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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087981/humanized-chondroitinase-abc-sensitizes-glioblastoma-cells-to-temozolomide
#1
Alena Cristina Jaime-Ramirez, Nina Dmitrieva, Ji Young Yoo, Yeshavanth Banasavadi-Siddegowda, Jianying Zhang, Theresa Relation, Chelsea Bolyard-Blessing, Jeffrey Wojton, Balveen Kaur
INTRODUCTION: Malignant gliomas (GBMs) are extremely aggressive and have a median survival of approximately 15 months. Current treatment modalities, which include surgical resection, radiation and chemotherapy, have done little to prolong the lives of GBM patients. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPG) are critical for cell-cell and cell-extra cellular matrix (ECM) interactions and are implicated in glioma growth and invasion. Chondroitinase (Chase) ABC is a bacterial enzyme that cleaves chondroitin sulfate disaccharide chains from CSPGs in the tumor ECM...
January 14, 2017: Journal of Gene Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074931/eid3-directly-associates-with-dnmt3a-during-transdifferentiation-of-human-umbilical-cord-mesenchymal-stem-cells-to-npc-like-cells
#2
Liang Luo, Wen-Jin Chen, James Q Yin, Ru-Xiang Xu
There has been recently been increased interest in the plasticity of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UMSCs) and their potential in the treatment of neurological disorders. In this study, UMSCs were transdifferentiated into neural stem-like cells (uNSCL), these cells grow in neurosphere-like structures and express high levels of NSCs markers. Epigenetics-related gene screening was here used to assess the relationship between E1A-like inhibitor of differentiation 3 (EID3), a p300 inhibitor, and DNA methyltransferase 3 A (DNMT3A) during the transdifferentiation of UMSCs into uNSCL in vitro...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063006/therapeutic-value-of-nerve-growth-factor-in-promoting-neural-stem-cell-survival-and-differentiation-and-protecting-against-neuronal-hearing-loss
#3
Zhao Han, Cong-Pin Wang, Ning Cong, Yu-Yan Gu, Rui Ma, Fang-Lu Chi
Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a neurotrophic factor that modulates survival and differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs). We investigated the function of NGF in promoting growth and neuronal differentiation of NSCs isolated from mouse cochlear tissue, as well as its protective properties against gentamicin (GMC) ototoxicity. NSCs were isolated from the cochlea of mice and cultured in vitro. Effect of NGF on survival, neurosphere formation, and differentiation of the NSCs, as well as neurite outgrowth and neural excitability in the subsequent in vitro neuronal network, was examined...
January 7, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062830/dissecting-inherent-intratumor-heterogeneity-in-patient-derived-glioblastoma-culture-models
#4
Jian Teng, Cintia Carla da Hora, Rami S Kantar, Ichiro Nakano, Hiroaki Wakimoto, Tracy T Batchelor, E Antonio Chiocca, Christian E Badr, Bakhos A Tannous
BACKGROUND: Molecular profile of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) revealed 4 subtypes, 2 of which, proneural and mesenchymal, have been predominantly observed, with the latter displaying a more aggressive phenotype and increased therapeutic resistance. Single-cell RNA sequencing revealed that multiple subtypes actually reside within the same tumor, suggesting cellular heterogeneity in GBM. Further, plasticity between these 2 subtypes is observed during tumor recurrence and in response to radiation therapy...
