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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154273/association-between-%C3%AE-klotho-and-deep-white-matter-lesions-in-the-brain-a-pilot-case-control-study-using-brain-mri
#1
Nagato Kuriyama, Etsuko Ozaki, Toshiki Mizuno, Masafumi Ihara, Shigeto Mizuno, Teruhide Koyama, Daisuke Matsui, Isao Watanabe, Kentaro Akazawa, Kazuo Takeda, Akihiro Takada, Masaaki Inaba, Shinsuke Yamada, Koka Motoyama, Wakiko Takeshita, Komei Iwai, Kanae Hashiguchi, Daiki Kobayashi, Masaki Kondo, Aiko Tamura, Kei Yamada, Masanori Nakagawa, Yoshiyuki Watanabe
BACKGROUND: The anti-aging protein, α-Klotho, may be involved in cognitive decline and has potential as a surrogate marker that reflects dementia. However, the role of α-Klotho in the brain has not been sufficiently investigated. OBJECTIVE: Here, we investigated the association between α-Klotho and cognitive decline that is associated with cerebral deep white matter lesions (DWMLs). METHODS: Two hundred-eighty participants (187 males and 93 females, mean age: 70...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153931/disturbances-in-oxygen-balance-during-cardiopulmonary-bypass-a-risk-factor-for-postoperative-delirium
#2
Nina Smulter, Helena Claesson Lingehall, Yngve Gustafson, Birgitta Olofsson, Karl Gunnar Engström, Micael Appelblad, Staffan Svenmarker
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine risk factors for postoperative delirium after cardiac surgery, specifically associated with the conduct of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Heart Centre, University Hospital. PARTICIPANTS: The study included 142 patients aged 70 years and older scheduled for elective cardiac surgery with CPB. INTERVENTIONS: Risk factor analysis comprised information collected from the hospital clinical and CPB dedicated databases in addition to the medical chart...
August 25, 2017: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153754/effects-of-combined-physical-and-cognitive-exercises-on-cognition-and-mobility-in-patients-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-a%C3%A2-randomized-clinical-trial
#3
Hiroyuki Shimada, Hyuma Makizako, Takehiko Doi, Hyuntae Park, Kota Tsutsumimoto, Joe Verghese, Takao Suzuki
IMPORTANCE: Although participation in physical and cognitive activities is encouraged to reduce the risk of dementia, the preventive efficacy of these activities for patients with mild cognitive impairment is unestablished. OBJECTIVE: To compare the cognitive and mobility effects of a 40-week program of combined cognitive and physical activity with those of a health education program. DESIGN: A randomized, parallel, single-blind controlled trial...
November 16, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144106/cognitive-reserve-as-a-variable-impacting-the-effectiveness-of-rehabilitation-on-balance-in-parkinson-s-disease
#4
Giulia Piccinini, Isabella Imbimbo, Diego Ricciardi, Daniele Coraci, Claudia Santilli, Maria R Lo Monaco, Claudia Loreti, Maria C Vulpiani, Maria C Silveri, Luca Padua
BACKGROUND: Cognitive reserve (CR) can be considered an active expression of brain resilience in response to damage. Several studies have shown the influence of CR on cognitive impairment and its relationship with cognitive function in Parkinson's disease (PD). AIM: To show if CR influences the effectiveness of balance rehabilitation in PD patients who performed a conventional rehabilitative treatment. DESIGN: Observational longitudinal study...
November 16, 2017: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141794/short-term-outcome-of-adem-results-from-a-retrospective-cohort-study-from-south-india
#5
Mary Iype, P A Mohammed Kunju, Geetha Saradakutty, T S Anish, Mini Sreedharan, Shahanaz M Ahamed
INTRODUCTION: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), an immune mediated inflammatory disease is common in children. The profile and immediate outcome of children hospitalized with ADEM is scarce in the available literature. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to study the clinical profile of children with ADEM and to look for prognostic factors for outcome at discharge from hospital METHODS: We chose a retrospective cohort study of all children diagnosed with ADEM at our institution between January 2006 and December 2015, and they were evaluated, after excluding other diagnoses when they were summoned for a follow up visit...
