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Futoshi Matsushita, Hirotaka Kida, Ken-Ichi Tabei, Chizuru Nakano, Keita Matsuura, Yuichiro Ii, Ryogen Sasaki, Akira Taniguchi, Yugo Narita, Masayuki Maeda, Masayuki Satoh, Hidekazu Tomimoto
Introduction: This study aims to investigate the association between the presence and frequency of cortical lesions (CLs), and the clinical and psychological features of multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods: A total of 19 patients with MS were examined using double inversion recovery (DIR) sequences with 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and classified into two groups: CL and non-CL. In-house software was used to quantitatively determine the atrophy of each brain region...
March 2018: Brain and Behavior
Angelina Kakooza-Mwesige, Abdul H Mohammed, Krister Kristensson, Sharon L Juliano, Julius J Lutwama
The global public health concern is heightened over the increasing number of emerging viruses, i.e., newly discovered or previously known that have expanded into new geographical zones. These viruses challenge the health-care systems in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries from which several of them have originated and been transmitted by insects worldwide. Some of these viruses are neuroinvasive, but have been relatively neglected by neuroscientists. They may provide experiments by nature to give a time window for exposure to a new virus within sizeable, previously non-infected human populations, which, for instance, enables studies on potential long-term or late-onset effects on the developing nervous system...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Zhang Huihong, Wang Pan, Zhang Chunfeng, Wang Yan, Zhang Hui, Cai Li, Zhou Yuying
Objectives: Cognition and speech disorders are the most common symptoms of dementia in neurodegenerative disease. Here, we present a detailed clinical evaluation of a case of logopenic variant of primary progressive aphasia (lv-PPA), an atypical form of Alzheimer disease (AD), including cognitive testing over time, brain imaging, electrophysiology, and tests of olfactory function. Case report: We present the case of a 58-year-old man suffering from progressive language difficulties who was finally diagnosed with lv-PPA...
2018: Translational Neuroscience
Veronica Tisato, Giovanni Zuliani, Marco Vigliano, Giovanna Longo, Eugenia Franchini, Paola Secchiero, Giorgio Zauli, Elvezia Maria Paraboschi, Ajay Vikram Singh, Maria Luisa Serino, Beatrice Ortolani, Amedeo Zurlo, Cristina Bosi, Antonio Greco, Davide Seripa, Rosanna Asselta, Donato Gemmati
Cognitive impairments of different aetiology share alterations in iron and lipid homeostasis with mutual relationships. Since iron and cholesterol accumulation impact on neurodegenerative disease, the associated gene variants are appealing candidate targets for risk and disease progression assessment. In this light, we explored the role of common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the main iron homeostasis genes and in the main lipoprotein transporter gene (APOE) in a cohort of 765 patients with dementia of different origin: Alzheimer's disease (AD) n = 276; vascular dementia (VaD), n = 255; mild cognitive impairment (MCI), n = 234; and in normal controls (n = 1086)...
2018: PloS One
Satoshi Hayashi, Seishi Terada, Etsuko Oshima, Shuhei Sato, Kairi Kurisu, Shintaro Takenoshita, Osamu Yokota, Norihito Yamada
Objective: Among many cognitive function deficits, memory impairment is an initial and cardinal symptom in Alzheimer disease (AD). In most cases, verbal and visual memory scores correlate highly, but in some cases the deficit of verbal or visual memory is very different from that of the other memory. In this study, we examined the neural substrates of verbal and visual memory in patients with AD. Methods: One hundred eighty-eight consecutive patients with AD were recruited from outpatient units...
January 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
Gerald M Carlson, Gerald A Dienel, Roger J Colbran
The synthesis of glycogen allows for efficient intracellular storage of glucose molecules in a soluble form that can be rapidly released to enter glycolysis in response to energy demand. Intensive studies of glucose and glycogen metabolism, predominantly in skeletal muscle and liver, have produced innumerable insights into the mechanisms of hormone action, resulting in the award of several Nobel Prizes over the last one hundred years. Glycogen is actually present in all cells and tissues, albeit at much lower levels...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Hanxiang Liu, Gavin P Reynolds, Wenmin Wang, Xianwen Wei
Uric acid has neuroprotective properties in experimental and clinical studies of neurodegenerative disease. It is, however, associated with increased risk of stroke, yet, despite some inconsistent findings, increasing evidence suggests it may also be related to improved stroke outcomes. We have determined whether there is an effect of plasma uric acid on the short-term outcome of stroke patients in a general hospital setting using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). We also investigated the relationship of uric acid with other clinical correlates...
