027220/outcomes-of-prosthetic-reconstruction-of-irradiated-and-nonirradiated-breasts-with-fat-grafting
#4
Ewa Komorowska-Timek, Zaahir Turfe, Alan T Davis
BACKGROUND: Fat grafting may be beneficial in prosthetic reconstruction of irradiated tissues, but there is a paucity of data on the complication rates associated with this clinical scenario. METHODS: All consecutive patients who had undergone fat grafting and prosthetic reconstruction from 2010 to 2013 were enrolled. Variables obtained related to fat grafting and history of irradiation. Implant-related complications in relation to irradiation status were also noted...
January 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012661/off-site-transport-of-nitrogen-fertilizer-with-runoff-from-golf-course-fairway-turf-a-comparison-of-creeping-bentgrass-with-a-fine-fescue-mixture
#5
Pamela J Rice, Brian P Horgan
Maintaining quality golf course turf often requires irrigation and application of fertilizer. The transport of excess nutrients with runoff water from highly managed and fertilized biological systems to surrounding surface waters has been shown to result in enhanced algal blooms and promotion of eutrophication. Environmental stewardship includes looking for new approaches to reduce adverse environmental impacts of current practices. One strategy is to replace traditional turfgrass with low-maintenance turfgrass species...
December 21, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986890/artificial-turf-and-cancer-risk
#6
Daniel Luzer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915174/molecular-and-physiological-responses-of-iranian-perennial-ryegrass-as-affected-by-trinexapac-ethyl-paclobutrazol-and-abscisic-acid-under-drought-stress
#7
Mohammad Hossein Sheikh Mohammadi, Nematollah Etemadi, Mohammad Mehdi Arab, Mostafa Aalifar, Mostafa Arab, Mohammad Pessarakli
Drought stress is the major limiting factor which affects turfgrass management in area with restricted rainfall or irrigation water supply. Trinexapac ethyl (TE), Paclobutrazol (PAC) and Abscisic acid (ABA) are three plant growth regulators (PGRs) that are commonly used on turf species for increasing their tolerance to different environmental stresses such as drought. However, little is known about the impact of PGRs on stress tolerance of Iranian Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne). The present study was conducted to examine the visual and physiological changes of Iranian Perennial ryegrass in response to foliar application of TE, PAC, and ABA under drought stress conditions...
November 27, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888844/mr-imaging-of-the-plantar-plate-normal-anatomy-turf-toe-and-other-injuries
#8
REVIEW
Caio Nery, Daniel Baumfeld, Hilary Umans, André F Yamada
The metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint complex is a weight-bearing structure important to the biomechanics of the standing position, walking, shoe wearing, and sport participation. Acute dorsiflexion injury of the first MTP joint, "turf toe," is common among American football and soccer players. The first and lesser MTP joint complexes can be affected by degenerative or inflammatory arthritis, infarct, and infection. These conditions can lead to plantar plate disruption. Imaging studies help physicians to properly diagnose and treat this condition...
February 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887567/fluorescence-chromosome-banding-and-fish-mapping-in-perennial-ryegrass-lolium-perenne-l
#9
Helal A Ansari, Nicholas W Ellison, Shalome A Bassett, Syed W Hussain, Gregory T Bryan, Warren M Williams
BACKGROUND: The unambiguous identification of individual chromosomes is a key part of the genomic characterization of any species. In this respect, the development and application of chromosome banding techniques has revolutionised mammalian and especially, human genomics. However, partly because of the traditional use of chromosome squash preparations, consistent fluorescence banding has rarely been achieved in plants. Here, successful fluorescence chromosome banding has been achieved for the first time in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne), a forage and turf grass with a large genome and a symmetrical karyotype with chromosomes that are difficult to distinguish...
