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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768999/essentials-and-perspectives-of-computational-modelling-assistance-for-cns-oriented-nanoparticle-based-drug-delivery-systems
#1
Joanna Kisała, Kinga I Heclik, Krzysztof Pogocki, Dariusz Pogocki
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a complex system controlling two-way substances traffic between circulatory (cardiovascular) system and central nervous system (CNS). It is almost perfectly crafted to regulate brain homeostasis and to permit selective transport of molecules that are essential for brain function. For potential drug candidates, the CNS-oriented neuropharmaceuticals as well as for those of primary targets in the periphery, the extent to which a substance in the circulation gains access to the CNS seems crucial...
May 16, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761824/impact-of-cardio-synchronous-brain-pulsations-on-monte-carlo-calculated-doses-for-synchrotron-micro-and-mini-beam-radiation-therapy
#2
Francisco Manchado de Sola, Manuel Vilches, Yolanda Prezado, Antonio M Lallena
PURPOSE: To assess the effects of brain movements induced by heartbeat on dose distributions in synchrotron micro- and mini-beam radiaton therapy and to develop a model to help guide decisions and planning for future clinical trials. METHODS: The Monte Carlo code PENELOPE was used to simulate the irradiation of a human head phantom with a variety of micro- and mini-beam arrays, with beams narrower than 100 μm and above 500 μm, respectively, and with radiation fields of 1cm × 2cm and 2cm × 2cm...
May 15, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761018/behavioral-and-neurophysiological-abnormalities-during-cued-continuous-performance-tasks-in-patients-with-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#3
Weixiang Zhao, Ruhong Wu, Suhong Wang, Haihui Qi, Yitao Qian, Suinuan Wang
Objective: This study's aim was to investigate the features and neural mechanisms of sustained attention in patients with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) by comparing and analyzing neuropsychological, behavioral, event-related potentials, and event-related desynchronization and synchronization between mTBI patients and healthy controls. Methods: Twenty mTBI patients with mTBI and 20 healthy controls underwent the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and a cued continuous performance task (AX-CPT)...
May 2018: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760643/combining-polygenic-hazard-score-with-volumetric-mri-and-cognitive-measures-improves-prediction-of-progression-from-mild-cognitive-impairment-to-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Karolina Kauppi, Chun Chieh Fan, Linda K McEvoy, Dominic Holland, Chin Hong Tan, Chi-Hua Chen, Ole A Andreassen, Rahul S Desikan, Anders M Dale
Improved prediction of progression to Alzheimer's Disease (AD) among older individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is of high clinical and societal importance. We recently developed a polygenic hazard score (PHS) that predicted age of AD onset above and beyond APOE . Here, we used data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) to further explore the potential clinical utility of PHS for predicting AD development in older adults with MCI. We examined the predictive value of PHS alone and in combination with baseline structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data on performance on the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE)...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751506/neurocognitive-disorders-and-dehydration-in-older-patients-clinical-experience-supports-the-hydromolecular-hypothesis-of-dementia
#5
Michele Lauriola, Antonio Mangiacotti, Grazia D'Onofrio, Leandro Cascavilla, Francesco Paris, Giulia Paroni, Davide Seripa, Antonio Greco, Daniele Sancarlo
Abnormalities of water homeostasis can be early expressions of neuronal dysfunction, brain atrophy, chronic cerebrovasculopathy and neurodegenerative disease. The aim of this study was to analyze the serum osmolality of subjects with cognitive impairment. One thousand and ninety-one consecutive patients attending the Alzheimer’s Evaluation Unit were evaluated with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), 21-Item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-21), Activities of Daily Living (ADL), Instrumental-ADL (IADL), Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), Exton-Smith Scale (ESS), and Cumulative Illness Rating Scale (CIRS)...
May 3, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751289/perfusion-alterations-converge-with-patterns-of-pathological-spread-in-transactive-response-dna-binding-protein-43-proteinopathies
#6
Pilar M Ferraro, Charles Jester, Christopher A Olm, Katerina Placek, Federica Agosta, Lauren Elman, Leo McCluskey, David J Irwin, John A Detre, Massimo Filippi, Murray Grossman, Corey T McMillan
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) commonly share the presence of transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) inclusions. Structural magnetic resonance imaging studies demonstrated evidence for TDP-43 pathology spread, but while structural imaging usually reveals overt neuronal loss, perfusion imaging may detect more subtle neural activity alterations. We evaluated perfusion as an early marker for incipient pathology-associated brain alterations in TDP-43 proteinopathies...
