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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920793/cognitive-decline-in-patients-with-chronic-hydrocephalus-and-normal-aging-growing-into-deficits
#1
Marlijn H de Beer, Philip Scheltens
BACKGROUND/AIM: To explore the theory of 'growing into deficits', a concept known from developmental neurology, in a series of cases with chronic hydrocephalus (CH). METHODS: Patients were selected from the Amsterdam Dementia Cohort and underwent extensive dementia screening. RESULTS: Twelve patients with CH were selected, in whom Alzheimer's disease was considered unlikely, based on biomarker information and follow-up. Mean Mini-Mental State Examination score was 24 (range 7-30)...
September 2016: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920668/getting-mirna-therapeutics-into-the-target-cells-for-neurodegenerative-diseases-a-mini-review
#2
REVIEW
Ming Ming Wen
miRNAs play important roles in modulating gene expression in varying cellular processes and disease pathogenesis, including neurodegenerative diseases. Several miRNAs are expressed in the brain, control brain development and are identified as important biomarkers in the pathogenesis of motor-and neuro-cognitive diseases such as Alzheimer's (AD), Huntington's and Parkinson's diseases (PD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. These remarkable miRNAs could be used as diagnostic markers and therapeutic targeting potential for many stressful and untreatable progressive neurodegenerative diseases...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920202/the-translational-significance-of-the-neurovascular-unit-a-mini-review
#3
Heather L McConnell, Cymon N Kersch, Randall L Woltjer, Edward A Neuwelt
The mammalian brain is supplied with blood by specialized vasculature that is structurally and functionally distinct from that of the periphery. A defining feature of this vasculature is a physical blood-brain barrier (BBB). The BBB separates blood components from the brain microenvironment, regulating the entry and exit of ions, nutrients, macromolecules, and energy metabolites. Over the last two decades, physiological studies of cerebral blood flow dynamics have demonstrated that substantial intercellular communication occurs between cells of the vasculature and the neurons and glia that abut the vasculature...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911741/neural-stem-cells-to-cerebral-cortex-emerging-mechanisms-regulating-progenitor-behavior-and-productivity
#4
Noelle D Dwyer, Bin Chen, Shen-Ju Chou, Simon Hippenmeyer, Laurent Nguyen, H Troy Ghashghaei
This review accompanies a 2016 SFN mini-symposium presenting examples of current studies that address a central question: How do neural stem cells (NSCs) divide in different ways to produce heterogeneous daughter types at the right time and in proper numbers to build a cerebral cortex with the appropriate size and structure? We will focus on four aspects of corticogenesis: cytokinesis events that follow apical mitoses of NSCs; coordinating abscission with delamination from the apical membrane; timing of neurogenesis and its indirect regulation through emergence of intermediate progenitors; and capacity of single NSCs to generate the correct number and laminar fate of cortical neurons...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911312/increased-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-2-in-the-neocortex-of-alzheimer-s-disease-and-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-is%C3%A2-correlated-with-disease-severity-and%C3%A2-soluble-a%C3%AE-42-load
#5
Joyce R Chong, Yuek Ling Chai, Jasinda H Lee, David Howlett, Johannes Attems, Clive G Ballard, Dag Aarsland, Paul T Francis, Christopher P Chen, Mitchell K P Lai
BACKGROUND: Of the three transforming growth factor (TGF)-β isoforms known, TGFβ1 deficits have been widely reported in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and studied as a potential therapeutic target. In contrast, the status of TGFβ2, which has been shown to mediate amyloid-β (Aβ)-mediated neuronal death, are unclear both in AD and in Lewy body dementias (LBD) with differential neuritic plaque and neurofibrillary tangle burden. OBJECTIVE: To measure neocortical TGFβ2 levels and their correlations with neuropathological and clinical markers of disease severity in a well-characterized cohort of AD as well as two clinical subtypes of LBD, dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), known to manifest relatively high and low Aβ plaque burden, respectively...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909421/metacognition-and-perspective-taking-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-mini-review
#6
REVIEW
Elodie Bertrand, Jesus Landeira-Fernandez, Daniel C Mograbi
Metacognition refers to the monitoring and regulation of cognitive processes and its impairment can lead to a lack of self-awareness of deficits, or anosognosia. In the context of different neurological and psychiatric disorders (e.g., traumatic brain injury, dementia, and schizophrenia), studies have shown that patients who present impairments in metacognitive abilities may be able to recognize such difficulties in others and in themselves when exposed to material in a third-person perspective. Considering that metacognitive impairments are an important characteristic of dementia, especially in Alzheimer's Disease (AD), studies of the relationship between metacognition and perspective-taking may be relevant to improve the quality of life of people with dementia...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903226/protective-effects-of-caffeic-acid-and-the-alzheimer-s-brain-an-update
