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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920018/neonatal-sex-assignment-in-disorders-of-sex-development-a-philosophical-introspection
#1
REVIEW
V Raveenthiran
Management of ambiguous genitalia is highly controversial. This condition was known previously as intersex and presently as disorders of sex development (DSD). There is no consensus regarding the choice, timing and method of sex assignment in neonates with DSD. Consensus conferences could not unify the views of various stakeholders and third parties. This article philosophically examines the nature and origin of such controversies. Misconception, bias and conflicting priorities are identified as the three cardinal sources of controversies...
July 2017: Journal of Neonatal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919132/the-east-the-west-and-the-universal-machine
#2
REVIEW
Bruno Marchal
After reviewing the basic of theology of Universal Numbers/Machines, as detailed in (Marchal, 2007), I illustrate how that body of thought might be used to shed some light upon the apparent dichotomy in Eastern/Western spirituality. This paper relies entirely on my previous inter-disciplinary work in mathematical logic, computer science and machine's theology, where "theology" is used here in the sense of Plato: it is the truth, or the "truth-theory" (in the sense of logicians) about a machine that the machine can either deduce from some of its primitive beliefs, or can be intuited in some sense that eventually is made clear through the modal logic of machine self-reference...
September 14, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916521/behavioural-modeling-and-electrophysiological-evidence-for-supramodality-in-human-metacognition
#3
Nathan Faivre, Elisa Filevich, Guillermo Solovey, Simone Kühn, Olaf Blanke
Human metacognition, or the capacity to introspect on one's own mental states, has been mostly characterized through confidence reports in visual tasks. A pressing question is to what extent results from visual studies generalize to other domains. Answering this question allows determining whether metacognition operates through shared, supramodal mechanisms, or through idiosyncratic, modality-specific mechanisms. Here, we report three new lines of evidence for decisional and post-decisional mechanisms arguing for the supramodality of metacognition...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916259/what-we-see-when-we-read-visualization-and-vividness-in-reading-fictional-narratives
#4
REVIEW
Renate Brosch
Visualization is defined as the production of mental images in the process of reading (Esrock 2005: 633). This article is concerned with varieties of visualization during an absorbing reading of a fictional narrative, the mental images that range from an indistinct and largely automatic default visualization to the much more vivid images that occur at significant stages in the narrative. Neuroscientific studies of vision have collected a large and impressively varied body of experimental evidence for two major processing streams - the dorsal and the ventral-specialized for vision-for-action and vision for-perception respectively...
August 24, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904602/there-is-an-unconscious-but-it-may-well-be-conscious
#5
Bernardo Kastrup
Depth psychology finds empirical validation today in a variety of observations that suggest the presence of causally effective mental processes outside conscious experience. I submit that this is due to misinterpretation of the observations: the subset of consciousness called "meta-consciousness" in the literature is often mistaken for consciousness proper, thereby artificially creating space for an "unconscious." The implied hypothesis is that all mental processes may in fact be conscious, the appearance of unconsciousness arising from our dependence on self-reflective introspection for gauging awareness...
August 2017: Europe's journal of psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873269/do-therapists-subjective-variables-impact-on-psychodynamic-psychotherapy-outcomes-a-systematic-literature-review
#6
Vittorio Lingiardi, Laura Muzi, Annalisa Tanzilli, Nicola Carone
BACKGROUND: Despite growing attention to the general therapist effects in a wide range of clinical settings, little is known about the individual, cross-situational, and therapy-nonspecific variables that impact on the differential effectiveness of clinicians. The current study is a systematic review of the evidence relating to the influence of therapist's subjective characteristics on outcomes of psychodynamic psychotherapies. METHOD: A multistage and systematic search of articles published between 1987 and 2017 identified 30 relevant studies, which were organized into 6 areas according to the specific therapist's variable considered...
September 5, 2017: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811747/what-establishes-an-excellent-nurse-a-focus-group-and-delphi-panel-approach
#7
Wolter Paans, Patricia Robbe, Inge Wijkamp, Marca V C Wolfensberger
BACKGROUND: Over the past few years, the complexity of the health care system in which nurses are required to practice has increased considerably, magnifying the need for excellent professionals with a specific set of knowledge, skills and attitudes. However, the characteristics that distinguish an excellent nurse have not yet been clarified. The aim of this study was to determine nurses' perspectives regarding characteristics associated with an excellent nurse in order to elicit a conceptual profile...
