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pediatric infectious

Suresh Venkateswaran, Jarod Prince, David J Cutler, Urko M Marigorta, David T Okou, Sampath Prahalad, David Mack, Brendan Boyle, Thomas Walters, Anne Griffiths, Cary G Sauer, Neal LeLeiko, David Keljo, James Markowitz, Susan S Baker, Joel Rosh, Marian Pfefferkorn, Melvin B Heyman, Ashish Patel, Anthony Otley, Robert Baldassano, Joshua Noe, Paul Rufo, Maria Oliva-Hemker, Sonia Davis, Michael E Zwick, Greg Gibson, Lee A Denson, Jeffrey Hyams, Subra Kugathasan
Background: The genetic contributions to pediatric onset ulcerative colitis (UC), characterized by severe disease and extensive colonic involvement, are largely unknown. In adult onset UC, Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) has identified numerous loci, most of which have a modest susceptibility risk (OR 0.84-1.14), with the exception of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region on Chromosome 6 (OR 3.59). Method: To study the genetic contribution to exclusive pediatric onset UC, a GWAS was performed on 466 cases with 2099 healthy controls using UK Biobank array...
March 19, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Mercedes G Vázquez, Pablo N Affranchino, Andrea Schon, Eduardo Otero, Pablo Young, Patricia Breyter
Goldbloom syndrome is a rare clinical entity, of unknown etiology that happens almost exclusively in pediatric population. It is a prolonged febrile syndrome with periosteal hyperostosis and dysproteinemia, and often simulates an hematooncology or lymphoproliferative disease. The diagnosis is to rule out the different causes of bone pain associated with hypergammaglobulinemia, hypoalbuminemia, high erythrocyte sedimentation rate and periostitis at the radiographies. Symptomatology, radiology and laboratory parameters refer in a variable time, usually from 3 to 12 months...
April 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
Cüneyt Ardiç, Erdinç Yavuz
INTRODUCTION: The studies conducted revealed that breastfeeding duration has a reducing effect on common infectious diseases in the children during breastfeeding period. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to address the association between breastfeeding duration and common infectious diseases in the children until 5 years of age to show long-term protective effects of the breast milk. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 411 infants who were born in Rize (Turkey) between January 2011 and December 2011...
April 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
Asaf D Yanir, Caridad A Martinez, Ghadir Sasa, Kathryn Leung, Stephen Gottschalk, Bilal Omer, Nabil Ahmed, Meenakshi Hegde, Jo Eunji, Hao Liu, Helen E Heslop, Malcolm K Brenner, Robert A Krance, Swati Naik
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only curative option for a subset of patients with high-risk or relapsed Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL). Given evolving practices, it is important to continually evaluate outcomes for pediatric ALL following HSCT. Outcomes after HSCT are influenced by the type of donor used as this determines the degree and method of T-cell depletion used, and consequently, specific transplant-related morbidities. We retrospectively analyzed HSCT data from our center for transplants performed between January 2008 and May 2016, comparing outcomes between different donor types...
March 14, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Florian Lamping, Thomas Jack, Nicole Rübsamen, Michael Sasse, Philipp Beerbaum, Rafael T Mikolajczyk, Martin Boehne, André Karch
BACKGROUND: Since early antimicrobial therapy is mandatory in septic patients, immediate diagnosis and distinction from non-infectious SIRS is essential but hampered by the similarity of symptoms between both entities. We aimed to develop a diagnostic model for differentiation of sepsis and non-infectious SIRS in critically ill children based on routinely available parameters (baseline characteristics, clinical/laboratory parameters, technical/medical support). METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial conducted at a German tertiary-care pediatric intensive care unit (PICU)...
