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Consciousness and borderline personality disorder

Gregory J McHugo, Sarah Krassenbaum, Sachiko Donley, John D Corrigan, Jennifer Bogner, Robert E Drake
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the rate and severity of traumatic brain injury (TBI) among people with co-occurring mental health and substance use disorders and to compare demographic, diagnostic, and institutionalization differences between those who screen positive or negative. SETTING: Outpatient community mental health center in Washington, District of Columbia. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 295 people with co-occurring mental health and substance use disorders enrolled in a prospective study of integrated treatment of substance abuse...
July 21, 2016: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
Michelle Schoenleber, Christopher R Berghoff, Matthew T Tull, David DiLillo, Terri Messman-Moore, Kim L Gratz
Extant research on emotional lability in borderline personality disorder (BPD) has focused almost exclusively on lability of individual emotions or emotion types, with limited research considering how different types of emotions shift together over time. Thus, this study examined the temporal dynamics of emotion in BPD at the level of both individual emotions (i.e., self-conscious emotions [SCE], anger, and anxiety) and mixed emotions (i.e., synchrony between emotions). One hundred forty-four women from the community completed a diagnostic interview and laboratory study involving 5 emotion induction tasks (each of which was preceded and followed by a 5-min resting period or neutral task)...
July 2016: Personality Disorders
Jørgen Assar Mortensen, Hallvard Røe Evensmoen, Gunilla Klensmeden, Asta Kristine Håberg
Uncertainty is recognized as an important component in distress, which may elicit impulsive behavior in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). These patients are known to be both impulsive and distress intolerant. The present study explored the connection between outcome uncertainty and impulsivity in BPD. The prediction was that cue primes, which provide incomplete information of subsequent target stimuli, led BPD patients to overrate the predictive value of these cues in order to reduce distress related to outcome uncertainty...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Jessica R Peters, Paul J Geiger
Shame has emerged as a particularly relevant emotion to the maintenance and exacerbation of borderline personality disorder (BPD) features; however, little attention has been paid to the potentially differing effects of other forms of self-conscious affect. While guilt has been demonstrated to have adaptive functions in the social psychology literature, it has not been previously explored whether a lack of socially adaptive guilt might also contribute to BPD-related dysfunction. The present study examined the relationship between BPD features and self-conscious emotions in a sample of undergraduate students (n = 839)...
July 2016: Personality Disorders
Eivind Normann-Eide, Merete Selsbakk Johansen, Tone Normann-Eide, Jens Egeland, Theresa Wilberg
Personality disorders (PDs) are highly prevalent in patients receiving psychiatric services, and are associated with significant personal and social costs. Over the past two decades, an increasing number of treatment studies have documented the effectiveness of treatment for patients with PDs, especially when it comes to reduction of symptom distress, risk taking behavior, self-harm, or suicide attempts. However, less is known about the more complex aims of improving the personality structure itself, such as identity- and interpersonal disturbances...
2015: PloS One
Arielle R Baskin-Sommers, Jill M Hooley, Mary K Dahlgren, Atilla Gönenc, Deborah A Yurgelun-Todd, Staci A Gruber
BACKGROUND: Emotion dysregulation is central to the clinical conceptualization of borderline personality disorder (BPD), with individuals often displaying instability in mood and intense feelings of negative affect. Although existing data suggest important neural and behavioral differences in the emotion processing of individuals with BPD, studies thus far have only explored reactions to overt emotional information. Therefore, it is unclear if BPD-related emotional hypersensitivity extends to stimuli presented below the level of conscious awareness (preattentively)...
2015: Frontiers in Psychology
Kirsten Catthoor, Didier Schrijvers, Joost Hutsebaut, Dineke Feenstra, Bernard Sabbe
Stigmatization is a major burden in adult psychiatric patients with Axis-I diagnoses, as shown consistently in most studies. Significantly fewer studies on the emergence of psychiatric stigma in adult patients with personality disorders (PDs) exist, although the resulting evidence is conclusive. Some authors consider patients with PDs at risk for severe stigmatization because of intense difficulties during interpersonal contact, even in a psychotherapeutic relationship. The aim of this study was primarily the assessment of pre-existing stigma in patients referred for intensive treatment for PDs...
2015: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Kirsten Catthoor, Dine J Feenstra, Joost Hutsebaut, Didier Schrijvers, Bernard Sabbe
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study is to assess the severity of psychiatric stigma in a sample of personality disordered adolescents in order to evaluate whether differences in stigma can be found in adolescents with different types and severity of personality disorders (PDs). Not only adults but children and adolescents with mental health problems suffer from psychiatric stigma. In contrast to the abundance of research in adult psychiatric samples, stigma in children and adolescents has hardly been investigated...
2015: Adolescent Health, Medicine and Therapeutics
Paul Frewen, Nikolaus Kleindienst, Ruth Lanius, Christian Schmahl
BACKGROUND: A "4-D model" was recently described as a theoretical framework for categorizing trauma-related symptoms into four phenomenological dimensions (the experience of time, thought, body, and emotion) that can present either in the form of normal waking consciousness (NWC) or as dissociative experiences, that is, trauma-related altered states of consciousness (TRASC). METHODS: The present study examined the predictions of the 4-D model in 258 persons with borderline personality disorder (BPD) with (n=126) versus without (n=132) posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)...
2014: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Keyne C Law, Alexander L Chapman
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Recent studies have suggested that types of rumination differ on how they impact psychopathology. Few research studies, however, have compared the two types of rumination. The primary aim of this research was to examine the effects of anger rumination and depressive rumination on factors related to self-conscious experiences (shame, self-blame, self-forgiveness) and negative affect among individuals with varying levels of borderline personality disorder (BPD) features...
