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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140918/integrating-social-determinants-of-health-into-graduate-medical-education-a-call-for-action
#1
Jennifer Siegel, David L Coleman, Thea James
Social determinants of health (SDH) are the major drivers of health and disparate health outcomes across communities and populations. Given this, the authors assert that competency in recognizing and mitigating SDH should become a vital component of graduate medical education in all specialties. While the most effective approaches to educating trainees about SDH are uncertain, in this Invited Commentary, the authors offer several key principles for implementing curricula focusing on SDH. These include universalization of the material, integration into clinical education, identification of space for trainee introspection, clarification of specific competencies in identification and mitigation of SDH, and creation of robust faculty development programming...
November 14, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121298/human-neural-correlates-of-sevoflurane-induced-unconsciousness
#2
B J A Palanca, M S Avidan, G A Mashour
Sevoflurane, a volatile anaesthetic agent well-tolerated for inhalation induction, provides a useful opportunity to elucidate the processes whereby halogenated ethers disrupt consciousness and cognition. Multiple molecular targets of sevoflurane have been identified, complementing imaging and electrophysiologic markers for the mechanistically obscure progression from wakefulness to unconsciousness. Recent investigations have more precisely detailed scalp EEG activity during this transition, with practical clinical implications...
October 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095658/can-science-explain-the-human-mind-intuitive-judgments-about-the-limits-of-science
#3
Sara Gottlieb, Tania Lombrozo
Can science explain romantic love, morality, and religious belief? We documented intuitive beliefs about the limits of science in explaining the human mind. We considered both epistemic evaluations (concerning whether science could possibly fully explain a given psychological phenomenon) and nonepistemic judgments (concerning whether scientific explanations for a given phenomenon would generate discomfort), and we identified factors that characterize phenomena judged to fall beyond the scope of science. Across six studies, we found that participants were more likely to judge scientific explanations for psychological phenomena to be impossible and uncomfortable when, among other factors, they support first-person, introspective access (e...
November 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080233/adolescent-externalizing-problems-contributions-of-community-crime-exposure-and-neural-function-during-emotion-introspection-in-mexican-origin-youth
#4
David G Weissman, Kristina L Gelardi, Rand D Conger, Richard W Robins, Paul D Hastings, Amanda E Guyer
Models of the etiology of adolescent antisocial behavior suggest that externalizing problems may reflect a susceptibility to crime exposure and a diminished capacity for emotion introspection. In this study, adolescents of Mexican origin completed a neuroimaging task that involved rating their subjective feelings of sadness in response to emotional facial expressions or a nonemotional aspect of each face. At lower levels of neural activity during sadness introspection in posterior cingulate and left temporoparietal junction, and in left amygdala, brain regions involved in mentalizing and emotion, respectively, a stronger positive association between community crime exposure and externalizing problems was found...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078281/multimodal-mapping-of-the-brain-s-functional-connectivity-and-the-adult-outcome-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#5
Gustavo Sudre, Eszter Szekely, Wendy Sharp, Steven Kasparek, Philip Shaw
We have a limited understanding of why many children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder do not outgrow the disorder by adulthood. Around 20-30% retain the full syndrome as young adults, and about 50% show partial, rather than complete, remission. Here, to delineate the neurobiology of this variable outcome, we ask if the persistence of childhood symptoms into adulthood impacts on the brain's functional connectivity. We studied 205 participants followed clinically since childhood. In early adulthood, participants underwent magnetoencephalography (MEG) to measure neuronal activity directly and functional MRI (fMRI) to measure hemodynamic activity during a task-free period (the "resting state")...
October 31, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073185/exploring-the-perceptions-of-physicians-caregivers-and-families-towards-artificial-nutrition-and-hydration-for-people-in-permanent-vegetative-state-how-can-a-photo-elicitation-method-help
#6
Elodie Cretin, Lionel Pazart, Marie-Christine Rousseau, Alain Noé, Pierre Decavel, Aline Chassagne, Aurélie Godard-Marceau, Hélène Trimaille, Florence Mathieu-Nicot, Yvan Beaussant, Damien Gabriel, Serge Daneault, Régis Aubry
The question of withdrawing artificial nutrition and hydration from people in a permanent vegetative state sparks considerable ethical and legal debate. Therefore, understanding the elements that influence such a decision is crucial. However, exploring perceptions of artificial nutrition and hydration is methodologically challenging for several reasons. First, because of the emotional state of the professionals and family members, who are facing an extremely distressing situation; second, because this question mirrors representations linked to a deep-rooted fear of dying of hunger and thirst; and third, because of taboos surrounding death...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063995/psychology-as-a-science-of-subject-and-comportment-beyond-the-mind-and-behavior
#7
Marino Pérez-Álvarez
The turn of qualitative inquiry suggests a more open, plural conception of psychology than just the science of the mind and behavior as it is most commonly defined. Historical, ontological and epistemological binding of this conception of psychology to the positivist method of natural science may have exhausted its possibilities, and after having contributed to its prestige as a science, has now become an obstacle. It is proposed that psychology be reconceived as a science of subject and comportment in the framework of a contextual hermeneutic, social, human behavioral science...
