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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108320/modulation-on-brain-gray-matter-activity-and-white-matter-integrity-by-apoe-%C3%AE%C2%B54-risk-gene-in-cognitively-intact-elderly-a-multimodal-neuroimaging-study
#1
Suping Cai, Yuanyuan Jiang, Yubo Wang, Xiaoming Wu, Junchan Ren, Min Seob Lee, Sunghoon Lee, Liyu Huang
Apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele is the genetic risk factor with the most established evidence for sporadic Alzheimer's disease. Previous neuroimaging studies have demonstrated insufficiently consistent functional and structural changes among healthy APOE ε4 carriers when compared to non-carriers. Here, in a cognitively intact elderly group (a total of 110: 45 APOE ε4 carriers, 65 non-carriers), we aimed to investigate the potential role of APOE ε4 in the modulation of grey matter activity, white matter integrity, and brain morphology before the development of clinically significant symptoms and signs, by methods of: amplitude of low frequency fluctuations and regional homogeneity analysis based on resting state fMRI, and fiber tractography approach based on diffusion tensor imaging...
January 17, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108207/cognitive-impairment-is-very-common-in-elderly-patients-with-syncope-and-unexplained-falls
#2
Susanne C de Ruiter, Jos F M de Jonghe, Tjeerd Germans, Jaap H Ruiter, René W M M Jansen
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the prevalence of cognitive impairment (CI), including mild CI and dementia, in elderly patients with syncope and unexplained falls. In this population, we compared the use of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) with a cognitive screening test that assesses executive dysfunction typical of subcortical (vascular) CI, that is, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). DESIGN: Observational cohort study. SETTING: Outpatient fall and syncope clinic...
January 17, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106555/optical-coherence-tomography-reveals-retinal-neuroaxonal-thinning-in-frontotemporal-dementia-as-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
Laura Ferrari, Su-Chun Huang, Giuseppe Magnani, Alessandro Ambrosi, Giancarlo Comi, Letizia Leocani
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) are leading causes of cognitive decline. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) allows the measurement of thickness of retinal neuroaxonal layers. While in AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thinning is frequently reported, less information is available on ganglion cell layer-inner plexiform layer (GCL-IPL). Data on FTD are lacking. OBJECTIVE: To obtain cross-sectional information on RNFL and GCL-IPL thickness among MCI, AD, FTD, and healthy controls (HC), and their correlations with dementia severity...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103291/the-gut-brain-axis-in-healthy-females-lack-of-significant-association-between-microbial-composition-and-diversity-with-psychiatric-measures
#4
Susan C Kleiman, Emily C Bulik-Sullivan, Elaine M Glenny, Stephanie C Zerwas, Eun Young Huh, Matthew C B Tsilimigras, Anthony A Fodor, Cynthia M Bulik, Ian M Carroll
OBJECTIVE: This study examined associations between the composition and diversity of the intestinal microbiota and measures of depression, anxiety, eating disorder psychopathology, stress, and personality in a group of healthy adult females. METHODS: Female participants (n = 91) ages 19-50 years with BMI 18.5-25 kg/m2 were recruited from central North Carolina between July 2014 and March 2015. Participants provided a single fecal sample and completed an online psychiatric questionnaire that included five measures: (i) Beck Anxiety Inventory; (ii) Beck Depression Inventory-II; (iii) Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire; (iv) Perceived Stress Scale; and (v) Mini International Personality Item Pool...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069930/a-quantitative-analysis-of-brain-soluble-tau-and-the-tau-secretion-factor
#5
Pengcheng Han, Geidy Serrano, Thomas G Beach, Richard J Caselli, Junxiang Yin, Ningning Zhuang, Jiong Shi
Neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) represent products of insoluble tau protein in the brains of patients with Alzheimer disease (AD). The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tau level is a biomarker in AD diagnosis. The soluble portion of tau protein in brain parenchyma is presumably the source for CSF tau but this has not previously been quantified. We measured CSF tau and soluble brain tau at autopsy in temporal and frontal brain tissue samples from 7 cognitive normal, 12 mild cognitively impaired, and 19 AD subjects. Based on the measured brain soluble tau, we calculated the whole brain tau load and estimated tau secretion factor...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055959/preoperative-low-tri-iodothyronine-concentration-is-associated-with-worse-health-status-and-shorter-five-year-survival-of-primary-brain-tumor-patients
#6
Adomas Bunevicius, Vytenis Pranas Deltuva, Sarunas Tamasauskas, Timothy Smith, Edward R Laws, Robertas Bunevicius, Giorgio Iervasi, Arimantas Tamasauskas
BACKGROUND: Low tri-iodothyronine syndrome is associated with worse prognosis of severely ill patients. We investigated the association of thyroid hormone levels with discharge outcomes and 5-year mortality in primary brain tumor patients. METHODS: From January, 2010 until September, 2011, 230 patients (70% women) before brain tumor surgery were evaluated for cognitive (Mini mental State Examination; MMSE) and functional (Barthel index; BI) status, and thyroid function profile...