April 17, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744799/dti-derived-indexes-of-brain-wm-correlate-with-cognitive-performance-in-vascular-mci-and-small-vessel-disease-a-tbss-study
#7
Mario Mascalchi, Emilia Salvadori, Nicola Toschi, Marco Giannelli, Stefano Orsolini, Stefano Ciulli, Andrea Ginestroni, Anna Poggesi, Antonio Giorgio, Francesca Lorenzini, Marco Pasi, Nicola De Stefano, Leonardo Pantoni, Domenico Inzitari, Stefano Diciotti
Indexes derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) are sensitive to changes of both T2-hyperintense and normal-appearing brain white matter (WM) in elderly subjects with variable cognitive status. We investigated correlations between global cognitive performance and DTI-derived indexes along the WM tracts in the brain of patients with vascular mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and small vessel disease (SVD). Seventy-six patients with vascular MCI and SVD were assessed through Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) test and underwent DTI examination on a 1...
May 9, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740940/leukodystrophies-due-to-astroyctic-dysfunction
#8
Marianna Bugiani, Marjolein Breur
Leukodystrophies are genetically determined disorders due to defects in any structural components of the brain white matter. This mini-symposium presents a selection of leukodystrophies due to astrocytic dysfunction, the astrocytopathies. Examples are provided of astrocytopathies due to defects in astrocyte-specific proteins and in which astrocytes play a major role in the pathophysiology. Knowledge on the disease mechanisms underlying these leukodystrophies also provides information how loss of physiologic functions and gain of detrimental functions in astrocytes leads to degeneration of the white matter...
May 2018: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740553/development-and-validation-of-exercise-rehabilitation-program-for-cognitive-function-and-activity-of-daily-living-improvement-in-mild-dementia-elderly
#9
Mi-Ri Choi, Ji-Youn Kim, Eun-Surk Yi
We investigated the effect of exercise rehabilitation based on fine motor movement for the elderly with mild dementia. Using electroencephalogram (EEG), the change of brain wave of them based on fine motor movement and comparing the improvement level of cognitive ability and performance capability in daily living activity was recorded. The subjects were the elderly with mild dementia living in a sanatorium in Incheon city. Mini-Mental Status Examination, activity of daily living (ADL), and the influence on depression were examined...
April 2018: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734209/continuous-low-dose-infusion-of-patupilone-increases-the-therapeutic-index-in-mouse-and-rat-tumour-models
#10
Mike Becquet, Laurent Laborde, Celine Texier, Dario Sterker, Hans-Peter Gschwind, Ulrike Pfaar, Markus Wartmann, Terry M O'Reilly, Paul M McSheehy
Patupilone is a microtubule-targeted cytotoxic agent with clinical efficacy, but causes diarrhoea in more than 80% of patients. The efficacy and tolerability of patupilone delivered continuously by subcutaneous (s.c.) mini-pumps [(mini-pump dose (MPD)] or by intravenous bolus administration [intravenous bolus dose (IVBD)] were compared preclinically to determine whether the therapeutic index could be improved. The antiproliferative potency in vitro of patupilone was determined by measuring total cell protein...
May 4, 2018: Anti-cancer Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725309/reduced-white-matter-integrity-with-cognitive-impairments-in-end-stage-renal-disease
#11
Yi Yin, Meng Li, Chao Li, Xiaofen Ma, Jianhao Yan, Tianyue Wang, Shishun Fu, Kelei Hua, Yunfan Wu, Wenfeng Zhan, Guihua Jiang
Background: End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is a serious public health problem, which can often lead to multiorgan dysfunction, such as cerebrovascular disease and cognitive damage. It is essential to understand cognitive impairment in patients with ESRD to develop better ESRD treatment and prevent further cognitive impairment. Cognitive impairment is believed to be related to structural abnormalities in the brain. Purpose: To investigate white matter microstructural abnormalities in patients with ESRD using TBSS analysis of DTI and to explore the possible mechanisms underlying the impaired cognitive function...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724602/emergence-of-non-motor-fluctuations-with-reference-to-motor-fluctuations-in-parkinson-s-disease
#12
Aryun Kim, Han-Joon Kim, Chae Won Shin, Ahro Kim, Yoon Kim, Mihee Jang, Yu Jin Jung, Woong-Woo Lee, Hyeyoung Park, Beomseok Jeon
INTRODUCTION: Non-motor fluctuations (NMF) and motor fluctuations (MF) are frequent in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) with long-term medical treatment. We aimed to examine the timing of the emergence of NMF with reference to MF in a prospective cohort of patients with PD without symptom fluctuations. METHODS: A total of 334 patients with PD who had neither MF nor NMF were recruited. The exclusion criteria included a Mini-Mental State Examination score of less than 26 points at baseline and an alternative diagnosis or significant comorbidity during follow-up...
