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Hepatitis b treatment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820727/sustained-off-treatment-response-after-discontinuation-of-long-term-nucleos-t-ide-analogue-treatment-in-hbeag-seronegative-hepatitis-b-a-case-series
#1
Marion Muche, Ulrike Meyer, Britta Siegmund, Rajan Somasundaram, Hans-Joerg Epple
International guidelines recommend lifelong nucleos(t)ide analogue (NA) treatment in individuals with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection who are hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seronegative, because hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) seroconversion is rarely achieved. However, after terminating therapy, sustained responses and HBsAg loss have been observed. Clinical characteristics identifying persons with favorable outcomes after discontinuing NA therapy have not yet been defined. This case series describes outcomes of 6 individuals with HBeAg-seronegative CHB infection without cirrhosis and low plasma levels of HBsAg who discontinued long-term NA treatment...
July 2017: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820468/resveratrol-in-hepatitis-c-patients-treated-with-pegylated-interferon-%C3%AE-2b-and-ribavirin-reduces-sleep-disturbance
#2
Manuela Pennisi, Gaetano Bertino, Caterina Gagliano, Michele Malaguarnera, Rita Bella, Antonio Maria Borzì, Roberto Madeddu, Filippo Drago, Giulia Malaguarnera
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus infection and interferon treatment have shown to be risk factors for sleep disorder health-related quality of life. AIM: To determine whether the effects of resveratrol on sleep disorders were associated with different tests in subjects with chronic hepatitis C treated with Peg-IFN-α and RBV. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this prospective, randomized, placebo controlled, double blind clinical trial, 30 subjects (Group A) with chronic hepatitis received Pegylated-Interferon-α2b (1...
August 18, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819561/factors-associated-with-the-decrease-in-hepatitis-b-surface-antigen-titers-following-interferon-therapy-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b-is-interferon-and-adefovir-combination-therapy-effective
#3
Yoshihiko Yano, Yasushi Seo, Hiroki Hayashi, Yuri Hatazawa, Hirotaka Hirano, Akihiro Minami, Yuki Kawano, Masaya Saito, Toshiaki Ninomiya, Masahiko Sugano, Hajime Yamada, Naoto Kitajima, Seitetsu Yoon, Yoshitake Hayashi
The purpose of antiviral therapy in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is generally to achieve a decrease and ultimately disappearance of HBs antigen (HBsAg). Interferon (IFN) therapy of CHB appears to be less effective in Asian countries than in European countries, and the advantage of IFN and nucleotide(s) analog (NA) combination therapy has yet to be fully investigated. The present study focused on the factors associated with a decrease in HBs antigen following IFN monotherapy or IFN + NA combination therapy. A total of 35 patients with CHB who received IFN-based therapy (mean ± standard deviation age 36...
September 2017: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817863/prevention-detection-and-management-of-diabetes-in-south-dakota
#4
Amy L Hogue, Mark K Huntington
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is increasing in prevalence nationwide and in South Dakota, with an especially high prevalence in its American Indian population. Screening is not recommended for type 1 DM, but is for type 2 DM and pre-diabetes in certain populations. Fasting glucose, two-hour glucose tolerance test, or hemoglobin A1c are appropriate screening options. Treatment can include diabetic self-management education programs and medications. In addition to glycemic control, other cardiovascular risk factors must be reduced in these patients and specific testing and consultations should be performed to detect complications such as nephropathy or retinopathy...
2017: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817570/increased-hepatotoxicity-among-hiv-infected-adults-co-infected-with-schistosoma-mansoni-in-tanzania-a-cross-sectional-study
#5
Amon I Marti, Soledad Colombe, Peter J Masikini, Samuel E Kalluvya, Luke R Smart, Bahati M Wajanga, Hyasinta Jaka, Robert N Peck, Jennifer A Downs
INTRODUCTION: Little is known about hepatotoxicity in patients with schistosome and HIV co-infections. Several studies have reported increased liver enzymes and bilirubin levels associated with schistosome infection. We investigated whether HIV-infected adults on antiretroviral therapy who had S. mansoni co-infection had a higher prevalence of hepatotoxicity than those without. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We determined the presence and grade of hepatotoxicity among 305 HIV-infected outpatients who had been on medium-term (3-6 months) and long-term (>36 months) antiretroviral therapy in a region of northwest Tanzania where S...