December 30, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045857/quantitative-eeg-after-brain-stimulation-and-cognitive-training-in-alzheimer-disease
#7
Revital Gandelman-Marton, Sergio Aichenbaum, Evgenya Dobronevsky, Michael Khaigrekht, Jose M Rabey
PURPOSE: Medications are the currently accepted symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer disease (AD), but their impact on delaying the progression of cognitive deficits and functional impairment is limited. The authors aimed to explore long-term electrophysiological effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation interlaced with cognitive training on quantitative electroencephalography (EEG) in patients with AD. METHODS: Quantitative EEG was assessed on non-repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation interlaced with cognitive training treatment days before treatment and after each treatment phase in seven patients with mild AD...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038959/minispectrometer-with-handheld-probe-for-5-ala-based-fluorescence-guided-surgery-of-brain-tumors-preliminary-study-for-clinical-applications
#8
J F Cornelius, J M Placke, J Knipps, I Fischer, M Kamp, H J Steiger
INTRODUCTION: Recently a mini-spectrometer with a handheld probe quantifying 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) based fluorescence intensity of brain tumors was developped by Kim and co-workers to improve fluorescence-guided neurosurgery. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if this new tool is capable to discriminate nuances of fluorescence intensity of strongly fluorescing tumors (glioblastomas (GBM) and meningiomas (MM)). To study different modes of measurement (touch/no-touch)...
December 27, 2016: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031779/brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-plasma-levels-and-premature-cognitive-impairment-dementia-in-type-2-diabetes
#9
Blanca Murillo Ortíz, Joel Ramírez Emiliano, Edna Ramos-Rodríguez, Sandra Martínez-Garza, Hilda Macías-Cervantes, Sergio Solorio-Meza, Texar Alfonso Pereyra-Nobara
AIM: To assess the relationship of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) with cognitive impairment in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: The study included 40 patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2), 37 patients with chronic kidney disease in hem dialysis hemodialysis therapy (HD) and 40 healthy subjects. BDNF in serum was quantified by ELISA. The Folstein Mini-Mental State Examination was used to evaluate cognitive impairment. RESULTS: The patients with DM2 and the patients in HD were categorized into two groups, with cognitive impairment and without cognitive impairment...
December 15, 2016: World Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030422/factors-influencing-mini-cex-rater-judgments-and-their-practical-implications-a-systematic-literature-review
#10
Victor Lee, Keira Brain, Jenepher Martin
PURPOSE: At present, little is known about how mini-clinical evaluation exercise (mini-CEX) raters translate their observations into judgments and ratings. The authors of this systematic literature review aim both to identify the factors influencing mini-CEX rater judgments in the medical education setting and to translate these findings into practical implications for clinician assessors. METHOD: The authors searched for internal and external factors influencing mini-CEX rater judgments in the medical education setting from 1980 to 2015 using the Ovid MEDLINE, PsycINFO, ERIC, PubMed, and Scopus databases...
