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thalamic stroke

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162554/sustained-administration-of-corticosterone-at-stress-like-levels-after-stroke-suppressed-glial-reactivity-at-sites-of-thalamic-secondary-neurodegeneration
#1
Katarzyna Zalewska, Giovanni Pietrogrande, Lin Kooi Ong, Mahmoud Abdolhoseini, Murielle Kluge, Sarah J Johnson, Frederick R Walker, Michael Nilsson
Secondary neurodegeneration (SND) is an insidious and progressive condition involving the death of neurons in regions of the brain that were connected to but undamaged by the initial stroke. Our group have published compelling evidence that exposure to psychological stress can significantly exacerbate the severity SND, a finding that has considerable clinical implications given that stroke-survivors often report experiencing high and unremitting levels of psychological stress. It may be possible to use one or more targeted pharmacological approaches to limit the negative effects of stress on the recovery process but in order to move forward with this approach the most critical stress signals have to be identified...
November 18, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145285/degeneration-of-paramedian-nuclei-in-the-thalamus-induces-holmes-tremor-in-a-case-of-artery-of-percheron-infarction
#2
Tz-Shiang Wei, Chun-Sheng Hsu, Yu-Chun Lee, Shin-Tsu Chang
RATIONALE: Holmes' tremor is an uncommon neurologic disorder following brain insults, and its pathogenesis is undefined. The interruption of the dento-rubro-thalamic tract and secondary deterioration of the nigrostriatal pathway are both required to initiate Holmes' tremor. We used nuclear medicine imaging tools to analyze a patient with concurrent infarction in different zones of each side of the thalamus. Finding whether the paramedian nuclear groups of the thalamus were injured was a decisive element for developing Holmes' tremor...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108479/time-perception-impairment-following-thalamic-stroke-a-case-study
#3
Joe Mole, Jill Winegardner, Donna Malley, Jessica Fish
Impaired time perception is considered to be a relatively unusual and poorly understood consequence of brain injury. This paper presents a case study of altered time perception in JB, a 50-year-old woman who in 2011 had a small thalamic stroke affecting the right anteromedian region. We report on her subjective experience and present results from studies of retrospective timing (i.e., estimating how much time has passed and the clock time) and prospective timing (i.e., producing and reproducing intervals). The results showed that relative to neurologically healthy and brain-injured controls, JB had impaired retrospective timing and impaired prospective time reproduction...
November 6, 2017: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106402/selective-neuronal-lapses-precede-human-cognitive-lapses-following-sleep-deprivation
#4
Yuval Nir, Thomas Andrillon, Amit Marmelshtein, Nanthia Suthana, Chiara Cirelli, Giulio Tononi, Itzhak Fried
Sleep deprivation is a major source of morbidity with widespread health effects, including increased risk of hypertension, diabetes, obesity, heart attack, and stroke. Moreover, sleep deprivation brings about vehicle accidents and medical errors and is therefore an urgent topic of investigation. During sleep deprivation, homeostatic and circadian processes interact to build up sleep pressure, which results in slow behavioral performance (cognitive lapses) typically attributed to attentional thalamic and frontoparietal circuits, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear...
November 6, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083274/executive-dysfunction-and-blockage-of-brain-microvessels-in-a-rat-model-of-vascular-cognitive-impairment
#5
Kristopher D Langdon, Chris A Cordova, Shirley Granter-Button, Jamie D Boyd, James Peeling, Timothy H Murphy, Dale Corbett
Most research focuses on overt stroke caused by blockage of major blood vessels. Less attention has been paid to small vessel disease which gives rise to covert stroke that often leads to vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). One reason for this may be the relative lack of relevant animal models. Herein, we describe, a model of VCI induced in middle-aged Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to a diet high in saturated fats, salt and refined sugar (HFSS). In Experiment 1, rats were fed HFSS and subjected to a small mediodorsal (MD) thalamic stroke with or without concomitant permanent bilateral carotid artery occlusion...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079329/acute-poststroke-depression-is-associated-with-thalamic-lesions-and-clinical-outcomes-a-case-control-study
#6
Tomoko Omura, Mahito Kimura, Kyongsong Kim, Masahiro Mishina, Takayuki Mizunari, Shiro Kobayashi, Akio Morita
BACKGROUND: We investigated the role of acute-phase stroke lesions and patient characteristics in poststroke depression (PSD) and its effect on the clinical outcome. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Five and 30 days after admission, 175 patients self-reported their depressive symptoms on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. We compared the clinical characteristics and outcomes in patients with (n = 41) and without PSD (n = 134). Stroke severity was assessed with the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS); the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) was used to determine the functional outcome...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029200/lateral-cerebellar-nucleus-stimulation-has-selective-effects-on-glutamatergic-and-gabaergic-perilesional-neurogenesis-after-cortical-ischemia-in-the-rodent-model
#7
Hugh H Chan, Jessica Cooperrider, Zhihong Chen, John T Gale, Kenneth B Baker, Connor A Wathen, Claire R Modic, Hyun-Joo Park, Andre G Machado
BACKGROUND: Chronic deep brain stimulation of the rodent lateral cerebellar nucleus (LCN) has been demonstrated to enhance motor recovery following cortical ischemia. This effect is concurrent with synaptogenesis and expression of long-term potentiation markers in the perilesional cerebral cortex. OBJECTIVE: To further investigate the cellular changes associated with chronic LCN stimulation in the ischemic rodent by examining neurogenesis along the cerebellothalamocortical pathway...
