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Piedad S Morillo-Velarde, Patricia Briones-Fourzán, Lorenzo Álvarez-Filip, Sergio Aguíñiga-García, Alberto Sánchez-González, Enrique Lozano-Álvarez
Habitat degradation can affect trophic ecology by differentially affecting specialist and generalist species, and the number and type of interspecific relationships. However, the effects of habitat degradation on the trophic ecology of coral reefs have received limited attention. We compared the trophic structure and food chain length between two shallow Caribbean coral reefs similar in size and close to each other: one dominated by live coral and the other by macroalgae (i.e., degraded). We subjected samples of basal carbon sources (particulate organic matter and algae) and the same 48 species of consumers (invertebrates and fishes) from both reefs to stable isotope analyses, and determined the trophic position of consumers and relative importance of various carbon sources for herbivores, omnivores, and carnivores...
March 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
JianJian Li, Jingjing Ma, Hailin Guo, Junqin Zong, Jingbo Chen, Yi Wang, Dandan Li, Ling Li, Jingjing Wang, Jianxiu Liu
Salinity is one of the major abiotic environmental stress factors affecting plant growth and development. Centipedegrass (Eremochloa ophiuroides [Munro)] Hack.) is an important warm-season turfgrass species with low turf maintenance requirements, but is sensitive to salinity stress. To explore salt tolerant germplasms in centipedegrass and better understand the growth and physiological responses of centipedegrass to salinity, we conducted anatomic observation and phytochemical quantification, examined growth parameters, and investigated photosynthetic machinery and antioxidant system in two phenotypically distinct centipedegrass accessions under NaCl salt stress...
February 19, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
(no author information available yet)
The International Forum is held once a year by the ESR and its international radiological partner societies with the aim to address and discuss selected topics of global relevance in radiology. In 2017, the issue of the position of interventional radiology (IR) within radiology was analysed. IR is expanding because of the increased patient demand for minimally invasive therapies performed under imaging guidance, and its success in improving patient outcomes, reducing in-hospital stays, reducing morbidity and mortality of treatment in many organs and organ-systems...
February 23, 2018: Insights Into Imaging
A L Brown, C W Osenberg
Interaction modifications can arise when a third species alters the physical and chemical environment within which two other species interact. On coral reefs, corals and algae commonly interact amid a suite of other species that may modify their interaction. Massive Porites coral and algal turfs often are covered by mucus nets cast by the vermetid gastropod, Ceraesignum maximum. Previously, vermetid mucus nets have been shown to have deleterious effects on corals. Here, we hypothesized that vermetids not only have direct effects on coral, but they also change the local physical and chemical environment establishing the potential for interaction modifications by intensifying the effects of algae on corals...
February 20, 2018: Oecologia
Archie Bleyer, Theresa Keegan
BACKGROUND: Case reports of cancer among soccer players raised concerns that the crumb rubber infill in synthetic turf fields may cause malignant lymphoma. One prior epidemiologic study on the topic found no association. METHODS: An ecologic evaluation of county-level incidence of lymphomas by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status for the state of California with data obtained from the National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program...
February 7, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology
Sharon Pochron, Jacqueline Nikakis, Kyra Illuzzi, Andrea Baatz, Loriana Demirciyan, Amritjot Dhillon, Thomas Gaylor, Alexa Manganaro, Nicholas Maritato, Michael Moawad, Rajwinder Singh, Clara Tucker, Daniel Vaughan
Solid waste management struggles with the sustainable disposal of used tires. One solution involves shredding used tires into crumb rubber and using the material as infill for artificial turf. However, crumb rubber contains hydrocarbons, organic compounds, and heavy metals, and it travels into the environment. Earthworms living in soil contaminated with virgin crumb rubber gained 14% less body weight than did earthworms living in uncontaminated soil, but the impact of aged crumb rubber on the earthworms is unknown...
