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C Keating, D Hughes, T Mahony, D Cysneiros, U Z Ijaz, C J Smith, V O'Flaherty
The development and, activity of a cold-adapting microbial community was monitored during low temperature anaerobic digestion (LtAD) treatment of wastewater. Two replicate hybrid anaerobic sludge bed-fixed-film reactors treated a synthetic sewage wastewater at 12°C, at organic loading rates of 0.25-1.0 kg Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) m-3 d-1, over 889 days. The inoculum was obtained from a full-scale AD reactor, which was operated at 37˚C. Both LtAD reactors readily degraded the influent with COD removal efficiencies regularly exceeding 78% for both the total and soluble COD fractions...
May 25, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Colleen A F Lawton, Xiaolei Lin, Gerald E Hanks, Herbert Lepor, David J Grignon, Harmar D Brereton, Meena Bedi, Seth A Rosenthal, Kenneth L Zeitzer, Varagur M Venkatesan, Eric M Horwitz, Thomas M Pisansky, Harold Kim, Matthew B Parliament, Rachel Rabinovitch, Mack Roach, Young Kwok, James J Dignam, Howard M Sandler
PURPOSE: Trial RTOG 9202 was a phase 3 randomized trial designed to determine the optimal duration of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) when combined with definitive radiation therapy (RT) in the treatment of locally advanced nonmetastatic adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Long-term follow-up results of this study now available are relevant to the management of this disease. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Men (N=1554) with adenocarcinoma of the prostate (cT2c-T4, N0-Nx) with a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) <150 ng/mL and no evidence of distant metastasis were randomized (June 1992 to April 1995) to short-term ADT (STAD: 4 months of flutamide 250 mg 3 times per day and goserelin 3...
June 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Amin J Mirhadi, Qiang Zhang, Gerald E Hanks, Herbert Lepor, David J Grignon, Christopher A Peters, Seth A Rosenthal, Kenneth Zeitzer, John S Radwan, Colleen Lawton, Matthew B Parliament, Robert S Reznik, Howard M Sandler
PURPOSE: NRG Oncology RTOG 9202 was a randomized trial testing long-term adjuvant androgen deprivation (LTAD) versus initial androgen deprivation only (STAD) with external beam radiation therapy (RT) in mostly high-risk and some intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients. RTOG 9408 found an overall survival (OS) advantage in patients with cT1b-T2b disease and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) <20 ng/mL, with benefit observed mostly among intermediate-risk patients. It was still unknown whether intermediate-risk patients would experience an additional survival benefit with LTAD; thus, we performed a secondary analysis to explore whether LTAD had any incremental benefit beyond STAD among the intermediate-risk subset of RTOG 9202...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Almudena Zapatero, Araceli Guerrero, Xavier Maldonado, Ana Álvarez, Carmen González-San Segundo, Maria Angeles Cabeza Rodriguez, Victor Macías, Agustí Pedro Olive, Francesc Casas, Ana Boladeras, Carmen Martín de Vidales, Maria Luisa Vázquez de la Torre, Felipe A Calvo
PURPOSE: To present data on the late toxicity endpoints of a randomized trial (DART 01/05) conducted to determine whether long-term androgen deprivation (LTAD) was superior to short-term AD (STAD) when combined with high-dose radiation therapy (HDRT) in patients with prostate cancer (PCa). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between November 2005 and December 2010, 355 eligible men with cT1c-T3aN0M0 PCa and intermediate-risk and high-risk factors (2005 National Comprehensive Cancer Network criteria) were randomized to 4 months of AD combined with HDRT (median dose, 78 Gy) (STAD) or the same treatment followed by 24 months of AD (LTAD)...
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Aya Misawa, Ken-Ichi Takayama, Tomohiko Urano, Satoshi Inoue
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA) have been associated with the development of cancer. However, the interplay between lncRNAs and androgen receptor (AR) signaling in prostate cancer is still unclear. Here, we identified lncRNAs induced by androgen in AR-positive prostate cancer cells, where induction was abolished by AR knockdown as well as an anti-androgen, bicalutamide. By combining these data, we identified an androgen-regulated lncRNA, suppressor of cytokine signaling 2-antisense transcript 1 (SOCS2-AS1), the expression of which was higher in castration-resistant prostate cancer model cells, i...