October 24, 2017: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020865/peer-to-peer-shadowing-as-a-technique-for-the-development-of-nurse-middle-managers-clinical-leadership
#8
Pieterbas Lalleman, Joanne Bouma, Gerhard Smid, Jananee Rasiah, Marieke Schuurmans
Purpose The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences and impact of peer-to-peer shadowing as a technique to develop nurse middle managers' clinical leadership practices. Design/methodology/approach A qualitative descriptive study was conducted to gain insight into the experiences of nurse middle managers using semi-structured interviews. Data were analysed into codes using constant comparison and similar codes were grouped under sub-themes and then into four broader themes. Findings Peer-to-peer shadowing facilitates collective reflection-in-action and enhances an "investigate stance" while acting...
October 12, 2017: Leadership in Health Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990965/calling-to-nursing-concept-analysis
#9
Christie Emerson
The aims of this article are (a) to analyze the concept of a calling as it relates nursing and (b) to develop a definition of calling to nursing with the detail and clarity needed to guide reliable and valid research. The classic steps described by Walker and Avant are used for the analysis. Literature from several disciplines is reviewed including vocational psychology, Christian career counseling, sociology, organizational management, and nursing. The analysis provides an operational definition of a calling to nursing and establishes 3 defining attributes of the concept: (a) a passionate intrinsic motivation or desire (perhaps with a religious component), (b) an aspiration to engage in nursing practice, as a means of fulfilling one's purpose in life, and (c) the desire to help others as one's purpose in life...
October 2017: ANS. Advances in Nursing Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968804/neural-substrate-for-metacognitive-accuracy-of-tactile-working-memory
#10
Juha Gogulski, Rasmus Zetter, Mikko Nyrhinen, Antti Pertovaara, Synnöve Carlson
The human prefrontal cortex (PFC) has been shown to be important for metacognition, the capacity to monitor and control one's own cognitive processes. Here we dissected the neural architecture of somatosensory metacognition using navigated single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to modulate tactile working memory (WM) processing. We asked subjects to perform tactile WM tasks and to give a confidence rating for their performance after each trial. We circumvented the challenge of interindividual variability in functional brain anatomy by applying TMS to two PFC areas that, according to tractography, were neurally connected with the primary somatosensory cortex (S1): one area in the superior frontal gyrus (SFG), another in the middle frontal gyrus (MFG)...
August 28, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938044/sunday-in-the-park-with-infectious-disease-workforce-mismatch-in-a-colorful-universe-of-possibilities
#11
Thomas Moore, Louise-Marie Dembry, Michael S Saag
The decline in applications for infectious diseases (ID) fellowships has been an area of active introspection for the leadership of the Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA). This prompted actions to address the problem, including surveys of current and former fellows. Ironically, the decline in applications to ID programs is occurring at a time when the need for ID providers has never been greater and the excitement and variety in the practice of ID has never been higher. Data regarding the current ID workforce are presented here, along with perspectives about the future of the profession in the decades to come...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924307/changing-paradigm-in-the-scientific-publication-process-are-we-encouraging-science-or-pseudoscience-urgent-need-for-introspection-and-self-regulation
#12
EDITORIAL
Velu Nair
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Medical Journal, Armed Forces India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920018/neonatal-sex-assignment-in-disorders-of-sex-development-a-philosophical-introspection
#13
REVIEW
V Raveenthiran
Management of ambiguous genitalia is highly controversial. This condition was known previously as intersex and presently as disorders of sex development (DSD). There is no consensus regarding the choice, timing and method of sex assignment in neonates with DSD. Consensus conferences could not unify the views of various stakeholders and third parties. This article philosophically examines the nature and origin of such controversies. Misconception, bias and conflicting priorities are identified as the three cardinal sources of controversies...
