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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686388/discordant-inheritance-of-chromosomal-and-extrachromosomal-dna-elements-contributes-to-dynamic-disease-evolution-in-glioblastoma
#1
Ana C deCarvalho, Hoon Kim, Laila M Poisson, Mary E Winn, Claudius Mueller, David Cherba, Julie Koeman, Sahil Seth, Alexei Protopopov, Michelle Felicella, Siyuan Zheng, Asha Multani, Yongying Jiang, Jianhua Zhang, Do-Hyun Nam, Emanuel F Petricoin, Lynda Chin, Tom Mikkelsen, Roel G W Verhaak
To understand how genomic heterogeneity of glioblastoma (GBM) contributes to poor therapy response, we performed DNA and RNA sequencing on GBM samples and the neurospheres and orthotopic xenograft models derived from them. We used the resulting dataset to show that somatic driver alterations including single-nucleotide variants, focal DNA alterations and oncogene amplification on extrachromosomal DNA (ecDNA) elements were in majority propagated from tumor to model systems. In several instances, ecDNAs and chromosomal alterations demonstrated divergent inheritance patterns and clonal selection dynamics during cell culture and xenografting...
April 23, 2018: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678817/collagen-18-and-agrin-are-secreted-by-enteric-neural-crest-cells-to-remodel-their-microenvironment-and-regulate-their-migration-during-ens-development
#2
Nandor Nagy, Csilla Barad, Ryo Hotta, Sukhada Bhave, Emily Arciero, David Dora, Allan M Goldstein
The enteric nervous system arises from neural crest cells that migrate, proliferate, and differentiate into enteric neurons and glia within the intestinal wall. Many extracellular matrix (ECM) components are present in the embryonic gut, but their role in regulating ENS development is largely unknown. Here, we identify heparan sulfate proteoglycan proteins, including collagen 18 (Col18) and agrin, as important regulators of enteric neural crest-derived cell (ENCDC) development. In developing avian hindgut, Col18 is expressed at the ENCDC wavefront, while agrin expression occurs later...
April 20, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670222/stem-cells-in-middle-ear-cholesteatoma-contribute-to-its-pathogenesis
#3
Julia Nagel, Saskia Wöllner, Matthias Schürmann, Viktoria Brotzmann, Janine Müller, Johannes Fw Greiner, Peter Goon, Barbara Kaltschmidt, Christian Kaltschmidt, Holger Sudhoff
Cholesteatoma is a potentially life-threatening middle ear lesion due to the formation of an inflamed ectopic mass of keratinizing squamous epithelium. Surgical removal remains the only treatment option, emphasizing the need to gain a better understanding of this severe disease. We show for the first time that stem cells residing in cholesteatoma tissue contribute to disease progression. Cells expressing the "stemness" markers Nestin and S100B were detected in middle ear cholesteatoma and auditory canal skin...
April 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651556/neurospheres-from-neural-stem-neural-progenitor-cells-nspcs-of-non-hydrocephalic-htx-rats-produce-neurons-astrocytes-and-multiciliated-ependyma-the-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-normal-and-hydrocephalic-rats-supports-such-a-differentiation
#4
Roberto Henzi, Montserrat Guerra, Karin Vío, César González, Cristian Herrera, Pat McAllister, Conrad Johanson, Esteban M Rodríguez
Fetal onset hydrocephalus and abnormal neurogenesis are two inseparable phenomena turned on by a cell junction pathology first affecting neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) and later the multiciliated ependyma. The neurological impairment of children born with hydrocephalus is not reverted by derivative surgery. NSPCs and neurosphere (NE) grafting into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of hydrocephalic fetuses thus appears as a promising therapeutic procedure. There is little information about the cell lineages actually forming the NE as they grow throughout their days in vitro (DIV)...
April 12, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649413/neural-stem-cells-derived-directly-from-adipose-tissue
#5
Eric D Petersen, Jessica R Zenchak, Olivia V Lossia, Ute Hochgeschwender
Neural stem cells (NSCs) are characterized as self-renewing cell populations with the ability to differentiate into the multiple tissue types of the central nervous system. These cells can differentiate into mature neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. This category of stem cells has been shown to be a promisingly effective treatment for neurodegenerative diseases and neuronal injury. Most treatment studies with NSCs in animal models use embryonic brain-derived NSCs. This approach presents both ethical and feasibility issues for translation to human patients...
