Read by QxMD icon Read


Gunaseelan Narayanan, Yuan Hong Yu, Muly Tham, Hui Theng Gan, Srinivas Ramasamy, Shvetha Sankaran, Srivats Hariharan, Sohail Ahmed
Neural stem cells (NSCs) have the ability to self-renew and generate the three major neural lineages - astrocytes, neurons and oligodendrocytes. NSCs and neural progenitors (NPs) are commonly cultured in vitro as neurospheres. This protocol describes in detail how to determine the NSC frequency in a given cell population under clonal conditions. The protocol begins with the seeding of the cells at a density that allows for the generation of clonal neurospheres. The neurospheres are then transferred to chambered coverslips and differentiated under clonal conditions in conditioned medium, which maximizes the differentiation potential of the neurospheres...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Mikkel Staberg, Signe Regner Michaelsen, Rikke Darling Rasmussen, Mette Villingshøj, Hans Skovgaard Poulsen, Petra Hamerlik
PURPOSE: Glioblastoma (GBM) ranks among the deadliest solid cancers worldwide and its prognosis has remained dismal, despite the use of aggressive chemo-irradiation treatment regimens. Limited drug delivery into the brain parenchyma and frequent resistance to currently available therapies are problems that call for a prompt development of novel therapeutic strategies. While only displaying modest efficacies as mono-therapy in pre-clinical settings, histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) have shown promising sensitizing effects to a number of cytotoxic agents...
October 20, 2016: Cellular Oncology (Dordrecht)
Fabienne Lamballe, Sara Toscano, Filippo Conti, Maria Arechederra, Nathalie Baeza, Dominique Figarella-Branger, Françoise Helmbacher, Flavio Maina
The cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase ABL exerts positive or negative effects in solid tumours according to the cellular context, thus functioning as a "switch modulator". The therapeutic effects of drugs targeting a set of signals encompassing ABL have been explored in several solid tumours. However, the net contribution of ABL inhibition by these agents remains elusive as these drugs also act on other signalling components. Here, using glioblastoma (GBM) as a cellular paradigm, we report that ABL inhibition exacerbates mesenchymal features as highlighted by down-regulation of epithelial markers and up-regulation of mesenchymal markers...
October 9, 2016: Oncotarget
Marjorie Flahaut, Nicolas Jauquier, Nadja Chevalier, Katya Nardou, Katia Balmas Bourloud, Jean-Marc Joseph, David Barras, Christian Widmann, Nicole Gross, Raffaele Renella, Annick Mühlethaler-Mottet
BACKGROUND: The successful targeting of neuroblastoma (NB) by associating tumor-initiating cells (TICs) is a major challenge in the development of new therapeutic strategies. The subfamily of aldehyde dehydrogenases 1 (ALDH1) isoenzymes, which comprises ALDH1A1, ALDH1A2, and ALDH1A3, is involved in the synthesis of retinoic acid, and has been identified as functional stem cell markers in diverse cancers. By combining serial neurosphere passages with gene expression profiling, we have previously identified ALDH1A2 and ALDH1A3 as potential NB TICs markers in patient-derived xenograft tumors...
October 10, 2016: BMC Cancer
Martin R Schmuck, Thomas Temme, Katharina Dach, Denise de Boer, Marta Barenys, Farina Bendt, Axel Mosig, Ellen Fritsche
Current developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) testing in animals faces major limitations, such as high cost and time demands as well as uncertainties in their methodology, evaluation and regulation. Therefore, the use of human-based 3D in vitro systems in combination with high-content image analysis (HCA) might contribute to DNT testing with lower costs, increased throughput and enhanced predictivity for human hazard identification. Human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) grown as 3D neurospheres mimic basic processes of brain development including hNPC migration and differentiation and are therefore useful for DNT hazard identification...
October 8, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
Kwan-Long Mung, Yat-Ping Tsui, Evelyn Wing-Yin Tai, Ying-Shing Chan, Daisy Kwok-Yan Shum, Graham Ka-Hon Shea
BACKGROUND: Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) are attractive as a source of neural progenitors for ex vivo generation of neurons and glia. Limited numbers of this subpopulation, however, hinder translation into autologous cell-based therapy. Here, we demonstrate rapid and efficient conditioning with hypoxia to enrich for these neural progenitor cells prior to further expansion in neurosphere culture. METHOD: Adherent cultures of BMSCs (rat/human) were subjected to 1 % oxygen for 24 h and then subcultured as neurospheres with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor supplementation...