March 6, 2018: Neurological Sciences
Dulcie A Vousden, Elizabeth Cox, Rylan Allemang-Grand, Christine Laliberté, Lily R Qiu, Zsuzsa Lindenmaier, Brian J Nieman, Jason P Lerch
Manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) is a widely used technique in rodent neuroimaging studies. Traditionally, Mn2+ is delivered to animals via a systemic injection; however, this can lead to toxic effects at high doses. Recent studies have shown that subcutaneously implanted mini-osmotic pumps can be used to continuously deliver manganese chloride (MnCl2 ), and that they produce satisfactory contrast while circumventing many of the toxic side effects. However, neither the time-course of signal enhancement nor the effect of continuous Mn2+ delivery on behaviour, particularly learning and memory, have been well-characterized...
March 2, 2018: NeuroImage
Mukesh Kumar, Shilpi Modi, Poonam Rana, Pawan Kumar, Ratnesh Kanwar, Tarun Sekhri, Maria D'souza, Subash Khushu
Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is characterized by mild elevation of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) (range 5-10 μIU/ml) and normal free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free thyroxine (FT4). The cognitive function impairment is well known in thyroid disorders such as hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, but little is known about deficits in brain functions in SCH subjects. Also, whether hormone-replacement treatment is necessary or not in SCH subjects is still debatable. In order to have an insight into the cognition of SCH subjects, intrinsic and extrinsic functional connectivity (FC) of the resting state networks (RSNs) was studied...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
William Levack, Kounosuke Tomori, Kayoko Takahashi, Aidan J Sherrington
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the content of an English-language version of a Japanese iPad application designed to facilitate shared decision-making around goal setting in rehabilitation: Aid for Decision-making in Occupational Choice-English (ADOC-E). DESIGN: Phase 1: Delphi methods to reach consensus with an international group of expert occupational therapists on the text and images in ADOC-E. Phase 2: Testing correct recognition (unprompted and prompted) of images in ADOC-E by health service users in inpatient rehabilitation and residential care...
March 1, 2018: BMJ Open
Bruno Dubois, Stephane Epelbaum, Francis Nyasse, Hovagim Bakardjian, Geoffroy Gagliardi, Olga Uspenskaya, Marion Houot, Simone Lista, Federica Cacciamani, Marie-Claude Potier, Anne Bertrand, Foudil Lamari, Habib Benali, Jean-François Mangin, Olivier Colliot, Remy Genthon, Marie-Odile Habert, Harald Hampel
BACKGROUND: Improved understanding is needed of risk factors and markers of disease progression in preclinical Alzheimer's disease. We assessed associations between brain β-amyloidosis and various cognitive and neuroimaging parameters with progression of cognitive decline in individuals with preclinical Alzheimer's disease. METHODS: The INSIGHT-preAD is an ongoing single-centre observational study at the Salpêtrière Hospital, Paris, France. Eligible participants were age 70-85 years with subjective memory complaints but unimpaired cognition and memory (Mini-Mental State Examination [MMSE] score ≥27, Clinical Dementia Rating score 0, and Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test [FCSRT] total recall score ≥41)...
February 27, 2018: Lancet Neurology
Masato Ishibashi, Noriyuki Kimura, Yasuhiro Aso, Etsuro Matsubara
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of white matter lesions on regional cerebral blood flow in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Seventy-five subjects with mild cognitive impairment (36 men and 39 women; mean age, 78.1 years) were included in the study. We used the Mini-Mental State Examination to assess cognitive function. All subjects underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging and99m Tc ethylcysteinate dimer single photon emission computed tomography...
