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Functional near-infrared spectroscopy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439757/when-is-higher-level-cognitive-control-needed-for-locomotor-tasks-among-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#1
Inbal Maidan, Hagar Bernad-Elazari, Nir Giladi, Jeffrey M Hausdorff, Anat Mirelman
Turning has been implicated as a complex task that requires both motor and cognitive resources. Accumulating evidence shows that patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) require more steps and more time to complete a turn, however, the role of the prefrontal cortex during turning is not clear. Forty nine patients with PD without freezing of gait (mean age 71.7 ± 1.0 years; 67% men, disease duration 9.7 ± 1.3 years) performed motor and cognitive tests. Prefrontal activation, specifically in Brodmann area 10 (BA10), during turning and usual walking was measured using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS)...
April 24, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439520/relationship-between-relative-cerebral-blood-flow-relative-cerebral-blood-volume-and-relative-cerebral-metabolic-rate-of-oxygen-in-the-preterm-neonatal-brain
#2
Mina Nourhashemi, Guy Kongolo, Mahdi Mahmoudzadeh, Sabrina Goudjil, Fabrice Wallois
The mechanisms responsible for coupling between relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF), relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV), and relative cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen ([Formula: see text]), an important function of the microcirculation in preterm infants, remain unclear. Identification of a causal relationship between rCBF-rCBV and [Formula: see text] in preterms may, therefore, help to elucidate the principles of cortical hemodynamics during development. We simultaneously recorded rCBF and rCBV and estimated [Formula: see text] by two independent acquisition systems: diffuse correlation spectroscopy and near-infrared spectroscopy, respectively, in 10 preterms aged between 28 and 35 weeks of gestational age...
April 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438718/the-effect-of-50-compared-to-100-inspired-oxygen-fraction-on-brain-oxygenation-and-post-cardiac-arrest-mitochondrial-function-in-experimental-cardiac-arrest
#3
Annika Nelskyla, Jouni Nurmi, Milla Jousi, Alexey Schramko, Eero Mervaala, Giuseppe Ristagno, Markus B Skrifvars
BACKGROUND AND AIM: We hypothesised that the use of 50% compared to 100% oxygen maintains cerebral oxygenation and ameliorates the disturbance of cardiac mitochondrial respiration during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). METHODS: Ventricular fibrillation (VF) was induced electrically in anaesthetised healthy adult pigs and left untreated for seven minutes followed by randomisation to manual ventilation with 50% or 100% oxygen and mechanical chest compressions (LUCAS(®))...
April 21, 2017: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434642/-late-life-depression-or-prodromal-alzheimer-s-disease-which-tools-for-the-differential-diagnosis
#4
A-I Gasser, V Salamin, S Zumbach
INTRODUCTION: Depression and Alzheimer's disease are both very frequent in elderly people. Cognitive deficits are the hallmark of Alzheimer's disease, but they are also common in depressed elderly people who often present cognitive deficits such as memory, attention and executive function problems. On the other hand, people with early Alzheimer's disease demonstrate emotional and behavioral disorders generally encountered in depression such as loss of energy, apathy, mood disorder, and irritability...
April 20, 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430499/bc8-silicon-si-iii-is-a-narrow-gap-semiconductor
#5
Haidong Zhang, Hanyu Liu, Kaya Wei, Oleksandr O Kurakevych, Yann Le Godec, Zhenxian Liu, Joshua Martin, Michael Guerrette, George S Nolas, Timothy A Strobel
Large-volume, phase-pure synthesis of BC8 silicon (Ia3[over ¯], cI16) has enabled bulk measurements of optical, electronic, and thermal properties. Unlike previous reports that conclude BC8-Si is semimetallic, we demonstrate that this phase is a direct band gap semiconductor with a very small energy gap and moderate carrier concentration and mobility at room temperature, based on far- and midinfrared optical spectroscopy, temperature-dependent electrical conductivity, Seebeck and heat capacity measurements...
