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Introspection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646672/transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-to-visual-cortex-induces-suboptimal-introspection
#1
Megan A K Peters, Jeremy Fesi, Namema Amendi, Jeffrey D Knotts, Hakwan Lau, Tony Ro
Blindsight patients with damage to the visual cortex can discriminate objects but report no conscious visual experience. This provides an intriguing opportunity to allow the study of subjective awareness in isolation from objective performance capacity. However, blindsight is rare, so one promising way to induce the effect in neurologically intact observers is to apply transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the visual cortex. Here, we used a recently-developed criterion-free method to conclusively rule out an important alternative interpretation of TMS-induced performance without awareness: that TMS-induced blindsight may be just due to conservative reporting biases for conscious perception...
June 2, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644996/neural-correlates-of-psychotic-like-experiences-during-spiritual-trance-state
#2
Alessandra Ghinato Mainieri, Julio Fernando Prieto Peres, Alexander Moreira-Almeida, Klaus Mathiak, Ute Habel, Nils Kohn
Recent studies indicate high levels of psychotic experiences in the general population. Here, we report a functional imaging study with 8 mentally healthy spiritual mediums and 8 matched controls. The mediums entered a mediumistic-trance state using a standardized manner by closing their eyes and actively seeking to ignore external and internal stimuli to achieve a 'state of emptiness'; in a control condition, they were instructed to re-enact the same mediumistic experience that they had during the mediumistic-trance condition but in a non-trance state (imaginative-trance)...
June 15, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641817/-preventing-violence-in-schizophrenia-with-cognitive-remediation
#3
C Darmedru, C Demily, N Franck
OBJECTIVES: The association between schizophrenia and violence represents an important issue in psychiatry. Often highly publicized, violent acts raise the question of their detection, prevention, management and treatment. There is no single, direct and exclusive link between aggressiveness and the underlying psychiatric disorder. On the contrary, the processes underlying this violence are multiple and interlinked. In addition to static and dynamic risk factors, cognitive deficits play an important role in the genesis and maintenance of violent and aggressive behavior...
June 19, 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639834/implicit-health-associations-across-the-adult-lifespan
#4
Alexandra J Werntz, Jennifer S Green, Bethany A Teachman
OBJECTIVE: Explicit reports of one's health self-concept (e.g. rate your overall health) are commonly used in research and clinical practice. These measures predict important health outcomes, but rely on conscious introspection so may not fully capture the different components of the health self-concept (e.g. more automatic components) that relate to actual health. This study examined the health-implicit association test (health-IAT), and how it may add to our prediction of health from self-reports...
June 22, 2017: Psychology & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636093/introspection-plays-an-early-role-in-children-s-explicit-theory-of-mind-development
#5
Christopher R Gonzales, William V Fabricius, Anne S Kupfer
This study assessed children's (N = 236) ability to introspect the mental states of seeing and knowing relative to their ability to attribute each state to others. Children could introspect seeing 10 months before they could introspect knowing. Two- and 3-year-olds correctly reported their own seeing states, whereas 3- and 4-year-olds correctly reported their own knowing states. For each mental state, there was a 7-month difference before children could correctly attribute that state to another. These findings indicate that knowing is more difficult to introspect than seeing and that the ability to introspect each mental state emerges prior to the ability to correctly attribute them to others...
June 21, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629648/ten-reasons-to-embrace-scientism
#6
Rik Peels
A strong version of scientism, such as that of Alex Rosenberg, says, roughly, that natural science reliably delivers rational belief or knowledge, whereas common sense sources of belief, such as moral intuition, memory, and introspection, do not. In this paper I discuss ten reasons that adherents of scientism have or might put forward in defence of scientism. The aim is to show which considerations could plausibly count in favour of scientism and what this implies for the way scientism ought to be formulated...
June 2017: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577732/-prospective-how-will-renal-prostatic-and-urothelial-tumours-be-treated-in-10%C3%A2-years
#7
REVIEW
Alain Toledano, Mayada Bourmech, Hanah Lamallem, Marc Bollet, Olivier Bauduceau, Pascal Pujol, Patrick Bloch, David Khayat
Forward thinking does not seek to predict the future, to unveil it as if it were already in existence, rather, its aim is to help us to construct it. Although today's epidemiological and therapeutic situations for urogenital tumours can evolve over the next 10 years, diagnostic and therapeutic methods, as well as the treatment and implementation of innovations, are already rapidly changing. Rather than reducing our prospective thinking to the therapeutic treatment of cancer only, we will aim at proposing a global sanitary vision that includes diagnosis, therapies, prevention, routine utilisation of technomedicine, genomics and even nanomedicine...