January 6, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060319/isolation-and-culture-of-adult-neural-stem-cells-from-the-mouse-subcallosal-zone
#5
Joo Yeon Kim, Ju-Hyun Lee, Woong Sun
Adult neural stem cells (aNSCs) can be used for the regeneration of damaged brain tissue. NSCs have the potential for differentiation and proliferation into three types of cells: neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. Identifying aNSC-derived regions and characterizing the aNSC properties are critical for the potential use of aNSCs and for the elucidation of their role in neural regeneration. The subcallosal zone (SCZ), located between white matter and the hippocampus, has recently been reported to contain aNSCs and continuously give rise to neuroblasts...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026149/arctigenin-protects-against-neuronal-hearing-loss-by-promoting-neural-stem-cell-survival-and-differentiation
#6
Xinghua Huang, Mo Chen, Yan Ding, Qin Wang
Neuronal hearing loss has become a prevalent health problem. This study focused on the function of arctigenin (ARC) in promoting survival and neuronal differentiation of mouse cochlear neural stem cells (NSCs), and its protection against gentamicin (GMC) induced neuronal hearing loss. Mouse cochlea was utilized to isolate NSCs, which were subsequently cultured in vitro. The effects of ARC on NSC survival, neurosphere formation, differentiation of NSCs, neurite outgrowth and neural excitability in neuronal network in vitro were examined...
December 27, 2016: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018177/heterocellular-contacts-with-mouse-brain-endothelial-cells-via-laminin-and-%C3%AE-6%C3%AE-1-integrin-sustain-subventricular-zone-svz-stem-progenitor-cells-properties
#7
Alexandra I Rosa, Sofia Grade, Sofia D Santos, Liliana Bernardino, Thomas C Chen, João Relvas, Florence M Hofman, Fabienne Agasse
Neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) is regulated by diffusible factors and cell-cell contacts. In vivo, SVZ stem cells are associated with the abluminal surface of blood vessels and such interactions are thought to regulate their neurogenic capacity. SVZ neural stem cells (NSCs) have been described to contact endothelial-derived laminin via α6β1 integrin. To elucidate whether heterocellular contacts with brain endothelial cells (BEC) regulate SVZ cells neurogenic capacities, cocultures of SVZ neurospheres and primary BEC, both obtained from C57BL/6 mice, were performed...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987059/melatonin-increases-oligodendrocyte-differentiation-in-cultured-neural-stem-cells
#8
Majid Ghareghani, Heibatollah Sadeghi, Kazem Zibara, Nazanin Danaei, Hassan Azari, Amir Ghanbari
Neural stem cell (NSC) culture is a remarkable tool to investigate the potential therapeutic benefits of drugs in neurological diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of melatonin on proliferation and differentiation of NSCs in vitro. NSCs were isolated and expanded from mouse embryonic E14 cortex, and the effect of various concentrations of melatonin (0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5 and 10 μM) on NSC proliferation was assessed by MTT and neurosphere assay. Results showed that melatonin significantly increased NSC viability and NSC proliferation in a dose-dependent manner, in comparison to controls...
December 16, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981446/comparative-capability-of-menstrual-blood-versus-bone-marrow-derived-stem-cells-in-neural-differentiation
#9
Fereshteh Azedi, Somaieh Kazemnejad, Amir Hassan Zarnani, Masoud Soleimani, Amir Shojaei, Shaghayegh Arasteh
In order to characterize the potency of menstrual blood stem cells (MenSCs) for future cell therapy of neurological disorders instead of bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) as a well-known and conventional source of adult stem cells, we examined the in vitro differentiation potential of these stem cells into neural-like cells. The differentiation potential of MenSCs to neural cells in comparison with BMSCs was assessed under two step neural differentiation including conversion to neurosphere-like cells and final differentiation...
December 15, 2016: Molecular Biology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979877/neural-progenitor-cells-in-cerebral-cortex-of-epilepsy-patients-do-not-originate-from-astrocytes-expressing-glast
#10
Meng Chen, Till B Puschmann, Ulrika Wilhelmsson, Charlotte Örndal, Marcela Pekna, Kristina Malmgren, Bertil Rydenhag, Milos Pekny
Adult neurogenesis in human brain is known to occur in the hippocampus, the subventricular zone, and the striatum. Neural progenitor cells (NPCs) were reported in the cortex of epilepsy patients; however, their identity is not known. Since astrocytes were proposed as the source of neural progenitors in both healthy and diseased brain, we tested the hypothesis that NPCs in the epileptic cortex originate from reactive, alternatively, de-differentiated astrocytes that express glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST)...