February 8, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Aimee R Eden, Lars E Peterson
Introduction Maldistribution of maternity care (MC) providers in the U.S. limits access to full spectrum MC services. Obstetricians are concentrated in urban areas with many rural areas reliant on family physicians (FP) to provide MC, yet fewer FPs are providing MC. The objective of this study was to understand the challenges FPs face in gaining skills in and providing advanced MC. Methods We conducted qualitative semi-structured interviews with 51 purposively sampled key stakeholders in family medicine MC (21 family medicine-OB fellowship directors, 19 past fellows, and 10 family medicine residency directors of programs with advanced MC training)...
February 6, 2018: Maternal and Child Health Journal
Sterling B Tebbett, Christopher H R Goatley, Víctor Huertas, Michalis Mihalitsis, David R Bellwood
Ctenochaetus striatus is one of the most abundant surgeonfishes on Indo-Pacific coral reefs, yet the functional role and feeding ecology of this species remain unclear. This species is reported to possess a rigid structure in its palate that is used for scraping, but some authors have reported that this element is comprised of soft tissue. To resolve the nature and role of this structure in the feeding ecology of C. striatus we examined evidence from anatomical observations, scanning electron microscopy, histology, X-ray micro-computed tomography scanning, high-speed video and field observations...
January 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Charlotte R Dromard, Yolande Bouchon-Navaro, Sébastien Cordonnier, Mathilde Guéné, Mireille Harmelin-Vivien, Claude Bouchon
Chlordecone is a persistent organochlorine pesticide used in the banana fields of the French West Indies from 1972 to 1993. Three marine habitats (mangroves, seagrass beds and coral reefs) of two study sites located downstream contaminated rivers were chosen to evaluate the level of contamination of marine food webs. On each habitat, the food chain collected included suspended organic matter, primary producers (macroalgae, algal turf, seagrass), zooplankton, symbiotic organisms (corals, sea anemones), primary consumers (herbivores, suspension feeders, biofilm feeders), omnivores and detritivores (lobsters, fish), secondary consumers (carnivores 1: invertebrate feeders, planktivores) and tertiary consumers (carnivores 2: invertebrate and fish feeders, piscivores)...
2018: PloS One
Katherine M Edenfield
The midfoot and forefoot are the regions of the foot distal to the talus and calcaneus and are critical to weight bearing and movement. They help support the arch of the foot, provide shock absorption, and convert vertically oriented forces into horizontal forward and propulsive movement. A spectrum of acute, subacute, and chronic conditions in these regions can cause pain and decreased function. A thorough history and physical examination should include foot and leg biomechanics, alignment, and posture in addition to palpation of painful areas...
February 2018: FP Essentials
S Bevilacqua, G Guarnieri, G Farella, A Terlizzi, S Fraschetti
In the last decade, the 'Cumulative Pressure and Impact Assessment' (CPIA) approach emerged as a tool to map expected impacts on marine ecosystems. However, CPIA assumes a linear response of ecosystems to increasing level of cumulative pressure weighting sensitivity to different anthropogenic pressures through expert judgement. We applied CPIA to Mediterranean coralligenous outcrops over 1000 km of the Italian coastline. Extensive field surveys were conducted to assess the actual condition of coralligenous assemblages at varying levels of human pressure...
January 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jun Wang, Qingyu Cheng, Shengguo Xue, Manikandan Rajendran, Chuan Wu, Jiaxin Liao
A great deal of manganese and associated heavy metals (such as Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, etc.) was produced in manganese mining, smelting, and other processes and weathering and leaching of waste slag, which entered rainwater runoff by different means under the action of rainfall runoff. It caused heavy metal pollution in water environment to surrounding areas, and then environmental and human health risks were becoming increasingly serious. In the Xiangtan manganese mine, we studied the characteristics of nutritional pollutants and heavy metals by using the method of bounded runoff plots on the manganese tailing wasteland after carrying out some site treatments using three different approaches, such as (1) exposed tailings, the control treatment (ET), (2) external-soil amelioration and colonization of Cynodon dactylon (Linn...
January 29, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Jan Greene
The newish specialty of palliative care struggles to win over the specialists and hospitalists who might refer patients. Some want to protect their turf. And too often, palliative care is lumped in with hospice and viewed as "giving up" on patients that oncologists, pulmonologists, and cardiologists are working so hard to save.