February 24, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Christopher M Novak, Maide Ozen, Michael McLane, Sadiq Alqutub, Ji Yeon Lee, Jun Lei, Irina Burd
To assess the fetal neuroprotective potential of progesterone using a well-validated mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced intrauterine inflammation (IUI). Embryonic day 17 pregnant mouse dams (n = 69) were randomly allocated to receive 17-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17-OHPC), micronized progesterone (MP), or vehicle 1 hour prior to intrauterine injection of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or LPS. After 6 hours, mice were killed for the collection of placentas and fetal brains, or pregnancy continued for the evaluation of preterm birth (PTB) and offspring neuromotor function...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
Abigail Laman-Maharg, Alexia V Williams, Mikaela D Zufelt, Vanessa A Minie, Stephanie Ramos-Maciel, Rebecca Hao, Evelyn Ordoñes Sanchez, Tiffany Copeland, Jill L Silverman, Angelina Leigh, Rodney Snyder, F Ivy Carroll, Timothy R Fennell, Brian C Trainor
There is growing evidence that kappa opioid receptor (KOR) antagonists could be a useful class of therapeutics for treating depression and anxiety. However, the overwhelming majority of preclinical investigations examining the behavioral effects of KOR antagonists have been in male rodents. Here, we examined the effects of the long-acting KOR antagonist nor-binaltophimine (norBNI) on immobility in the forced swim test in males and females of two different rodent species (C57Bl/6J and California mice). Consistent with previous reports, norBNI (10 mg/kg) decreased immobility in the forced swim test for male C57Bl/6J and California mice...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Andrea Lavazza, Marcello Massimini
Organoids are three-dimensional biological structures grown in vitro from different kinds of stem cells that self-organise mimicking real organs with organ-specific cell types. Recently, researchers have managed to produce human organoids which have structural and functional properties very similar to those of different organs, such as the retina, the intestines, the kidneys, the pancreas, the liver and the inner ear. Organoids are considered a great resource for biomedical research, as they allow for a detailed study of the development and pathologies of human cells; they also make it possible to test new molecules on human tissue...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Medical Ethics
Mahanand Chatoo, Yi Li, Zhiqiang Ma, John Coote, Jizeng Du, Xuequn Chen
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder defined by ROME IV criteria as pain in the lower abdominal region, which is associated with altered bowel habit or defecation. The underlying mechanism of IBS is not completely understood. IBS seems to be a product of interactions between various factors with genetics, dietary/intestinal microbiota, low-grade inflammation, and stress playing a key role in the pathogenesis of this disease. The crosstalk between the immune system and stress in IBS mechanism is increasingly recognized...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Ae Ryoung Kim, Dae Hyun Kim, So Young Park, Sunghyon Kyeong, Yong Wook Kim, Seung Koo Lee, Deog Young Kim
This study aimed to investigate the long-term motor outcome according to early diffusion tensor tractography findings for the affected corticospinal tract (CST) in poststroke hemiplegic patients. A total of 48 supratentorial subacute patients after stroke were enrolled, who had a brain MRI scan within 6 weeks from onset, and no stroke recurrence reported within the 2-year follow-up period. Diffusion tensor images were obtained and CSTs were reconstructed. The participants were classified into three groups: type A, the CST originating from the primary motor cortex was preserved around the lesion area; type B, the CST was similar to type A, except that the fiber originated from the area adjacent to the primary motor cortex; and type C, the CST was interrupted or not shown...
February 23, 2018: Neuroreport
Lorenzo Falsetti, Giovanna Viticchi, Laura Buratti, Francesco Grigioni, Alessandro Capucci, Mauro Silvestrini
BACKGROUND: An association between non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) and cognitive impairment has been hypothesized. OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate whether and how permanent NVAF (pNVAF) is associated with progression of cognitive impairment in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in the presence of vascular or genetic risk factors. METHODS: 310 consecutive patients affected by mild-moderate AD were included and followed for a 24-month period...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Flora M Hammond, William Sauve, Fred Ledon, Charles Davis, Andrea E Formella
BACKGROUND: Dextromethorphan 20mg /quinidine 10mg (DM/Q) was approved to treat pseudobulbar affect (PBA) based upon phase 3 trials conducted in participants with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or multiple sclerosis. PRISM II evaluated DM/Q effectiveness, safety and tolerability for PBA following stroke, dementia or traumatic brain injury (TBI). OBJECTIVE: To report results from the TBI cohort of PRISM II, including a TBI-specific functional scale. DESIGN: Open-label trial evaluating twice daily DM/Q over 90 days...
February 22, 2018: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Matheus Uba Chupel, Luciele Guerra Minuzzi, Guilherme E Furtado, Mário Leonardo Santos, Eef Hogervorst, Edith Filaire, Ana Maria Teixeira
Immunosenescence contribute to increase the blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, leading cognitive impairment and neurodegeneration. Thus, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of exercise and taurine supplementation on peripheral markers of blood-brain barrier, inflammation, and cognition of elderly women. Forty-eight elderly women (83.58±6.9 years) participated in the study, and were allocated into combined exercise training (CET: n=13), taurine supplementation (TAU: n=12), exercise training associated with taurine (CET+TAU: n=11), or control group (CG: n=12)...
February 23, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
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