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thalamic stroke

I Koutroulou, T Karapanayiotides, N Grigoriadis, D Karacostas
INTRODUCTION: CADASIL (cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy), the most common inherited cause of stroke and dementia in adults, has been described in six Greek families. Common presenting manifestations include migraine with aura, brain ischemia, mood disorders and cognitive decline. Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH) rarely occurs in CADASIL and only exceptionally as the first clinical manifestation. CASE DESCRIPTION: We have previously reported the sixth Greek family with CADASIL and in particular, two brothers in whom the genetic testing documented a classic mutation of the NOTCH3 gene (Arg169Cys)...
January 2016: Hippokratia
Fatima Najeeb, Brian Silver, Muhib Khan
INTRODUCTION: We describe a case of thalamic intracerebral hemorrhage leading to cessation of smoking. CASE REPORT: A 53-year-old female presented to the emergency department with right-sided weakness and dysarthria. Initial systolic blood pressure was 220 mm Hg. Computed tomography scan showed a left thalamic hemorrhage with associated edema and hemorrhage extending into the left lateral and third ventricle. She recovered uneventfully and was discharged to inpatient rehabilitation and eventually transitioned home...
November 2016: Neurologist
Pavel Yanev, Peter R Seevinck, Umesh S Rudrapatna, Mark Jrj Bouts, Annette van der Toorn, Karen Gertz, Golo Kronenberg, Matthias Endres, Geralda A van Tilborg, Rick M Dijkhuizen
The pattern of vascular remodelling in relation to recovery after stroke remains largely unclear. We used steady-state contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging to assess the development of cerebral blood volume and microvascular density in perilesional and exofocal areas from (sub)acutely to chronically after transient stroke in rats. Microvascular density was verified histologically after infusion with Evans Blue dye. At day 1, microvascular cerebral blood volume and microvascular density were reduced in and around the ischemic lesion (intralesional borderzone: microvascular cerebral blood volume = 72 ± 8%; microvascular density = 76 ± 8%) (P < 0...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Andreas Horn, Laura Kipp, Antonio Meola, Andrea A Kühn, Christoph Leithner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 25, 2016: Neurology
S Payabvash, S Taleb, J C Benson, A M McKinney
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Acute stroke presentation and outcome depend on both ischemic infarct volume and location. We aimed to determine the association between acute ischemic infarct topology and lesion volume and stroke severity at presentation and discharge. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with acute ischemic stroke who underwent MR imaging within 24 hours of symptom onset or last seen well were included. Infarcts were segmented and coregistered on the Montreal Neurological Institute-152 brain map...
October 6, 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Cheng Chung Wang, Hsi-Chien Shih, Bai Chuang Shyu, Andrew Chih Wei Huang
Hemorrhagic stroke has many symptoms, including central pain, learning and memory impairments, motor deficits, language problems, emotional disturbances, and social maladjustment. Lesions of the ventral basal complex (VBC) of the thalamus elicit thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia, forming an animal model of central post-stroke pain (CPSP). However, no research has yet examined the involvement of learning and memory in CPSP using an animal model. The present study examined whether VBC lesions affect motor function, conditioned place preference (CPP; implicit memory), and spatial learning (explicit memory) in the acquisition and retrieval phases...
September 25, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Annelise Raillon Moulinet, Lucie Chochina, Stéphanie Challois Leplaideur, Elise Bannier, Jean-Christophe Ferre, Isabelle Bonan
OBJECTIVE: Subjects use different referentials for spatial localization, and the egocentric references are very often impaired especially during stroke. The objective is to find the difference between activations induced by 2 egocentric tasks MATERIAL/PATIENTS AND METHODS: Seventeen right-handed healthy subjects (50.4±14.9 years) were tested using fMRI during the realization of 2 egocentric spatial tasks: the perception of the straight ahead (retinocentric) and the longitudinal axis of the body (centered by the trunk)...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
David L Jung, Peter Hwang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Massimiliano Ruggeri
Damage to the dorsomedial thalamus usually leads to impaired episodic memory, attention, and executive function, but the role of the dorsomedial thalamus in memory processing is still not fully understood. Clinical evidence is inconclusive about whether dorsomedial thalamic damage impairs recall or whether it impairs recognition. I report a unique patient who suffered a cardioembolic stroke in the paramedian artery territory, caused by a patent foramen ovale. He was left with a chronic ischemic lesion centered in the parvocellular and, to a lesser extent, the magnocellular portions of the left dorsomedial thalamic nucleus, and marginally involving the midline and intralaminar nuclei...
September 2016: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology: Official Journal of the Society for Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology
K V Vinod, R Kaaviya, Bhaumik Arpita
Artery of Percheron (AOP) occlusion is a rare cause of ischemic stroke characterized by bilateral paramedian thalamic infarcts, with or without mesencephalic infarction. Clinically it presents with mental state disturbances, hypersomnolence, aphasia/dysarthria, amnesia and ocular movement disorders, including vertical gaze palsy. Here, we report a case of cardioembolic AOP infarction in a 37-year-old woman with rheumatic mitral valvular stenosis. This case is being reported to highlight the interesting clinical and neuroimaging features of this rare condition, and the differential diagnosis of AOP infarction on imaging have been discussed...
July 2016: Annals of Neurosciences
Hye Yeon Lee, Min Jeong Kim, Bo-Ram Kim, Seong-Eun Koh, In-Sik Lee, Jongmin Lee
Bilateral paramedian thalamic infarction is a rare subtype of stroke caused by occlusion of the artery of Percheron, an uncommon variant originating from one of the posterior cerebral arteries. This type of stroke has several major clinical presentations: altered mental status, behavioral amnestic impairment, aphasia or dysarthria, ocular movement disorders, motor deficits, cerebellar signs, and others. Few cases of bilateral paramedian thalamic infarction-related pseudobulbar palsy characterized by dysarthria, dysphagia, and facial and tongue weakness have been reported...
