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Tiffany L Hutchins, Patricia A Prelock
Episodic memory (EM) and scene construction are critical for organizing and understanding personally experienced events and for developing several aspects of social cognition including self-concept, identity, introspection, future thinking, counterfactual reasoning, theory of mind, self-regulation, flexible problem-solving, and socially adaptive behavior. This article challenges the reader to think differently about EM in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), as we expand our understanding of autobiographical memory that requires an ability to travel back in time and re-experience an event...
April 2018: Seminars in Speech and Language
Holly Lear, Winifred Eboh, Lesley Diack
BACKGROUND: In a wider doctoral study related to unfavourable experiences of nursing students studying abroad, the researcher undertook a reflexive interview to reduce the potential for bias. AIM: To discuss a method for conducting reflexive interviews and recommend their use to nurse researchers. DISCUSSION: A reflexive interview was undertaken to reduce bias and pilot an original interview instrument. A senior researcher interviewed the researcher using original questions that would be used to interview participants in the wider doctoral study...
March 16, 2018: Nurse Researcher
Yuehong Wei, Na Huang, Shouyi Chen, Dehao Chen, Xiaoning Li, Jianmin Xu, Zhicong Yang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Mathis Jording, Arne Hartz, Gary Bente, Martin Schulte-Rüther, Kai Vogeley
Humans substantially rely on non-verbal cues in their communication and interaction with others. The eyes represent a "simultaneous input-output device": While we observe others and obtain information about their mental states (including feelings, thoughts, and intentions-to-act), our gaze simultaneously provides information about our own attention and inner experiences. This substantiates its pivotal role for the coordination of communication. The communicative and coordinative capacities - and their phylogenetic and ontogenetic impacts - become fully apparent in triadic interactions constituted in its simplest form by two persons and an object...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Jorge Morales, Hakwan Lau, Stephen M Fleming
Metacognition is the capacity to evaluate the success of one's own cognitive processes in various domains, e.g. memory and perception. It remains controversial whether metacognition relies on a domain-general resource that is applied to different tasks, or whether self-evaluative processes are domain-specific. Here we directly investigated this issue by examining the neural substrates engaged when metacognitive judgments were made by human participants of both sexes during perceptual and memory tasks matched for stimulus and performance characteristics...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Xu Xu, Chunyan Kang, David Pascucci, Taomei Guo
There have long been speculations about the relationship between consciousness and language. This study aimed to determine whether an individual's level of introspective awareness, based on self-report, relates to accessibility of their semantic system as evaluated by the N400. Thirty-five university students completed the study. All were right-handed, with normal or corrected-to-normal vision, without known neurological or psychological health issues. They first performed on a lexical decision task while their brain electrophysiological responses were recorded...
March 5, 2018: Brain and Cognition
Rand B Evans
Beginning in 1 9a0, a major thread of research was added to E. B. Titchener's Cornell laboratory: the synthetic experiment. Titchener and his graduate students used introspective analysis to reduce a perception, a complex experience, into its simple sensory constituents. To test the validity of that analysis, stimulus patterns were selected to reprodiuce the patterns of sensations found in the introspective analyses. If the original perception can be reconstructed in this way, then the analysis was considered validated...
April 2017: American Journal of Psychology
Bethany Ober Mannon
The field of narrative medicine holds that personal narratives about illness have the potential to give illness meaning and to create order out of disparate facets of experience, thereby aiding a patient's treatment and resisting universalizing medical discourse. Two narratives of bipolar disorder, Kay Redfield Jamison's prose memoir An Unquiet Mind (1995) and Ellen Forney's graphic memoir Marbles (2012) challenge these ideas. These writers demonstrate that one result of bipolar disorder is a rupture to their sense of identity, making straightforward and verbal forms of narrative impossible...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Medical Humanities
Lorig K Kachadourian, Erin Gandelman, Elizabeth Ralevski, Ismene L Petrakis
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Suicide is a significant public health problem among US military Veterans with rates exceeding civilian samples. Alcohol dependence (AD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are both associated with increases in suicidality. Given that risk of suicide is higher among those with both disorders, the study of relevant risk factors among those in this group is important. The current investigation focused on one such factor, hostility, and examined both overt hostility (ie, hostility that is more behavioral in nature and directed outwardly) and covert hostility (ie, hostility that is cognitive in nature and introspective) and their relationships to suicidal ideation...
March 2018: American Journal on Addictions
Pratap Kumar Patra, Manish Kumar
Background: Data on rheumatological disorders in children from developing countries like India are scarce. Hence, this study aimed to understand the clinical and epidemiological profile of rheumatological disorders in children as this can help organize comprehensive evidence-based health care services. Methodology: A retrospective hospital-based study was designed in pediatric rheumatology clinic of the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Patna, India, from January 2015 to December 2016...