March 15, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Jaime Fernández-Sarmiento, Joseph A Carcillo, Claudia M Salinas, Edgar F Galvis, Paula A López, Andrés Jagua-Gualdrón
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate adherence to the sepsis bundle before and after an educational strategy and its impact on hospital stay. DESIGN: A prospective, analytic, before-and-after study of children with severe sepsis and septic shock who presented to the emergency department. SETTING: Carried out from January to December 2014 in the emergency department of a quaternary care hospital. PATIENTS: Of a total of 19,836 children who presented to the emergency department, 4,383 had an infectious pathology, with 203 of these showing severe sepsis and septic shock (124 pre intervention, and 79 post intervention)...
March 14, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Samia N Naccache, Maryann Lustestica, Margil Fahit, Javier Mestas, Jennifer Dien Bard
Early establishment of infectious process allows for expedited clinical management of meningitis and encephalitis. The FilmArray Meningitis/Encephalitis (FA-M/E) panel provides rapid detection of potential pathogens associated with encephalitis/meningitis in both immunocompetent and compromised patients. Here we conducted a one year review of the performance of the FA-M/E panel at a tertiary care children's hospital. 265 samples from 251 patients were tested. 87.25% (219/251) were negative, 9.96% (25/251) were positive for viral analytes and 3...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Vanessa A Thomas, Heather L Crouse, Kristy O Murray, Deborah C Hsu, Elizabeth A Camp, Andrea T Cruz
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to perform a needs assessment of pediatric (PEM) and general emergency medicine (EM) provider knowledge, comfort, and current practice patterns in the evaluation of pediatric tropical infectious diseases. METHODS: An online survey was developed based on educational priorities identified by an expert panel via modified Delphi methodology. The survey included assessment of providers' typical evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of tropical diseases and was distributed to PEM and EM providers in 2 large professional organizations...
March 12, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
Sunil Malik, Sonal Saran, Archana Dubey, Ajay Punj
Association of dengue fever with longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis in pediatric age group is a rare entity. We describe a case of 15 year old adolescent male who presented with dengue fever and in whom symptoms of transverse myelitis developed 4 weeks after fever (post-infectious stage). Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the diagnosis of longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis involving dorso-lumbar cord. Patient recovered almost completely with minimal residual neurological deficit after a six weeks course of corticosteroids and supportive management including physiotherapy...
April 2018: Annals of African Medicine
Solenn Remy, Karine Kolev-Descamps, Morgane Gossez, Fabienne Venet, Julie Demaret, Etienne Javouhey, Guillaume Monneret
BACKGROUND: While the process of sepsis-induced immunosuppression is now well described in adults, very little information is available on immune functions in pediatric sepsis. The current study investigated this in children with septic shock by performing immunomonitoring, including both innate (monocyte human leukocyte antigen-DR, mHLA-DR, expression) and adaptive immunity (lymphocyte subsets count), as well as cytokine concentrations (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-1Ra, TNF-α, IFN-γ). Subsequent objectives were to assess the associations between inflammatory response, potential immunosuppression and secondary acquired infection occurrence...
March 13, 2018: Annals of Intensive Care
James B Wood, Gregory P Fricker, C Buddy Creech
We conducted a survey of pediatric infectious diseases providers in the Emerging Infections Network regarding the workup and treatment of children with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB). We found significant practice variation in the management of children with SAB. These findings emphasize the need for further research to guide best practices.
March 8, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Prabahs Prasun Giri, Joydeb Roy, Agnisekhar Saha
Aim of the Study: Scrub typhus has been globally recognized as an emerging infectious disease contributing significantly to pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO) and a potential cause of multiorgan dysfunction syndrome (MODS). We studied the incidence of scrub typhus as a cause of pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admission and MODS in our hospital and its clinical and laboratory characteristics to measure the incidence of MODS caused by scrub typhus. Materials and Methods: This study was done in a pediatric teaching hospital in Kolkata, India...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
Michael C Tracy, Roshni Mathew
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to provide clinicians engaged in the care of infants and children an update on the current understanding of the epidemiology, etiology, diagnostic evaluation, and clinical management of complicated pneumonia. The review provides timely information surrounding areas of consensus and ongoing research. RECENT FINDINGS: The epidemiology and etiologies of complicated pneumonia continue to evolve over the past several decades in context of the introduction of new vaccines...