October 7, 2016: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Koki Fujimori, Toshiki Tezuka, Hiroyuki Ishiura, Jun Mitsui, Koichiro Doi, Jun Yoshimura, Hirobumi Tada, Takuya Matsumoto, Miho Isoda, Ryota Hashimoto, Nubutaka Hattori, Takuya Takahashi, Shinichi Morishita, Shoji Tsuji, Wado Akamatsu, Hideyuki Okano
Patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) facilitate understanding of the etiology of diseases, discovery of new drugs and development of novel therapeutic interventions. A frequently used starting source of cells for generating iPSCs has been dermal fibroblasts (DFs) isolated from skin biopsies. However, there are also numerous repositories containing lymphoblastoid B-cell lines (LCLs) generated from a variety of patients. To date, this rich bioresource of LCLs has been underused for generating iPSCs, and its use would greatly expand the range of targeted diseases that could be studied by using patient-specific iPSCs...
October 3, 2016: Molecular Brain
Qiang He, Zhanwei Jia, Ying Zhang, Xiumin Ren
We aimed to investigate the effect of morin hydrate on neural stem cells (NSCs) isolated from mouse inner ear and its potential in protecting neuronal hearing loss. 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and bromodeoxyuridine incorporation assays were employed to assess the effect of morin hydrate on the viability and proliferation of in vitro NSC culture. The NSCs were then differentiated into neurons, in which neurosphere formation and differentiation were evaluated, followed by neurite outgrowth and neural excitability measurements in the subsequent in vitro neuronal network...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Anne Tscherter, Martina Heidemann, Sonja Kleinlogel, Jürg Streit
Presently there exists no cure for spinal cord injury (SCI). However, transplantation of embryonic tissue into spinal cord (SC) lesions resulted in axon outgrowth across the lesion site and some functional recovery, fostering hope for future stem cell therapies. Although in vivo evidence for functional recovery is given, the exact cellular mechanism of the graft support remains elusive: either the grafted cells provide a permissive environment for the host tissue to regenerate itself or the grafts actually integrate functionally into the host neuronal network reconnecting the separated SC circuits...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Bo Li, Ping Duan, Xuefei Han, Wenhai Yan, Ying Xing
Objective. To investigate the effect of advanced motherhood on rat hippocampal neural stem cell proliferation. Methods. Female parents were subdivided into control and old mother group by age, and neural stem cells were cultured from hippocampal tissues for 24 h newborn offspring. The diameter and numbers of neurospheres were examined by microscopy, and differences in proliferation were examined by EdU immunofluorescence, CCK-8 assay, and cell cycle analysis. Results. The number of neurospheres in the old mother group after culture was lower than the control group...
2016: BioMed Research International
Myka R Ababon, Bo I Li, Paul G Matteson, James H Millonig
Retinoic acid (RA) is an important developmental morphogen that coordinates anteroposterior and dorsoventral axis patterning, somitic differentiation, neurogenesis, patterning of the hindbrain and spinal cord, and the development of multiple organ systems. Due to its chemical nature as a small amphipathic lipid, direct detection and visualization of RA histologically remains technically impossible. Currently, methods used to infer the presence and localization of RA make use of reporter systems that detect the biological activity of RA...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Claudia R Oliva, Tahireh Markert, Larry J Ross, E Lucile White, Lynn Rasmussen, Wei Zhang, Maaike Everts, Douglas R Moellering, Shannon M Bailey, Mark J Suto, Corinne E Griguer
The enzyme cytochrome c oxidase (CcO), or complex IV (EC, is a large transmembrane protein complex that serves as the last enzyme in the respiratory electron transport chain of eukaryotic mitochondria. CcO promotes the switch from glycolytic to oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) metabolism and has been associated with increased self-renewal characteristics in gliomas. Increased CcO activity in tumors has been associated with tumor progression after chemotherapy failure, and patients with primary glioblastoma multiforme and high tumor CcO activity have worse clinical outcomes than those with low tumor CcO activity...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Jinzhou Yuan, Peter A Sims
Recent developments have enabled rapid, inexpensive RNA sequencing of thousands of individual cells from a single specimen, raising the possibility of unbiased and comprehensive expression profiling from complex tissues. Microwell arrays are a particularly attractive microfluidic platform for single cell analysis due to their scalability, cell capture efficiency, and compatibility with imaging. We report an automated microwell array platform for single cell RNA-Seq with significantly improved performance over previous implementations...