December 27, 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012058/glutamate-and-brain-glutaminases-in-drug-addiction
#11
Javier Márquez, José A Campos-Sandoval, Ana Peñalver, José M Matés, Juan A Segura, Eduardo Blanco, Francisco J Alonso, Fernando Rodríguez de Fonseca
Glutamate is the principal excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and its actions are related to the behavioral effects of psychostimulant drugs. In the last two decades, basic neuroscience research and preclinical studies with animal models are suggesting a critical role for glutamate transmission in drug reward, reinforcement, and relapse. Although most of the interest has been centered in post-synaptic glutamate receptors, the presynaptic synthesis of glutamate through brain glutaminases may also contribute to imbalances in glutamate homeostasis, a key feature of the glutamatergic hypothesis of addiction...
December 23, 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009098/high-speed-photoacoustic-microscopy-of-mouse-cortical-microhemodynamics
#12
Li Lin, Junjie Yao, Ruiying Zhang, Chun-Cheng Chen, Chih-Hsien Huang, Yang Li, Lidai Wang, William Chapman, Jun Zou, Lihong V Wang
We applied high-speed photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) for both cortical microenvironment studies and dynamic brain studies, with micrometer-level optical resolution and a millisecond-level cross-sectional imaging speed over a millimeter-level field of view. We monitored blood flow redistribution in mini-stroke mouse models and cerebral autoregulation induced by a vasoactive agent. Our results collectively suggest that high-speed PAM is a promising tool for understanding dynamic neurophysiological phenomena, complementing conventional imaging modalities...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008305/magnesium-sulfate-prevents-placental-ischemia-induced-increases-in-brain-water-content-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-cytokines-in-pregnant-rats
#13
Linda W Zhang, Junie P Warrington
Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) is the most widely used therapy in the clinic to prevent the progression of preeclampsia, a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy, to eclampsia. Eclampsia, manifested as unexplained seizures and/or coma during pregnancy or postpartum, accounts for ~13% of maternal deaths worldwide. While MgSO4 continues to be used in the clinic, the mechanisms by which it exerts its protective actions are not well understood. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that MgSO4 protects against placental ischemia-induced increases in brain water content and cerebrospinal fluid cytokines...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005183/altered-gray-matter-volume-in-stable-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-with-subclinical-cognitive-impairment-an-exploratory-study
#14
Chunrong Wang, Yanhui Ding, Bixian Shen, Dehong Gao, Jie An, Kewen Peng, Gangqiang Hou, Liqiu Zou, Mei Jiang, Shijun Qiu
Gray matter volume deficits have been identified in cognitively impaired patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, it remains unknown whether the gray matter volume is altered in COPD patients with subclinical cognitive impairment. To determine whether any gray matter abnormalities are present in these patients, neuropsychological tests and structural MRI data were analyzed from 60 patients with COPD and 60 age-, gender-, education-, and handedness-matched normal controls (NCs). The COPD patients had similar Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores compared with the NCs...
December 22, 2016: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004533/new-olfactometric-findings-in-parkinson-s-disease
#15
Giulio Cesare Passali, Francesco Bove, Lucrezia Vargiu, Anna Rita Bentivoglio, Roberta Anzivino, Eugenio De Corso, Jacopo Galli, Mario Rigante, Manlio Pandolfini, Bruno Sergi, Monica Giuliani, Francesca Cianfrone, Gaetano Paludetti, Alfonso Fasano
OBJECTIVES: to investigate in Parkinson's Disease affected patients a correlation between hyposmia and gastrointestinal dysfunction and their possible identical etiopathogenesis. DESIGN: retrospective cohort study. SETTING: ENT and Neurology departments (Gemelli Hospital, Rome, Italy). PARTICIPANTS: 78 patients with diagnosis of PD according to the UK Brain Bank criteria. INCLUSION CRITERIA: informed consent; olfactory testing executed; exclusion criteria: signs of dementia according to the DSM-IV criteria; Mini Mental State Examination score ≤ 26; head trauma; central neurological disorders, nasal or systemic diseases potentially affecting olfactory function...