April 16, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648968/saccharina-japonica-extract-suppresses-stemness-of-glioma-stem-cells-by-degrading-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-variant-iii
#6
So Yeon Kim, Jeong-Yub Kim, Woon-Seob Shin, Seok Joon Lee, Sung-Gil Chi, Ji-Yun Lee, Myung-Jin Park
Cancer stem cells, a small subpopulation of cells with stem cell-like characteristics found within most solid tumors, are widely reported to be responsible for the malignancy of aggressive cancer cells, and targeting these cells presents a sound therapeutic strategy for reducing the risk of tumor relapse. In the present study, we examined the effects of an extract of Saccharina japonica (ESJ) on glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs). Saccharina japonica is a member of the Phaeophyceae (brown algae) family, which displays biological activities, including antitumor effects...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642372/%C3%AF-3-and-%C3%AF-6-fatty-acids-modulate-conventional-and-atypical-protein-kinase-c-activities-in-a-brain-fatty-acid-binding-protein-dependent-manner-in-glioblastoma-multiforme
#7
Marwa E Elsherbiny, Hua Chen, Marwan Emara, Roseline Godbout
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly infiltrative brain cancer with a dismal prognosis. High levels of brain fatty acid binding protein (B-FABP) are associated with increased migration/infiltration in GBM cells, with a high ratio of arachidonic acid (AA) to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) driving B-FABP-mediated migration. Since several protein kinase Cs (PKCs) are overexpressed in GBM and linked to migration, we explored a possible relationship between B-FABP and levels/activity of different PKCs, as a function of AA and DHA supplementation...
April 6, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625119/the-exosome-of-adipose-derived-stem-cells-reduces-%C3%AE-amyloid-pathology-and-apoptosis-of-neuronal-cells-derived-from-the-transgenic-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
Mijung Lee, Jae-Jun Ban, Seungwon Yang, Wooseok Im, Manho Kim
Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC) have a therapeutic potential for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Exosomes are extracellular vesicles secreted from various types of cells, and stem cell-derived exosomes are known to have beneficial effects in many diseases. Many studies have suggested that amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides have a pivotal role in AD progression, by mitochondrial dysfunction of neuronal cells. We examined the therapeutic potential of exosomes derived from ADSCs (ADSC-Exo) in preventing the disease phenotypes induced by the Aβ cascade in an AD in vitro model...
April 3, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622083/role-of-drug-transporters-and-heat-shock-proteins-during-ethanol-exposure-to-human-neural-precursor-cells-and-its-lineages
#9
Sandeep Kumar Vishwakarma, Nusrath Fatima, Chandrakala Lakkireddy, Nagarapu Raju, Avinash Bardia, A Sandhya, Syed Ameer Basha Paspala, Vishnupriya Satti, Aleem Ahmed Khan
INTRODUCTION: Ethanol exposure to developing brain may alter the growth and differentiation of neurological cells resulting in unfavorable pathologies. Earlier studies have provided very limited mechanistic insights of cellular and molecular mechanisms which do not mimic with human situation due to varying cell types and poses potential challenges for investigation. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the role of ABC transporters and heat shock proteins mediated response in human neural precursor cells (NPCs) and its lineages during proliferation and lineage differentiation against ethanol exposure...