August 17, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817445/the-safety-of-pembrolizumab-in-metastatic-melanoma-and-rheumatoid-arthritis
#6
Akshjot Puri, Jade Homsi
Immunotherapy has been in use for the treatment of melanoma since a very long time, but only recently have the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) antibody ipilimumab and programmed cell death-1 inhibitors such as nivolimumab and pembrolizumab been shown to induce marked improvements in survival in patients with metastatic melanoma. An important concern arises in terms of the safety of the use of these agents in patients with autoimmune diseases, solid organ transplant recipients on immunosuppression, patients with a history of previous hepatitis B or C, and patients with HIV infections as these patients were excluded from pivotal immunotherapy studies...
August 16, 2017: Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816082/zeaxanthin-dipalmitate-alleviates-hepatic-injury-induced-by-superimposed-chronic-hepatitis-b-and-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-in-non-obese-mice
#7
Jing-Jing Li, Hao Gao, Yi Lv, Mian-Huan Li, Chao-Ran Ren, Kwok-Fai So, Jia Xiao
A hepatitis B virus (HBV) transgenic mice model was used to establish the fatty liver superimposed model by feeding the methionine choline-deficient (MCD) diet for 8 weeks, with or without the gavage of 2 mg/kg zeaxanthin dipalmitate (ZD) three times per week. Both wild-type and HBV transgenic mice, with MCD diet, gained typical non-obese non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and HBV symptoms. Coadministration with ZD exhibited evident therapeutic effects through alleviating those pathological events. Moreover, long-term vehicle-ZD treatment was found to be safe...
September 2017: Journal of Asian Natural Products Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815822/hepatitis-c-virus-related-complications-are-increasing-in-women-veterans-a-national-cohort-study
#8
J R Kramer, H B El-Serag, T J Taylor, D L White, S M Asch, S M Frayne, Y Cao, D L Smith, F Kanwal
There are gender-specific variations in the epidemiology and clinical course of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. However, few long-term longitudinal studies have examined trends in the incidence and prevalence of serious liver complications among women compared with men with HCV infection. We used the Veterans Administration Corporate Data Warehouse to identify all veterans with positive HCV viraemia from January 2000 to December 2013. We calculated gender-specific annual incidence and prevalence rates of cirrhosis, decompensated cirrhosis and hepatocellular cancer (HCC) adjusting for age, diabetes, HIV and alcohol use...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815408/diphenyl-diselenide-modulates-nucleotidases-reducing-inflammatory-responses-in-the-liver-of-toxoplasma-gondii-infected-mice
#9
Pedro H Doleski, Daniela B R Leal, Vanessa S Machado, Nathieli B Bottari, Alessandra G Manzoni, Emerson A Casali, Cesar E J Moritz, Ana C A Rocha, Giovana Camillo, Fernanda F Vogel, Lenita M Stefani, Ricardo E Mendes, Aleksandro Schafer da Silva
The aim of this study was to verify the effect of diphenyl diselenide (PhSe)2 on hepatic nucleotidases and on the concentration of purines in mice infected by Toxoplasma gondii. The animals were divided into four groups: Group A (uninfected), Group B (uninfected and treated with (PhSe)2), Group C (infected), and Group D (infected and treated with (PhSe)2). The inoculation (groups C and D) was performed with 50 cysts of T. gondii (ME-49 strain). Mice from groups B and D were treated with 5 μmol kg(-1) of (PhSe)2...
August 16, 2017: Purinergic Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814240/structure-properties-and-mechanisms-of-action-of-naturally-originated-phenolic-acids-and-their-derivatives-against-human-viral-infections
#10
Yi-Hang Wu, Bing-Yi Zhang, Li-Peng Qiu, Rong-Fa Guan, Zi-Hong Ye, Xiao-Ping Yu
BACKGROUND: A great effort has been made to develop efficacious antiviral drugs, but many viral infections are still lack of efficient antiviral therapies so far. The related exploration of natural products to fight viruses has been raised in recent years. Natural compounds with structural diversity and complexity offer a great chance to find new antiviral agents. Particularly, phenolic acids have attracted considerable attention owing to their potent antiviral abilities and unique mechanisms...
