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Oral Anti-hyperglycemics

KhaderSyed Zameer Ahmed, Syed Zameer Ahmed Sidhra, Ponnusamy Ponmurugan, Balasubramanian Senthil Kumar
Solanum trilobatum Linn is a medicinal plants used in India from many centuries to cure various diseases. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the ameliorative potential of the ethanolic leaf extract and fractions of Solanum trilobatum (St) against alloxan induced diabetic rats. Solanum trilobatum leaf extract and fractions were administered orally at two different concentration (100-200mg/kg body weight) to alloxan induced diabetic rats. The antidiabetic efficacy was validated through various biochemical parameters, enzyme assays, renal markers and antioxidant properties were also determined...
September 2016: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Balekari Umamahesh, Ciddi Veeresham
AIM: Abrus precatorius leaves methanolic extract (APME) was evaluated for in vivo antihyperglycemic activity and in vitro insulinotropic effect. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In vivo antihyperglycemic and insulin secretagogue activities were assessed in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by oral administration of APME (200 mg/kg body weight [bw]) for 28 days. In vitro insulin secretion mechanisms were studied using mouse insulinoma beta cells (MIN6-β). In vivo body weight and blood glucose and in vivo and in vitro insulin levels were estimated...
October 2016: Pharmacognosy Research
Manish M Wanjari, Sujata Mishra, Yadu Nandan Dey, Deepti Sharma, Sudesh N Gaidhani, Ankush D Jadhav
BACKGROUND: Chandraprabha vati is a classical Ayurvedic formulation, markedly used for mitigation of Prameha, which correlates in many ways with obesity, metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus. OBJECTIVE: The present study was aimed to investigate effect of Chandraprabha vati in experimentally-induced hyperglycemia and lipid profile alterations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Antidiabetic effect of Chandraprabha vati was studied in fifty five Wistar rats...
July 2016: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
Yoko Yamashita, Liuqing Wang, Fumio Nanba, Chiaki Ito, Toshiya Toda, Hitoshi Ashida
Procyanidins are the oligomeric or polymeric forms of epicatechin and catechin. In this study, we isolated and purified dimer to tetramer procyanidins from black soybean seed coat and investigated the anti-hyperglycemic effects by focusing on glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation and the underlying molecular mechanism in skeletal muscle of mice. The anti-hyperglycemic effects of procyanidins were also compared with those of monomer (-)-epicatechin (EC) and major anthocyanin, cyanidin-3-O-β-glucoside (C3G)...
2016: PloS One
George Dailey, Aakif Ahmad, Sarit Polsky, Viral Shah
Many adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D) do not achieve or maintain glycemic targets on oral antidiabetes drugs (OADs) alone and require insulin therapy. Although initiating basal insulin is common when treatment needs to be intensified, individualization of therapy (in line with current guidelines) may lead more health care professionals (HCPs) to add rapid-acting insulin (RAI) to OAD regimens for treatment of postprandial hyperglycemia to achieve glycated hemoglobin (A1C) targets. HCPs and patients are concerned about the burden associated with injections...
August 31, 2016: Postgraduate Medicine
Shinya Furukawa, Takenori Sakai, Tetsuji Niiya, Hiroaki Miyaoka, Teruki Miyake, Shin Yamamoto, Sayaka Kanzaki, Koutatsu Maruyama, Keiko Tanaka, Teruhisa Ueda, Hidenori Senba, Masamoto Torisu, Hisaka Minami, Morikazu Onji, Takeshi Tanigawa, Bunzo Matsuura, Yoichi Hiasa, Yoshihiro Miyake
AIMS: No evidence exists regarding the association between smoking status and nocturia among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. We evaluated this association among Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus by post-hoc analysis. METHODS: Study subjects were 817 Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Study subjects were considered to have nocturia if they answered "once or more" to the question: "Within one week, how many times do you typically wake up to urinate from sleeping at night until waking in the morning?" We used the following three outcomes: (1) nocturia was ≥1 voids per night; (2) moderate nocturia was ≥2 voids per night; and (3) severe nocturia was ≥3 voids per night...
August 26, 2016: Neurourology and Urodynamics
Mario Sechi, Deeba N Syed, Nicolino Pala, Alberto Mariani, Salvatore Marceddu, Antonio Brunetti, Hasan Mukhtar, Vanna Sanna
The bioactive flavonoid fisetin (FS) is a diet-derived antioxidant that is being increasingly investigated for its health-promoting effects. Unfortunately, the poor physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties affect and limit the clinical application. In this study, novel polymeric nanoparticles (NPs), based on Poly-(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and PLGA-PEG-COOH, encapsulating FS were formulated as suitable oral controlled release systems. Results showed NPs having a mean diameter of 140-200nm, and a percent loading of FS ranging from 70 to 82%...
