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thalamic stroke

Kristina Griffin, Michael O'Hearn, Carla C Franck, Carol A Courtney
STUDY DESIGN: Case Report. PURPOSE: Stroke is the most common cause of long-term disability. Dysesthesia, an unpleasant sensory disturbance, is common following thalamic stroke and evidence-based interventions for this impairment are limited. The purpose of this case report was to describe a decrease in dysesthesia following manual therapy intervention in a patient with history of right lacunar thalamic stroke. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 66-year-old female presented with tingling and dysesthesia in left hemisensory distribution including left trunk and upper/lower extremities, limiting function...
March 20, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
Marianne Dieterich, Stefan Glasauer, Thomas Brandt
A retrospective clinical study focused on the frequency of rotational vertigo in 63 patients with acute unilateral midbrain strokes involving the vestibular and ocular motor systems. In contrast to unilateral pontomedullary brainstem lesions, rotational vertigo in midbrain lesions occurred with a low frequency (14%) and transient (< 1 day) course. Swaying vertigo or unspecific dizziness (22%) and postural imbalance (31%) were more frequent. Midbrain strokes with transient rotational vertigo manifested with lesions chiefly in the caudal midbrain tegmentum, while manifestations with swaying, unspecific, or no vertigo chiefly occurred in rostral mesencephalic or meso-diencephalic lesions...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Neurology
Yayuan Liu, Li Chen, Jinseng Zeng, Wenmei Li, Sudan Zeng, Bin Ye, Zhijian Liang
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to investigate the reorganization in ipsilesional and contralesional thalamic radiation fibers after unilateral focal thalamic stroke in sensory disturbance patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS We recruited 12 patients with acute unilateral thalamic infarction and sensory disturbance and 12 healthy age- and sex-matched controls. All patients underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and were assessed with National Institutes of Health stroke scale (NIHSS), Barthel index (BI), and paragraph 8 of NIHSS (NIHSS8) at 1 week (W1), 4 weeks (W4), 3 months (M3), and 6 months (M6) after thalamic infraction...
March 11, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Paul Reidler, Kolja M Thierfelder, Matthias P Fabritius, Wieland H Sommer, Felix G Meinel, Franziska Dorn, Frank A Wollenweber, Marco Duering, Wolfgang G Kunz
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Ipsilateral thalamic diaschisis (ITD) describes the reduction of thalamic function, metabolism, and perfusion resulting from a distant lesion of the ipsilateral hemisphere. Our aim was to evaluate the perfusion characteristics and clinical impact of ITD in acute middle cerebral artery stroke, which does not directly affect the thalamus. METHODS: One hundred twenty-four patients with middle cerebral artery infarction were selected from a prospectively acquired cohort of 1644 patients who underwent multiparametric computed tomography (CT), including CT perfusion for suspected stroke...
March 9, 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Davide Corbetta, Elisabetta Sarasso, Federica Agosta, Massimo Filippi, Roberto Gatti
Background: Treatment of central post-stroke pain (CPSP) after a thalamic-capsular stroke is generally based on pharmacological approach as it is low responsive to physiotherapy. In this case report, the use of mirror therapy (MT) for the reduction of CPSP in a subject after a stroke involving thalamus is presented. Case presentation: Five years after a right lenticular-capsular thalamic stroke, despite a good recovery of voluntary movement that guaranteed independence in daily life activities, a 50-year-old woman presented with mild weakness and spasticity, an important sensory loss and a burning pain in the left upper limb...
2018: Archives of Physiotherapy
Shuo Li, Yogesh Kumar, Nishant Gupta, Ahmed Abdelbaki, Harpreet Sahwney, Anil Kumar, Manisha Mangla, Rajiv Mangla
The thalamus is a part of the diencephalon, containing numerous connections between the forebrain and subcortical structures. It serves an important function as a relay center between the cerebral cortex and the subcortical regions, particularly with sensory information. The thalamus also plays a major role in regulating arousal and the levels of awareness. Distinct vascular distribution of the thalamus give rises to different syndromic presentation of thalamic nuclei infarcts. The clinical records and available imaging studies of patients with confirmed thalamic territory infarcts on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at the University Hospital of Rochester were reviewed and analyzed...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
Alessandro Salvalaggio, Annachiara Cagnin, Lucia Nardetto, Renzo Manara, Chiara Briani
BACKGROUND: Acute onset of amnestic syndrome may represent a challenging diagnostic issue. Besides non-vascular etiology, thalamic strokes or infarction involving several temporal lobe structures has been reported. PATIENTS: We describe three patients in whom an isolated bilateral anterior fornix infarction presented with an acute amnestic syndrome. Clinical presentation, differential diagnosis and MR images are discussed for each patient and vascular anatomy of the involved brain regions is also considered...