August 14, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811781/screening-of-adult-dental-patients-visiting-khyber-college-of-dentistry-peshawar-for-hbv-and-hcv-infections-and-identifying-the-associated-risk-factors
#11
Jamila Haider, Ghosia Lufullah, Rubina Nazli, Tasleem Akhtar, Asma Shah
OBJECTIVE: To screen out adult patients for HBV and HCV infections visiting Khyber College of Dentistry Peshawar (KCD) for different dental treatments and to identify the associated risk factors. METHOD: This cross-sectional study was conducted at Khyber College of Dentistry, Peshawar in the year 2013. A total of 1540 patients >15 years, visiting KCD for seeking different dental treatments were screened for hepatitis B & C. Informed consent was taken before blood collection and filling of a structured questionnaire...
May 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811492/interferon-alpha-treatment-rapidly-clears-hepatitis-e-virus-infection-in-humanized-mice
#12
Martijn D B van de Garde, Suzan D Pas, Gertine W van Oord, Lucio Gama, Youkyung Choi, Robert A de Man, Andre Boonstra, Thomas Vanwolleghem
Antiviral treatment options for chronic Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) infections are limited and immunological determinants of viral persistence remain largely unexplored. We studied the antiviral potency of pegylated interferon-α (pegIFNα) against HEV infections in humanized mice and modelled intrahepatic interferon stimulated gene (ISG) responses. Human gene expression levels in humanized mouse livers were analyzed by qPCR and Nanostring. Human CXCL10 was measured in mouse serum. HEV genotype 3 (gt3) infections were cleared from liver and feces within 8 pegIFNα doses in all mice and relapsed after a single pegIFNα injection in only half of treated animals...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810886/factors-affecting-survival-after-concurrent-chemoradiation-therapy-for-advanced-hepatocellular-carcinoma-a-retrospective-study
#13
Ja Kyung Kim, Jun Won Kim, Ik Jae Lee, Seung-Moon Joo, Kwang-Hun Lee, Eun-Suk Cho, Jeong-Sik Yu, Tae Joo Jeon, Yonsoo Kim, Jung Il Lee, Kwan Sik Lee
BACKGROUND: Concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CCRT) followed by hepatic arterial infusional chemotherapy (HAIC) was reported to be effective for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with portal vein thrombosis. However, transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is not preferred in this setting. The aim of this study was to assess the factors affecting survival after CCRT, including additional TACE during repeated HAIC. METHODS: Thirty-eight patients who underwent CCRT as the initial treatment for Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage C HCC with vascular invasion between 2009 and 2016 were reviewed retrospectively...
August 15, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810252/the-impact-of-the-hepatitis-b-core-antibody-status-on-recurrence-in-patients-with-non-b-non-c-hepatocellular-carcinoma-after-curative-surgery
#14
Yukiyasu Okamura, Teiichi Sugiura, Takaaki Ito, Yusuke Yamamoto, Ryo Ashida, Katsuhiko Uesaka
BACKGROUND: The serum antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAb) is considered a risk factor of liver carcinogenesis. This study aimed to reveal whether HBcAb status is a prognostic factor after hepatectomy is performed for treating hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: This retrospective study enrolled 272 patients who underwent hepatectomy as the initial treatment for HCC and who were followed up over 5 years after surgery. The types of HCC were classified into the following 3 types according to the hepatitis virus infection status and the patients without hepatitis virus infection non-B non-C HCC (NBNC-HCC) were further classified into 2 groups...
August 16, 2017: Digestive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809734/wait-time-for-curative-intent-radio-frequency-ablation-is-associated-with-increased-mortality-in-patients-with-early-stage-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#15
Mayur Brahmania, Osman Ahmed, Melissa Kelley, David Wong, Matthew Kowgier, Korosh Khalili, Rob Beecroft, Eberhard L Renner, Hemant Shah, Jordan Feld, Harry L A Janssen, Morris Sherman
INTRODUCTION: Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a recommended curative intent treatment option for patients with early stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We investigated if wait times for RFA were associated with residual tumor, tumor recurrence, need for liver transplantation, or death. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of patients diagnosed with HCC between January 2010 and December 2013 presenting to University Health Network (UHN) in Toronto, Canada...
August 8, 2017: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807841/racial-disparity-in-gastrointestinal-cancer-risk
#16
REVIEW
Hassan Ashktorab, Sonia S Kupfer, Hassan Brim, John M Carethers
Cancer from the gastrointestinal tract and its associated excretory organs will occur in over 300,000 Americans in 2017, with colorectal cancer responsible for over forty percent of that burden; there will be over 150,000 deaths from this group of cancers in the same time period. Disparities among subgroups related to these cancers' incidence and mortality exist. The epidemiology and risk factors associated with each cancer bear out differences for racial groups in the United States. Esophageal adenocarcinoma is more frequent in Non-Hispanic Whites, whereas esophageal squamous cell carcinoma with risk factors of tobacco and alcohol is more frequent among Blacks...