November 25, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872124/incidence-mechanisms-and-severity-of-match-related-collegiate-men-s-soccer-injuries-on-fieldturf-and-natural-grass-surfaces-a-6-year-prospective-study
#10
Michael C Meyers
BACKGROUND: Numerous injuries have been attributed to playing on artificial turf. More recently, newer generations of artificial turf have been developed to duplicate the playing characteristics of natural grass. Although artificial turf has been deemed safer than natural grass in some studies, few long-term studies have been conducted comparing match-related collegiate soccer injuries between the 2 playing surfaces. HYPOTHESIS: Collegiate male soccer athletes do not experience any difference in the incidence, mechanisms, or severity of match-related injuries between FieldTurf and natural grass...
November 21, 2016: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870014/sensitivity-of-coral-recruitment-to-subtle-shifts-in-early-community-succession
#11
Christopher Doropoulos, George Roff, Mart-Simone Visser, Peter J Mumby
Community succession following disturbance depends on positive and negative interactions, the strength of which change along environmental gradients. To investigate how early succession affects coral reef recovery, we conducted an 18 month experiment in Palau, using recruitment tiles and herbivore exclusion cages. One set of reefs has higher wave exposure and had previously undergone a phase shift to macroalgae following a major typhoon, whereas the other set of reefs have lower wave exposure and did not undergo a macroalgal phase shift...
November 21, 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865519/fine-sediments-suppress-detritivory-on-coral-reefs
#12
Sterling B Tebbett, Christopher H R Goatley, David R Bellwood
Increasing sediment inputs are recognised as an important factor leading to coral reef degradation. However, the role of sediments in ecological processes is poorly understood. This study used paired-choice trials to quantify the effects of sediment grain size and chemical composition on feeding by the abundant detritivorous reef fish, Ctenochaetus striatus. The size of sediments from algal turfs were also compared to those ingested by reef-dwelling C. striatus. Algal turfs containing coarser sediments were preferred by C...
November 16, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859118/organismal-homeostasis-buffers-the-effects-of-abiotic-change-on%C3%A2-community-dynamics
#13
Giulia Ghedini, Sean D Connell
The problem of linking fine-scale processes to broad-scale patterns remains a central challenge of ecology. As rates of abiotic change intensify, there is a critical need to understand how individual responses aggregate to generate compensatory dynamics that stabilize community processes. Notably, while local and global resource enhancement (e.g., nutrient and CO2 release) can reverse dominance relationship between key species (e.g., shifts from naturally kelp-dominated to turf-dominated systems), herbivores can counter these shifts by consuming the additional productivity of competing species (e...
October 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859101/can-trait-patterns-along-gradients-predict-plant-community-responses-to-climate-change
#14
John Guittar, Deborah Goldberg, Kari Klanderud, Richard J Telford, Vigdis Vandvik
Plant functional traits vary consistently along climate gradients and are therefore potential predictors of plant community response to climate change. We test this space-for-time assumption by combining a spatial gradient study with whole-community turf transplantation along temperature and precipitation gradients in a network of 12 grassland sites in Southern Norway. Using data on eight traits for 169 species and annual vegetation censuses of 235 turfs over 5 yr, we quantify trait-based responses to climate change by comparing observed community dynamics in transplanted turfs to field-parameterized null model simulations...
October 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814554/degradation-and-sorption-of-the-fungicide-tebuconazole-in-soils-from-golf-greens
#15
Nora Badawi, Annette E Rosenbom, Anne M D Jensen, Sebastian R Sørensen
The fungicide tebuconazole (TBZ) is used to repress fungal growth in golf greens and ensure their playability. This study determined the degradation and sorption of TBZ applied as an analytical grade compound, a commercial fungicide formulation or in combination with a surfactant product in thatch and soils below two types of greens (USGA and push-up greens) in 12-cm vertical profiles covered by three different types of turf grass. Only minor TBZ degradation was observed and it was most pronounced in treatments with the commercial fungicide product or in combination with the surfactant compared to the analytical grade compound alone...
