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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912686/roles-of-microglial-phagocytosis-and-inflammatory-mediators-in-the-pathophysiology-of-sleep-disorders
#1
REVIEW
Agnes Nadjar, Henna-Kaisa M Wigren, Marie-Eve Tremblay
Sleep serves crucial learning and memory functions in both nervous and immune systems. Microglia are brain immune cells that actively maintain health through their crucial physiological roles exerted across the lifespan, including phagocytosis of cellular debris and orchestration of neuroinflammation. The past decade has witnessed an explosive growth of microglial research. Considering the recent developments in the field of microglia and sleep, we examine their possible impact on various pathological conditions associated with a gain, disruption, or loss of sleep in this focused mini-review...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912283/reaction-time-is-negatively-associated-with-corpus-callosum-area-in-the-early-stages-of-cadasil
#2
S Delorme, F De Guio, S Reyes, A Jabouley, H Chabriat, E Jouvent
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Reaction time was recently recognized as a marker of subtle cognitive and behavioral alterations in the early clinical stages of CADASIL, a monogenic cerebral small-vessel disease. In unselected patients with CADASIL, brain atrophy and lacunes are the main imaging correlates of disease severity, but MR imaging correlates of reaction time in mildly affected patients are unknown. We hypothesized that reaction time is independently associated with the corpus callosum area in the early clinical stages of CADASIL...
September 14, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899429/amyloid-independent-atrophy-patterns-predict-time-to-progression-to-dementia-in-mild-cognitive-impairment
#3
Mara Ten Kate, Frederik Barkhof, Pieter Jelle Visser, Charlotte E Teunissen, Philip Scheltens, Wiesje M van der Flier, Betty M Tijms
BACKGROUND: Amyloid pathology in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an important risk factor for progression to dementia due to Alzheimer's disease. Predicting the onset of dementia is challenging even in the presence of amyloid, as time to progression varies considerably among patients and depends on the onset of neurodegeneration. Survival analysis can account for variability in time to event, but has not often been applied to MRI measurements beyond singular predefined brain regions such as the hippocampus...
September 12, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894304/quantification-of-brain-cholinergic-denervation-in-alzheimer-s-disease-using-pet-imaging-with-18-f-feobv
#4
M Aghourian, C Legault-Denis, J-P Soucy, P Rosa-Neto, S Gauthier, A Kostikov, P Gravel, M-A Bédard
(18)F-fluoroethoxybenzovesamicol (FEOBV) is a new PET radiotracer that binds to the vesicular acetylcholine transporter. In both animals and healthy humans, FEOBV was found sensitive and reliable to characterize presynaptic cholinergic nerve terminals in the brain. It has been used here for we believe the first time in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) to quantify brain cholinergic losses. The sample included 12 participants evenly divided in healthy subjects and patients with AD, all assessed with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) cognitive scales...
September 12, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893898/left-ventricular-mass-brain-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-cognitive-performance-results-from-the-strong-heart-study
#5
Bernhard Haring, Adam Omidpanah, Astrid M Suchy-Dicey, Lyle G Best, Steven P Verney, Dean K Shibata, Shelley A Cole, Tauqeer Ali, Barbara V Howard, Dedra Buchwald, Richard B Devereux
Left ventricular mass (LVM) has been shown to serve as a measure of target organ damage resulting from chronic exposure to several risk factors. Data on the association of midlife LVM with later cognitive performance are sparse. We studied 721 adults (mean age 56 years at baseline) enrolled in the Strong Heart Study (SHS, 1993-1995) and the ancillary CDCAI (Cerebrovascular Disease and Its Consequences in American Indians) Study (2010-2013), a study population with high prevalence of cardiovascular disease. LVM was assessed with transthoracic echocardiography at baseline in 1993 to 1995...
September 11, 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886986/role-of-connexin-and-pannexin-containing-channels-in-hiv-infection-and-neuroaids
#6
REVIEW
Shaily Malik, Eliseo A Eugenin
Neuron-Glia crosstalk is essential for efficient synaptic communication, cell growth and differentiation, neuronal activity, neurotransmitter recycling, and brain immune response. The master regulators of this neuron-glia communication are connexin containing Gap Junctions (GJs) and Hemichannels (HCs) as well as pannexin HCs. However, the role of these channels under pathological conditions, especially in infectious diseases is still in exploratory stages. Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV) is one such infectious agent that takes advantage of the host intercellular communication systems, GJs and HCs, to exacerbate viral pathogenesis in the brain in spite of the antiretroviral therapy effectively controlling viral replication in the periphery...
September 5, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886705/cognitive-function-in-very-old-men-does-not-correlate-to-biomarkers-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
V Velickaite, V Giedraitis, K Ström, I Alafuzoff, H Zetterberg, L Lannfelt, L Kilander, E-M Larsson, M Ingelsson
BACKGROUND: The Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain displays atrophy with amyloid-β (Aβ) and tau deposition, whereas decreased Aβ42 and increased tau are measured in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The aim of this study was to relate cognitive performance to the degree of brain atrophy, CSF biomarker levels and neuropathology in a cohort of aged men. METHODS: Fifty-eight 86-92-year-old men from the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (ULSAM) cohort underwent cognitive testing, brain computed tomography and lumbar puncture...