August 2016: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
Asaf Honig, Ruth Eliahou, Roni Eichel, Ari Aharon Shemesh, Tamir Ben-Hur, Eitan Auriel
Bilateral thalamic infarction (BTI) typically presents as a sleep-like coma (SLC) without localizing signs, posing a diagnostic challenge that may lead the treating physician to search for toxic or metabolic causes and delay treatment. We review our experience with BTI of different etiologies, and emphasize the critical role of timely imaging, diagnosis, and management in a series of 12 patients with a presentation of SLC and acute BTI who were managed in our Medical Centers from 2006-2015. In 11/12, urgent head CT scans showed normal brain tissue, while diffusion-weighted (DWI) MRI revealed symmetric bilateral thalamic hyperintense lesions with variable degrees of brainstem involvement...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Arito Yozu, Masahiko Sumitani, Masahiro Shin, Kazuhiko Ishi, Michihiro Osumi, Junji Katsuhira, Ryosuke Chiba, Nobuhiko Haga
Thalamic pain is a central neuropathic pain disorder which occurs after stroke. Its severe chronic pain is often intractable to pharmacotherapies and affects the patients' activities of daily living (ADL) and quality of life (QOL). Recently, spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has been reported to be effective in relieving the pain of thalamic pain; however, the effect of SCS on gait performance in patients is unknown. Therefore, we evaluated the gait performance before and after SCS in a case with thalamic pain...
2016: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
Jian Zhang, Hongbing Chen, Weixian Huang, Chunyan Zhou, Jingjing Li, Shihui Xing, Li Chen, Chuo Li, Chao Dang, Gang Liu, Zhong Pei, Jinsheng Zeng
Focal cerebral cortical infarction causes secondary neurodegeneration in the remote regions, such as the ventroposterior nucleus of the thalamus. Retrograde degeneration of thalamocortical fibers is considered as the principle mechanism, but the exact molecular events remain to be elucidated. This study aimed to investigate whether unfolded protein response (UPR) is activated in thalamic neurons following distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in stroke-prone renovascular hypertensive rats. Immunostaining and immunoblotting were performed to evaluate the expression of Grp78 and its downstream effectors in the thalamus at 3, 7 and 14 days after MCAO...
December 2016: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Adam Kirton, Elizabeth Williams, Michael Dowling, Sarah Mah, Jacquie Hodge, Helen Carlson, Xing-Chang Wei, Rebecca Ichord
BACKGROUND: Diffusion-weighted imaging magnetic resonance imaging may detect changes in brain structures remote but connected to stroke consistent with neuropathological descriptions of diaschisis. Early diffusion-weighted imaging demonstrates restriction in corticospinal pathways after arterial ischemic stroke of all ages that correlates with motor outcome. AIM/HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesized that cerebral diaschisis is measurable in childhood arterial ischemic stroke and explored associations with outcome...
August 22, 2016: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
Joeri B G van Wijngaarden, Riccardo Zucca, Simon Finnigan, Paul F M J Verschure
The neocortex and thalamus provide a core substrate for perception, cognition, and action, and are interconnected through different direct and indirect pathways that maintain specific dynamics associated with functional states including wakefulness and sleep. It has been shown that a lack of excitation, or enhanced subcortical inhibition, can disrupt this system and drive thalamic nuclei into an attractor state of low-frequency bursting and further entrainment of thalamo-cortical circuits, also called thalamo-cortical dysrhythmia (TCD)...
August 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
Shahin Khayambashi, Jonathan D Fridhandler, Philip Teal, Jason J S Barton, Sharanpal K Mann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 9, 2016: Neurology
Shuang Liu, Jie Guo, Jiayuan Meng, Zhijun Wang, Yang Yao, Jiajia Yang, Hongzhi Qi, Dong Ming
Ischemic thalamus stroke has become a serious cardiovascular and cerebral disease in recent years. To date the existing researches mostly concentrated on the power spectral density (PSD) in several frequency bands. In this paper, we investigated the nonlinear features of EEG and brain functional connectivity in patients with acute thalamic ischemic stroke and healthy subjects. Electroencephalography (EEG) in resting condition with eyes closed was recorded for 12 stroke patients and 11 healthy subjects as control group...
2016: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Lin Kooi Ong, Zidan Zhao, Murielle Kluge, Frederick R Walker, Michael Nilsson
Exposure to severe stress following stroke is recognised to complicate the recovery process. We have identified that stress can exacerbate the severity of post-stroke secondary neurodegeneration in the thalamus. In this study, we investigated whether exposure to stress could influence the accumulation of the neurotoxic protein Amyloid-β. Using an experimental model of focal cortical ischemia in adult mice combined with exposure to chronic restraint stress, we examined changes within the contra- and ipsilateral thalamus at six weeks post-stroke using Western blotting and immunohistochemical approaches...
June 24, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Leeanne M Carey, David F Abbott, Gemma Lamp, Aina Puce, Rüdiger J Seitz, Geoffrey A Donnan
BACKGROUND: The brain may reorganize to optimize stroke recovery. Yet relatively little is known about neural correlates of training-facilitated recovery, particularly after loss of body sensations. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to characterize changes in brain activation following clinically effective touch discrimination training in stroke patients with somatosensory loss after lesions of primary/secondary somatosensory cortices or thalamic/capsular somatosensory regions using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
June 20, 2016: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
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