March 2015: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Panagiota Korenis, Stephen Bates Billick
In psychiatry, pregnancy introduces an element into the treatment setting that is complex and may require exploration. Often, in the psychotherapeutic relationship, the psychiatrist may use therapeutic techniques and provide no self disclosure to the patient by Tinsley (Am J Psychiatry 160(1): 27-31, 2003). The patient reveals all of their innermost thoughts. This can bring about curiosity for the patient about the clinician's life and result in asking personal questions which can at times be uncomfortable for the therapist, particularly for those still in training...
September 2014: Psychiatric Quarterly
Michelle Schoenleber, Kim L Gratz, Terri Messman-Moore, David DiLillo
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is associated with a proneness to unpleasant self-conscious emotions (SCE). Given that BPD is also associated with heightened rates of SCE-eliciting events (including unwanted sexual experiences), research examining the factors influencing SCE in response to these events is needed. This study examined associations between BPD pathology and SCE in response to adult unwanted sexual experiences among 303 community women. Extent of sharing about and perceived personal responsibility for the event were examined as moderators of the association between BPD and current event-related SCE...
December 2014: Journal of Personality Disorders
Ondrej Pec, Petr Bob, Jiri Raboch
BACKGROUND: Splitting describes fragmentation of conscious experience that may occur in various psychiatric disorders. A purpose of this study is to examine relationships between psychological process of splitting and disturbed cognitive and affective functions in schizophrenia and borderline personality disorder (BPD). METHODS: In the clinical study, we have assessed 30 patients with schizophrenia and 35 patients with BPD. The symptoms of splitting were measured using self-reported Splitting Index (SI)...
2014: PloS One
Stephanie N Mullins-Sweatt, Gregory J Lengel, Demond M Grant
Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a public health problem of increasing significance. The purpose of the present study was to determine if individuals with and without a history of NSSI would differ significantly on the domains and facets of the Five Factor Model (FFM) as well as the facets from the UPPS-P Impulsive Behaviour Scale. Self-report measures of personality, borderline personality disorder and NSSI were administered to an undergraduate sample (n = 211). Individuals who had engaged in NSSI had significantly elevated levels of FFM facets of neuroticism (i...
2013: Personality and Mental Health
Brad Bowins
Cognitive regulatory control processes play an essential but typically unappreciated role in maintaining mental health. The purpose of the current paper is to identify this role and demonstrate how cognitive-behavioral and related techniques can compensate for impairments. Impaired cognitive regulation contributes to the overly intense emotional states present in anxiety disorders, depression, and personality disorders; progression of adaptive hypomania to mania; expression of psychosis in the conscious and awake state; dominance of immature defense mechanisms in borderline and other personality disorders...
2013: American Journal of Psychotherapy
Merete Selsbakk Johansen, Eivind Normann-Eide, Tone Normann-Eide, Theresa Wilberg
Knowledge of emotional dysfunction in patients with avoidant personality disorder (APD) is much needed. The present study examined affect consciousness (AC) in patients with APD compared to borderline personality disorder (BPD). AC, defined as capacity to perceive, reflect on, tolerate, and express emotional experiences, is assumed to be central to structure-building in personality. The study tested the hypotheses that patients with APD have lower general AC and lower AC for pleasant affects compared to BPD...
December 2013: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Ueli Kramer, Cynthia Vaudroz, Ornella Ruggeri, Martin Drapeau
OBJECTIVES: Biased thinking (to some extent overlapping with the concepts of cognitive distortions and cognitive errors) is a key concept in cognitive therapy of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Specific contents and cognitive processes related to BPD functioning are known. However, most studies are based on self-report measures which present a number of important limitations, in particular the difficulty in assessing non-conscious processes infused by affect. So far, no studies were conducted using valid observer-rated methodology addressing the question of biased thinking in BPD as it unfolds spontaneously in session...
June 2013: Psychology and Psychotherapy
Deborah Spermon, Yvonne Darlington, Paul Gibney
In this article, we report on a phenomenological study of experiences of recovery of 7 women with histories of childhood maltreatment. We propose a model that recalls the Anglo-Franc etymological origins of rekeverer: to regain consciousness, health, or strength. Dimensions include development of a selfhood; tasks of connection and separation; regulation of overwhelming emotions; management of choices; and internalization of therapeutic relational dynamics. Based on the findings, we suggest that theory and research need to extend concepts of healing, add methodologies privileging victim/survivor voices, and revisit concepts such as neutrality and resistance as they apply to dissociative disorders...
January 2013: Qualitative Health Research
Eivind Normann-Eide, Merete Selsbakk Johansen, Tone Normann-Eide, Jens Egeland, Theresa Wilberg
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the relationships between affect consciousness (AC) and symptom distress, interpersonal problems, low self-esteem, and the number of PD traits in patients with avoidant personality disorder (APD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD). METHOD: Within the setting of a treatment trial, 52 patients with APD or BPD were examined with structured interviews and self-report questionnaires before treatment and at 3-year follow-up. The evaluations included the Affect Consciousness Interview, the SCID-II interview, the Symptom Checklist 90-R, the Circumplex of Interpersonal Problems, and the Index of Self-esteem...
February 2013: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Russell Meares
Experiential evidence suggests that the main features of spiritual experience are euphoria, and a feeling of the expansion and unification of consciousness. A way towards understanding this state and how it might arise comes from a consideration of a state in which these features are lacking. Such a state is borderline personality disorder, central to which is a "painful incoherence" that is not merely "psychological" but can be demonstrated neurophysiologically. The phenomena of the borderline syndrome can be understood as failure of proper maturation of the experience of "self," conceived as higher order consciousness in a notional hierarchy of consciousness...
June 2012: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
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