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Oral Anti-hyperglycemics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216594/anti-hyperglycemic-activity-of-major-compounds-from-calea-ternifolia
#1
Sonia Escandón-Rivera, Araceli Pérez-Vásquez, Andrés Navarrete, Mariana Hernández, Edelmira Linares, Robert Bye, Rachel Mata
Demethylisoencecalin (1) and caleins A (4) and C (5) (3.16-31.6 mg/kg, p.o.), the major components from an infusion of Calea ternifolia controlled postprandial glucose levels during an oral sucrose tolerance test (OSTT, 3 g/kg) in normal and nicotinamide/streptozotocin (NA/STZ, 40/100 mg/kg) hyperglicemic mice. The effects were comparable to those of acarbose (5 mg/kg). During the isolation of 1, 4, and 5, four additional metabolites not previously reported for the plant, were obtained, namely 6-acetyl-5-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-hydroxymethyl-2H-chromene (3), herniarin (6), scoparone (7), and 4',7-dimethylapigenin (8)...
February 14, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182659/metformin-exhibits-preventive-and-therapeutic-efficacy-against-experimental-cystic-echinococcosis
#2
Julia A Loos, Valeria A Dávila, Christian R Rodrígues, Romina Petrigh, Jorge A Zoppi, Fernando A Crocenzi, Andrea C Cumino
Metformin (Met) is an anti-hyperglycemic and potential anti-cancer agent which may exert its anti-proliferative effects via the induction of energetic stress. In this study we investigated the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of Met against the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus. Metformin showed significant dose- and time-dependent killing effects on in vitro cultured protoscoleces and metacestodes. Notably, the combination of Met together with the minimum effective concentration of ABZSO had a synergistic effect after days 3 and 12 on metacestodes and protoscoleces, respectively...
February 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160554/pharmacogenetics-of-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitors-in-a-taiwanese-population-with-type-2-diabetes
#3
Wen-Ling Liao, Wen-Jane Lee, Ching-Chu Chen, Chieh Hsiang Lu, Chien-Hsiun Chen, Yi-Chun Chou, I-Te Lee, Wayne H-H Sheu, Jer-Yuarn Wu, Chi-Fan Yang, Chung-Hsing Wang, Fuu-Jen Tsai
Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are oral anti-hyperglycemic drugs enabling effective glycemic control in type 2 diabetes (T2D). Despite DPP-4 inhibitors' advantages, the patients' therapeutic response varies. In this retrospective cohort study, 171 Taiwanese patients with T2D were classified as sensitive or resistant to treatment based on the mean change in HbA1c levels. Using an assumption-free genome-wide association study, 45 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) involved in the therapeutic response to DPP-4 inhibitors (P < 1 × 10-4) were identified at or near PRKD1, CNTN3, ASK, and LOC10537792...
February 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103701/metformin-prevents-the-progression-of-dysplastic-mucosa-of-the-head-and-neck-to-carcinoma-in-nondiabetic-patients
#4
Michael Zvi Lerner, Niv Mor, Hyung Paek, Andrew Blitzer, Marshall Strome
OBJECTIVE: Metformin is an oral anti-hyperglycemic agent used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). In vitro and animal models have shown that metformin can prevent the progression of oral lesions to carcinoma; however, there is conflicting data in the clinical literature regarding risk reduction for malignancy in head and neck cancer (HNC). STUDY DESIGN: Case series. METHODS: We present 3 cases in which adjuvant metformin therapy was used to treat recurrent and multifocal dysplastic lesions in previously treated nondiabetic HNC patients...
January 1, 2017: Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017669/depression-can-be-prevented-by-astaxanthin-through-inhibition-of-hippocampal-inflammation-in-diabetic-mice
#5
Xiao-Yan Zhou, Fang Zhang, Xiao-Tong Hu, Jing Chen, Ren-Xian Tang, Kui-Yang Zheng, Yuan-Jian Song
The critical factor considered in a depression induced by diabetes is the inflammation eliciting hippocampal, amygdala and thalamic neuronal injury. Therefore, inhibiting inflammatory reactions in the brain and reducing neuronal injury can alleviate depression in rodents suffering from diabetes mellitus. The oral administration of astaxanthin has been employed in emotional disorders and diabetic complications due to its anti-depressant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic functions. However, it has not been reported whether astaxanthin can improve diabetes-related depression-like behavior, and its potential mechanisms have not been elucidated...