April 7, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424602/assessing-the-driver-s-current-level-of-working-memory-load-with-high-density-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-a-realistic-driving-simulator-study
#6
Anirudh Unni, Klas Ihme, Meike Jipp, Jochem W Rieger
Cognitive overload or underload results in a decrease in human performance which may result in fatal incidents while driving. We envision that driver assistive systems which adapt their functionality to the driver's cognitive state could be a promising approach to reduce road accidents due to human errors. This research attempts to predict variations of cognitive working memory load levels in a natural driving scenario with multiple parallel tasks and to reveal predictive brain areas. We used a modified version of the n-back task to induce five different working memory load levels (from 0-back up to 4-back) forcing the participants to continuously update, memorize, and recall the previous 'n' speed sequences and adjust their speed accordingly while they drove for approximately 60 min on a highway with concurrent traffic in a virtual reality driving simulator...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422138/abnormal-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-the-orbitofrontal-cortex-of-heroin-users-and-its-relationship-with-anxiety-a-pilot-fnirs-study
#7
Hada Fong-Ha Ieong, Zhen Yuan
Drug addiction is widely linked to the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), which is essential for regulating reward-related behaviors, emotional responses, and anxiety. Over the past two decades, neuroimaging has provided significant contributions revealing functional and structural alternations in the brains of drug addicts. However, the underlying neural mechanism in the OFC and its correlates with drug addiction and anxiety still require further elucidation. We first presented a pilot investigation to examine local networks in OFC regions through resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) from eight abstinent addicts in a heroin-dependent group (HD) and seven subjects in a control group (CG)...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421173/cerebral-autoregulation-brain-injury-and-the-transitioning-premature-infant
#8
REVIEW
Zachary A Vesoulis, Amit M Mathur
Improvements in clinical management of the preterm infant have reduced the rates of the two most common forms of brain injury, such as severe intraventricular hemorrhage and white matter injury, both of which are contributory factors in the development of cerebral palsy. Nonetheless, they remain a persistent challenge and are associated with a significant increase in the risk of adverse neurodevelopment outcomes. Repeated episodes of ischemia-reperfusion represent a common pathway for both forms of injury, arising from discordance between systemic blood flow and the innate regulation of cerebral blood flow in the germinal matrix and periventricular white matter...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420824/dynamic-changes-in-near-infrared-spectroscopy-nirs-findings-in-first-episode-schizophrenia-a-case-report
#9
Tsuyoshi Hatakeyama, Yasuto Kunii, Itaru Miura, Shuntaro Itagaki, Soichi Kono, Tetsuya Shiga, Sachie Oshima, Keiko Nozaki, Rieko Suzuki, Hirooki Yabe
The clinical course of schizophrenia is characterized by recurrence and chronicity and has a large burden on society. Nevertheless, diagnosis of schizophrenia is based only on distinctive symptoms and the disease course. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a useful method for measuring changes in the hemoglobin concentration in the cortical surface area and reflects brain function. We measured NIRS four times during the clinical course in a patient with first-episode schizophrenia.A 17-year-old woman admitted to our hospital because of hallucinations, delusions and appetite loss...
April 15, 2017: Fukushima Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420129/hand-motion-detection-in-fnirs-neuroimaging-data
#10
Mohammadreza Abtahi, Amir Mohammad Amiri, Dennis Byrd, Kunal Mankodiya
As the number of people diagnosed with movement disorders is increasing, it becomes vital to design techniques that allow the better understanding of human brain in naturalistic settings. There are many brain imaging methods such as fMRI, SPECT, and MEG that provide the functional information of the brain. However, these techniques have some limitations including immobility, cost, and motion artifacts. One of the most emerging portable brain scanners available today is functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS)...
April 15, 2017: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419082/diffuse-optical-tomography-to-investigate-the-newborn-brain
#11
REVIEW
Chuen Wai Lee, Robert J Cooper, Topun Austin
Over the past 15 years, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) has emerged as a powerful technology for studying the developing brain. Diffuse Optical Tomography (DOT) is an extension of fNIRS that combines hemodynamic information from dense optical sensor arrays over a wide field of view. Using image reconstruction techniques, DOT can provide images of the hemodynamic correlates to neural function that are comparable to those produced by functional MRI (fMRI). This review article explains the principles of DOT, and highlights the growing literature on the use of DOT in the study of healthy development of the infant brain, and the study of novel pathophysiology in infants with brain injury...
April 18, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410055/olfactory-recognition-based-on-eeg-gamma-band-activity
#12
Onder Aydemir
There are various kinds of brain monitoring techniques, including local field potential, near-infrared spectroscopy, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography, functional MRI, electroencephalography (EEG), and magnetoencephalography. Among those techniques, EEG is the most widely used one due to its portability, low setup cost, and noninvasiveness. Apart from other advantages, EEG signals also help to evaluate the ability of the smelling organ. In such studies, EEG signals, which are recorded during smelling, are analyzed to determine the subject lacks any smelling ability or to measure the response of the brain...
April 14, 2017: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407509/infant-word-segmentation-recruits-the-cerebral-network-of-phonological-short-term-memory
#13
Yasuyo Minagawa, Yoko Hakuno, Ai Kobayashi, Nozomi Naoi, Shozo Kojima
Segmenting word units from running speech is a fundamental skill infants must develop in order to acquire language. Despite ample behavioral evidence of this skill, its neurocognitive basis remains unclear. Using behavioral testing and functional near-infrared spectroscopy, we aimed to uncover the neurocognitive substrates of word segmentation and its development. Of three age-groups of Japanese infants (5-6, 7-8, and 9-10months of age), the two older age-groups showed significantly larger temporo-parietal (particularly supramarginal gyrus) responses to target words repeatedly presented for training, than to control words...
April 10, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400816/the-cortical-activation-pattern-during-bilateral-arm-raising-movements
#14
Sung Ho Jang, Jung Pyo Seo, Seung-Hyun Lee, Sang-Hyun Jin, Sang Seok Yeo
Bilateral arm raising movements have been used in brain rehabilitation for a long time. However, no study has been reported on the effect of these movements on the cerebral cortex. In this study, using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), we attempted to investigate cortical activation generated during bilateral arm raising movements. Ten normal subjects were recruited for this study. fNIRS was performed using an fNIRS system with 49 channels. Bilateral arm raising movements were performed in sitting position at the rate of 0...