December 14, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955690/chd7-promotes-proliferation-of-neural-stem-cells-mediated-by-mif
#11
Shigeki Ohta, Tomonori Yaguchi, Hironobu Okuno, Hervé Chneiweiss, Yutaka Kawakami, Hideyuki Okano
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) plays an important role in supporting the proliferation and/or survival of murine neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs); however, the downstream effectors of this factor remain unknown. Here, we show that MIF increases the expression of Pax6 and Chd7 in NSPCs in vitro. During neural development, the chromatin remodeling factor Chd7 (chromatin helicase-DNA-binding protein 7) is expressed in the ventricular zone of the telencephalon of mouse brain at embryonic day 14...
December 13, 2016: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943657/a-drop-array-culture-for-patterning-adherent-mouse-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-neurospheres
#12
Angela R Dixon, Yadah Ramirez, Kathryn Haengel, Kate F Barald
New therapeutic approaches for repairing an injured or degenerating nervous system have accelerated the development of methods to efficiently generate populations of neurons derived from various stem cell sources. Many of these methods require the generation of neurospheres. Here we describe a simple technique for creating an array of adherent mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC)-derived neurospheres using a conventional plastic culture dish and a patterning template. mESC-derived neurospheres are confined to circular (4 mm-diameter), gel-coated \regions within an array...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943290/isolation-characterization-and-establishment-of-spontaneously-immortalized-cell-line-hrpe-2s-with-stem-cell-properties
#13
Hoda Shams Najafabadi, Zahra-Soheila Soheili, Shahram Samiei, Hamid Ahmadieh, Ehsan Ranaei Pirmardan, Maryam Masoomi
The retinal pigment epithelium is a monolayer of highly specialized pigmented cells located between the neural retina and the Bruch's membrane of the choroid. RPE cells play a crucial role in the maintenance and function of the underlying photoreceptors. This study introduces a spontaneously arising human retinal pigment epithelial cell line, HRPE-2S, which was isolated from primary RPE cell culture of 2 days old male donor. We characterized morphology and functional properties of the new cell line. The immortalized cell line was maintained in culture for more than 70 passages and 240 divisions...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938488/a-subpopulation-of-dopaminergic-neurons-co-expresses-serotonin-in-ventral-mesencephalic-cultures-but-not-after-intrastriatal-transplantation-in-a-rat-model-of-parkinsons-disease
#14
Stefano Di Santo, Stefanie Seiler, Angélique Ducray, Morten Meyer, Hans Widmer
Cell replacement therapy is a promising avenue into the investigation and treatment of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and in some cases significant long-term motor improvements have been demonstrated. The main source of donor tissue is the human fetal ventral mesencephalon (VM), which consists of a mixed neuronal population and its heterogeneity likely contributes to the inconsistent outcome observed in clinical trials. Detailed knowledge about the neuronal subpopulations in the VM seems, hence, essential for successful cell transplantation...
7, 2016: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929471/isolation-and-expansion-of-adult-canine-hippocampal-neural-precursors
#15
Thomas Duncan, Aileen Lowe, Marshall A Dalton, Michael Valenzuela
The rate of neurogenesis within the adult hippocampus has been shown to vary across mammalian species. The canine hippocampus, demonstrating a structural intermediacy between the rodent and human hippocampi, is therefore a valuable model in which to study adult neurogenesis. In vitro culture assays are an essential component of characterizing neurogenesis and adult neural precursor cells, allowing for precise control over the cellular environment. To date however, culture protocols for canine cells remain under-represented in the literature...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923324/uncovering-the-in-vivo-source-of-adult-neural-crest-stem-cells
#16
Jorge B Aquino
Some late embryonic and adult postmigratory neural crest-derived cells (NCDCs) from diverse tissues were shown to grow as multipotent neurospheres. Neural crest stem cells (NCSCs) contained in these spheres, were found to give rise not only to neuroectodermal derivatives but also to some of the progeny of the other embryonic germ layers. In this review, evidences regarding the in vivo properties of NCDCs contributing to NCSCs are discussed. Even though in many cases the final prove for the phenotype identity of in vivo cells generating NCSCs is lacking, some evidences suggest that such postmigratory NCDCs would differ from neural crest cells (NCCs)...
