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Consciousness and borderline personality disorder

Yonas Raru, Fuad Zeid
Valproic acid (VPA) is widely used for the treatment of epilepsy, migraine, and a variety of psychiatric symptoms, including bipolar disorder, borderline personality disorder, and alcohol withdrawal. Valproate is associated with severe idiosyncratic adverse effects, the most notable being valproate-induced hyperammonemic encephalopathy (VHE). Topiramate is also a broad-spectrum anticonvulsant that is also extensively used for migraine prophylaxis, as a mood stabilizer, and for alcohol dependency. There is increased occurrence of VHE when valproate is used with other medications like phenytoin, phenobarbital, and topiramate...
2018: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
Deborah Wearne, Guy J Curtis, Amanda Genetti, Mathew Samuel, Justin Sebastian
OBJECTIVES: The possible link between cognitive areas of perception and integration of consciousness was examined using assessments of hallucinations and derealisation/depersonalization. METHODS: Sixty-five subjects in three main diagnostic groups - posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), borderline personality disorder (BPD) and schizophrenia - identified by their treating psychiatrist as hearing voices were surveyed regarding characteristics of hallucinations, derealisation/depersonalization, delusions and childhood/adult trauma...
August 2017: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
Dorina Winter, Martin Bohus, Stefanie Lis
Self-conscious emotions, such as guilt, shame, or self-disgust, as well as self-related motives, such as self-enhancement or self-verification, influence how people perceive, evaluate, memorize, and respond to self-related information. They not only influence peoples' concepts of themselves but may also affect their behavior in social environments. In the current review, we describe alterations of self-related processing in borderline personality disorder (BPD). We chose BPD as an example of a mental disorder of which impairments in self-functioning and identity constitute a major feature...
March 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
Vedat Şar
The nature of consciousness and the autonomy of the individual's mind have been a focus of interest throughout the past century and inspired many theories and models. Revival of studies on psychological trauma and dissociation, which remained outside mainstream psychiatry, psychology, and psychoanalysis for the most part of the past century, has provided a new opportunity to revisit this intellectual and scientific endeavor. This paper attempts to integrate a series of empirical and theoretical studies on psychological consequences of developmental traumatization, which may yield further insight into factors which threaten the integrity of human consciousness...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Annegret Krause-Utz, Rachel Frost, Dorina Winter, Bernet M Elzinga
Dissociation involves disruptions of usually integrated functions of consciousness, perception, memory, identity, and affect (e.g., depersonalization, derealization, numbing, amnesia, and analgesia). While the precise neurobiological underpinnings of dissociation remain elusive, neuroimaging studies in disorders, characterized by high dissociation (e.g., depersonalization/derealization disorder (DDD), dissociative identity disorder (DID), dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder (D-PTSD)), have provided valuable insight into brain alterations possibly underlying dissociation...
January 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
Gregory J McHugo, Sarah Krassenbaum, Sachiko Donley, John D Corrigan, Jennifer Bogner, Robert E Drake
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the rate and severity of traumatic brain injury (TBI) among people with co-occurring mental health and substance use disorders and to compare demographic, diagnostic, and institutionalization differences between those who screen positive or negative. SETTING: Outpatient community mental health center in Washington, District of Columbia. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 295 people with co-occurring mental health and substance use disorders enrolled in a prospective study of integrated treatment of substance abuse...
May 2017: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
Michelle Schoenleber, Christopher R Berghoff, Matthew T Tull, David DiLillo, Terri Messman-Moore, Kim L Gratz
Extant research on emotional lability in borderline personality disorder (BPD) has focused almost exclusively on lability of individual emotions or emotion types, with limited research considering how different types of emotions shift together over time. Thus, this study examined the temporal dynamics of emotion in BPD at the level of both individual emotions (i.e., self-conscious emotions [SCE], anger, and anxiety) and mixed emotions (i.e., synchrony between emotions). One hundred forty-four women from the community completed a diagnostic interview and laboratory study involving 5 emotion induction tasks (each of which was preceded and followed by a 5-min resting period or neutral task)...
July 2016: Personality Disorders
Jørgen Assar Mortensen, Hallvard Røe Evensmoen, Gunilla Klensmeden, Asta Kristine Håberg
Uncertainty is recognized as an important component in distress, which may elicit impulsive behavior in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). These patients are known to be both impulsive and distress intolerant. The present study explored the connection between outcome uncertainty and impulsivity in BPD. The prediction was that cue primes, which provide incomplete information of subsequent target stimuli, led BPD patients to overrate the predictive value of these cues in order to reduce distress related to outcome uncertainty...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Jessica R Peters, Paul J Geiger
Shame has emerged as a particularly relevant emotion to the maintenance and exacerbation of borderline personality disorder (BPD) features; however, little attention has been paid to the potentially differing effects of other forms of self-conscious affect. While guilt has been demonstrated to have adaptive functions in the social psychology literature, it has not been previously explored whether a lack of socially adaptive guilt might also contribute to BPD-related dysfunction. The present study examined the relationship between BPD features and self-conscious emotions in a sample of undergraduate students (n = 839)...
July 2016: Personality Disorders
Eivind Normann-Eide, Merete Selsbakk Johansen, Tone Normann-Eide, Jens Egeland, Theresa Wilberg
Personality disorders (PDs) are highly prevalent in patients receiving psychiatric services, and are associated with significant personal and social costs. Over the past two decades, an increasing number of treatment studies have documented the effectiveness of treatment for patients with PDs, especially when it comes to reduction of symptom distress, risk taking behavior, self-harm, or suicide attempts. However, less is known about the more complex aims of improving the personality structure itself, such as identity- and interpersonal disturbances...