September 8, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878622/ganaxolone-a-new-treatment-for-neonatal-seizures
#8
REVIEW
Tamara Yawno, Suzie L Miller, Laura Bennet, Flora Wong, Jonathan J Hirst, Michael Fahey, David W Walker
Neonatal seizures are amongst the most common neurologic conditions managed by a neonatal care service. Seizures can exacerbate existing brain injury, induce "de novo" injury, and are associated with neurodevelopmental disabilities in post-neonatal life. In this mini-review, we present evidence in support of the use of ganaxolone, a GABA(A) agonist neurosteroid, as a novel neonatal therapy. We discuss evidence that ganaxolone can provide both seizure control and neuroprotection with a high safety profile when administered early following birth-related hypoxia, and show evidence that it is likely to prevent or reduce the incidence of the enduring disabilities associated with preterm birth, cerebral palsy, and epilepsy...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866660/generation-of-tryptophan-hydroxylase-2-gene-knockout-pigs-by-crispr-cas9-mediated-gene-targeting
#9
Ze Li, Hai-Yuan Yang, Ying Wang, Man-Ling Zhang, Xiao-Rui Liu, Qiang Xiong, Li-Ning Zhang, Yong Jin, Li-Sha Mou, Yan Liu, Rong-Feng Li, Yi Rao, Yi-Fan Dai
Unbalanced brain serotonin (5-HT) levels have implications in various behavioral abnormalities and neuropsychiatric disorders. The biosynthesis of neuronal 5-HT is regulated by the rate-limiting enzyme, tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH2). In the present study, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) system was used to target the Tph2 gene in Bama mini pig fetal fibroblasts. It was found that CRISPR/Cas9 targeting efficiency could be as high as 61.5%, and the biallelic mutation efficiency reached at 38...
September 3, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858861/pathways-to-brain-aging-and-their-modifiers-free-radical-induced-energetic-and-neural-decline-in-senescence-friends-model-a-mini-review
#10
Naftali Raz, Ana M Daugherty
In this mini-review, we survey the extant literature on brain aging, with the emphasis on longitudinal studies of neuroanatomy, including regional brain volumes and white matter microstructure. We assess the impact of vascular, metabolic, and inflammatory risk factors on the trajectories of change in regional brain volumes and white matter properties, as well as the relationships between neuroanatomical and physiological changes and their influence on cognitive performance. We examine these findings in the context of current biological theories of aging and propose the means of integrating noninvasive measures - spectroscopic indices of brain energy metabolism and regional iron deposits - as valuable proxies for elucidating the basic neurobiology of human brain aging...
September 1, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855863/thyroid-hormone-availability-and-action-during-brain-development-in-rodents
#11
Soledad Bárez-López, Ana Guadaño-Ferraz
Thyroid hormones (THs) play an essential role in the development of all vertebrates; in particular adequate TH content is crucial for proper neurodevelopment. TH availability and action in the brain are precisely regulated by several mechanisms, including the secretion of THs by the thyroid gland, the transport of THs to the brain and neural cells, THs activation and inactivation by the metabolic enzymes deiodinases and, in the fetus, transplacental passage of maternal THs. Although these mechanisms have been extensively studied in rats, in the last decade, models of genetically modified mice have been more frequently used to understand the role of the main proteins involved in TH signaling in health and disease...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855732/lab-grown-mini-brains-upgraded
#12
Lin Yang, Huck-Hui Ng
Three-dimensional brain organoid models have come into the spotlight as in vitro tools to recapitulate complex features of the brain. Four recent papers now leverage current technologies to generate new flavours of brain organoids and address aspects of brain biology which, to date, have been challenging to explore.
August 31, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852383/using-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-derived-neurons-to-model-brain-diseases
#13
REVIEW
Cindy E McKinney
The ability to use induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) to model brain diseases is a powerful tool for unraveling mechanistic alterations in these disorders. Rodent models of brain diseases have spurred understanding of pathology but the concern arises that they may not recapitulate the full spectrum of neuron disruptions associated with human neuropathology. iPSC derived neurons, or other neural cell types, provide the ability to access pathology in cells derived directly from a patient's blood sample or skin biopsy where availability of brain tissue is limiting...