December 6, 2016: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916837/chloroquine-an-endocytosis-blocking-agent-inhibits-zika-virus-infection-in-different-cell-models
#17
Rodrigo Delvecchio, Luiza M Higa, Paula Pezzuto, Ana Luiza Valadão, Patrícia P Garcez, Fábio L Monteiro, Erick C Loiola, André A Dias, Fábio J M Silva, Matthew T Aliota, Elizabeth A Caine, Jorge E Osorio, Maria Bellio, David H O'Connor, Stevens Rehen, Renato Santana de Aguiar, Andrea Savarino, Loraine Campanati, Amilcar Tanuri
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in utero might lead to microcephaly and other congenital defects. Since no specific therapy is available thus far, there is an urgent need for the discovery of agents capable of inhibiting its viral replication and deleterious effects. Chloroquine is widely used as an antimalarial drug, anti-inflammatory agent, and it also shows antiviral activity against several viruses. Here we show that chloroquine exhibits antiviral activity against ZIKV in Vero cells, human brain microvascular endothelial cells, human neural stem cells, and mouse neurospheres...
November 29, 2016: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916472/generation-of-neural-cells-using-ipscs-from-sleep-bruxism-patients-with-5-ht2a-polymorphism
#18
Yurie Hoashi, Satoshi Okamoto, Yuka Abe, Takashi Matsumoto, Junichi Tanaka, Yuya Yoshida, Kent Imaizumi, Kenji Mishima, Wado Akamatsu, Hideyuki Okano, Kazuyoshi Baba
PURPOSE: Sleep bruxism (SB) is classified as a sleep-related movement disorder characterized by grinding and clenching of the teeth during sleep, which is responsible for a variety of clinical problems such as abnormal tooth attrition and fracture of teeth or roots. Little is known about the etiology of SB. Our previous study identified a genomic association of the serotonin 2A receptor (5-HT2A) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs6313 C>T, with SB, where the C allele carrier is associated with a 4...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Prosthodontic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909720/tetrandrine-inhibits-glioma-stem-like-cells-by-repressing-%C3%AE-catenin-expression
#19
Yong Zhang, Yu-Lin Wen, Ji-Wei Ma, Jie-Cheng Ye, Xiao Wang, Jian-Xian Huang, Chao-Yue Meng, Xiao-Ze Xu, Shao-Xiang Wang, Xue-Yun Zhong
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) in glioma are often responsible for relapse and resistance to therapy. The purpose of the present study was to confirm the self-renewal and migration inhibitory effects of tetrandrine (Tet), which is a compound extracted from the dried root of Stephania tetrandra S. Moore, toward glioma stem-like cells (GSLCs) and to examine the associated molecular mechanisms. Using a neurosphere culture technique, we enriched the GSLC population from the human glioblastoma cell lines U87 and U251...
January 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903708/astrocyte-elevated-gene-1-regulates-beta-catenin-signaling-to-maintain-glioma-stem-like-stemness-and-self-renewal
#20
Bin Hu, Luni Emdad, Timothy P Kegelman, Xue-Ning Shen, Swadesh K Das, Devanand Sarkar, Paul B Fisher
: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a common malignant brain tumor that portends extremely poor patient survival. Recent studies reveal that glioma stem-like cells (GSCs) are responsible for GBM escape from chemo-radiotherapy and mediators of tumor relapse. Previous studies suggest that AEG-1 (MTDH), an oncogene upregulated in most types of cancers including GBM, plays a focal role linking multiple signaling pathways in tumorigenesis. We now report a crucial role of AEG-1 in glioma stem cell biology...
November 30, 2016: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
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