December 22, 2016: Clinical Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993587/percutaneous-needle-tenotomy-for-the-treatment-of-muscle-and-tendon-contractures-in-adults-with-brain-damage-results-and-complications
#16
Flavia Coroian, Claire Jourdan, Jérome Froger, Claire Anquetil, Olivier Choquet, Bertand Coulet, Isabelle Laffont
OBJECTIVE: To study the results and complications of percutaneous needle tenotomy (PNT) of superficial retracted tendons in brain damaged patients. Muscle and tendon contractures are common in this population and can lead to severe functional impairment. Care management is commonly based on open surgical tenotomy. PNT is a mini-invasive surgical procedure suspected to be safer among frail patients. DESIGN: Prospective observational study SETTING: University Hospital Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (PM&R) and Orthopedic Surgery Departments...
December 16, 2016: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981543/cognitive-impairment-and-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-migraine-associated-vertigo
#17
N Wang, H-L Huang, H Zhou, C-Y Yu
OBJECTIVE: To study the impact of migraine-associated vertigo (MV) on the cognitive state of patients and their quality of life. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 120 patients were enrolled in the study, including 40 diagnosed with MV, forty with a simple migraine and 40 healthy volunteers. Cognitive assessments were done using the mini-mental state examination (MMSE), and a battery of tests for cognitive functions in performance, memory, language, space and attention during interictal periods...
December 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27968838/effect-of-ocular-reconstruction-on-brain-function-and-structure-in-people-with-age-related-cataracts-a-prospective-controlled-clinical-trial
#18
Haotian Lin, Li Zhang, Kevin Chan, Yingwei Qiu, Duoru Lin, Wan Chen, Hui Chen, Yizhi Liu, Weirong Chen
BACKGROUND: Healthy ageing is accompanied by simultaneous decline of visual and neural function. Studies in animals and humans provide converging evidence that these functions' decrease is mostly associated with structural change in ocular and brain structure. We investigated whether regaining visual function after ocular reconstruction was associated with functional and structural changes in the brain. METHODS: We did a prospective controlled clinical trial including 21 consecutive typical ageing patients (42 eyes; mean age 63·14 years, SD 7·82) with decreased visual function and diagnosis of bilateral age-related cataracts requiring phacoemulsification surgery and multifocal or monofocal intraocular lens implantation...
October 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966494/brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-and-early-life-stress-multifaceted-interplay
#19
Natalya P Bondar, Tatiana I Merkulova
The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a key regulator of neural development and plasticity. Longterm changes in the BDNF pathway are associated with childhood adversity and adult depression symptoms. Initially, stress-induced decreases in the BDNF pathway were found in some studies, but subsequent reports indicated the relationship between stress and BDNF to be much more complex, and the concept was significantly revised. In the present mini-review, we focus on the structure and regulation of the Bbnf gene as well as on the stress-BDNF interactions under early-life adverse conditions...
December 2016: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965541/modulation-of-oligodendrocyte-differentiation-by-mechanotransduction
#20
REVIEW
Tânia Lourenço, Mário Grãos
Oligodendrocytes (OLs) are responsible for the myelination of axons in the central nervous system (CNS). The differentiation of OLs encompasses several stages, through which cells undergo dramatic biochemical and morphological changes. OL differentiation is modulated by soluble factors (SFs)-such as growth factors and hormones-, known to be essential for each maturation stage. Besides SFs, insoluble factors such as extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and other microenvironmental elements also play a pivotal role during OL differentiation...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
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