July 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846730/role-of-amygdala-kisspeptin-in-pubertal-timing-in-female-rats
#14
Daniel A Adekunbi, Xiao Feng Li, Shengyun Li, Olufeyi A Adegoke, Bolanle O Iranloye, Ayodele O Morakinyo, Stafford L Lightman, Paul D Taylor, Lucilla Poston, Kevin T O'Byrne
To investigate the mechanism by which maternal obesity disrupts reproductive function in offspring, we examined Kiss1 expression in the hypothalamic arcuate (ARC) and anteroventral periventricular (AVPV) nuclei, and posterodorsal medial amygdala (MePD) of pre-pubertal and young adult offspring. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a standard or energy-dense diet for six weeks prior to mating and throughout pregnancy and lactation. Male and female offspring were weaned onto normal diet on postnatal day (pnd) 21...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831531/brain-functional-networks-correlation-analysis-with-clinical-indexes-in-patients-with-diabetic-retinopathy
#15
Hui Dai, Yu Zhang, Lillian Lai, Su Hu, Ximing Wang, Yonggang Li, Chunhong Hu, Hailin Shen
PURPOSE: The relationship between parameters of brain functional networks and clinical indexes is unclear so far in patients with diabetic retinopathy (DR). This paper is to investigate this. METHODS: Twenty-one patients with different grades of DR and 21 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled from August 2012 to September 2014. The clinical indexes recorded included DR grade, duration of diabetes, HbA1c, diabetic foot screen, fasting plasma glucose, insulin, Homa-β, Homa-IR, insulin sensitive index (ISI), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and patient sex and age...
August 22, 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816158/a-multi-institutional-prospective-observational-study-of-stereotactic-radiosurgery-for-patients-with-multiple-brain-metastases-jlgk0901-study-update-irradiation-related-complications-and-long-term-maintenance-of-mini-mental-state-examination-scores
#16
MULTICENTER STUDY
Masaaki Yamamoto, Toru Serizawa, Yoshinori Higuchi, Yasunori Sato, Jun Kawagishi, Kazuhiro Yamanaka, Takashi Shuto, Atsuya Akabane, Hidefumi Jokura, Shoji Yomo, Osamu Nagano, Hidefumi Aoyama
PURPOSE: The JLGK0901 study showed the noninferiority of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) alone as initial treatment of 5 to 10 brain metastases (BMs) compared with 2 to 4 BMs in terms of overall survival and most secondary endpoints (Lancet Oncol 2014;15:387-95). However, observation periods were not long enough to allow confirmation of the long-term safety of SRS alone in patients with 5 to 10 BMs. METHODS AND MATERIALS: This was a prospective observational study of Gamma Knife SRS-treated patients with 1 to 10 newly diagnosed BMs enrolled at 23 facilities between March 1, 2009, and February 15, 2012...
September 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808617/a-novel-method-of-quantifying-brain-atrophy-associated-with-age-related-hearing-loss
#17
Z Jason Qian, Peter D Chang, Gul Moonis, Anil K Lalwani
A growing body of evidence has shown that a relationship between age-related hearing loss and structural brain changes exists. However, a method to measure brain atrophy associated with hearing loss from a single MRI study (i.e. without an interval study) that produces an independently interpretable output does not. Such a method would be beneficial for studying patterns of structural brain changes on a large scale. Here, we introduce our method for this. Audiometric evaluations and mini-mental state exams were obtained in 34 subjects over the age of 80 who have had brain MRIs in the past 6 years...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807434/nutritional-strategies-in-the-management-of-alzheimer-disease-systematic-review-with-network-meta-analysis
#18
Shirley Steffany Muñoz Fernández, Terry Ivanauskas, Sandra Maria Lima Ribeiro
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer disease (AD) is the major cause of dependency and disability in the elderly. Numerous studies have sought to achieve its prevention and/or management examining a role for modifiable risk factors, such as nutrition. This work aims to investigate the effects of food and/or nutrients in the management of AD at different stages. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched for clinical trials examining the effect of nutrient intervention in individuals with AD, compared with placebo, published up to 2014...
August 11, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804788/pro-dopamine-regulator-kb220-to-balance-brain-reward-circuitry-in-reward-deficiency-syndrome-rds
#19
Kenneth Blum, Marcelo Febo, Lyle Fried, David Baron, Eric R Braverman, Kristina Dushaj, Mona Li, Zsolt Demetrovics, Rajendra D Badgaiyan
We are faced with a worldwide opiate/opioid epidemic that is devastating. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), at least 127 people, young and old, are dying every day in America due to narcotic overdose. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved Medication-Assisted Treatments (MATs) for opiate/opioids as well as alcohol and nicotine. The mechanism of action of most MATS favors either blocking of dopaminergic function or a form of Opiate Substitution Therapy (OST). These treatment options are adequate for short-term treatment of the symptoms of addiction and harm reduction but fail long-term to deal with the cause or lead to recovery...
2017: Journal of Reward Deficiency Syndrome and Addiction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799107/determination-of-selected-neurotoxic-insecticides-in-small-amounts-of-animal-tissue-utilizing-a-newly-constructed-mini-extractor
#20
Marta Seifertová, Eliška Čechová, Marta Llansola, Vicente Felipo, Martina Vykoukalová, Anton Kočan
We developed a simple analytical method for the simultaneous determination of representatives of various groups of neurotoxic insecticides (carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, and α-endosulfan and β-endosulfan and their metabolite endosulfan sulfate) in limited amounts of animal tissues containing different amounts of lipids. Selected tissues (rodent fat, liver, and brain) were extracted in a special in-house-designed mini-extractor constructed on the basis of the Soxhlet and Twisselmann extractors. A dried tissue sample placed in a small cartridge was extracted, while the nascent extract was simultaneously filtered through a layer of sodium sulfate...
August 10, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
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