April 2017: Néphrologie & Thérapeutique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575351/-enquire-into-all-the-circumstances-of-the-patient-narrowly-john-rutherford-s-clinical-lectures-in-edinburgh-1749-53
#8
Stephen C Craig
Early eighteenth-century Edinburgh provided a unique learning environment for aspiring practitioners: one in which the unity of medicine and surgery was appreciated and clinical observations and a reasoning practitioner became the well spring of proper patient care. John Rutherford, a surgical apprentice in this environment, student on the wards of London hospitals and under Boerhaave at Leiden, became one of the original medical professors at the University of Edinburgh medical school in 1726. Rutherford taught the popular, theory-based Practice of Medicine for twenty-two years...
May 29, 2017: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566506/the-balanced-and-introspective-brain
#9
P A Robinson
Transfers of large-scale neural activity into, within and between corticothalamic neural populations and brain hemispheres are analysed using time-integrated transfer functions and state parameters obtained from neural field theory for a variety of arousal states. It is shown that the great majority of activity results from feedbacks within the corticothalamic system, including significant transfer between hemispheres, but only a small minority arises via net input from the external world, with the brain thus in a near-critical, highly introspective state...
May 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557481/a-within-person-examination-of-the-ideal-point-response-process
#10
Matthew LaPalme, Louis Tay, Wei Wang
Ideal-point processes assume that individuals engage in introspective comparisons when responding to self-reported typical traits such as personality, affect, and attitudes. Although this type of response process is fundamentally a within-person phenomenon, past research has relied on between-person data using item response theory (IRT) model comparisons to draw inferences about the appropriateness of ideal-point response processes. However, between-person data may not necessarily be indicative of within-person processes...
May 29, 2017: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536059/current-state-of-knowledge-on-the-traditional-uses-phytochemistry-and-pharmacology-of-the-genus-hymenaea
#11
REVIEW
Pone Kamdem Boniface, Sabrina Baptista Ferreira, Carlos Roland Kaiser
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Plants of the genus Hymenaea (Fabaceae) are used in South American and Asian traditional medicines to treat a multitude of disorders, like cough, diarrhea, dysentery, intestinal colic, pulmonary weakness, asthma, anemia, sore throat, and for the treatment of kidney problems, viral related disorders, chronic cystitis, bronchitis, and bladder infections. Some Hymenaea species are also used as vermifuge, and for the treatment of arthritis, and inflammation conditions...
May 21, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508325/preliminary-results-of-a-novel-algorithmic-method-aiming-to-support-initial-causality-assessment-of-routine-pharmacovigilance-case-reports-for-medication-induced-liver-injury-the-pv-rucam
#12
Erik Scalfaro, Henk Johan Streefkerk, Michael Merz, Christoph Meier, David Lewis
INTRODUCTION: Data incompleteness in pharmacovigilance (PV) health records limits the use of current causality assessment methods for drug-induced liver injury (DILI). In addition to the inherent complexity of this adverse event, identifying cases of high causal probability is difficult. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to evaluate the performance of an improved, algorithmic and standardised method called the Pharmacovigilance-Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method (PV-RUCAM), to support assessment of suspected DILI...
May 15, 2017: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504525/introspection-of-subjective-feelings-is-sensitive-and-specific
#13
Laurence Questienne, Jean-Philippe van Dijck, Wim Gevers
Conversely to behaviorist ideas, recent studies suggest that introspection can be accurate and reliable. However, an unresolved question is whether people are able to report specific aspects of their phenomenal experience, or whether they report more general nonspecific experiences. To address this question, we investigated the sensitivity and validity of our introspection for different types of conflict. Taking advantage of the congruency sequence effect, we dissociated response conflict while keeping visual conflict unchanged in a Stroop and in a priming task...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504334/advances-in-functional-brain-imaging-technology-and-developmental-neuro-psychology-their-applications-in-the-jungian-analytic-domain
#14
Leon Petchkovsky
Analytical psychology shares with many other psychotherapies the important task of repairing the consequences of developmental trauma. The majority of analytic patients come from compromised early developmental backgrounds: they may have experienced neglect, abuse, or failures of empathic resonance from their carers. Functional brain imagery techniques including Quantitative Electroencephalogram (QEEG), and functional Magnetic Resonance Imagery (fMRI), allow us to track mental processes in ways beyond verbal reportage and introspection...