November 1, 2016: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Belén Pastor-Villaescusa, Javier Caballero-Villarraso, M Dolores Cañete, Raúl Hoyos, José Maldonado, Gloria Bueno, Rosaura Leis, Ángel Gil, Ramón Cañete, Concepción M Aguilera
BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity are considered to be serious public health problems. In pediatric populations, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension associated with obesity occur with increased frequencies. Metformin is an oral anti-hyperglycemic agent that has been demonstrated to be efficacious in the treatment of diabetic and non-diabetic obese adults. A considerable amount of pharmacogenetic research has demonstrated that genetic variation is one of the major factors affecting metformin response...
2016: Trials
Guizhen Qiu, Wei Tian, Mei Huan, Jinlong Chen, Haitao Fu
The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-hyperglycemic activity and mechanism of formononetin in alloxan-induced type 1 diabetic mice by determining its effect on some diabetes-related indices as described below. Body weight, fasting blood glucose, hepatic glycogen, serum insulin, and serum glucagon were determined by electronic scales, glucometer, and ELISA kits. Fas, Caspase-3, pancreatic and duodenal homeobox-1 , insulin receptor substrate 2, glucokinase and glucose transporter 2, mRNA and proteins levels in pancreas tissue, and glucokinase and glucose-6-phosphatase mRNA, and proteins levels in liver tissue were detected by fluorogenic quantitative-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot assays...
July 13, 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Eddy Himpe, Daniel A Cunha, Imane Song, Marco Bugliani, Piero Marchetti, Miriam Cnop, Luc Bouwens
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies demonstrated that a phenylpropenoic acid glucoside (PPAG) from rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) extract had anti-hyperglycemic activity and significant protective effects on the pancreatic beta cell mass in a chronic diet-induced diabetes model. The present study evaluated the cytoprotective effect of the phytochemical on beta cells exposed to acute cell stress. METHODS: Synthetically prepared PPAG was administered orally in mice treated with a single dose of streptozotocin to acutely induce beta cell death and hyperglycemia...
2016: PloS One
Sung-Ho Kim, Eunsoo Jung, Min Kyung Yoon, O Hwan Kwon, Dal-Mi Hwang, Dong-Wook Kim, Junghyun Kim, Sun-Mee Lee, Hyeon Joo Yim
Gemigliptin, a novel dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitor, is approved for use as a monotherapy or in combination therapy to treat hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this study, we investigated the pharmacological profiles of gemigliptin in vitro and in vivo and compared them to those of the other DPP-4 inhibitors. Gemigliptin was a reversible and competitive inhibitor with a Ki value of 7.25±0.67nM. Similar potency was shown in plasma from humans, rats, dogs, and monkeys. The kinetics of DPP-4 inhibition by gemigliptin was characterized by a fast association and a slow dissociation rate compared to sitagliptin (fast on and fast off rate) or vildagliptin (slow on and slow off rate)...
October 5, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
Chantana Mekseepralard, Chonticha Areebambud, Sunit Suksamrarn, Amporn Jariyapongskul
OBJECTIVE: The present study investigated the effects of long-term supplementation of alpha-mangostin (MG; a xanthone isolated from mangosteen fruit) on hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic rats. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Type 2 diabetes (DM2) was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by feeding high fat diet for three weeks followed by an IP injection of low dose streptozotocin. The rats were divided into four groups: control and diabetes without or with alpha-MG supplementation (CON, DM2, CON-MG and DM2-MG group, respectively)...
November 2015: Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, Chotmaihet Thangphaet
Mohammad Raish, Ajaz Ahmad, Basit L Jan, Khalid M Alkharfy, Mushtaq Ahmad Ansari, Kazi Mohsin, Fahad Al Jenoobi, Abdullah Al-Mohizea
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) has become a primary cause of end-stage kidney disease. Several complex dynamics converge together to accelerate the advancement of DN. The present investigation was postulated to explore the mechanism of reno-protective nature of Momordica Charantia polysaccharides (MCP) by evaluating the anti-hyperglycemic, anti-lipidemic as well as markers for oxidative stress and antioxidant proficiency in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The oral administration of MCP showed a significant normalization in the levels of kidney function test in the STZ-induced diabetic rats...