September 27, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026583/a-case-of-hypersomnia-due-to-bilateral-thalamic-stroke
#8
Mohammed Osman, Ahmed Abdalla, Mohammed Al-Qasmi, Ghassan Bachuwa
Bilateral thalamic infarction (BTI) can present as sleep-like coma without focal neurological signs which can lead to delay in the diagnosis. Due to the diagnostic challenge, treatment is often delayed. The early use of DWI-MRI in suspected cases can help in the early diagnosis and treatment.
October 2017: Clinical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966585/combination-treatment-of-low-frequency-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-and-intensive-occupational-therapy-for-ataxic-hemiparesis-due-to-thalamic-hemorrhage
#9
Naoki Urushidani, Takatsugu Okamoto, Shoji Kinoshita, Shingo Yamane, Hiroaki Tamashiro, Wataru Kakuda, Masahiro Abo
BACKGROUND: Both low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (LF-rTMS) and intensive occupational therapy (OT) are clinically beneficial for post-stroke patients with upper-limb hemiparesis. However, the usefulness of LF-rTMS and intensive OT for ataxic hemiparesis (AH) is unknown. METHODS: The study subjects included 7 patients with AH. All patients had ataxia and mild hemiparesis without a sensory disturbance that was due to thalamic hemorrhage...
May 2017: Case Reports in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956427/sleep-disorders-of-acute-thalamic-stroke-and-its-influence-on-plasma-il-17
#10
Q Li, X Zhao, D H Gong, Y M Geng, H L Zhang, P X Bi
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between sleep disorders in acute thalamus stroke patients and plasma IL-17 levels and the mechanism through which inflammatory reactions develop in stroke. The study included two groups of patients: an experimental group consisting of 30 patients with thalamus stroke who received treatment at the Affiliated Hong Qi Hospital of Mu Dan Jiang Medical University during October 2015 to October 2016 and a control group consisting of 15 healthy volunteers. All the subjects included in the study were biochemically monitored for blood glucose, blood fats and IL-17 plasma levels...
July 2017: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894947/thalamic-transitory-ischemic-attacks-presenting-as-jacksonian-sensory-march
#11
Victoria Schubert, Stephan Lauxmann, Benjamin Bender, Holger Lerche
Spreading somatosensory symptoms appearing as Jacksonian sensory march are usually considered to be due to an epileptic seizure. We report on three cases in which these symptoms were caused by thalamic ischemia. Two patients presented with stereotypically recurring hemiparesthesias lasting 2-5 min that gradually spread from the face to the arm and leg on one side. A first cerebral magnetic resonance imaging including DWI was negative in both cases, whereas new thalamic infarctions appeared on repeated imaging when clinical symptoms remained...
October 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837019/medial-thalamic-stroke-and-its-impact-on-familiarity-and-recollection
#12
Lola Danet, Jérémie Pariente, Pierre Eustache, Nicolas Raposo, Igor Sibon, Jean-François Albucher, Fabrice Bonneville, Patrice Péran, Emmanuel J Barbeau
Models of recognition memory have postulated that the mammillo-thalamic tract (MTT)/anterior thalamic nucleus (AN) complex would be critical for recollection while the Mediodorsal nucleus (MD) of the thalamus would support familiarity and indirectly also be involved in recollection (Aggleton et al., 2011). 12 patients with left thalamic stroke underwent a neuropsychological assessment, three verbal recognition memory tasks assessing familiarity and recollection each using different procedures and a high-resolution structural MRI...
August 24, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807671/selective-inhibition-of-extra-synaptic-%C3%AE-5-gabaa-receptors-by-s44819-a-new-therapeutic-agent
#13
Lori-An Etherington, Balázs Mihalik, Adrienn Pálvölgyi, István Ling, Katalin Pallagi, Szabolcs Kertész, Péter Varga, Ben G Gunn, Adam R Brown, Matthew R Livesey, Olivia Monteiro, Delia Belelli, József Barkóczy, Michael Spedding, István Gacsályi, Ferenc A Antoni, Jeremy J Lambert
In the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) GABAA receptors (GABAARs) mediate neuronal inhibition and are important therapeutic targets. GABAARs are composed of 5 subunits, drawn from 19 proteins, underpinning expression of 20-30 GABAAR subtypes. In the CNS these isoforms are heterogeneously expressed and exhibit distinct physiological and pharmacological properties. We report the discovery of S44819, a novel tricyclic oxazolo-2,3-benzodiazepine-derivative, that selectively inhibits α5-subunit-containing GABAARs (α5-GABAARs)...