December 2016: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760168/abundance-and-diversity-of-crypto-and-necto-benthic-coastal-fish-are-higher-in-marine-forests-than-in-structurally-less-complex-macroalgal-assemblages
#16
Pierre D Thiriet, Antonio Di Franco, Adrien Cheminée, Paolo Guidetti, Olivier Bianchimani, Solène Basthard-Bogain, Jean-Michel Cottalorda, Hazel Arceo, Joan Moranta, Pierre Lejeune, Patrice Francour, Luisa Mangialajo
In Mediterranean subtidal rocky reefs, Cystoseira spp. (Phaeophyceae) form dense canopies up to 1 m high. Such habitats, called 'Cystoseira forests', are regressing across the entire Mediterranean Sea due to multiple anthropogenic stressors, as are other large brown algae forests worldwide. Cystoseira forests are being replaced by structurally less complex habitats, but little information is available regarding the potential difference in the structure and composition of fish assemblages between these habitats...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757476/coupling-of-in-vitro-bioassays-with-planar-chromatography-in-effect-directed-analysis
#17
Stefan C Weiss, Nicole Egetenmeyer, Wolfgang Schulz
Modern analytical test methods increasingly detect anthropogenic organic substances and their transformation products in water samples and in the environment. The presence of these compounds might pose a risk to the aquatic environment. To determine a possible (eco)toxicological risk, aquatic samples are tested using various bioassays, including sub-organismic assays such as the luminescent bacteria inhibition test, the acetylcholinesterase inhibition test, and the umu-test. The effect-directed analysis (EDA) combines physicochemical separation methods with biological (in vitro) tests...
October 19, 2016: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752260/a-novel-two-step-method-for-screening-shade-tolerant-mutant-plants-via-dwarfism
#18
Wei Li, Lorenzo Katin-Grazzini, Sanalkumar Krishnan, Chandra Thammina, Rania El-Tanbouly, Huseyin Yer, Emily Merewitz, Karl Guillard, John Inguagiato, Richard J McAvoy, Zongrang Liu, Yi Li
When subjected to shade, plants undergo rapid shoot elongation, which often makes them more prone to disease and mechanical damage. Shade-tolerant plants can be difficult to breed; however, they offer a substantial benefit over other varieties in low-light areas. Although perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) is a popular species of turf grasses because of their good appearance and fast establishment, the plant normally does not perform well under shade conditions. It has been reported that, in turfgrass, induced dwarfism can enhance shade tolerance...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737281/foot-and-ankle-injuries-in-american-football
#19
Andrew R Hsu, Robert B Anderson
Physicians need to be aware of a variety of foot and ankle injuries that commonly occur in American football, including turf toe, Jones fractures, Lisfranc injuries, syndesmotic and deltoid disruption, and Achilles ruptures. These injuries are often complex and require early individual tailoring of treatment and rehabilitation protocols. Successful management and return to play requires early diagnosis, a thorough work-up, and prompt surgical intervention when warranted with meticulous attention to restoration of normal foot and ankle anatomy...
September 2016: American Journal of Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27728832/phytoremediation-of-agriculture-runoff-by-filamentous-algae-poly-culture-for-biomethane-production-and-nutrient-recovery-for-secondary-cultivation-of-lipid-generating-microalgae
#20
Pavlo Bohutskyi, Steven Chow, Ben Ketter, Coral Fung Shek, Dean Yacar, Yuting Tang, Mark Zivojnovich, Michael J Betenbaugh, Edward J Bouwer
An integrated system was implemented for water phytoremediation and biofuel production through sequential cultivation of filamentous algae followed by cultivation of lipid-producing microalgae Chlorella sorokiniana. Natural poly-culture of filamentous algae was grown in agricultural stormwater using the Algal Turf Scrubber®, harvested and subjected for lipid extraction and/or methane production using anaerobic digestion (AD). While filamentous algae lipid content was too low for feasible biodiesel production (<2%), both whole biomass and lipid-extracted algal residues (LEA) yielded ∼0...
December 2016: Bioresource Technology
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