November 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138675/benign-effect-of-extremely-low-frequency-electromagnetic-field-on-brain-plasticity-assessed-by-nitric-oxide-metabolism-during-poststroke-rehabilitation
#6
Natalia Cichoń, Piotr Czarny, Michał Bijak, Elżbieta Miller, Tomasz Śliwiński, Janusz Szemraj, Joanna Saluk-Bijak
Nitric oxide (NO) is one of the most important signal molecules, involved in both physiological and pathological processes. As a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, NO regulates cerebral blood flow, neurogenesis, and synaptic plasticity. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of the extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) on generation and metabolism of NO, as a neurotransmitter, in the rehabilitation of poststroke patients. Forty-eight patients were divided into two groups: ELF-EMF and non-ELF-EMF...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134612/altered-connectivity-patterns-among-resting-state-networks-in-patients-with-ischemic-white-matter-lesions
#7
Ju-Rong Ding, Xin Ding, Bo Hua, Xingzhong Xiong, Yuqiao Wen, Zhongxiang Ding, Qingsong Wang, Paul Thompson
White matter lesions (WMLs) have been associated with cognitive and motor decline. Resting state networks (RSNs) are spatially coherent patterns in the human brain and their interactions sustain our daily function. Therefore, investigating the altered intra- and inter-network connectivity among the RSNs may help to understand the association of WMLs with impaired cognitive and motor function. Here, we assessed alterations in functional connectivity patterns based on six well-defined RSNs-the default mode network (DMN), dorsal attention network (DAN), frontal-parietal control network (FPCN), auditory network (AN), sensory motor network (SMN) and visual network (VN)-in 15 patients with ischemic WMLs and 15 controls...
November 14, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133709/experience-of-pallidal-deep-brain-stimulation-in-dystonia-at-a-tertiary-care-centre-in-india-an-initial-experience
#8
M Manjunath, Ravi Yadav, Srinivas Dwarakanath, Ketan Jhunjhunwala, A Jafar, Pratibha Surathi, Abhishek Lenka, Albert Stezin, S Sampath, Pramod K Pal
INTRODUCTION: Dystonia is one of the most prevalent forms of movement disorders and is characterized by sustained or intermittent muscle contractions causing abnormal, often repetitive, movements, postures, or both. Dystonia causes significant morbidity with an adverse impact on the quality of life. When dystonia is medically refractory, causing severe pain and impairment in activities of daily living, deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the globus pallidus interna (GPi) is a potential option to reduce disability...
November 2017: Neurology India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130020/what-do-we-know-from-clinical-trials-on-exercise-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
Yong Shen, Rena Li
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in elderly with major symptoms of a general term for memory loss and other intellectual abilities impairment which are serious enough to interfere with daily life. While there is no treatment can prevent and revise the cognitive function impairment in AD, physical activity becomes a potential beneficial intervention for AD. Multiple evidences suggested that exercise in general plays beneficial roles in improving brain function. Most common mechanisms of exercise-induced enhancement of brain function are including alteration of neurogenesis, neuron plasticity, neuronal signaling and receptors, as well as neuronal networks...
December 2016: Journal of Sport and Health Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127592/disease-of-mrna-regulation-relevance-for-ischemic-brain-injury
#10
Donald J DeGracia
In this mini-review we give an overview of the role of mRNA-binding proteins and their associated messenger ribonucleoprotein complexes (mRNPs) in several disease states, and bring this information to bear on the pathophysiology of brain ischemia. One conclusion reached is that mRNPs may play a causal role in proteotoxicity instead of being merely passive targets. Ischemia therapies targeting mRNPs have advantages over targeting single pathways, but the behavior of mRNPs needs to be considered in the design of therapies...
