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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342197/molecular-discrimination-of-tall-fescue-morphotypes-in-association-with-festuca-relatives
#1
Shyamal K Talukder, Perumal Azhaguvel, Konstantin Chekhovskiy, Malay C Saha
Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) is an important cool-season perennial grass species used as forage and turf, and in conservation plantings. There are three morphotypes in hexaploid tall fescue: Continental, Mediterranean and Rhizomatous. This study was conducted to develop morphotype-specific molecular markers to distinguish Continental and Mediterranean tall fescues, and establish their relationships with other species of the Festuca genus for genomic inference. Chloroplast sequence variation and simple sequence repeat (SSR) polymorphism were explored in 12 genotypes of three tall fescue morphotypes and four Festuca species...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321887/habitat-formation-prevails-over-predation-in-influencing-fouling-communities
#2
Jean-Charles Leclerc, Frédérique Viard
Coastal human-made structures, such as marinas and harbors, are expanding worldwide. Species assemblages described from these artificial habitats are novel relative to natural reefs, particularly in terms of the abundance of nonindigenous species (NIS). Although these fouling assemblages are clearly distinctive, the ecosystem functioning and species interactions taking place there are little understood. For instance, large predators may influence the fouling community development either directly (feeding on sessile fauna) or indirectly (feeding on small predators associated with these assemblages)...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283689/physiological-and-physical-responses-according-to-the-game-surface-in-a-soccer-simulation-protocol
#3
Jorge Lopez-Fernandez, Javier Sánchez-Sánchez, Jorge García-Unanue, José Luis Felipe, Enrique Colino-Acevedo, Leonor Gallardo
PURPOSE: Recent studies have shown that soccer player's responses are similar on natural grass (NG) and artificial turf (AT), but they did not control the mechanical properties of these surfaces. This work aimed to analyse the influence of the game surface on amateur soccer player's physical and physiological responses using a soccer simulation protocol (SSP). METHODS: Sixteen amateur players performed three bouts of the SSP on AT and NG. The mechanical properties of both surfaces were recorded...
December 28, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238282/triazole-fungicides-sensitivity-of-sclerotinia-homoeocarpa-in-korean-golf-courses
#4
Ji Won Lee, Jihye Choi, Jin-Won Kim
Chemical management of dollar spot in turf may lead to the development of Sclerotinia homoeocarpa populations with reduced fungicide sensitivity. The objective of this study was to investigate resistance of S. homoeocarpa isolates to triazole fungicides and to test cross-resistance among three triazole fungicides. A total of 66 isolates of S. homoeocarpa were collected from 15 golf courses across Korea, and tested via in vitro sensitivity assay against hexaconazole, propiconazole and tebuconazole. EC50 values of the isolates to these fungicides were distributed in the range of 0...
December 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209335/identification-and-expression-profile-of-cypome-in-perennial-ryegrass-and-tall-fescue-in-response-to-temperature-stress
#5
Xiang Tao, Ming-Xiu Wang, Ya Dai, Yan Wang, Yan-Fen Fan, Ping Mao, Xin-Rong Ma
Plant cytochrome P450s are involved in a wide range of biosynthetic reactions that generate various biomolecules, including a variety of defensive compounds. Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) are two major species of turf and forage grasses that usually experience low temperature below -10°C and high temperature over 38°C around the world. In this study, we re-analyzed transcriptome of perennial ryegrass and tall fescue treated with heat and cold stress. Thus, we can evaluate P450 composition in these species and confirm whether P450 genes response to temperature stress...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176773/reflectance-absorbance-and-transmittance-spectra-of-bermudagrass-and-manilagrass-turfgrass-canopies
#6
Marco Volterrani, Alberto Minelli, Monica Gaetani, Nicola Grossi, Simone Magni, Lisa Caturegli
Leaves act as a primary organ for the interception of solar radiation and their spatial arrangement determines how the plant canopy interacts with light. Many studies have been carried out on the penetration of radiation into crops however to date, few results are available on turfgrasses, mainly due to the difficulties of introducing sensors into the turf without disturbing the natural position of the leaves. In the present research two warm season turfgrasses, hybrid bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon × transvaalensis) 'Patriot' and manilagrass (Zoysia matrella) 'Zeon', were studied...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157375/risk-factors-for-race-day-fatality-distal-limb-fracture-and-epistaxis-in-thoroughbreds-racing-on-all-weather-surfaces-in-great-britain-2000-to-2013
#7
S M Rosanowski, Y M Chang, A J Stirk, K L P Verheyen
The incidence of race-day injuries in Great Britain (GB) is higher on all-weather (AW) surfaces than on turf. However, to date no studies have focused on identifying risk factors for injury specific to AW racing. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to determine risk factors for fatality, distal limb fracture (DLF) and episodes of epistaxis in flat racing Thoroughbreds racing on AW surfaces in GB. Data included all flat racing starts on AW surfaces (n=258,193) and race-day veterinary events recorded between 2000 and 2013...