August 12, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800746/artery-of-percheron-infarction-a-case-report
#14
Axel Sandvig, Sandra Lundberg, Jiri Neuwirth
BACKGROUND: The artery of Percheron is a rare anatomic variant of arterial supply to the paramedian thalamus and rostral midbrain, and occlusion of the artery of Percheron results in bilateral paramedian thalamic infarcts with or without midbrain involvement. Acute artery of Percheron infarcts represent 0.1 to 2% of total ischemic stroke. However, of thalamic strokes, occlusion of artery of Percheron is the cause in 4 to 35% of cases. Early diagnosis of artery of Percheron infarction can be challenging because it is infrequent and early computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging may be negative...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799320/artery-of-percheron-infarction-in-a-patient-with-atrial-fibrillation-a-rare-stroke-syndrome
#15
Amey Beedkar, Archana Sonawale
The artery of Percheron uncommon anatomic variant that provides bilateral arterial supply to the paramedian thalami and the rostral midbrain. Occlusion of this artery results in bilateral thalamic and mesencephalic infarctions. The clinical diagnosis is difficult because of the large clinical variability. We report the clinical and MR imaging findings in a patient who developed infarction in the typical distribution of the artery of Percheron.
August 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758088/lipoma-compressing-the-sciatic-nerve-in-a-patient-with-suspicious-central-post-stroke-pain
#16
Ju Yong Kim, Hyun Jung Koo, Geun-Young Park, Yongmin Choi
Lipomas are mostly located in the subcutaneous tissues and rarely cause symptoms. Occasionally, peripheral nerve compression by lipomas is reported. We describe a case of a 59-year-old man with a left-middle cerebral artery infarction who was newly diagnosed as right basal ganglia and thalamic intracranial hemorrhage. He had neuropathic pain in the left arm and leg that was suspected to be central post-stroke pain. The administration of pain medication brought only temporary symptom relief. Nerve conduction and electromyography studies revealed left L5 radiculopathy and he showed a positive 'sign of the buttock' in the left hip...
June 2017: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752330/cortico-thalamic-disconnection-in-a-patient-with-supernumerary-phantom-limb
#17
Clémence Bourlon, Marika Urbanski, Romain Quentin, Christophe Duret, Eric Bardinet, Paolo Bartolomeo, Alexia Bourgeois
Supernumerary phantom limb (SPL) designates the experience of an illusory additional limb occurring after brain damage. Functional neuroimaging during SPL movements documented increased response in the ipsilesional supplementary motor area (SMA), premotor cortex (PMC), thalamus and caudate. This suggested that motor circuits are important for bodily related cognition, but anatomical evidence is sparse. Here, we tested this hypothesis by studying an extremely rare patient with chronic SPL, still present 3 years after a vascular stroke affecting cortical and subcortical right-hemisphere structures...
July 27, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737956/hypophonia-as-a-sign-of-thalamus-lesion-a-case-report
#18
Claudia Rodríguez-López, Blanca Ayuso García, Sara Moreno García
Hypophonia is a neurological sign usually seen after brainstem or peripheral damage, either at the recurrent laryngeal nerve or vocal cord level. However, it has been described as a sign of supratentorial strokes in a few studies, specifically when anterior and ventral thalamic involvement is reported. In addition, it is a prominent sign of other neurological disorders such as Parkinson disease and other extrapyramidal conditions. We describe a case of hypophonia secondary to a left thalamic hemorrhage, after a careful search of other potential causes of this deficit, and we discuss the underlying neuroanatomical circuits...
August 6, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678316/resting-state-functional-thalamic-connectivity-abnormalities-in-patients-with-post-stroke-sleep-apnoea-a-pilot-case-control-study
#19
M L Sacchetti, M T Di Mascio, E Tinelli, C Mainero, G Russo, M Fiorelli, V Calistri, C de Lena, A Minni, F Caramia
OBJECTIVE: Sleep apnoea is common after stroke, and has adverse effects on the clinical outcome of affected cases. Its pathophysiological mechanisms are only partially known. Increases in brain connectivity after stroke might influence networks involved in arousal modulation and breathing control. The aim of this study was to investigate the resting state functional MRI thalamic hyper-connectivity of stroke patients affected by sleep apnoea (SA) with respect to cases not affected, and to healthy controls (HC)...
June 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665171/infarct-volume-predicts-outcome-after-decompressive-hemicraniectomy-for-malignant-hemispheric-stroke
#20
Nils Hecht, Hermann Neugebauer, Ingo Fiss, Alexandra Pinczolits, Peter Vajkoczy, Eric Jüttler, Johannes Woitzik
The decision to perform decompressive hemicraniectomy (DHC) by default in malignant hemispheric stroke (MHS) remains controversial. Even under ideal conditions, DHC usually results in moderate to severe disability. The present study for the first time uses neuroimaging to identify independent outcome predictors in a prospective cohort of 96 MHS patients undergoing DHC. The primary outcome was functional status according to the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at 12 months and categorized as favorable (mRS 0-3) or unfavorable (mRS 4-6)...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
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