August 19, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Urs Granacher, Melanie Lesinski, Dirk Büsch, Thomas Muehlbauer, Olaf Prieske, Christian Puta, Albert Gollhofer, David G Behm
During the stages of long-term athlete development (LTAD), resistance training (RT) is an important means for (i) stimulating athletic development, (ii) tolerating the demands of long-term training and competition, and (iii) inducing long-term health promoting effects that are robust over time and track into adulthood. However, there is a gap in the literature with regards to optimal RT methods during LTAD and how RT is linked to biological age. Thus, the aims of this scoping review were (i) to describe and discuss the effects of RT on muscular fitness and athletic performance in youth athletes, (ii) to introduce a conceptual model on how to appropriately implement different types of RT within LTAD stages, and (iii) to identify research gaps from the existing literature by deducing implications for future research...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Katarzyna Bialek, Denise Cysneiros, Vincent O'Flaherty
The application of low-temperature (10 °C) anaerobic digestion (LtAD) for the treatment of complex dairy-based wastewater in an inverted fluidised bed (IFB) reactor was investigated. Inadequate mixing intensity provoked poor hydrolysis of the substrate (mostly protein), which resulted in low chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency throughout the trial, averaging ~69 % at the best operational period. Overgrowth of the attached biomass to the support particles (Extendospheres) induced bed stratification by provoking agglutination of the particles and supporting their washout by sedimentation, which contributed to unstable bioprocess performance at the organic loading rates (OLRs) between 0...
October 2014: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Jeffrey M Vainshtein, Matthew Schipper, Sean Vance, Felix Y Feng, Karin B Olson, Daniel A Hamstra
OBJECTIVES: To assess the performance of the Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment (CAPRA) prognostic tool for freedom-from-metastases (FFM) and cause-specific survival (CSS) in patients with localized prostate cancer treated with definitive external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), and to determine whether the performance of CAPRA is influenced by androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) use or the presence of Gleason pattern 5 (GP-5). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 612 patients from a prospective database of 718 patients treated with dose-escalated EBRT from 1998 to 2008 who met CAPRA scoring criteria were included in the study...
April 2016: American Journal of Clinical Oncology
Marissa G Spitz, Robert W Kenefick, Joel B Mitchell
Preparedness to train was assessed using a battery of conditioning specific movement tasks (CSMTs) on a group of talent identified Rugby Union players (n=156; age=15±7years; stature=176±7cm; and mass=74±14kg). In addition, to explore the link between movement competency and performance a series of standard fitness tests were conducted. Overall the group's CSMTs competency ratings were low, but task dependent. The proportion of competent players ranged from 14% for a single leg squat to 70% for a double to single leg landing...
October 21, 2013: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
H Rigby, S R Smith
Recycling biowaste digestates on agricultural land diverts biodegradable waste from landfill disposal and represents a sustainable source of nutrients and organic matter (OM) to improve soil for crop production. However, the dynamics of nitrogen (N) release from these organic N sources must be determined to optimise their fertiliser value and management. This laboratory incubation experiment examined the effects of digestate type (aerobic and anaerobic), waste type (industrial, agricultural and municipal solid waste or sewage sludge) and soil type (sandy loam, sandy silt loam and silty clay) on N availability in digestate-amended soils and also quantified the extent and significance of the immobilisation of N within the soil microbial biomass, as a possible regulatory mechanism of N release...
December 2013: Waste Management
Terry Clark, Tánia Lisboa
Success in the performing arts, like sports, is dependent upon the acquisition and consistent use of a diverse range of skills. In sports, an understanding of safe and effective use of the body is required to facilitate long-term involvement in that activity. In order to assist athletes to attain their performance goals, and ensure healthy and sustained involvement, long-term athlete development (LTAD) models have been devised and adapted by professional sporting bodies throughout the world. LTAD models emphasize the intellectual, emotional, and social development of the athlete, encourage long-term participation in physical activities, and enable participants to improve their overall health and well-being and increase their life-long participation in physical activity...
September 2013: Medical Problems of Performing Artists
Eoin Gunnigle, Paul McCay, Matthew Fuszard, Catherine H Botting, Florence Abram, Vincent O'Flaherty
Low-temperature anaerobic digestion (LTAD) technology is underpinned by a diverse microbial community. The methanogenic archaea represent a key functional group in these consortia, undertaking CO2 reduction as well as acetate and methylated C1 metabolism with subsequent biogas (40 to 60% CH4 and 30 to 50% CO2) formation. However, the cold adaptation strategies, which allow methanogens to function efficiently in LTAD, remain unclear. Here, a pure-culture proteomic approach was employed to study the functional characteristics of Methanosarcina barkeri (optimum growth temperature, 37°C), which has been detected in LTAD bioreactors...
July 2013: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Felix Y Feng, Kevin Blas, Karin Olson, Matthew Stenmark, Howard Sandler, Daniel A Hamstra
PURPOSE: To evaluate the role of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and duration for high-risk prostate cancer patients treated with dose-escalated radiation therapy (RT). METHODS AND MATERIALS: A retrospective analysis of high-risk prostate cancer patients treated with dose-escalated RT (minimum 75 Gy) with or without ADT was performed. The relationship between ADT use and duration with biochemical failure (BF), metastatic failure (MF), prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM), non-prostate cancer death (NPCD), and overall survival (OS) was assessed as a function of pretreatment characteristics, comorbid medical illness, and treatment using Fine and Gray's cumulative incidence methodology...