April 2018: Tissue & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618563/erratum-for-the-research-article-constitutive-and-tnf%C3%AE-inducible-expression-of-chondroitin-sulfate-proteoglycan-4-in-glioblastoma-and-neurospheres-implications-for-car-t-cell-therapy-by-s-pellegatta-b-savoldo-n-di-ianni-c-corbetta-y-chen-m-patan%C3%A3-c-sun-b-pollo
#10
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605425/stepwise-impairment-of-neural-stem-cell-proliferation-and-neurogenesis-concomitant-with-disruption-of-blood-brain-barrier-in-recurrent-ischemic-stroke
#11
Ruihe Lin, Michael Lang, Nicolette Heinsinger, Geoffrey Stricsek, Justine Zhang, Renato Iozzo, Robert Rosenwasser, Lorraine Iacovitti
Stroke patients are at increased risk for recurrent stroke and development of post-stroke dementia. In this study, we investigated the effects of recurrent stroke on adult brain neurogenesis using a novel rat model of recurrent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) developed in our laboratory. Using BrdU incorporation, activation and depletion of stem cells in the subgranular zone (SGZ) and subventricular zone (SVZ) were assessed in control rats and rats after one or two strokes. In vitro neurosphere assay was used to assess the effects of plasma from normal and stroke rats...
March 29, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559887/topical-dexamethasone-administration-impairs-protein-synthesis-and-neuronal-regeneration-in-the-olfactory-epithelium
#12
Umberto Crisafulli, André M Xavier, Fabiana B Dos Santos, Tavane D Cambiaghi, Seo Y Chang, Marimélia Porcionatto, Beatriz A Castilho, Bettina Malnic, Isaias Glezer
Chronic inflammatory process in the nasal mucosa is correlated with poor smell perception. Over-activation of immune cells in the olfactory epithelium (OE) is generally associated with loss of olfactory function, and topical steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have been largely used for treating such condition. Whether this therapeutic strategy could directly affect the regenerative process in the OE remains unclear. In this study, we show that nasal topical application of dexamethasone (DEX; 200 or 800 ng/nostril), a potent synthetic anti-inflammatory steroid, attenuates OE lesion caused by Gram-negative bacteria lipopolysaccharide (LPS) intranasal infusion...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546705/derivation-of-fate-committed-schwann-cells-from-bone-marrow-stromal-cells-of-adult-rats
#13
Y P Tsui, Graham K Shea, Y S Chan, Daisy K Y Shum
Our goal is to derive phenotypically stable Schwann cells from bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) for use in transplantation studies of central/peripheral nerve injuries. With the adult rat as model, here we describe steps that foster (1) expansion of the BMSC subpopulation of neural progenitors as neurosphere cells, (2) differentiation of the progenitors into Schwann cell-like cells in adherent culture supplemented with soluble factors, and (3) cell-intrinsic switch of Schwann cell-like cells to the Schwann cell fate following co-culture with sensory neurons purified from dorsal root ganglia...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543759/localized-intrathecal-delivery-of-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-conditioned-medium-improves-functional-recovery-in-a-rat-model-of-spinal-cord-injury
#14
Dasa Cizkova, Veronika Cubinkova, Tomas Smolek, Adriana-Natalia Murgoci, Jan Danko, Katarina Vdoviakova, Filip Humenik, Milan Cizek, Jusal Quanico, Isabelle Fournier, Michel Salzet
It was recently shown that the conditioned medium (CM) of mesenchymal stem cells can enhance viability of neural and glial cell populations. In the present study, we have investigated a cell-free approach via CM from rat bone marrow stromal cells (MScCM) applied intrathecally (IT) for spinal cord injury (SCI) recovery in adult rats. Functional in vitro test on dorsal root ganglion (DRG) primary cultures confirmed biological properties of collected MScCM for production of neurosphere-like structures and axon outgrowth...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540359/cspg4-shows-promise-for-glioblastoma-car-t-therapy
#15
(no author information available yet)
CAR T cells directed against CSPG4 limit the growth of brain tumors in cultured neurospheres and glioma xenograft mouse models, with no signs of immune escape owing to loss of antigen expression.