April 19, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722955/increased-iron-deposition-on-brain-quantitative-susceptibility-mapping-correlates-with-decreased-cognitive-function-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Lei Du, Zifang Zhao, Ailing Cui, Yijiang Zhu, Lu Zhang, Jing Liu, Sumin Shi, Chao Fu, Xiaowei Han, Wenwen Gao, Tianbin Song, Lizhi Xie, Lei Wang, Shilong Sun, Runcai Guo, Guolin Ma
The excessive accumulation of iron in deep gray structures is an important pathological characteristic in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) is more specific than other imaging-based iron measurements modalities and allows non-invasively assessment of tissue magnetic susceptibility, which has been shown to correlate well to the brain iron levels. This study aimed to investigate the correlations between the magnetic susceptibility values of deep gray matter nuclei and the cognitive functions assessed by mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) in patients with the mild and moderate AD...
May 3, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722301/collagen-for-brain-repair-therapeutic-perspectives
#14
REVIEW
Buket Ucar, Christian Humpel
Biomaterials have increasingly become a focus of research on neuroprotection and neuroregeneration. Collagen, in terms of brain repair, presents many advantages such as being remarkably biocompatible, biodegradable, versatile and non-toxic. Collagen can be used to form injectable scaffolds and micro/nano spheres in order to: (i) locally release therapeutic factors with the aim of protecting degenerating neurons in neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's or Parkinson's diseases, (ii) encapsulate stem cells for safe delivery, (iii) encapsulate genetically modified cells to provide a long term source of trophic factors, (iv) fill in the voids from injury to serve as a structural support and provide a permissive microenvironment to promote axonal growth...
April 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721932/gene-therapy-approaches-to-treat-the-neurodegeneration-and-visual-failure-in-neuronal-ceroid-lipofuscinoses
#15
Sophia-Martha Kleine Holthaus, Alexander J Smith, Sara E Mole, Robin R Ali
Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs) are a group of fatal, inherited lysosomal storage disorders mostly affecting the central nervous system of children. Symptoms include vision loss, seizures, motor deterioration and cognitive decline ultimately resulting in premature death. Studies in animal models showed that the diseases are amenable to gene supplementation therapies, and over the last decade, major advances have been made in the (pre)clinical development of these therapies. This mini-review summarises and discusses current gene therapy approaches for NCL targeting the brain and the eye...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721929/mini-review-cell-type-specific-optogenetic-vision-restoration-approaches
#16
Antoine Chaffiol, Jens Duebel
The expression of light-sensitive microbial opsins is a promising mutation-independent approach to restore vision in retinal degenerative diseases. Using viral vectors, optogenetic tools can be genetically expressed in various subpopulations of retinal neurons. The choice of cell type depends on the availability of surviving retinal cells. If cones are still alive but they lack outer segments, they can be targeted with optogenetic inhibitors, such as halorhodopsin. Alternatively, it is possible to bypass the photoreceptors and to target bipolar cells...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719499/sphingolipid-metabolism-a-new-therapeutic-opportunity-for-brain-degenerative-disorders
#17
REVIEW
Alba Di Pardo, Vittorio Maglione
Neurodegenerative diseases represent a class of fatal brain disorders for which the number of effective therapeutic options remains limited with only symptomatic treatment accessible. Multiple studies show that defects in sphingolipid pathways are shared among different brain disorders including neurodegenerative diseases and may contribute to their complex pathogenesis. In this mini review, we discuss the hypothesis that modulation of sphingolipid metabolism and their related signaling pathways may represent a potential therapeutic approach for those devastating conditions...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717691/probability-of-major-depression-diagnostic-classification-using-semi-structured-versus-fully-structured-diagnostic-interviews