December 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154482/development-of-furnished-cages-re-using-conventional-cages-for-laying-hens-behaviour-physical-condition-and-productivity
#8
Tsuyoshi Shimmura, Naoko Maekawa, Satoshi Hirahara, Toshio Tanaka, Michael C Appleby
Furnished cages for laying hens have advantages in allowing normal behaviors and maintaining productivity. As the cost of introduction is a barrier for farms, we developed furnished cages that re-use conventional cages. To determine the minimum and functional cage design, we compared six designs, combinations of two floor designs (artificial turf or wire cage floor) and three screening designs in the integrated area (no screening, one entrance side or four sides). In total, 144 hens were used, and we measured behavior, physical condition and productivity...
November 20, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136657/contrasts-in-the-marine-ecosystem-of-two-macaronesian-islands-a-comparison-between-the-remote-selvagens-reserve-and-madeira-island
#9
Alan M Friedlander, Enric Ballesteros, Sabrina Clemente, Emanuel J Gonçalves, Andrew Estep, Paul Rose, Enric Sala
The islands of Madeira and Selvagens are less than 300 km apart but offer a clear contrast between a densely populated and highly developed island (Madeira), and a largely uninhabited and remote archipelago (Selvagens) within Macaronesia in the eastern Atlantic. The Madeira Archipelago has ~260,000 inhabitants and receives over six million visitor days annually. The Selvagens Islands Reserve is one of the oldest nature reserves in Portugal and comprises two islands and several islets, including the surrounding shelf to a depth of 200 m...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132921/empirical-data-demonstrates-risk-tradeoffs-between-landscapes-for-herbivorous-fish-may-promote-reef-resilience
#10
Caitlin R Fong, Matthew Frias, Nicholas Goody, Sarah Joy Bittick, Rachel J Clausing, Peggy Fong
Herbivores balance resource requirements with predation risk, which can differ among landscapes; hence, landscape can shape these trade-offs, influencing herbivore distribution and behavior. While this paradigm has been well established on coral-dominated reefs, tropical reefs worldwide are shifting to algal dominance. If herbivores avoid algae due to higher risk and forage in coral, these algal states may be stabilized. However, if herbivores forage more in resource-rich algal states, this may promote coral recovery...
November 6, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114934/illegal-fishing-and-territorial-user-rights-in-chile
#11
Rodrigo Oyanedel, Andres Keim, Juan Carlos Castilla, Stefan Gelcich
Illegal fishing poses a major threat for the conservation of marine resources worldwide. However, there is still limited empirical research that quantifies illegal catch levels. This study uses the Randomized Response Technique to estimate the proportion of divers, and the quantities extracted of illegal "loco" (Concholepas concholepas), a gastropod managed for the past 17 years through a Territorial User Rights for Fisheries system (TURFs) in Chile. Results show that illegal fishing is widespread along the TURFs system, with official reported landings accounting for only 14- 30% of the total loco extraction...
November 7, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110521/what-makes-parents-act-and-react-parental-views-and-considerations-relating-to-child-health-during-infancy
#12
Gerd Almqvist-Tangen, Susann Arvidsson, Bernt Alm, Stefan Bergman, Josefine Roswall, Jovanna Dahlgren, Lauri Nevonen
Lifestyle factors and behaviours are adopted very early in life and tend to persist throughout life. Considering that the parents are the primary gatekeepers for their child's health, there is a need to gain more knowledge and deeper understanding about what causes parents to act and react in order for early preventive efforts to have any effect. The aim was to explore the parental views and considerations concerning 'child health' among parents with infants 8-10 months old. The sample was strategic and 16 parents (aged 23-41) were recruited from three child health centres in Sweden...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Child Health Care: for Professionals Working with Children in the Hospital and Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095037/the-heat-strain-of-various-athletic-surfaces-a-comparison-between-observed-and-modeled-wet-bulb-globe-temperatures
#13
J Luke Pryor, Riana R Pryor, Andrew Grundstein, Douglas J Casa
CONTEXT:   The National Athletic Trainers' Association recommends using onsite wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT) measurement to determine whether to modify or cancel physical activity. However, not all practitioners do so and instead they may rely on the National Weather Service (NWS) to monitor weather conditions. OBJECTIVE:   To compare regional NWS WBGT estimates with local athletic-surface readings and compare WBGT measurements among various local athletic surfaces...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090445/release-of-particles-organic-compounds-and-metals-from-crumb-rubber-used-in-synthetic-turf-under-chemical-and-physical-stress
#14
Silvia Canepari, Paola Castellano, Maria Luisa Astolfi, Stefano Materazzi, Riccardo Ferrante, Dennis Fiorini, Roberta Curini
The chemical and morphological characteristics of materials released under chemical and physical stress by different rubber granulates used as infill materials in synthetic turf (recycled scrap tires, natural rubber, and a new-generation thermoplastic elastomer) were compared.The headspace solid-phase micro-extraction GC-MS analysis evidenced that at 70 °C natural rubber and thermoplastic elastomer release amounts of organic species much higher than recycled scrap tires. In particular, the desorption of mineral oils, with a prevalence of toxicologically relevant low-viscosity alkanes in the range C17-C22, and plasticizers (diisobutyl phthalate) was clearly evidenced...