January 2018: Managed Care
Shyamal K Talukder, Perumal Azhaguvel, Konstantin Chekhovskiy, Malay C Saha
Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) is an important cool-season perennial grass species used as forage and turf, and in conservation plantings. There are three morphotypes in hexaploid tall fescue: Continental, Mediterranean and Rhizomatous. This study was conducted to develop morphotype-specific molecular markers to distinguish Continental and Mediterranean tall fescues, and establish their relationships with other species of the Festuca genus for genomic inference. Chloroplast sequence variation and simple sequence repeat (SSR) polymorphism were explored in 12 genotypes of three tall fescue morphotypes and four Festuca species...
2018: PloS One
Jean-Charles Leclerc, Frédérique Viard
Coastal human-made structures, such as marinas and harbors, are expanding worldwide. Species assemblages described from these artificial habitats are novel relative to natural reefs, particularly in terms of the abundance of nonindigenous species (NIS). Although these fouling assemblages are clearly distinctive, the ecosystem functioning and species interactions taking place there are little understood. For instance, large predators may influence the fouling community development either directly (feeding on sessile fauna) or indirectly (feeding on small predators associated with these assemblages)...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Jorge Lopez-Fernandez, Javier Sánchez-Sánchez, Jorge García-Unanue, José Luis Felipe, Enrique Colino-Acevedo, Leonor Gallardo
PURPOSE: Recent studies have shown that soccer player's responses are similar on natural grass (NG) and artificial turf (AT), but they did not control the mechanical properties of these surfaces. This work aimed to analyse the influence of the game surface on amateur soccer player's physical and physiological responses using a soccer simulation protocol (SSP). METHODS: Sixteen amateur players performed three bouts of the SSP on AT and NG. The mechanical properties of both surfaces were recorded...
December 28, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Ji Won Lee, Jihye Choi, Jin-Won Kim
Chemical management of dollar spot in turf may lead to the development of Sclerotinia homoeocarpa populations with reduced fungicide sensitivity. The objective of this study was to investigate resistance of S. homoeocarpa isolates to triazole fungicides and to test cross-resistance among three triazole fungicides. A total of 66 isolates of S. homoeocarpa were collected from 15 golf courses across Korea, and tested via in vitro sensitivity assay against hexaconazole, propiconazole and tebuconazole. EC50 values of the isolates to these fungicides were distributed in the range of 0...
December 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
Xiang Tao, Ming-Xiu Wang, Ya Dai, Yan Wang, Yan-Fen Fan, Ping Mao, Xin-Rong Ma
Plant cytochrome P450s are involved in a wide range of biosynthetic reactions that generate various biomolecules, including a variety of defensive compounds. Perennial ryegrass ( Lolium perenne ) and tall fescue ( Festuca arundinacea ) are two major species of turf and forage grasses that usually experience low temperature below -10°C and high temperature over 38°C around the world. In this study, we re-analyzed transcriptome of perennial ryegrass and tall fescue treated with heat and cold stress. Thus, we can evaluate P450 composition in these species and confirm whether P450 genes response to temperature stress...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Marco Volterrani, Alberto Minelli, Monica Gaetani, Nicola Grossi, Simone Magni, Lisa Caturegli
Leaves act as a primary organ for the interception of solar radiation and their spatial arrangement determines how the plant canopy interacts with light. Many studies have been carried out on the penetration of radiation into crops however to date, few results are available on turfgrasses, mainly due to the difficulties of introducing sensors into the turf without disturbing the natural position of the leaves. In the present research two warm season turfgrasses, hybrid bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon × transvaalensis) 'Patriot' and manilagrass (Zoysia matrella) 'Zeon', were studied...
2017: PloS One
S M Rosanowski, Y M Chang, A J Stirk, K L P Verheyen
The incidence of race-day injuries in Great Britain (GB) is higher on all-weather (AW) surfaces than on turf. However, to date no studies have focused on identifying risk factors for injury specific to AW racing. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to determine risk factors for fatality, distal limb fracture (DLF) and episodes of epistaxis in flat racing Thoroughbreds racing on AW surfaces in GB. Data included all flat racing starts on AW surfaces (n=258,193) and race-day veterinary events recorded between 2000 and 2013...
December 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
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