October 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
S Y Abbas, W M Basyouni, K A M El-Bayouki, R F Abdel-Rahman
New 1-substituted-biguanide derivatives 1-3 were synthesized by the reaction of 2,4-dimethoxyaniline, hydrazine and methylhydrazine with dicyandiamide in diluted hydrochloric acid. The resulting biguanide salts were fully characterized by spectroscopic methods. The synthesized compounds were screened for their anti-diabetic activity with standard metformin drug. Oral treatment of hyperglycemic rats with the synthesized biguanide derivatives (200 mg/kg/day) for 2 weeks significantly decreased the elevated blood glucose level...
July 2016: Drug Research
Huifeng Zhu, Yuan Wang, Zhiqiang Liu, Jinghuan Wang, Dong Wan, Shan Feng, Xian Yang, Tao Wang
BACKGROUND: Diabetes, associated with hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress, would lead to an increased production of reactive oxygen species. Rehmannia glutinosa (Di Huang) is widely used to nourish yin, invigorate the kidney (shen), and treat xiao ke (a diabetes-like syndrome in Chinese medicine). This study aims to investigate the antidiabetic and antioxidant effects of catalpol from R. glutinosa on rat diabetes induced by streptozotocin (STZ) and high-fat, high-sugar feed. METHODS: Rats (eight rats in each group at least) were induced diabetes by an initial high-fat high-sugar feed for 3 weeks, followed by an intraperitoneal injection of STZ (30 mg/kg) for 3 days, and rats were fasted overnight before treatments...
2016: Chinese Medicine
V Ghorbanzadeh, M Mohammadi, H Dariushnejad, L Chodari, G Mohaddes
BACKGROUND: Hyperglycemia is the main risk factor for microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes. Crocin and voluntary exercise have anti-hyperglycemic effects in diabetes. In this research, we evaluated the effects of crocin and voluntary exercise alone or combined on glycemia control and heart level of VEGF-A. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Animals were divided into eight groups as: control (con), diabetes (Dia), crocin (Cro), voluntary exercise (Exe), crocin and voluntary exercise (Cro-Exe), diabetic-crocin (Dia-Cro), diabetic-voluntary exercise (Dia-Exe), diabetic-crocin-voluntary exercise (Dia-Cro-Exe)...
October 2016: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
Walaa G Hozayen, Ayman M Mahmoud, Hanan A Soliman, Sanura R Mostafa
AIM: The current study aimed to investigate the anti-hyperglycemic, anti-hyperlipidemic and insulin sensitizing effects of the cyanobacterium Spirulina versicolor extract in fructose-fed rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats were fed 30% fructose solution in drinking water for 4 weeks. Animals exhibited hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia were selected for further investigations. Diabetic and control rats were orally supplemented with 50 mg/kg body weight S. versicolor extract for 4 weeks...
January 2016: Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology
Shengsheng Yu, Alex Z Fu, Samuel S Engel, R Ravi Shankar, Larry Radican
OBJECTIVE: To better manage type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), the tradeoff between improved glycemic control and hypoglycemia should be evaluated. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between hypoglycemia and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in a real-world population. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Real-Life Effectiveness and Care Patterns of Diabetes Management (RECAP-DM) was a multi-center, observational study. Patients ≥30 years old using any oral anti-hyperglycemic agent were recruited from seven European and five Asian countries between 2006 and 2007...
August 2016: Current Medical Research and Opinion
Sung-Hoon Jo, Cha-Young Cho, Jung-Yoon Lee, Kyoung-Soo Ha, Young-In Kwon, Emmanouil Apostolidis
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes is a serious problem for developed and developing countries. Prevention of prediabetes progression to type 2 diabetes with the use of natural products appears to be a cost-effective solution. Zingiber mioga has been used as a traditional food in Asia. Recent research has reported the potential health benefits of Zingiber mioga, but the blood glucose reducing effect has not been yet evaluated. METHODS: In this study Zingiber mioga extracts (water and ethanol) were investigated for their anti-hyperglycemic and antioxidant potential using both in vitro and animal models...
2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Kripa Shankar, Sumit K Singh, Durgesh Kumar, Salil Varshney, Abhishek Gupta, Sujith Rajan, Ankita Srivastava, Muheeb Beg, Anurag Kumar Srivastava, Sanjeev Kanojiya, Dipak K Mishra, Anil N Gaikwad
BACKGROUND: Cucumis melo ssp. agrestis var. agrestis (CMA) is a wild variety of C. melo. This study aimed to explore anti-dyslipidemic and anti-adipogenic potential of CMA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For initial anti-dyslipidemic and antihyperglycemic potential of CMA fruit extract (CMFE), male Syrian golden hamsters were fed a chow or high-fat diet with or without CMFE (100 mg/kg). Further, we did fractionation of this CMFE into two fractions namely; CMA water fraction (CMWF) and CMA hexane fraction (CMHF)...
October 2015: Pharmacognosy Magazine
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