#7
Solomon Habtemariam
Caffeic acid (CA) and related phenylpropanoic acids are ubiquitous natural products of the shikimic acid pathway origin. Due to the presence of diorthohydroxyl aromatic (catecholic) moiety, CA is not only one of the most potent antioxidant phenyl propanoids but also display numerous other pharmacological effects ranging from antiinflammatory to anticancer effects. Recent studies also demonstrated that CA both in its free form or conjugated with other groups such as quinic acid and sugars display profound effects in the brain including protection from toxicity induced by a variety of agents and/or experimental models of Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
November 29, 2016: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894887/ultrasound-tissue-pulsatility-imaging-suggests-impairment-in-global-brain-pulsatility-and-small-vessels-in-elderly-patients-with-orthostatic-hypotension
#8
Julie Biogeau, Thomas Desmidt, Paul-Armand Dujardin, Redouane Ternifi, Charlotte Eudo, Emilie Vierron, Jean-Pierre Remenieras, Frédéric Patat, Vincent Camus, Thierry Constans
BACKGROUND: Orthostatic hypotension (OH) is highly prevalent in the elderly, and this population can be exposed to serious complications, including falls and cognitive disorders, as well as overall mortality. However, the pathophysiology of OH is still poorly understood, and innovative methods of cerebral blood flow (CBF) assessment have been required to accurately investigate cerebrovascular reactivity in OH. OBJECTIVES: We want to compare brain tissue pulsatility (BTP) changes during an orthostatic challenge in elderly patients over 80 with and without OH...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893859/hippocampal-calcification-on-computed-tomography-in-relation-to-cognitive-decline-in-memory-clinic-patients-a-case-control-study
#9
Remko Kockelkoren, Jill B De Vis, Willem P Th M Mali, Jeroen Hendrikse, Pim A de Jong, Annemieke M Rozemuller, Huiberdina L Koek
BACKGROUND: It was recently shown that calcification of the hippocampus can be detected on computed tomography (CT) images and these calcifications occur in up to 20% of people over 50 years of age. However, little is known about hippocampal calcification and its relation to cognition and cognitive decline. Therefore, the aim of this study was to (1) determine the prevalence of hippocampal calcification on CT in memory clinic patients controls, and (2) to assess its relation with cognitive decline...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887584/ratio-of-apob-ldl-a-potential-clinical-index-for-vascular-cognitive-impairment
#10
Cheng Qian, Fei Tan
BACKGROUND: Vascular cognitive impairment (VCI), compared to vascular dementia (VD), has a broader definition and highlights the effect of vascular disease in dementia, and stroke seems play an important role in the development of VCI. However, not all patients with brain infarcts suffer from VCI; unique risk factors appear to cause such progression. This study aimed to find potential risk factors of vascular cognitive impairment among patients with brain infarcts. METHODS: Thirty-seven dementia patients and 74 brain infarction patients were included; all had infarcts in both basilar ganglia...
November 25, 2016: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882038/alzheimer-and-vascular-dementia-in-the-elderly-patients
#11
Naresh Kumar Seetlani, Narindar Kumar, Khalid Imran, Asif Ali, Nadia Shams, Taha Sheikh
OBJECTIVES: To find out the frequency of Alzheimer's and Vascular dementia in the elderly patients. METHODS: This cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in Department of Medicine, Ziauddin Hospital Karachi from 1(st) October 2013 to 31(st) March 2014. Patients with symptoms of dementia for more than 6 months duration, and Mini Mental State Examination score <24 were included in this study. Patients who fell in category of dementia were assessed for duration of symptoms...
September 2016: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876444/the-functional-neuroanatomy-of-verbal-memory-in-alzheimer-s-disease-18-f-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose-positron-emission-tomography-fdg-pet-correlates-of-recency-and-recognition-memory
#12
Adam M Staffaroni, Rebecca J Melrose, Lorraine P Leskin, Hannah Riskin-Jones, Dylan Harwood, Mark Mandelkern, David L Sultzer
INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to distinguish the functional neuroanatomy of verbal learning and recognition in Alzheimer's disease (AD) using the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) Word Learning task. METHOD: In 81 Veterans diagnosed with dementia due to AD, we conducted a cluster-based correlation analysis to assess the relationships between recency and recognition memory scores from the CERAD Word Learning Task and cortical metabolic activity measured using [(18)F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876396/anatomical-animal-and-cellular-evidence-for-zika-induced-pathogenesis-of-fetal-microcephaly
#13
REVIEW
Jing-Zhang Wang, Xin-Hua Guo, Dian-Guo Xu
Several recent articles published by Brain and Development in 2016 demonstrated some rare, but innovative, genetic mechanisms for microcephaly. This concise mini-review presented another novel pathogenic mechanism for microcephaly, which has actually been a worldwide medical challenge since the World Health Organization (WHO) defined the outbreak of the Zika virus (ZIKV) as an International Public Health Emergency on 1 Feb, 2016. As a recent noteworthy clinical phenomenon, the ZIKV outbreak was accompanied by a dramatically increased number of microcephalus fetuses...