March 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Vinayak Narayan, Nasser Mohammed, Amey R Savardekar, Devi Prasad Patra, Anil Nanda
INTRODUCTION: Spinal tuberculosis [TB] is a common infectious disease prevalent in developing countries and a rising disaster in developed countries. The association of tuberculosis with spondylolisthesis is rarely reported in literature. The aim of our review is to analyse the clinical features and radiologic characteristics of TB spondylolisthesis along with providing a concise update on its surgical management, based on current literature. METHODS: A systematic review is performed after conducting a thorough search in the PubMed database...
March 8, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Gaetano Brindicci, Danilo Carboni, Roberto Genga, Eleonora Moschini, Giulia Montorzi, Felicetta Viscogliosi, Giovanni Muratori, Gabriele Ripanti
Pertussis is a contagious, infectious disease that affects mainly children and is caused by Bordetella pertussis. The pertussis vaccine has changed the epidemiology of the disease up to the point when it almost vanished, with a minimum number of cases recorded in Italy (2008) when vaccination coverage was 97%. For the same reason the natural history of the disease was also modified. Indeed, in high-income countries the lack of immunity acquired with the vaccine causes adolescents and adults to become an important source of infection for unvaccinated subjects, the newborn and children who have not completed their primary education...
March 1, 2018: Le Infezioni in Medicina
M D Bolmers, C C van Rossem, R R Gorter, W A Bemelman, A A W van Geloven, H A Heij
PURPOSE: A laparoscopic approach for emergency appendectomy is increasingly used, in pediatric patients as well. The objective of this study is to audit the current state of diagnostic work-up, surgical techniques and its outcome in children with acute appendicitis. METHODS: A prospective consecutive observational cohort study was carried out in a 2-month study period. All patients under 18 years that were operated for suspected acute appendicitis were included...
March 9, 2018: Pediatric Surgery International
Martine A Aardoom, Maria E Linda Joosse, Andrica C H de Vries, Arie Levine, Lissy de Ridder
Background: Cancer and death are the most severe outcomes that affect patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). These outcomes are even more severe if they occur at a young age but are rare, even in the general population. We conducted a systematic review to provide an overview of all reported pediatric (PIBD) patients with severe outcome. Methods: A literature search identified publications that reported development of cancer or fatal outcome in PIBD patients...
March 7, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Nattachai Anantasit, Noramon Nuntacharruksa, Pimpin Incharoen, Aroonwan Preutthipan
Introduction: Invasive' pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) has been one of the major causes of mortality in immunocompromised patients. The gold standard method for a diagnosis of IPA is histopathological examination of the lung tissue; however, post-procedural bleeding limits the feasibility of lung biopsy. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Invasive Fungal Infections Cooperative Group and The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG) defined IPA...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Christoph Zoeller, Benno M Ure, Jens Dingemann
INTRODUCTION:  Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) has gained broad acceptance among pediatric surgeons. Today, VATS can be regarded as a routine approach for various conditions in neonates and infants. However, there is a lack of information concerning the complications of thoracoscopic pulmonary surgery in neonates and infants. We aimed to review the available data. PATIENTS AND METHODS:  A systematic review of the literature was performed using PubMed...
March 6, 2018: European Journal of Pediatric Surgery
I-Min Chiu, Ying-Hsien Huang, Chih-Min Su, Chia-Te Kung, Chao-Jui Li, Chih-Ho Chen, Kuo-Su Tang, Kuang-Che Kuo
BACKGROUND: For febrile children who are evaluated in a pediatric emergency department (PED), blood culture can be considered the laboratory criterion standard to detect bacteremia. However, high rates of negative, false-positive, or contaminated blood cultures in children often result in this testing being noncontributory. This study determined the factors associated with true-positive blood cultures in children. METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted at a tertiary medical center's PED...
March 6, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
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