November 10, 2017: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127449/determining-a-threshold-sub-acute-dose-leading-to-minimal-physiological-alterations-following-prolonged-exposure-to-the-nerve-agent-vx-in-rats
#11
E Bloch-Shilderman, I Rabinovitz, I Egoz, G Yacov, N Allon, U Nili
VX, a potent inhibitor of cholinesterase (ChE), is considered as one of the most toxic, persistent and least volatile nerve agents. VX is absorbed in various environmental surfaces and is gradually released long after its initial dispersal. Its toxicity is mainly caused by disrupting central and peripheral cholinergic nervous system activity, leading to potential long-term detrimental effects on health. The primary objective of the present study was to assess the threshold VX dose leading to minimal physiological alterations following prolonged VX exposure...
November 10, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125694/impaired-long-contact-white-matter-fibers-integrity-is-related-to-depression-in-parkinson-s-disease
#12
Jia-Yong Wu, Yang Zhang, Wen-Bo Wu, Gang Hu, Yun Xu
AIMS: Depression is one of the most common nonmotor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD). But the pathogenesis is still unclear. Studies have shown that depression in PD is closely related to the white matter abnormalities, but the number of studies is still very small and lack of whole brain white matter lesions study. METHODS: In this study, we investigated whole brain white matter integrity in 31 depressed PD patients and 37 nondepressed PD patients by diffusion tensor imaging...
November 10, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118209/in-vivo-imaging-of-cns-injury-and-disease
#13
Katerina Akassoglou, Mario Merlini, Victoria A Rafalski, Raquel Real, Liang Liang, Yunju Jin, Sarah E Dougherty, Vincenzo De Paola, David J Linden, Thomas Misgeld, Binhai Zheng
In vivo optical imaging has emerged as a powerful tool with which to study cellular responses to injury and disease in the mammalian CNS. Important new insights have emerged regarding axonal degeneration and regeneration, glial responses and neuroinflammation, changes in the neurovascular unit, and, more recently, neural transplantations. Accompanying a 2017 SfN Mini-Symposium, here, we discuss selected recent advances in understanding the neuronal, glial, and other cellular responses to CNS injury and disease with in vivo imaging of the rodent brain or spinal cord...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116209/preoperative-n-terminal-pro-b-type-natriuretic-peptide-concertation-and-prognosis-of-brain-tumor-patients-a-5-year-follow-up-study
#14
Adomas Bunevicius, Vytenis Deltuva, Edward R Laws, Giorgio Iervasi, Arimantas Tamsauskas, Robertas Bunevicius
Increased N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) concentration predicts poor prognosis of non-CNS cancer patients. We evaluated the association of NT-proBNP concentration with disease severity, discharge outcomes and prognosis of patients undergoing craniotomy for brain tumor. From January, 2010 until September, 2011 two-hundred and forty-five patients (age 55.05 ± 14.62 years) admitted for brain tumor surgery were evaluated for NT-proBNP serum concentration. Outcome at hospital discharge was evaluated with the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS)...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098189/an-update-on-non-cb1-non-cb2-cannabinoid-related-g-protein-coupled-receptors
#15
REVIEW
Paula Morales, Patricia H Reggio
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) has been shown to be of great importance in the regulation of numerous physiological and pathological processes. To date, two Class A G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been discovered and validated as the main therapeutic targets of this system: the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1), which is the most abundant neuromodulatory receptor in the brain, and the cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2), predominantly found in the immune system among other organs and tissues. Endogenous cannabinoid receptor ligands (endocannabinoids) and the enzymes involved in their synthesis, cell uptake, and degradation have also been identified as part of the ECS...
2017: Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097299/the-study-of-neurocognitive-outcomes-radiological-and-retinal-effects-of-aspirin-in-sleep-apnoea-rationale-and-methodology-of-the-snore-asa-study
#16
Stephanie Alison Ward, Elsdon Storey, Robyn L Woods, Garun S Hamilton, Ryo Kawasaki, Andrew L Janke, Matthew T Naughton, Fergal J O'Donoghue, Rory Wolfe, Tien Y Wong, Christopher M Reid, Walter P Abhayaratna, Nigel Stocks, Ruth Trevaks, Sharyn Fitzgerald, Lauren A B Hodgson, Liubov Robman, Barbara Workman, John J McNeil
PURPOSE: Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) is highly prevalent in older adults. Increasing evidence links SDB to the risk of dementia, mediated via a number of pathways, some of which may be attenuated by low-dose aspirin. This study will evaluate, in a healthy older cohort, the prospective relationship between SDB and cognitive function, changes in retinal and cerebral microvasculature, and determine whether low-dose aspirin ameliorates the effects of SDB on these outcomes over 3years...