July 2017: Journal of Neonatal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919132/the-east-the-west-and-the-universal-machine
#14
REVIEW
Bruno Marchal
After reviewing the basic of theology of Universal Numbers/Machines, as detailed in (Marchal, 2007), I illustrate how that body of thought might be used to shed some light upon the apparent dichotomy in Eastern/Western spirituality. This paper relies entirely on my previous inter-disciplinary work in mathematical logic, computer science and machine's theology, where "theology" is used here in the sense of Plato: it is the truth, or the "truth-theory" (in the sense of logicians) about a machine that the machine can either deduce from some of its primitive beliefs, or can be intuited in some sense that eventually is made clear through the modal logic of machine self-reference...
September 14, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916521/behavioural-modeling-and-electrophysiological-evidence-for-supramodality-in-human-metacognition
#15
Nathan Faivre, Elisa Filevich, Guillermo Solovey, Simone Kühn, Olaf Blanke
Human metacognition, or the capacity to introspect on one's own mental states, has been mostly characterized through confidence reports in visual tasks. A pressing question is to what extent results from visual studies generalize to other domains. Answering this question allows determining whether metacognition operates through shared, supramodal mechanisms, or through idiosyncratic, modality-specific mechanisms. Here, we report three new lines of evidence for decisional and post-decisional mechanisms arguing for the supramodality of metacognition...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916259/what-we-see-when-we-read-visualization-and-vividness-in-reading-fictional-narratives
#16
REVIEW
Renate Brosch
Visualization is defined as the production of mental images in the process of reading (Esrock 2005: 633). This article is concerned with varieties of visualization during an absorbing reading of a fictional narrative, the mental images that range from an indistinct and largely automatic default visualization to the much more vivid images that occur at significant stages in the narrative. Neuroscientific studies of vision have collected a large and impressively varied body of experimental evidence for two major processing streams - the dorsal and the ventral-specialized for vision-for-action and vision for-perception respectively...
August 24, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904602/there-is-an-unconscious-but-it-may-well-be-conscious
#17
Bernardo Kastrup
Depth psychology finds empirical validation today in a variety of observations that suggest the presence of causally effective mental processes outside conscious experience. I submit that this is due to misinterpretation of the observations: the subset of consciousness called "meta-consciousness" in the literature is often mistaken for consciousness proper, thereby artificially creating space for an "unconscious." The implied hypothesis is that all mental processes may in fact be conscious, the appearance of unconsciousness arising from our dependence on self-reflective introspection for gauging awareness...
August 2017: Europe's journal of psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873269/do-therapists-subjective-variables-impact-on-psychodynamic-psychotherapy-outcomes-a-systematic-literature-review
#18
Vittorio Lingiardi, Laura Muzi, Annalisa Tanzilli, Nicola Carone
BACKGROUND: Despite growing attention to the general therapist effects in a wide range of clinical settings, little is known about the individual, cross-situational, and therapy-nonspecific variables that impact on the differential effectiveness of clinicians. The current study is a systematic review of the evidence relating to the influence of therapist's subjective characteristics on outcomes of psychodynamic psychotherapies. METHOD: A multistage and systematic search of articles published between 1987 and 2017 identified 30 relevant studies, which were organized into 6 areas according to the specific therapist's variable considered...
September 5, 2017: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811747/what-establishes-an-excellent-nurse-a-focus-group-and-delphi-panel-approach
#19
Wolter Paans, Patricia Robbe, Inge Wijkamp, Marca V C Wolfensberger
BACKGROUND: Over the past few years, the complexity of the health care system in which nurses are required to practice has increased considerably, magnifying the need for excellent professionals with a specific set of knowledge, skills and attitudes. However, the characteristics that distinguish an excellent nurse have not yet been clarified. The aim of this study was to determine nurses' perspectives regarding characteristics associated with an excellent nurse in order to elicit a conceptual profile...
2017: BMC Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791593/key-pharmacokinetic-essentials-of-fixed-dosed-combination-products-case-studies-and-perspectives
#20
Ranjeet Prasad Dash, Rana Rais, Nuggehally R Srinivas
Fixed-dose combinations are gaining popularity because they provide convenience while enhancing patient compliance. Literature examples suggest that many fixed-dose combinations are being rationalized and investigated for their potential utility in therapy. This article provides an introspection into the pharmacokinetic essentials that need to be considered prior to implementing a fixed-dose combination strategy. While the drug-drug interaction potential is an important question for the two drugs in a fixed-dose combination, the occurrence of a drug-drug interaction in itself is not a negative outcome for the proposed fixed-dose combination...
August 8, 2017: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
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