December 22, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006991/efficacy-of-autologous-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cell-and-mononuclear-cell-transplantation-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-comparative-study
#6
Shobhit Bhansali, Pinaki Dutta, Vinod Kumar, Mukesh Kumar Yadav, Ashish Jain, Sunder Mudaliar, Shipra Bhansali, Ratti Ram Sharma, Vivekanand Jha, Neelam Marwaha, Niranjan Khandelwal, Anand Srinivasan, Naresh Sachdeva, Meredith Hawkins, Anil Bhansali
Drugs targeting β-cells have provided new options in the management of T2DM; however, their role in β-cell regeneration remains elusive. The recent emergence of cell-based therapies such as autologous bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ABM-MSCs) and mononuclear cells (ABM-MNCs) seems to offer a pragmatic approach to augment β-cell function/mass. This study aims to examine the efficacy and safety of ABM-MSC and ABM-MNC transplantation in T2DM and explores alterations in glucose-insulin homeostasis by metabolic studies...
January 24, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002030/anti-hyperglycemic-activity-of-aegle-marmelos-l-corr-is-partly-mediated-by-increased-insulin-secretion-%C3%AE-amylase-inhibition-and-retardation-of-glucose-absorption
#7
Prawej Ansari, Nadia Afroz, Shahnaz Jalil, Sohel Bin Azad, Md Gazi Mustakim, Sabbir Anwar, S M Nazmul Haque, Saad Mosharraf Hossain, Ramisha Rifat Tony, J M A Hannan
BACKGROUND: Aegle marmelos (commonly known as Bael, golden apple) was formerly described to have anti-hyperglycemic activity. The present study aimed to explore the possible effects, in depth, of A. marmelos extracts on carbohydrate absorption, glucose utilization, and α-amylase inhibition and insulin content in pancreases of type 2 diabetic rats. METHODS: This research begins with fasting blood glucose and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) to evaluate the primary anti-hyperglycemic effect in chemically induced type 2 diabetic rats...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847209/in-vivo-study-for-anti-hyperglycemic-potential-of-aqueous-extract-of-basil-seeds-ocimum-basilicum-linn-and-its-influence-on-biochemical-parameters-serum-electrolytes-and-haematological-indices
#8
Sachin Chaudhary, Amit Semwal, Hitesh Kumar, Harish Chandra Verma, Amit Kumar
The study introduced anti-hyperglycemic influence of aqueous extract of Ocimum basilicum seeds (AEOBS) in Streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats and estimating its potential to ameliorate altered level of biochemical parameters, serum electrolytes level and haematological indices along with its effect on body weight of treated rats. The albino rats were selected to observe oral glucose tolerance test by oral intake of aq. glucose solution (4g/kg, body weight) in normal rats and estimation of blood glucose level after administration of AEOBS at 250mg/kg, 500mg/kg and standard drug glibenclamide at 0...
December 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808120/ethanol-extract-of-lophatheri-herba-exhibits-anti-cancer-activity-in-human-cancer-cells-by-suppression-of-metastatic-and-angiogenic-potential
#9
Aeyung Kim, Minju Im, Min Jung Gu, Jin Yeul Ma
Lophatheri Herba (LH), dried leaf of Lophatherum gracile Brongn, has long been used to reduce thirst and treat fever and inflammation in Chinese medicine. Recent studies have shown that LH has anti-viral, anti-bacterial, anti-cancer, anti-oxidant, diuretic, and hyperglycemic properties. However, the effects of an ethanol extract of L. herba (ELH), at non-cytotoxic doses, on the metastatic and angiogenic abilities of malignant tumor cells have not been reported. We found that ELH significantly suppressed p38, JNK, and NF-κB activation and proteolytic activities under phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) stimulation, thus leading to a decrease in metastatic potential, including migration and invasion...