February 10, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Monir Mohar, Kosandra Hartman, Bronwyn Long, Peter Lee, Adrian Didita, Eric L Altschuler
We present a case of a patient with ataxia, dysmetria and hemiparesis following a stroke in the corona radiata. The patient had an excellent clinical course with near resolution of symptoms in two and a half weeks, and returned and back to work fully duty and full-time a couple of weeks later. We use a video of severeal neurological tests to demonstrate and characterize the dysmetria. Interestingly, a key characteristic of the dysmetria appears to be different from that seen in patients with dysmetria arising from a cerebellar, thalamic or pontine lesion...
February 6, 2018: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Na Young Kim, Sang Chul Lee, Young-Sil An, Ji-Cheol Shin, Yong Wook Kim
PURPOSE: Central poststroke pain (CPSP) is one of the most refractory neuropathic pains following stroke. Injury in the spinothalamic pathway appears crucial for the development of CPSP, but changes in activity in multiple brain regions may also be related. We investigated brain metabolic changes in patients with CPSP following thalamic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). METHODS: Forty-three patients with thalamic ICH were examined. Overall brain metabolism was measured with F-FDG PET...
March 2018: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Aun Raza Shah, Rubab Ali
A 39 year old male was found unconscious at home. On arrival to the hospital the patient was profoundly somnolent but easily rousable, with no focal neurological deficits. Imaging confirmed bilateral thalamic infarcts from the occlusion of Artery of Percheron, a rare anatomic variant which is a single arterial trunk supplying the thalamus and midbrain bilaterally. Anti-platelet therapy was initiated as soon as the diagnosis was established and the patient showed a rapid remarkable recovery over the next 48 hours...
January 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Marcelo D Mendonça, Bruna Meira, Marco Fernandes, Raquel Barbosa, Paulo Bugalho
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective treatment for essential tremor or tremor in Parkinson's disease. The effectiveness of DBS in reducing tremors that develop after a structural lesion of the central nervous system (such as Holmes' tremor - HT) has only been addressed in case reports or series. We conducted a systematic review of all published original reports of DBS in central nervous system lesion-related tremor (excluding demyelinating disorders due to their non-static nature). Where available, we extracted data regarding each patient's demographic, tremor and surgical details...
December 13, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Zhijuan Cao, Adithya Balasubramanian, Steen E Pedersen, Jonathan Romero, Robia G Pautler, Sean P Marrelli
Hypothermia shows promise for stroke neuroprotection, but current cooling strategies cause undesirable side effects that limit their clinical applications. Increasing efforts have focused on pharmacological hypothermia as a treatment option for stroke. Previously, we showed that activation of a thermoregulatory ion channel, transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), by dihydrocapsaicin (DHC) produces reliable hypothermia. In this study, we investigate the effects of TRPV1-mediated hypothermia by DHC on long-term ischemic stroke injury and functional outcome...
December 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
Zhihua Xu, Lingling Sun, Yang Duan, Jinghua Zhang, Mengzhi Zhang, Xiaonan Cai
OBJECTIVE: To assess the imaging and clinical features of patients with an artery of Percheron infarction comprehensively. METHODS: Of 6539 patients with a first-ever stroke, 18 patients with a Percheron infarction were enrolled, and their images and clinical data were retrospectively investigated. RESULTS: All patients underwent neurological intensive care unit (NICU) management. The initial symptom of a Percheron infarction included dizziness, transient blurred vision, double vision, barylalia, cerebellar ataxia, drowsiness, and a coma...
December 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Géraldine Martens, Steven Laureys, Aurore Thibaut
Background: Spasticity is a motor disorder frequently encountered after a lesion involving the central nervous system. It is hypothesized to arise from an anarchic reorganization of the pyramidal and parapyramidal fibers and leads to hypertonia and hyperreflexia of the affected muscular groups. While this symptom and its management is well-known in patients suffering from stroke, multiple sclerosis or spinal cord lesion, little is known regarding its appropriate management in patients presenting disorders of consciousness after brain damage...