October 30, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089886/depression-and-dementia-in-old-old-population-history-of-depression-may-be-associated-with-dementia-onset-the-tome-project
#17
Yi-Chien Liu, Kenichi Meguro, Kei Nakamura, Kyoko Akanuma, Masahiro Nakatsuka, Takashi Seki, Shutaro Nakaaki, Masaru Mimura, Norito Kawakami
Background: In this study, we investigated the relationship among a history of depression, depressive states, and dementia in a community-based old-old cohort. Methods: From 2012 to 2013, we recruited 200 subjects residing in Tome, Japan. Ultimately, 181 subjects were enrolled in our study and completed the whole study protocol. We used the World Mental Health-Composite International Diagnostic Interview 3.0 to evaluate whether subjects had a history of depression or other affective disorders. Simultaneously, 3...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089185/cannula-based-drug-delivery-to-the-guinea-pig-round-window-causes-a-lasting-hearing-loss-that-may-be-temporarily-mitigated-by-bdnf
#18
Phillip J P Sale, Aaron Uschakov, Tasfia Saief, David P Rowe, Carla J Abbott, Chi D Luu, Amy J Hampson, Stephen J O'Leary, David J Sly
Sustained local delivery of drugs to the inner ear may be required for future regenerative and protective strategies. The round window is surgically accessible and a promising delivery route. To be viable, a delivery system should not cause hearing loss. This study determined the effect on hearing of placing a drug-delivery microcatheter on to the round window, and delivering either artificial perilymph (AP) or brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) via this catheter with a mini-osmotic pump. Auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) were monitored for 4 months after surgery, while the AP or BDNF was administered for the first month...
October 28, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081764/tau-protein-in-oral-mucosa-and-cognitive-state-a-cross-sectional-study
#19
Luis Fernando Arredondo, Saray Aranda-Romo, Ildefonso Rodríguez-Leyva, Erika Chi-Ahumada, Sami K Saikaly, Diana P Portales-Pérez, Roberto González-Amaro, Mariana Salgado-Bustamante, Lourdes Enriquez-Macias, William Eng, Robert A Norman, Maria E Jimenez-Capdeville
Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by the presence of abnormal aggregates of proteins in brain tissue. Among them, the presence of aggregates of phosphorylated Tau protein (p-Tau) is the hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other major neurodegenerative disorders such as corticobasal degeneration and frontotemporal dementia among others. Although Tau protein has previously been assumed to be exclusive to the central nervous system, it is also found in peripheral tissues. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a differential Tau expression in oral mucosa cells according to cognitive impairment...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078742/a-single-session-of-moderate-intensity-walking-increases-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-bdnf-in-the-chronic-post-stroke-patients
#20
Viviane Aparecida Carvalho de Morais, Marina Ferreira da Silva Tourino, Ana Carolina de Souza Almeida, Thaís Bueno Dias Albuquerque, Roberta Castro Linhares, Paulo Pereira Christo, Patrícia Massara Martinelli, Paula Luciana Scalzo
Background Aerobic exercise, even for short durations, may promote an increase in serum concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). However, it is necessary to determine the optimal exercise types and intensities to increase BDNF levels. Objectives This aim of this study was investigate the effects of mild and moderate intensity acute aerobic exercise on serum BDNF levels in patients in the chronic post-stroke phase. Methods The participants answered a socio-demographic questionnaire, cognitive assessment (Mini Mental State Examination), assessment of depressive symptoms (Hamilton Depression Scale), fatigue (Fatigue Severity Scale) and functional capacity (6-minute walk test)...
October 27, 2017: Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation
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