August 11, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806922/hepatitis-b-reactivation-characterized-by-hbsag-negativity-and-anti-hbsag-antibodies-persistence-in-haematopoietic-stem-cell-transplanted-patient-after-lamivudine-withdrawal
#17
C Cerva, G Maffongelli, V Svicher, R Salpini, L Colagrossi, A Battisti, B Mariotti, R Cerretti, L Cudillo, L Sarmati
BACKGROUND: HBV reactivation is associated with high mortality rates in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and prophylactic lamivudine (LMV) treatment is suggested to prevent this phenomenon. However, the duration of LMV treatment in HSCT patients is not fully defined and the time of immune recovery is considered the best parameter for a drug to be safely interrupted. In patients undergoing allogeneic HSCT, the time of immune recovery is not easy to define and may take years after transplantation and prolonged LMV treatments, which can lead to drug-resistant viral strains...
August 15, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805669/effect-of-mediterranean-diet-and-antioxidant-formulation-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-randomized-study
#18
Ludovico Abenavoli, Marta Greco, Natasa Milic, Francesca Accattato, Daniela Foti, Elio Gulletta, Francesco Luzza
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease worldwide, characterized by liver fatty acid accumulation and fibrosis, not due to excessive alcohol consumption. Notably, nutritional habits have been reported to be implicated in the onset and severity of the hepatic damage, while the Mediterranean diet has shown beneficial effects on NAFLD. Free radicals and oxidative stress were suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis and progression of NAFLD, and several data highlighted the efficacy of antioxidant supplementation in its treatment...
August 12, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804442/mesozeaxanthin-protects-the-liver-and-reduces-cardio-metabolic-risk-factors-in-an-insulin-resistant-rodent-model
#19
Kazim Sahin, Cemal Orhan, Fatih Akdemir, Mehmet Tuzcu, Nurhan Sahin, Ismet Yilmaz, Shakir Ali, Jayant Deshpande, Vijaya Juturu
Background: Mesozeaxanthin (MZ) is a macular carotenoid which has been reported to have a number of pharmacological properties, including the antioxidant, and anticarcinogenic property, and has been stated to decrease the hepatocyte lipid content. Objective: In this study, we investigated the effect of MZ on cardio-metabolic health risk (CMHR) and its probable mechanisms of action in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Design: Rats were randomly divided into four groups consisting of (i) Control, (ii) MZ, (iii) HFD, and (iv) HFD+MZ...
2017: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802814/safety-and-efficacy-of-a-fixed-dose-combination-regimen-of-grazoprevir-ruzasvir-and-uprifosbuvir-with-or-without-ribavirin-in-participants-with-and-without-cirrhosis-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-genotype-1-2-or-3-infection-c-crest-1-and-c-crest-2-part-b-two
#20
Eric Lawitz, Maria Buti, John M Vierling, Piero L Almasio, Savino Bruno, Peter J Ruane, Tarek I Hassanein, Beat Muellhaupt, Brian Pearlman, Ligita Jancoriene, Wei Gao, Hsueh-Cheng Huang, Aimee Shepherd, Brynne Tannenbaum, Doreen Fernsler, Jerry J Li, Anjana Grandhi, Hong Liu, Feng-Hsiu Su, Shuyan Wan, Frank J Dutko, Bach-Yen T Nguyen, Janice Wahl, Michael N Robertson, Eliav Barr, Wendy W Yeh, Rebeca M Plank, Joan R Butterton, Eric M Yoshida
BACKGROUND: There is a need for hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapies with excellent efficacy across genotypes and in diverse populations. Part A of the C-CREST-1 and C-CREST-2 trials led to the selection of a three-drug regimen of grazoprevir (MK-5172; an HCV NS3/4A protease inhibitor; 100 mg/day) plus ruzasvir (MK-8408; an NS5A inhibitor; 60 mg/day) plus uprifosbuvir (MK-3682; an HCV NS5B polymerase inhibitor; 450 mg/day). Part B of the studies tested this combination as a single formulation in different treatment durations in a broader population...
August 9, 2017: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
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