October 31, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081782/aba-is-involved-in-regulation-of-cold-stress-response-in-bermudagrass
#15
Xuebing Huang, Haiyan Shi, Zhengrong Hu, Ao Liu, Erick Amombo, Liang Chen, Jinmin Fu
As a representative warm-season grass, Bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L). Pers.] is widely used in turf systems. However, low temperature remarkably limits its growth and distribution. ABA is a crucial phytohormone that has been reported to regulate much important physiological and biochemical processes in plants under abiotic stress. Therefore, the objective of this study was to figure out the effects of ABA on the cold-sensitive (S) and cold-resistant (R) Bermudagrass genotypes response to cold stress. In this study, the plants were treated with 100 μM ABA solution and exposed to 4°C temperature...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080425/comparative-transcriptome-analysis-provides-new-insights-into-erect-and-prostrate-growth-in-bermudagrass-cynodon-dactylon-l
#16
Bing Zhang, Xiaolin Xiao, Junqin Zong, Jingbo Chen, Jianjian Li, Hailin Guo, Jianxiu Liu
Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L.) is a prominent warm-season turf and forage grass species with multiple applications. In most C. dactylon cultivars and accessions, erect-growing stems (shoot) and prostrate-growing stems (stolon) often coexist. These two types of stems are both formed through tillering but grow in two directions with different tiller angles. Elucidating the mechanism of tiller angle regulation in bermudagrass could provide important clues to breed cultivars with different plant architectural features for diverse usage...
October 21, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075277/the-alleviation-of-heat-damage-to-photosystem-ii-and-enzymatic-antioxidants-by-exogenous-spermidine-in-tall-fescue
#17
Liang Zhang, Tao Hu, Erick Amombo, Guangyang Wang, Yan Xie, Jinmin Fu
Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb) is a typical cool-season grass that is widely used in turf and pasture. However, high temperature as an abiotic stress seriously affects its utilization. The objective of this study was to explore the effect of spermidine (Spd) on heat stress response of tall fescue. The samples were exposed to 22°C (normal condition) or 44°C (heat stress) for 4 h. The results showed that exogenous Spd partially improved the quality of tall fescue leaves under normal temperature conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053641/wear-and-tear-of-tyres-a-stealthy-source-of-microplastics-in-the-environment
#18
REVIEW
Pieter Jan Kole, Ansje J Löhr, Frank G A J Van Belleghem, Ad M J Ragas
Wear and tear from tyres significantly contributes to the flow of (micro-)plastics into the environment. This paper compiles the fragmented knowledge on tyre wear and tear characteristics, amounts of particles emitted, pathways in the environment, and the possible effects on humans. The estimated per capita emission ranges from 0.23 to 4.7 kg/year, with a global average of 0.81 kg/year. The emissions from car tyres (100%) are substantially higher than those of other sources of microplastics, e.g., airplane tyres (2%), artificial turf (12-50%), brake wear (8%) and road markings (5%)...
October 20, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050413/laying-hens-in-aviaries-with-different-litter-substrates-behavior-across-the-flock-cycle-and-feather-lipid-content
#19
D L M Campbell, A B A Ali, D M Karcher, J M Siegford
The tiered aviary for laying hens includes a floor litter area to promote foraging and dust bathing. Data are needed on hens' use of different litter substrates and effectiveness of substrates in removing excess feather lipids to ensure a suitable litter area. Bovans White hens were housed in commercial-style aviaries with access to one of 3 litter substrates (wood shavings, straw, or plastic turf mats-AstroTurf®, n = 4 aviary pens per substrate, 144 cage-reared hens populated per pen). Litter areas were videoed across 2 d each at 4 ages: immediately following first aviary opening (25 wk), then at 28, 50, and 68 weeks...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048585/mowing-height-influences-listronotus-maculicollis-coleoptera-curculionidae-oviposition-behavior-and-mechanical-removal-from-golf-course-putting-greens-but-not-larval-development
#20
Benjamin D Czyzewski, Benjamin A McGraw
The annual bluegrass weevil, Listronotus maculicollis (Kirby), is a highly destructive pest of golf course turfgrass in eastern North America. Previous research has demonstrated that females prefer to oviposit within short-mown turfgrasses (<1.25 cm), and these offspring have improved fitness traits compared with larvae developing in higher-mowed turf. However, damage to putting green turf (<3.55 mm) is rarely reported. We investigated whether this phenomenon was due to adult removal through mowing or an inability of larvae to develop within a shortened plant...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
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