November 3, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771987/dammarane-type-triterpene-extracts-of-panax-notoginseng-root-ameliorates-hyperglycemia-and-insulin-sensitivity-by-enhancing-glucose-uptake-in-skeletal-muscle
#10
Kumiko Kitamura, Yusuke Takamura, Taku Iwamoto, Mitsuru Nomura, Hideaki Iwasaki, Motoyasu Ohdera, Michiaki Murakoshi, Keikichi Sugiyama, Kazuki Matsuyama, Yasuko Manabe, Nobuharu L Fujii, Tohru Fushiki
Skeletal muscle is an important organ for controlling the development of type 2 diabetes. We discovered Panax notoginseng roots as a candidate to improve hyperglycemia through in vitro muscle cells screening test. Saponins are considered as the active ingredients of ginseng. However, in the body, saponins are converted to dammarane-type triterpenes, which may account for the anti-hyperglycemic activity. We developed a method for producing a dammarane-type triterpene extract (DTE) from Panax notoginseng roots and investigated the extract's potential anti-hyperglycemic activity...
February 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771924/lupeol-and-its-role-in-chronic-diseases
#11
Fan-Shiu Tsai, Li-Wei Lin, Chi-Rei Wu
Lupeol belongs to pentacyclic lupane-type triterpenes and exhibits in edible vegetables, fruits and many plants. Many researches indicated that lupeol possesses many beneficial pharmacological activities including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperglycemic, anti-dyslipidemic and anti-mutagenic effects. From various disease-targeted animal models, these reports indicated that lupeol has anti-diabetic, anti-asthma, anti-arthritic, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, neuroprotective and anticancer efficiency under various routes of administration such as topical, oral, subcutaneous, intraperitoneal and intravenous...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27731814/ameliorative-potential-of-solanum-trilobatum-leaf-extract-and-fractions-on-lipid-profile-and-oxidative-stress-in-experimental-diabetes
#12
KhaderSyed Zameer Ahmed, Syed Zameer Ahmed Sidhra, Ponnusamy Ponmurugan, Balasubramanian Senthil Kumar
Solanum trilobatum Linn is a medicinal plants used in India from many centuries to cure various diseases. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the ameliorative potential of the ethanolic leaf extract and fractions of Solanum trilobatum (St) against alloxan induced diabetic rats. Solanum trilobatum leaf extract and fractions were administered orally at two different concentration (100-200mg/kg body weight) to alloxan induced diabetic rats. The antidiabetic efficacy was validated through various biochemical parameters, enzyme assays, renal markers and antioxidant properties were also determined...
September 2016: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695273/antihyperglycemic-and-insulin-secretagogue-activities-of-abrus-precatorius-leaf-extract
#13
Balekari Umamahesh, Ciddi Veeresham
AIM: Abrus precatorius leaves methanolic extract (APME) was evaluated for in vivo antihyperglycemic activity and in vitro insulinotropic effect. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In vivo antihyperglycemic and insulin secretagogue activities were assessed in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by oral administration of APME (200 mg/kg body weight [bw]) for 28 days. In vitro insulin secretion mechanisms were studied using mouse insulinoma beta cells (MIN6-β). In vivo body weight and blood glucose and in vivo and in vitro insulin levels were estimated...
October 2016: Pharmacognosy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665674/antidiabetic-activity-of-chandraprabha-vati-a-classical-ayurvedic-formulation
#14
Manish M Wanjari, Sujata Mishra, Yadu Nandan Dey, Deepti Sharma, Sudesh N Gaidhani, Ankush D Jadhav
BACKGROUND: Chandraprabha vati is a classical Ayurvedic formulation, markedly used for mitigation of Prameha, which correlates in many ways with obesity, metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus. OBJECTIVE: The present study was aimed to investigate effect of Chandraprabha vati in experimentally-induced hyperglycemia and lipid profile alterations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Antidiabetic effect of Chandraprabha vati was studied in fifty five Wistar rats...
July 2016: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598258/procyanidin-promotes-translocation-of-glucose-transporter-4-in-muscle-of-mice-through-activation-of-insulin-and-ampk-signaling-pathways
#15
Yoko Yamashita, Liuqing Wang, Fumio Nanba, Chiaki Ito, Toshiya Toda, Hitoshi Ashida
Procyanidins are the oligomeric or polymeric forms of epicatechin and catechin. In this study, we isolated and purified dimer to tetramer procyanidins from black soybean seed coat and investigated the anti-hyperglycemic effects by focusing on glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation and the underlying molecular mechanism in skeletal muscle of mice. The anti-hyperglycemic effects of procyanidins were also compared with those of monomer (-)-epicatechin (EC) and major anthocyanin, cyanidin-3-O-β-glucoside (C3G)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27580306/a-novel-option-for-prandial-insulin-therapy-inhaled-insulin
#16
REVIEW
George Dailey, Aakif Ahmad, Sarit Polsky, Viral Shah
Many adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D) do not achieve or maintain glycemic targets on oral antidiabetes drugs (OADs) alone and require insulin therapy. Although initiating basal insulin is common when treatment needs to be intensified, individualization of therapy (in line with current guidelines) may lead more health care professionals (HCPs) to add rapid-acting insulin (RAI) to OAD regimens for treatment of postprandial hyperglycemia to achieve glycated hemoglobin (A1C) targets. HCPs and patients are concerned about the burden associated with injections...