2015: PloS One
Arielle R Baskin-Sommers, Jill M Hooley, Mary K Dahlgren, Atilla Gönenc, Deborah A Yurgelun-Todd, Staci A Gruber
BACKGROUND: Emotion dysregulation is central to the clinical conceptualization of borderline personality disorder (BPD), with individuals often displaying instability in mood and intense feelings of negative affect. Although existing data suggest important neural and behavioral differences in the emotion processing of individuals with BPD, studies thus far have only explored reactions to overt emotional information. Therefore, it is unclear if BPD-related emotional hypersensitivity extends to stimuli presented below the level of conscious awareness (preattentively)...
2015: Frontiers in Psychology
Kirsten Catthoor, Didier Schrijvers, Joost Hutsebaut, Dineke Feenstra, Bernard Sabbe
Stigmatization is a major burden in adult psychiatric patients with Axis-I diagnoses, as shown consistently in most studies. Significantly fewer studies on the emergence of psychiatric stigma in adult patients with personality disorders (PDs) exist, although the resulting evidence is conclusive. Some authors consider patients with PDs at risk for severe stigmatization because of intense difficulties during interpersonal contact, even in a psychotherapeutic relationship. The aim of this study was primarily the assessment of pre-existing stigma in patients referred for intensive treatment for PDs...
2015: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Kirsten Catthoor, Dine J Feenstra, Joost Hutsebaut, Didier Schrijvers, Bernard Sabbe
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study is to assess the severity of psychiatric stigma in a sample of personality disordered adolescents in order to evaluate whether differences in stigma can be found in adolescents with different types and severity of personality disorders (PDs). Not only adults but children and adolescents with mental health problems suffer from psychiatric stigma. In contrast to the abundance of research in adult psychiatric samples, stigma in children and adolescents has hardly been investigated...
2015: Adolescent Health, Medicine and Therapeutics
Paul Frewen, Nikolaus Kleindienst, Ruth Lanius, Christian Schmahl
BACKGROUND: A "4-D model" was recently described as a theoretical framework for categorizing trauma-related symptoms into four phenomenological dimensions (the experience of time, thought, body, and emotion) that can present either in the form of normal waking consciousness (NWC) or as dissociative experiences, that is, trauma-related altered states of consciousness (TRASC). METHODS: The present study examined the predictions of the 4-D model in 258 persons with borderline personality disorder (BPD) with (n=126) versus without (n=132) posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)...
2014: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Keyne C Law, Alexander L Chapman
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Recent studies have suggested that types of rumination differ on how they impact psychopathology. Few research studies, however, have compared the two types of rumination. The primary aim of this research was to examine the effects of anger rumination and depressive rumination on factors related to self-conscious experiences (shame, self-blame, self-forgiveness) and negative affect among individuals with varying levels of borderline personality disorder (BPD) features...
March 2015: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Panagiota Korenis, Stephen Bates Billick
In psychiatry, pregnancy introduces an element into the treatment setting that is complex and may require exploration. Often, in the psychotherapeutic relationship, the psychiatrist may use therapeutic techniques and provide no self disclosure to the patient by Tinsley (Am J Psychiatry 160(1): 27-31, 2003). The patient reveals all of their innermost thoughts. This can bring about curiosity for the patient about the clinician's life and result in asking personal questions which can at times be uncomfortable for the therapist, particularly for those still in training...
September 2014: Psychiatric Quarterly
Michelle Schoenleber, Kim L Gratz, Terri Messman-Moore, David DiLillo
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is associated with a proneness to unpleasant self-conscious emotions (SCE). Given that BPD is also associated with heightened rates of SCE-eliciting events (including unwanted sexual experiences), research examining the factors influencing SCE in response to these events is needed. This study examined associations between BPD pathology and SCE in response to adult unwanted sexual experiences among 303 community women. Extent of sharing about and perceived personal responsibility for the event were examined as moderators of the association between BPD and current event-related SCE...
December 2014: Journal of Personality Disorders
Ondrej Pec, Petr Bob, Jiri Raboch
BACKGROUND: Splitting describes fragmentation of conscious experience that may occur in various psychiatric disorders. A purpose of this study is to examine relationships between psychological process of splitting and disturbed cognitive and affective functions in schizophrenia and borderline personality disorder (BPD). METHODS: In the clinical study, we have assessed 30 patients with schizophrenia and 35 patients with BPD. The symptoms of splitting were measured using self-reported Splitting Index (SI)...
2014: PloS One
Stephanie N Mullins-Sweatt, Gregory J Lengel, Demond M Grant
Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a public health problem of increasing significance. The purpose of the present study was to determine if individuals with and without a history of NSSI would differ significantly on the domains and facets of the Five Factor Model (FFM) as well as the facets from the UPPS-P Impulsive Behaviour Scale. Self-report measures of personality, borderline personality disorder and NSSI were administered to an undergraduate sample (n = 211). Individuals who had engaged in NSSI had significantly elevated levels of FFM facets of neuroticism (i...
2013: Personality and Mental Health
Brad Bowins
Cognitive regulatory control processes play an essential but typically unappreciated role in maintaining mental health. The purpose of the current paper is to identify this role and demonstrate how cognitive-behavioral and related techniques can compensate for impairments. Impaired cognitive regulation contributes to the overly intense emotional states present in anxiety disorders, depression, and personality disorders; progression of adaptive hypomania to mania; expression of psychosis in the conscious and awake state; dominance of immature defense mechanisms in borderline and other personality disorders...
2013: American Journal of Psychotherapy
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