June 2017: Journal of Analytical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461740/pharmacokinetic-interactions-between-glimepiride-and-rosuvastatin-in-healthy-korean-subjects-does-the-slco1b1-or-cyp2c9-genetic-polymorphism-affect-these-drug-interactions-observations-and-introspection-of-the-bioanalysis
#15
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425736/implicit-approach-and-avoidance-in-patients-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#16
Barbara Cludius, Anne Katrin Külz, Sarah Landmann, Steffen Moritz, Charlotte E Wittekind
Avoidance is regarded as an important feature for the development and maintenance of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and is usually assessed using explicit measures such as self-report scales. However, some behavioral schemata are unavailable to introspection, making them partially inaccessible by explicit measures. We used an approach-avoidance task (AAT) as an implicit measure to examine behavioral tendencies in patients with OCD, including patients with checking- and contamination-related symptoms (n = 63), compared with a healthy control group (n = 30)...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406348/motivations-for-using-mdma-ecstasy-molly-among-african-americans-implications-for-prevention-and-harm-reduction-programs
#17
Khary K Rigg
Despite the growing popularity of MDMA (ecstasy/molly) among African Americans, their motives for using the drug are still largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the most salient motivations for using MDMA among this understudied population. In-depth interviews (n = 15) were conducted with a sample of African American young adults in Southwest Florida between August 2014 and November 2015. The primary motivations for using MDMA included: (1) altering the effects of marijuana and alcohol; (2) lasting longer sexually; (3) enhancing sexual pleasure; and (4) facilitating "freaky" sexual experiences...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387587/multiple-object-tracking-as-a-tool-for-parametrically-modulating-memory-reactivation
#18
Jordan Poppenk, Kenneth A Norman
Converging evidence supports the "nonmonotonic plasticity" hypothesis, which states that although complete retrieval may strengthen memories, partial retrieval weakens them. Yet, the classic experimental paradigms used to study effects of partial retrieval are not ideally suited to doing so, because they lack the parametric control needed to ensure that the memory is activated to the appropriate degree (i.e., that there is some retrieval but not enough to cause memory strengthening). Here, we present a novel procedure designed to accommodate this need...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374336/therapeutic-potential-and-utility-of-elacridar-with-respect-to-p-glycoprotein-inhibition-an-insight-from-the-published-in-vitro-preclinical-and-clinical-studies
#19
Ranjeet Prasad Dash, R Jayachandra Babu, Nuggehally R Srinivas
The occurrence of efflux mechanisms via Permeability-glycoprotein (P-gp) recognized as an important physiological process impedes drug entry or transport across membranes into tissues. In some instances, either low oral bioavailability or lack of brain penetration has been attributed to P-gp mediated efflux activity. Therefore, the objective of development of P-gp inhibitors was to facilitate the attainment of higher drug exposures in tissues. Many third-generation P-gp inhibitors such as elacridar, tariquidar, zosuquidar, etc...
April 3, 2017: European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356722/from-therapeutic-patient-education-principles-to-educative-attitude-the-perceptions-of-health-care-professionals-a-pragmatic-approach-for-defining-competencies-and-resources
#20
Benoit Pétré, Remi Gagnayre, Vincent De Andrade, Olivier Ziegler, Michèle Guillaume
Educative attitude is an essential, if implicit, aspect of training to acquire competency in therapeutic patient education (TPE). With multiple (or nonexistent) definitions in the literature, however, the concept needs clarification. The primary aim of this study was to analyze the representations and transformations experienced by health care professionals in the course of TPE training in order to characterize educative attitude. We conducted an exploratory qualitative study using several narrative research-based tools with participants of two TPE continuing education courses...
2017: Patient Preference and Adherence
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