December 9, 2017: Brain Sciences
Shigenori Hiraoka, Shinichiro Maeshima, Hideto Okazaki, Hirokazu Hori, Shinichiro Tanaka, Sayaka Okamoto, Reisuke Funahashi, Kei Yagihashi, Ikuko Fuse, Naoki Asano, Shigeru Sonoda
BACKGROUND: Thalamic hemorrhages cause motor paralysis, sensory impairment, and cognitive dysfunctions, all of which may significantly affect walking independence. We examined the factors related to independent walking in patients with thalamic hemorrhage who were admitted to a rehabilitation hospital. METHODS: We evaluated 128 patients with thalamic hemorrhage (75 men and 53 women; age range, 40-93 years) who were admitted to our rehabilitation hospital. The mean duration from symptom onset to rehabilitation hospital admission was 27...
December 8, 2017: BMC Neurology
Katarzyna Zalewska, Giovanni Pietrogrande, Lin Kooi Ong, Mahmoud Abdolhoseini, Murielle Kluge, Sarah J Johnson, Frederick R Walker, Michael Nilsson
Secondary neurodegeneration (SND) is an insidious and progressive condition involving the death of neurons in regions of the brain that were connected to but undamaged by the initial stroke. Our group have published compelling evidence that exposure to psychological stress can significantly exacerbate the severity SND, a finding that has considerable clinical implications given that stroke-survivors often report experiencing high and unremitting levels of psychological stress. It may be possible to use one or more targeted pharmacological approaches to limit the negative effects of stress on the recovery process but in order to move forward with this approach the most critical stress signals have to be identified...
November 18, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Tz-Shiang Wei, Chun-Sheng Hsu, Yu-Chun Lee, Shin-Tsu Chang
RATIONALE: Holmes' tremor is an uncommon neurologic disorder following brain insults, and its pathogenesis is undefined. The interruption of the dento-rubro-thalamic tract and secondary deterioration of the nigrostriatal pathway are both required to initiate Holmes' tremor. We used nuclear medicine imaging tools to analyze a patient with concurrent infarction in different zones of each side of the thalamus. Finding whether the paramedian nuclear groups of the thalamus were injured was a decisive element for developing Holmes' tremor...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Joe Mole, Jill Winegardner, Donna Malley, Jessica Fish
Impaired time perception is considered to be a relatively unusual and poorly understood consequence of brain injury. This paper presents a case study of altered time perception in JB, a 50-year-old woman who in 2011 had a small thalamic stroke affecting the right anteromedian region. We report on her subjective experience and present results from studies of retrospective timing (i.e., estimating how much time has passed and the clock time) and prospective timing (i.e., producing and reproducing intervals). The results showed that relative to neurologically healthy and brain-injured controls, JB had impaired retrospective timing and impaired prospective time reproduction...
March 2018: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
Yuval Nir, Thomas Andrillon, Amit Marmelshtein, Nanthia Suthana, Chiara Cirelli, Giulio Tononi, Itzhak Fried
Sleep deprivation is a major source of morbidity with widespread health effects, including increased risk of hypertension, diabetes, obesity, heart attack, and stroke. Moreover, sleep deprivation brings about vehicle accidents and medical errors and is therefore an urgent topic of investigation. During sleep deprivation, homeostatic and circadian processes interact to build up sleep pressure, which results in slow behavioral performance (cognitive lapses) typically attributed to attentional thalamic and frontoparietal circuits, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear...
December 2017: Nature Medicine
Kristopher D Langdon, Chris A Cordova, Shirley Granter-Button, Jamie D Boyd, James Peeling, Timothy H Murphy, Dale Corbett
Most research focuses on overt stroke caused by blockage of major blood vessels. Less attention has been paid to small vessel disease which gives rise to covert stroke that often leads to vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). One reason for this may be the relative lack of relevant animal models. Herein, we describe, a model of VCI induced in middle-aged Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to a diet high in saturated fats, salt and refined sugar (HFSS). In Experiment 1, rats were fed HFSS and subjected to a small mediodorsal (MD) thalamic stroke with or without concomitant permanent bilateral carotid artery occlusion...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
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