January 2018: Journal of Natural Science, Biology, and Medicine
Siegmar Otto, Ulf Kröhne, David Richter
The behavioral sciences, including most of psychology, seek to explain and predict behavior with the help of theories and models that involve concepts (e.g., attitudes) that are subsequently translated into measures. Currently, some subdisciplines such as social psychology focus almost exclusively on measures that demand reflection or even introspection when administered to persons. We argue that such a focus hinders progress in explaining behavior. One major reason is that such an exclusive focus on reflections results in common method bias, which then produces spurious relations, or in other words, low discriminant validity...
2018: PloS One
Heather Freeman, Nadezhda Vladagina, Elika Razmjou, Christiane Brems
Background: Popular media typically portray yoga as an exercise or posture practice despite the reality that yoga comprised eight practices (called limbs) including ethical behavior, conscious lifestyle choices, postures, breathing, introspection, concentration, meditation, and wholeness. Aim: This study assessed the comprehensiveness of yoga practice as represented in articles in the popular yoga magazine, Yoga Journal . It explored the degree to which articles referenced each of the eight limbs of yoga and other contents (e...
September 2017: International Journal of Yoga
Lucy Wilks, Andrew Leather, Peter Matthew George, Thaim Bay Kamara
BACKGROUND: The critical shortage of human resources for healthcare falls most heavily on sub-Saharan nations such as Sierra Leone, where such workforce deficits have grave impacts on its burden of surgical disease. An important aspect in retention and development of the workforce is training. This study focuses on postgraduate surgical training (formal and short course) and perceptions of opportunities, challenges and aspirations, in a country where more than half of surgical procedures are performed by medical officers...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Surgical Education
Brian P Keane
In his monograph Modularity of Mind (1983), philosopher Jerry Fodor argued that mental architecture can be partly decomposed into computational organs termed modules, which are characterized as having nine co-occurring features such as automaticity, domain specificity, and informational encapsulation. Do modules exist? Debates thus far have been framed very generally with few, if any, detailed case studies. The topic is important because it has direct implications on current debates in cognitive science and because it potentially provides a viable framework from which to further understand and make hypotheses about the mind's structure and function...
January 26, 2018: Cognition
Yi Yang, Midori Tokita, Akira Ishiguchi
A number of studies revealed that our visual system can extract different types of summary statistics, such as the mean and variance, from sets of items. Although the extraction of such summary statistics has been studied well in isolation, the relationship between these statistics remains unclear. In this study, we explored this issue using an individual differences approach. Observers viewed illustrations of strawberries and lollypops varying in size or orientation and performed four tasks in a within-subject design, namely mean and variance discrimination tasks with size and orientation domains...
January 2018: I-Perception
Matthew L Dixon, Alejandro De La Vega, Caitlin Mills, Jessica Andrews-Hanna, R Nathan Spreng, Michael W Cole, Kalina Christoff
The frontoparietal control network (FPCN) plays a central role in executive control. It has been predominantly viewed as a unitary domain general system. Here, we examined patterns of FPCN functional connectivity (FC) across multiple conditions of varying cognitive demands, to test for FPCN heterogeneity. We identified two distinct subsystems within the FPCN based on hierarchical clustering and machine learning classification analyses of within-FPCN FC patterns. These two FPCN subsystems exhibited distinct patterns of FC with the default network (DN) and the dorsal attention network (DAN)...
January 30, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Rachel S Morris, Jessica Ruck, Alison M Conca-Cheng, Thomas J Smith, Thomas W Carver, Fabian M Johnston
BACKGROUND: Surgical patients increasingly have more comorbidities and are of an older age, complicating surgical decision-making in emergent situations. Little is known about surgeons' perceptions of shared decision-making in these settings. STUDY DESIGN: Twenty semi-structured interviews were conducted with practicing surgeons at two large academic medical centers. Thirteen questions and two case vignettes were used to assess perceptions of decision-making, considerations when deciding whether to offer surgery, and communication patterns with patients and families...
January 27, 2018: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
Kimberly Bender, Stephanie Begun, Rebecca Durbahn, Kristin Ferguson, Nick Schau
Although homeless youth face extreme adversities, they are often hesitant to seek help from formal and informal supports. The current study qualitatively explored homeless youths' reasons for coping independently and their strategies for doing so. Youth accessing services (N = 145) in three U.S. cities were interviewed about their rationales for not seeking help from others regarding distressing experiences. Analyses illustrated specific barriers to help seeking that prompted homeless youth to cope on their own by utilizing soothing, avoidant, aggressive, and introspective coping strategies...
January 29, 2018: Social Work in Public Health
Sharath Burugina Nagaraja, Srinath Satyanarayana, Suresh Shastri
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 21, 2017: Public Health Action
Henry C Markman
Analyst and patient occasionally arrive at moments of heightened meaning and aliveness. These moments can be transformative and lead to psychic change in the patient. They give life and arouse hope, and feel "real" in a new way, though often entailing emotional turbulence. Specific internal work must be done by the analyst to allow for and foster these experiences. This involves a kind of mourning process in the analyst that allows for "presence" and "availability" as described by Gabriel Marcel, and for the "at-one-ment" described by Bion...
December 2017: Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association
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