#18
Brooke Levis, Andrea Benedetti, Kira E Riehm, Nazanin Saadat, Alexander W Levis, Marleine Azar, Danielle B Rice, Matthew J Chiovitti, Tatiana A Sanchez, Pim Cuijpers, Simon Gilbody, John P A Ioannidis, Lorie A Kloda, Dean McMillan, Scott B Patten, Ian Shrier, Russell J Steele, Roy C Ziegelstein, Dickens H Akena, Bruce Arroll, Liat Ayalon, Hamid R Baradaran, Murray Baron, Anna Beraldi, Charles H Bombardier, Peter Butterworth, Gregory Carter, Marcos H Chagas, Juliana C N Chan, Rushina Cholera, Neerja Chowdhary, Kerrie Clover, Yeates Conwell, Janneke M de Man-van Ginkel, Jaime Delgadillo, Jesse R Fann, Felix H Fischer, Benjamin Fischler, Daniel Fung, Bizu Gelaye, Felicity Goodyear-Smith, Catherine G Greeno, Brian J Hall, John Hambridge, Patricia A Harrison, Ulrich Hegerl, Leanne Hides, Stevan E Hobfoll, Marie Hudson, Thomas Hyphantis, Masatoshi Inagaki, Khalida Ismail, Nathalie Jetté, Mohammad E Khamseh, Kim M Kiely, Femke Lamers, Shen-Ing Liu, Manote Lotrakul, Sonia R Loureiro, Bernd Löwe, Laura Marsh, Anthony McGuire, Sherina Mohd Sidik, Tiago N Munhoz, Kumiko Muramatsu, Flávia L Osório, Vikram Patel, Brian W Pence, Philippe Persoons, Angelo Picardi, Alasdair G Rooney, Iná S Santos, Juwita Shaaban, Abbey Sidebottom, Adam Simning, Lesley Stafford, Sharon Sung, Pei Lin Lynnette Tan, Alyna Turner, Christina M van der Feltz-Cornelis, Henk C van Weert, Paul A Vöhringer, Jennifer White, Mary A Whooley, Kirsty Winkley, Mitsuhiko Yamada, Yuying Zhang, Brett D Thombs
BACKGROUND: Different diagnostic interviews are used as reference standards for major depression classification in research. Semi-structured interviews involve clinical judgement, whereas fully structured interviews are completely scripted. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), a brief fully structured interview, is also sometimes used. It is not known whether interview method is associated with probability of major depression classification.AimsTo evaluate the association between interview method and odds of major depression classification, controlling for depressive symptom scores and participant characteristics...
May 2, 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717401/modelling-mortality-and-discharge-of-hospitalized-stroke-patients-using-a-phase-type-recovery-model
#19
Bruce Jones, Sally McClean, David Stanford
We model the length of in-patient hospital stays due to stroke and the mode of discharge using a phase-type stroke recovery model. The model allows for three different types of stroke: haemorrhagic (the most severe, caused by ruptured blood vessels that cause brain bleeding), cerebral infarction (less severe, caused by blood clots) and transient ischemic attack or TIA (the least severe, a mini-stroke caused by a temporary blood clot). A four-phase recovery process is used, where the initial phase depends on the type of stroke, and transition from one phase to the next depends on the age of the patient...
May 1, 2018: Health Care Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706868/the-blood-brain-barrier-and-the-ephr-ephrin-system-perspectives-on-a-link-between-neurovascular-and-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#20
REVIEW
Victoria A Malik, Barbara Di Benedetto
Interactions among endothelial cells (EC) forming blood vessels and their surrounding cell types are essential to establish the blood-brain barrier (BBB), an integral part of the neurovascular unit (NVU). Research on the NVU has recently seen a renaissance to especially understand the neurobiology of vascular and brain pathologies and their frequently occurring comorbidities. Diverse signaling molecules activated in the near proximity of blood vessels trigger paracellular pathways which regulate the formation and stabilization of tight junctions (TJ) between EC and thereby influence BBB permeability...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
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