May 1, 2013: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
T Van der Kwast, N Al Daoud, L Collette, J Sykes, J Thoms, M Milosevic, R G Bristow, G Van Tienhoven, P Warde, R-O Mirimanoff, M Bolla
AIM: We investigated the prognostic significance of intraductal carcinoma of the prostate (IDC-P) in biopsies and transurethral resections prior to external beam radiotherapy with or without androgen deprivation. METHODS: Cohort 1 consisted of 118 intermediate risk prostate cancer patients treated by radiotherapy, with biochemical relapse as primary end-point (median follow-up 6.5 years). Cohort 2 consisted of 132 high risk patients, enrolled in a phase III randomised trial (EORTC 22863) comparing radiotherapy alone to radiotherapy with long-term androgen deprivation (LTAD) with clinical progression free survival as primary end-point (median follow-up 9...
June 2012: European Journal of Cancer
Rory M McKeown, Dermot Hughes, Gavin Collins, Thérèse Mahony, Vincent O'Flaherty
Methanogenesis is an important biogeochemical process for the degradation of organic matter within cold environments, and is associated with the release of the potent greenhouse gas, methane. Cold methanogenesis has been harnessed, in engineered systems, as low-temperature anaerobic digestion (LTAD) for wastewater treatment and bioenergy generation. LTAD represents a nascent wastewater treatment biotechnology, which offers an attractive alternative to conventional aerobic and anaerobic processes. Successful, high-rate, LTAD of sewage and industrial wastewaters (e...
June 2012: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
Paul Ford, Mark De Ste Croix, Rhodri Lloyd, Rob Meyers, Marjan Moosavi, Jon Oliver, Kevin Till, Craig Williams
Within the UK, the "Long Term Athlete Development" (LTAD) model has been proposed by a variety of national governing bodies to offer a first step to considering the approach to talent development. The model, which is primarily a physiological perspective, presents an advancement of understanding of developing athletic potential alongside biological growth. It focuses on training to optimize performance longitudinally, and considers sensitive developmental periods known as "windows of opportunity". However, it appears that there are a number of problems with this theoretical model that are not necessarily transparent to coaches...
February 2011: Journal of Sports Sciences
Stephen R Norris
This text provides a synopsis, as well as some greater detail, concerning the "Canadian Sport for Life" project Long-Term Athlete Development Canada (LTAD) initiated in 2004. The genesis of the project may be found in the Canadian Sport Policy released in 2002 by Sport Canada, the sport participation and performance agency within the Canadian Heritage Ministry of the Canadian Government. The project has grown from relatively humble beginnings to become a system-wide movement and catalyst for change that encompasses not only sport participation and excellence, but also aspects to do with education, health, and general recreation...
November 2010: Current Sports Medicine Reports
Almudena Zapatero, Feliciano García-Vicente, Carmen Martín de Vidales, Alfonso Cruz Conde, Yamile Ibáñez, Inmaculada Fernández, Mariano Rabadán
PURPOSE: To analyze long-term outcome and prognostic factors for high-risk prostate cancer defined by National Comprehensive Cancer Network criteria treated with high-dose radiotherapy and androgen deprivation in a single institution. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A total of 306 patients treated between 1995 and 2007 in a radiation dose-escalation program fulfilled the National Comprehensive Cancer Network high-risk criteria. Median International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements radiation dose was 78 Gy (range, 66...
December 1, 2011: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Derek R Wilke, Murray Krahn, George Tomlinson, Andrea Bezjak, Robert Rutledge, Padraig Warde
BACKGROUND: Combined long-term androgen deprivation (LTAD) and radiation conveys a prostate cancer-specific survival advantage over combined short-term androgen deprivation (STAD) and radiation. The seminal question is whether or not the gains are worth the adverse effects of LTAD with respect to patient preferences. METHODS: Preferences for LTAD compared with STAD were elicited by direct patient interview using the probability trade-off method. "Time trade-off utilities" (TTOu) for erectile dysfunction and osteoporosis were elicited using the time trade-off method...
April 15, 2010: Cancer
Alan Pollack, Kyounghwa Bae, Li-Yan Khor, Tahseen Al-Saleem, M Elizabeth Hammond, Varagur Venkatesan, Roger W Byhardt, Sucha O Asbell, William U Shipley, Howard M Sandler
PURPOSE: We previously reported that protein kinase A type I (PKA(RIalpha)) overexpression was predictive of outcome in prostate cancer patients treated with radiotherapy (RT) +/- short-term androgen deprivation (STAD) on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) protocol 86-10. Here, we attempt to verify our prior findings and test the hypothesis that the relationship of the length of AD to patient outcome is affected by PKA(RIalpha) overexpression. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: There were 313 cases in the RTOG 92-02 study cohort with available tissue and suitable staining by immunohistochemistry...
September 1, 2009: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
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