September 27, 2016: Scientific Reports
Osamu Imamura, Masaaki Arai, Minori Dateki, Kunio Takishima
Oligodendrocytes are the myelin-forming cells of the central nervous system. Oligodendrocyte loss and failure of myelin development result in serious human disorders, including multiple sclerosis. Previously, using oligodendrocyte progenitor cells, we have shown that donepezil, which is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor developed for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, stimulates myelin gene expression and oligodendrocyte differentiation. Here, we aimed to analyze the effects of donepezil on primary mouse embryonic neural stem cells (NSCs)...
September 24, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
Naho Fujiwara, Katsumi Miyahara, Nana Nakazawa-Tanaka, Chihiro Akazawa, Atsuyuki Yamataka
PURPOSE: Hirschsprung's disease (HD) is caused by a failure of enteric neural crest-derived cells (ENCC) to colonize the bowel, resulting in an absence of the enteric nervous system (ENS). Previously, we developed a Sox10 transgenic version of the Endothelin receptor-B (Ednrb) mouse to visualize ENCC with the green fluorescent protein, Venus. The aim of this study was to isolate Sox10-Venus(+) cells, which are differentiated neurons and glial cells in the ENS, and analyze these cells using Sox10-Venus mice gut...
September 23, 2016: Pediatric Surgery International
Séverine Martin-Lannerée, Sophie Halliez, Théo Z Hirsch, Julia Hernandez-Rapp, Bruno Passet, Céline Tomkiewicz, Ana Villa-Diaz, Juan-Maria Torres, Jean-Marie Launay, Vincent Béringue, Jean-Luc Vilotte, Sophie Mouillet-Richard
The prion protein is infamous for its involvement in a group of neurodegenerative diseases known as Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies. In the longstanding quest to decipher the physiological function of its cellular isoform, PrP(C) , the discovery of its participation to the self-renewal of hematopoietic and neural stem cells has cast a new spotlight on its potential role in stem cell biology. However, still little is known on the cellular and molecular mechanisms at play. Here, by combining in vitro and in vivo murine models of PrP(C) depletion, we establish that PrP(C) deficiency severely affects the Notch pathway, which plays a major role in neural stem cell maintenance...
September 19, 2016: Stem Cells
Ernesto Doncel-Pérez, Manuel Nieto-Sampedro
A combined approach in spinal cord injury (SCI) therapy is the modulation of the cellular and molecular processes involved in glial scarring. Aldaynoglial cells are neural cell precursors with a high capacity to differentiate into neurons, promote axonal growth, wrapping and myelination of resident neurons. These important characteristics of aldaynoglia can be combined with specific inhibition of the RhoGTPase activity in astroglia and microglia that cause reduction of glial proliferation, retraction of glial cell processes and myelin production by oligodendrocytes...
July 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
Mohamed Ashraf Khalil, Jan Hraběta, Tomáš Groh, Pavel Procházka, Helena Doktorová, Tomáš Eckschlager
Valproic acid (VPA) is a well-known antiepileptic drug that exhibits antitumor activities through its action as a histone deacetylase inhibitor. CD133 is considered to be a cancer stem cell marker in several tumors including neuroblastoma. CD133 transcription is strictly regulated by epigenetic modifications. We evaluated the epigenetic effects of treatment with 1mM VPA and its influence on the expression of CD133 in four human neuroblastoma cell lines. Chemoresistance and cell cycle of CD133+ and CD133- populations were examined by flow cytometry...
2016: PloS One
Delyan P Ivanov, Abdal-Jabbar Al-Rubai, Anna M Grabowska, Margaret K Pratten
Chemotherapy-induced neurotoxicity can reduce the quality of life of patients by affecting their intelligence, senses and mobility. Ten percent of safety-related late-stage clinical failures are due to neurological side effects. Animal models are poor in predicting human neurotoxicity due to interspecies differences and most in vitro assays cannot distinguish neurotoxicity from general cytotoxicity for chemotherapeutics. We developed in vitro assays capable of quantifying the paediatric neurotoxic potential for cytotoxic drugs...
December 2016: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Hanqing Chen, Zhengpeng Shi, Bing Gao, Fengqing Fu, Xueguang Zhang
Objective To investigate the expression and biological significance of costimulatory molecule B7-H6, a member of B7 family, in glioma stem like cells (GSLCs). Methods In virtue of the ability of forming neurospheres in vitro , GSLCs were isolated from U87 cells by cell sub-cloning. Real-time quantitative PCR and flow cytometry were performed to detect the expressions of stem cell related markers (c-myc, Sox2, CD133, nestin, and CXCR4), as well as the expressions of B7 family molecules. The different doses of adriamycin, carboplatin, cisplatin, were used to treat GSLCs for testing their chemotherapy-resistance...
September 2016: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"