November 19, 2016: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870462/sex-differences-in-the-functional-lateralization-of-emotion-and-decision-making-in-the-human-brain
#14
REVIEW
Justin Reber, Daniel Tranel
Dating back to the case of Phineas Gage, decades of neuropsychological research have shown that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) is crucial to both real-world social functioning and abstract decision making in the laboratory (see, e.g., Stuss et al., ; Bechara et al., 1994; Damasio et al., ). Previous research has shown that the relationship between the laterality of individuals' vmPFC lesions and neuropsychological performance is moderated by their sex, whereby there are more severe social, emotional, and decision-making impairments in men with right-side vmPFC lesions and in women with left-side vmPFC lesions (Tranel et al...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870454/sex-differences-in-the-adolescent-brain-and-body-findings-from-the-saguenay-youth-study
#15
REVIEW
Tomáš Paus, Angelita Pui-Yee Wong, Catriona Syme, Zdenka Pausova
This Mini-Review describes sex differences in 66 quantitative characteristics of the brain and body measured in a community-based sample of 1,024 adolescents 12-18 years of age, members of the Saguenay Youth Study. Using an extensive phenotyping protocol, we have obtained measures in a number of domains, including brain structure, cognition, mental health, substance use, body composition, metabolism, cardiovascular reactivity, and life style. For each measure, we provide estimates of effect size (Cohen's d) and sex-specific correlations with age (Pearson R)...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870452/sex-hormones-and-genotype-interact-to-influence-psychiatric-disease-treatment-and-behavioral-research
#16
REVIEW
Aarthi R Gobinath, Elena Choleris, Liisa A M Galea
Sex differences exist in the vulnerability, incidence, manifestation, and treatment of numerous neurological and psychiatric diseases. Despite this observation prominent in the literature, little consideration has been given to possible sex differences in outcome in both preclinical and clinical research. This Mini-Review highlights evidence supporting why studying sex differences matter for advances in brain health as well as improving treatment for neurological and psychiatric disease. Additionally, we discuss some statistical and methodological considerations in evaluating sex differences as well as how differences in the physiology of the sexes can contribute to sex difference in disease incidence and manifestation...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870449/do-cortical-plasticity-mechanisms-differ-between-males-and-females
#17
James Dachtler, Kevin Fox
The difference between male and female behavior and male and female susceptibility to a number of neuropsychiatric conditions is not controversial. From a biological perspective, one might expect to see at least some of these differences underpinned by identifiable physical differences in the brain. This Mini-Review focuses on evidence that plasticity mechanisms differ between males and females and ask at what scale of organization the differences might exist, at the systems level, the circuits level, or the synaptic level...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870426/sex-dependent-effects-of-nicotine-on-the-developing-brain
#18
REVIEW
Sarah J Cross, Kay E Linker, Frances M Leslie
The use of tobacco products represents a major public health concern, especially among women. Epidemiological data have consistently demonstrated that women have less success quitting tobacco use and a higher risk for developing tobacco-related diseases. The deleterious effects of nicotine are not restricted to adulthood, as nicotinic acetylcholine receptors regulate critical aspects of neural development. However, the exact mechanisms underlying the particular sensitivity of women to develop tobacco dependence have not been well elucidated...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870423/sex-based-differences-in-brain-alterations-across-chronic-pain-conditions
#19
REVIEW
Arpana Gupta, Emeran A Mayer, Connor Fling, Jennifer S Labus, Bruce D Naliboff, Jui-Yang Hong, Lisa A Kilpatrick
Common brain mechanisms are thought to play a significant role across a multitude of chronic pain syndromes. In addition, there is strong evidence for the existence of sex differences in the prevalence of chronic pain and in the neurobiology of pain. Thus, it is important to consider sex when developing general principals of pain neurobiology. The goal of the current Mini-Review is to evaluate what is known about sex-specific brain alterations across multiple chronic pain populations. A total of 15 sex difference and 143 single-sex articles were identified from among 412 chronic pain neuroimaging articles...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870419/sex-differences-in-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-signaling-and-functions
#20
REVIEW
Chi Bun Chan, Keqiang Ye
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the neurotrophin family that plays a critical role in numerous neuronal activities. Recent studies have indicated that some functions or action mechanisms of BDNF vary in a sex-dependent manner. In particular, BDNF content in some brain parts and the tendency to develop BDNF deficiency-related diseases such as depression are greater in female animals. With the support of relevant studies, it has been suggested that sex hormones or steroids can modulate the activities of BDNF, which may account for its functional discrepancy in different sexes...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
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