November 2016: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27564779/smoking-and-prevalence-of-nocturia-in-japanese-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-post-hoc-analysis-of-the-dogo-study
#17
Shinya Furukawa, Takenori Sakai, Tetsuji Niiya, Hiroaki Miyaoka, Teruki Miyake, Shin Yamamoto, Sayaka Kanzaki, Koutatsu Maruyama, Keiko Tanaka, Teruhisa Ueda, Hidenori Senba, Masamoto Torisu, Hisaka Minami, Morikazu Onji, Takeshi Tanigawa, Bunzo Matsuura, Yoichi Hiasa, Yoshihiro Miyake
AIMS: No evidence exists regarding the association between smoking status and nocturia among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. We evaluated this association among Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus by post-hoc analysis. METHODS: Study subjects were 817 Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Study subjects were considered to have nocturia if they answered "once or more" to the question: "Within one week, how many times do you typically wake up to urinate from sleeping at night until waking in the morning?" We used the following three outcomes: (1) nocturia was ≥1 voids per night; (2) moderate nocturia was ≥2 voids per night; and (3) severe nocturia was ≥3 voids per night...
August 26, 2016: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27524059/nanoencapsulation-of-dietary-flavonoid-fisetin-formulation-and-in-vitro-antioxidant-and-%C3%AE-glucosidase-inhibition-activities
#18
Mario Sechi, Deeba N Syed, Nicolino Pala, Alberto Mariani, Salvatore Marceddu, Antonio Brunetti, Hasan Mukhtar, Vanna Sanna
The bioactive flavonoid fisetin (FS) is a diet-derived antioxidant that is being increasingly investigated for its health-promoting effects. Unfortunately, the poor physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties affect and limit the clinical application. In this study, novel polymeric nanoparticles (NPs), based on Poly-(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and PLGA-PEG-COOH, encapsulating FS were formulated as suitable oral controlled release systems. Results showed NPs having a mean diameter of 140-200nm, and a percent loading of FS ranging from 70 to 82%...
November 1, 2016: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27432166/evaluation-of-differential-effects-of-metformin-treatment-in-obese-children-according-to-pubertal-stage-and-genetic-variations-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
Belén Pastor-Villaescusa, Javier Caballero-Villarraso, M Dolores Cañete, Raúl Hoyos, José Maldonado, Gloria Bueno, Rosaura Leis, Ángel Gil, Ramón Cañete, Concepción M Aguilera
BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity are considered to be serious public health problems. In pediatric populations, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension associated with obesity occur with increased frequencies. Metformin is an oral anti-hyperglycemic agent that has been demonstrated to be efficacious in the treatment of diabetic and non-diabetic obese adults. A considerable amount of pharmacogenetic research has demonstrated that genetic variation is one of the major factors affecting metformin response...
2016: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27412955/formononetin-exhibits-anti-hyperglycemic-activity-in-alloxan-induced-type-1-diabetic-mice
#20
Guizhen Qiu, Wei Tian, Mei Huan, Jinlong Chen, Haitao Fu
The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-hyperglycemic activity and mechanism of formononetin in alloxan-induced type 1 diabetic mice by determining its effect on some diabetes-related indices as described below. Body weight, fasting blood glucose, hepatic glycogen, serum insulin, and serum glucagon were determined by electronic scales, glucometer, and ELISA kits. Fas, Caspase-3, pancreatic and duodenal homeobox-1 , insulin receptor substrate 2, glucokinase and glucose transporter 2, mRNA and proteins levels in pancreas tissue, and glucokinase and glucose-6-phosphatase mRNA, and proteins levels in liver tissue were detected by fluorogenic quantitative-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot assays...
January 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
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