March 14, 2018: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535786/association-of-glioblastoma-multiforme-stem-cell-characteristics-differentiation-and-microglia-marker-genes-with-patient-survival
#16
Sandra Bien-Möller, Ellen Balz, Susann Herzog, Laura Plantera, Silke Vogelgesang, Kerstin Weitmann, Carolin Seifert, Matthias A Fink, Sascha Marx, Angela Bialke, Chitra Venugopal, Sheila K Singh, Wolfgang Hoffmann, Bernhard H Rauch, Henry W S Schroeder
Patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) are at high risk to develop a relapse despite multimodal therapy. Assumedly, glioma stem cells (GSCs) are responsible for treatment resistance of GBM. Identification of specific GSC markers may help to develop targeted therapies. Here, we performed expression analyses of stem cell (ABCG2, CD44, CD95, CD133, ELF4, Nanog, and Nestin) as well as differentiation and microglia markers (GFAP, Iba1, and Sparc) in GBM compared to nonmalignant brain. Furthermore, the role of these proteins for patient survival and their expression in LN18 stem-like neurospheres was analyzed...
2018: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531296/mir-129-5p-targets-wnt5a-to-block-pkc-erk-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-jnk-pathways-in-glioblastoma
#17
Ailiang Zeng, Jianxing Yin, Yan Li, Rui Li, Zheng Wang, Xu Zhou, Xin Jin, Feng Shen, Wei Yan, Yongping You
Therapeutic application of microRNAs (miRNAs) in Wnt-driven glioma has been valuable; however, their specific roles and mechanisms have not been completely investigated. Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) was used to analyse the expression of microRNA-129-5p (miR-129-5p) in human glioma samples. Cell-Counting Kit 8 (CCK-8), flow cytometry, EdU, angiogenesis, Transwell invasion, wound healing, in vitro 3D migration and neurosphere formation assays were employed to assess the role of miR-129-5p in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cells...
March 12, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520610/atp-binding-cassette-abc-transporters-expression-and-clinical-value-in-glioblastoma
#18
Antonin Dréan, Shai Rosenberg, François-Xavier Lejeune, Larissa Goli, Aravindan Arun Nadaradjane, Jérémy Guehennec, Charlotte Schmitt, Maïté Verreault, Franck Bielle, Karima Mokhtari, Sanson Marc, Alexandre Carpentier, Delattre Jean-Yves, Ahmed Idbaih
ATP-binding cassette transporters (ABC transporters) regulate traffic of multiple compounds, including chemotherapeutic agents, through biological membranes. They are expressed by multiple cell types and have been implicated in the drug resistance of some cancer cells. Despite significant research in ABC transporters in the context of many diseases, little is known about their expression and clinical value in glioblastoma (GBM). We analyzed expression of 49 ABC transporters in both commercial and patient-derived GBM cell lines as well as from 51 human GBM tumor biopsies...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499065/high-content-screening-of-patient-derived-cell-lines-highlights-the-potential-of-non-standard-chemotherapeutic-agents-for-the-treatment-of-glioblastoma
#19
Kenny Kwok-Hei Yu, Jessica T Taylor, Omar N Pathmanaban, Amir Saam Youshani, Deniz Beyit, Joanna Dutko-Gwozdz, Roderick Benson, Gareth Griffiths, Ian Peers, Peter Cueppens, Brian A Telfer, Kaye J Williams, Catherine McBain, Ian D Kamaly-Asl, Brian W Bigger
BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary brain malignancy in adults, yet survival outcomes remain poor. First line treatment is well established, however disease invariably recurs and improving prognosis is challenging. With the aim of personalizing therapy at recurrence, we have established a high content screening (HCS) platform to analyze the sensitivity profile of seven patient-derived cancer stem cell lines to 83 FDA-approved chemotherapy drugs, with and without irradiation...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497562/ferritin-nanoparticles-for-improved-self-renewal-and-differentiation-of-human-neural-stem-cells
#20
Jung Seung Lee, Kisuk Yang, Ann-Na Cho, Seung-Woo Cho
Background: Biomaterials that promote the self-renewal ability and differentiation capacity of neural stem cells (NSCs) are desirable for improving stem cell therapy to treat neurodegenerative diseases. Incorporation of micro- and nanoparticles into stem cell culture has gained great attention for the control of stem cell behaviors, including proliferation and differentiation. Method: In this study, ferritin, an iron-containing natural protein nanoparticle, was applied as a biomaterial to improve the self-renewal and differentiation of NSCs and neural progenitor cells (NPCs)...
2018: Biomaterials Research
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