2017: BMC Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791593/key-pharmacokinetic-essentials-of-fixed-dosed-combination-products-case-studies-and-perspectives
#8
Ranjeet Prasad Dash, Rana Rais, Nuggehally R Srinivas
Fixed-dose combinations are gaining popularity because they provide convenience while enhancing patient compliance. Literature examples suggest that many fixed-dose combinations are being rationalized and investigated for their potential utility in therapy. This article provides an introspection into the pharmacokinetic essentials that need to be considered prior to implementing a fixed-dose combination strategy. While the drug-drug interaction potential is an important question for the two drugs in a fixed-dose combination, the occurrence of a drug-drug interaction in itself is not a negative outcome for the proposed fixed-dose combination...
August 8, 2017: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762756/intranasal-oxytocin-selectively-modulates-large-scale-brain-networks-in-humans
#9
Katja Brodmann, Oliver Gruber, Roberto Goya-Maldonado
A growing body of evidence indicates that the neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) alters the neural correlates of socio-emotional and salience processing. Yet the effects of OT over important large-scale networks involved in these processes, such as the default mode (DM), ventral attention (VA) and cingulo-opercular (CO) networks, remain unknown. Therefore, we conducted a placebo-controlled crossover study with intranasal 24IU OT in 38 healthy male subjects using a resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) paradigm to investigate its impact over these three candidate networks...
August 1, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758830/the-truth-lies-somewhere-in-the-middle-swinging-between-globalization-and-regionalization-of-medical-education-in-japan
#10
Takuya Saiki, Rintaro Imafuku, Yasuyuki Suzuki, Nobutaro Ban
Japan is well known as a super-aging society, with a low birth rate, and has been ranked as one of the countries having the highest quality of healthcare system. Japan's society is currently approaching a major turning point with regard to societal and healthcare reforms, which are influenced by international trends and regional needs. Development of Japanese healthcare human resources, including medical students, is now expected to ride the wave of globalization, while resolving regional problems in the training and delivery of healthcare...
July 31, 2017: Medical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735212/externally-controlled-involuntary-cognitions-and-their-relations-with-other-representations-in-consciousness
#11
Donish Cushing, Adam Gazzaley, Ezequiel Morsella
Percepts and action-related urges often enter consciousness insuppressibly. The Reflexive Imagery Task (RIT) was developed to investigate how high-level cognitions (e.g., subvocalizations), too, can enter consciousness in this manner. Limitations of the paradigm include (a) that no data have confirmed subjects' introspections about the involuntary subvocalizations, and (b) that, in everyday life, adaptive responses to involuntary cognitions often depend on the nature of the other contents in consciousness. To address a and b, we developed an RIT in which subjects were presented with visual objects and instructed to not think of the object names...
July 20, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714704/planes-of-phenomenological-experience-the-psychology-of-deafness-as-an-early-example-of-american-gestalt-psychology-1928-1940
#12
Marion A Schmidt
When, in 1928, the Clarke School for the Deaf in Northampton, Massachusetts, opened a psychological research division, it was nothing unusual in a time fascinated with the sciences of education. Yet with its longstanding ties to Northampton's Smith College, the school was able to secure the collaboration of eminent Gestalt psychologist Kurt Koffka, who, in turn, engaged 2 more German-speaking emigrants, Margarete Eberhardt and social psychologist Fritz Heider, and Heider's American wife Grace Moore Heider. This collaboration has seen little attention from historians, who have treated Koffka's and Heider's time in Northampton as a transitory phase...
July 17, 2017: History of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711591/touching-the-void-first-and-third-person-perspectives-in-two-cases-of-autobiographical-amnesia-linked-to-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#13
Adam Zeman, Marcus Byruck, Peter Tallis, Keith Vossel, Daniel Tranel
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) can be associated with a marked impairment of autobiographical memory. This is occasionally its presenting feature. We describe two individuals with severe epilepsy-associated autobiographical memory loss. Both MB and PT were reassured initially that their memory was intact on the basis of standard neuropsychological tests. Both have written detailed accounts of their symptoms. The key neuropsychological features of their cases are the relative normality of performance on standard memory tests, with preservation of semantic memory for impersonal information, in contrast to a profound amnesia for salient autobiographical episodes and an impoverishment of imaginative scene construction...