February 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400568/complexity-analysis-of-fnirs-signals-in-adhd-children-during-working-memory-task
#15
Yue Gu, Shuo Miao, Junxia Han, Ke Zeng, Gaoxiang Ouyang, Jian Yang, Xiaoli Li
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder in children. Neuroimaging studies have revealed abnormalities of neural activities in some brain regions, including the frontal cortex, striatum, cerebellum, and occipital cortex. Recently, some investigators have demonstrated that nonlinear complexity analysis of neural activity may provide a new index to indicate ADHD. In the present study, we used the permutation entropy (PE) to measure the complexity of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) signals in children with and without ADHD during a working memory task, it was aimed to investigate the relationship between the PE values and the cortical activations, and the different PE values between the children with and without ADHD...
April 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398030/surface-functionalization-with-copper-tetraaminophthalocyanine-enables-efficient-charge-transport-in-indium-tin-oxide-nanocrystal-thin-films
#16
Mahdi Samadi Khoshkhoo, Santanu Maiti, Frank Schreiber, Thomas Chassé, Marcus Scheele
Macroscopic superlattices of tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) nanocrystals (NCs) are prepared by self-assembly at the air/liquid interface followed by simultaneous ligand exchange with the organic semiconductor copper 4,4',4″,4‴-tetraaminophthalocyanine (Cu4APc). By using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS), and ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared (UV-vis-NIR) spectroscopy, we demonstrate that the semiconductor molecules largely replace the native surfactant from the ITO NC surface and act as cross-linkers between neighboring particles...
April 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391280/improvement-of-orbitofrontal-cortex-function-associated-with-blephrospasm-symptom-remission
#17
Chen-Yu Shen, Yong-Jun Wang, Xiao-Min Liu, Xiao-Qian Zhang, Xia-Jin Ren, Xiang-Yun Ma, Jing-Jing Sun, Kun Feng, Gao-Xiang Sun, Bo Xu, Po-Zi Liu
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) function improves with blepharospasm (BSP) symptom remission using a verbal fluency task and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). METHODS: Nineteen BSP patients and 9 healthy controls (HCs) matched by gender and education were examined using NIRS. The BSP patients were divided into 2 groups based on the onset or remission of BSP symptoms. A covariance analysis was conducted to analyze the differences among the 3 groups to avoid the influence of different ages...
April 8, 2017: European Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390058/acute-effects-of-exercise-posture-on-executive-function-in-transient-ischemic-attack-patients
#18
James Faulkner, Lee Stoner, Rebecca Grigg, Simon Fryer, Keeron Stone, Danielle Lambrick
In patients with stroke or transient ischemic attacks (TIA), a decline in executive function may limit an individual's ability to process motor tasks and relearn motor skills. The purpose of this study was to assess the acute effect of exercise posture (seated vs. supine cycle ergometry) on executive function and prefrontal cortex perfusion in patients with TIA. Eleven TIA patients (65 ± 10 years) and 15 age-matched, healthy controls (HC; 62 ± 7 years) completed two exercise tests to maximal capacity (one seated, one supine) and two 30-min submaximal exercise tests (one seated, one supine)...
April 8, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388066/photophysics-of-coumarin-and-carbostyril-sensitized-luminescent-lanthanide-complexes-implications-for-complex-design-in-multiplex-detection
#19
Daniel Kovacs, Xi Lu, Lívia S Mészáros, Marjam Ott, Julien Andres, K Eszter Borbas
Luminescent lanthanide (Ln(III)) complexes with coumarin or carbostyril antennae were synthesized and their photophysical properties evaluated using steady-state and time-resolved UV-vis spectroscopy. Ligands bearing distant hydroxycoumarin-derived antennae attached through triazole linkers were modest sensitizers for Eu(III) and Tb(III), whereas ligands with 7-amidocarbostyrils directly linked to the coordination site could reach good quantum yields for multiple Ln(III), including the visible emitters Sm(III) and Dy(III), and the near-infrared emitters Nd(III) and Yb(III)...
April 18, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386576/functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-study-on-tonic-pain-activation-by-cold-pressor-test
#20
Zeinab Barati, Issa Zakeri, Kambiz Pourrezaei
Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) has recently been suggested for monitoring cortical hemodynamic response to experimental and clinical acute pain. However, the hemodynamic response to a tonic, noxious cold stimulus, and its relation with subjective pain sensation is not fully characterized. We investigated the relationship between pain threshold and tolerance and the evoked hemodynamic response to cold pressor tests (CPTs) at varying intensities and explored the gender effect. Twenty-one healthy individuals (10 males and 11 females) performed four CPTs at 1°C, 5°C, 10°C, and 15°C...
January 2017: Neurophotonics
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