July 13, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698462/using-health-impact-assessment-as-an-interdisciplinary-teaching-tool
#14
REVIEW
Melissa Chinchilla, Mariana C Arcaya
Health Impact Assessment (HIA) courses are teaching public health and urban planning students how to assess the likely health effects of proposed policies, plans, and projects. We suggest that public health and urban planning have complimentary frameworks for training practitioners to address the living conditions that affect health. Planning perspectives emphasize practical skills for impacting community change, while public health stresses professional purpose and ethics. Frameworks from both disciplines can enhance the HIA learning experience by helping students tackle questions related to community impact, engagement, social justice, and ethics...
July 8, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684014/the-evolution-of-empathy-research-models-muddles-and-mechanisms
#15
Richard M Frankel
The word empathy enters the English language in 1909, translated incompletely from German by a British-born psychologist interested in introspection. In the ensuing 100+ years, the term has been defined in a range of different ways by researchers and scholars. The biopsychosocial framework developed by George Engel comes closest to capturing empathy as a biological, psychological and social phenomenon. In this paper, I explore the psychological and social/communicative dimensions of empathy. Psychologists ask the question, How does the capacity for empathy vary across individuals? By contrast, interaction scholars ask, How is empathy communicated from one person (a healthcare provider) to another (a sufferer)? A communication focus involves the accuracy and impact of empathic communication as evidenced in a sufferer's response...
November 2017: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673976/changes-in-ventromedial-prefrontal-and-insular-cortex-support-the-development-of-metamemory-from-childhood-into-adolescence
#16
Yana Fandakova, Diana Selmeczy, Sarah Leckey, Kevin J Grimm, Carter Wendelken, Silvia A Bunge, Simona Ghetti
Metamemory monitoring, or the ability to introspect on the accuracy of one's memories, improves considerably during childhood, but the underlying neural changes and implications for intellectual development are largely unknown. The present study examined whether cortical changes in key brain areas hypothesized to support metacognition contribute to the development of metamemory monitoring from late childhood into early adolescence. Metamemory monitoring was assessed among 7- to 12-y-old children (n = 145) and adults (n = 31)...
July 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646672/transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-to-visual-cortex-induces-suboptimal-introspection
#17
Megan A K Peters, Jeremy Fesi, Namema Amendi, Jeffrey D Knotts, Hakwan Lau, Tony Ro
Blindsight patients with damage to the visual cortex can discriminate objects but report no conscious visual experience. This provides an intriguing opportunity to allow the study of subjective awareness in isolation from objective performance capacity. However, blindsight is rare, so one promising way to induce the effect in neurologically intact observers is to apply transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the visual cortex. Here, we used a recently-developed criterion-free method to conclusively rule out an important alternative interpretation of TMS-induced performance without awareness: that TMS-induced blindsight may be just due to conservative reporting biases for conscious perception...
August 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644996/neural-correlates-of-psychotic-like-experiences-during-spiritual-trance-state
#18
Alessandra Ghinato Mainieri, Julio Fernando Prieto Peres, Alexander Moreira-Almeida, Klaus Mathiak, Ute Habel, Nils Kohn
Recent studies indicate high levels of psychotic experiences in the general population. Here, we report a functional imaging study with 8 mentally healthy spiritual mediums and 8 matched controls. The mediums entered a mediumistic-trance state using a standardized manner by closing their eyes and actively seeking to ignore external and internal stimuli to achieve a 'state of emptiness'; in a control condition, they were instructed to re-enact the same mediumistic experience that they had during the mediumistic-trance condition but in a non-trance state (imaginative-trance)...
June 15, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641817/-preventing-violence-in-schizophrenia-with-cognitive-remediation
#19
C Darmedru, C Demily, N Franck
OBJECTIVES: The association between schizophrenia and violence represents an important issue in psychiatry. Often highly publicized, violent acts raise the question of their detection, prevention, management and treatment. There is no single, direct and exclusive link between aggressiveness and the underlying psychiatric disorder. On the contrary, the processes underlying this violence are multiple and interlinked. In addition to static and dynamic risk factors, cognitive deficits play an important role in the genesis and maintenance of violent and aggressive behavior...
June 19, 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639834/implicit-health-associations-across-the-adult-lifespan
#20
Alexandra J Werntz, Jennifer S Green, Bethany A Teachman
OBJECTIVE: Explicit reports of one's health self-concept (e.g. rate your overall health) are commonly used in research and clinical practice. These measures predict important health outcomes, but rely on conscious introspection so may not fully capture the different components of the health self-concept (e.g. more automatic components) that relate to actual health. This study examined the health-implicit association test (health-IAT), and how it may add to our prediction of health from self-reports...
June 22, 2017: Psychology & Health
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