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Disgust reactivity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089874/mistakes-too-few-to-mention-impaired-self-conscious-emotional-processing-of-errors-in-the-behavioral-variant-of-frontotemporal-dementia
#1
Carole S Scherling, Jessica Zakrzewski, Samir Datta, Robert W Levenson, Arthur P Shimamura, Virginia E Sturm, Bruce L Miller, Howard J Rosen
Anosognosia, or lack of awareness of one's deficits, is a core feature of the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). We hypothesized that this deficit has its origins in failed emotional processing of errors. We studied autonomic and facial emotional reactivity to errors in patients with bvFTD (n = 17), Alzheimer's disease (AD, n = 20), and healthy controls (HC, n = 35) during performance of a timed two-alternative-choice button press task. Performance-related behavioral responses to errors were quantified using rates of error correction and post-error slowing of reaction times...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065198/disgust-but-not-health-anxiety-graphic-warning-labels-reduce-motivated-attention-in-smokers-a-study-of-p300-and-late-positive-potential-responses
#2
Justinn R Cochran, Robert R Kydd, John M J Lee, Natalie Walker, Nathan S Consedine
Background: Graphic health warning labels (GHWLs) on tobacco products attempt to leverage avoidance-promoting emotions, such as anxiety and disgust, to encourage cessation. Prior studies have relied on self-report or attentional metrics that may not accurately illuminate GHWLs' ability to motivate change. This report evaluates the impact of disgust- and anxiety-based GHWLs on electroencephalograph (EEG) measures of motivated attention among two groups of smokers-those that report higher versus lower cigarette dependence...
July 7, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992398/impact-of-social-cognition-on-alcohol-dependence-treatment-outcome-poorer-facial-emotion-recognition-predicts-relapse-dropout
#3
Claudia I Rupp, Birgit Derntl, Friederike Osthaus, Georg Kemmler, W Wolfgang Fleischhacker
BACKGROUND: Despite growing evidence for neurobehavioral deficits in social cognition in alcohol use disorder (AUD), the clinical relevance remains unclear, and little is known about its impact on treatment outcome. This study prospectively investigated the impact of neurocognitive social abilities at treatment onset and on treatment completion. METHODS: Fifty-nine alcohol-dependent patients were assessed with measures of social cognition including three core components of empathy via paradigms measuring: 1) emotion recognition (the ability to recognize emotions via facial expression), 2) emotional perspective taking, and 3) affective responsiveness at the beginning of inpatient treatment for alcohol dependence...
October 9, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947180/oxytocin-selectively-modulates-brain-processing-of-disgust-in-huntington-s-disease-gene-carriers
#4
Izelle Labuschagne, Govinda Poudel, Catarina Kordsachia, Qizhu Wu, Hannah Thomson, Nellie Georgiou-Karistianis, Julie C Stout
People with Huntington's disease (HD) exhibit altered processing of emotional information, especially disgust and other negative emotions. These impairments are likely due to the effects of the disease on underlying brain networks. We examined whether oxytocin, when given intranasally, would normalise aberrant brain reactivity to emotional faces in participants with the gene-expansion for HD. In a double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over design, we measured brain activity, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, whilst nine medication-free HD carriers, and ten control participants viewed emotional (disgust, fear, angry, sad, surprise, happy) and neutral faces, following acute intranasal oxytocin (24IU) and placebo...
September 23, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866131/increased-emotional-reactivity-to-affective-pictures-in-patients-with-skin-picking-disorder-evidence-from-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#5
Albert Wabnegger, Sonja Übel, Gerald Suchar, Anne Schienle
The predominant symptom of skin-picking disorder (SPD) is the recurrent picking of one's own skin, leading to tissue damage and discomfort. Psychological disorder models suggest an enhanced emotional reactivity in patients with SPD, which contributes to the maintenance of symptoms. This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment analyzed both subjective and neuronal responses to affective pictures (categories: fear, disgust, happiness, neutral) in 19 women with SPD and 16 healthy controls. Also, affective traits (disgust, anxiety, depression) were assessed...
January 15, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290062/understanding-negative-self-evaluations-in-borderline-personality-disorder-a-review-of-self-related-cognitions-emotions-and-motives
#6
REVIEW
Dorina Winter, Martin Bohus, Stefanie Lis
Self-conscious emotions, such as guilt, shame, or self-disgust, as well as self-related motives, such as self-enhancement or self-verification, influence how people perceive, evaluate, memorize, and respond to self-related information. They not only influence peoples' concepts of themselves but may also affect their behavior in social environments. In the current review, we describe alterations of self-related processing in borderline personality disorder (BPD). We chose BPD as an example of a mental disorder of which impairments in self-functioning and identity constitute a major feature...
March 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258396/emotional-facial-recognition-in-proactive-and-reactive-violent-offenders
#7
Florence Philipp-Wiegmann, Michael Rösler, Petra Retz-Junginger, Wolfgang Retz
The purpose of this study is to analyse individual differences in the ability of emotional facial recognition in violent offenders, who were characterised as either reactive or proactive in relation to their offending. In accordance with findings of our previous study, we expected higher impairments in facial recognition in reactive than proactive violent offenders. To assess the ability to recognize facial expressions, the computer-based Facial Emotional Expression Labeling Test (FEEL) was performed. Group allocation of reactive und proactive violent offenders and assessment of psychopathic traits were performed by an independent forensic expert using rating scales (PROREA, PCL-SV)...
March 3, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218794/escaping-aversive-exposure
#8
Christopher T Sege, Margaret M Bradley, Peter J Lang
This research examined human defensive reactivity when exposure to an aversive event could be escaped but not entirely avoided. Prolonged visual cues indicated whether exposure to an upcoming aversive (i.e., disgusting) picture could be terminated after onset (escaped) or not, or that a neutral go signal would appear. Acoustically elicited startle reflexes were measured during each cue interval, as were cardiac and skin conductance activity. Early in the cuing interval, startle reflexes were potentiated during both escape and inescapable exposure trials, compared to the simple motor context...
June 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208068/altered-olfactory-processing-and-increased-insula-activity-in-patients-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-an-fmri-study
#9
Heather A Berlin, Emily R Stern, Johnny Ng, Sam Zhang, David Rosenthal, Rachel Turetzky, Cheuk Tang, Wayne Goodman
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients show increased insula activation to disgust-inducing images compared to healthy controls (HC). We explored whether this disgust reactivity was also present in the olfactory domain by conducting the first fMRI study of olfaction in OCD. Neural activation in response to pleasant and unpleasant odors (vs. unscented air) was investigated in 15 OCD and 15 HC participants using fMRI. OCD participants (vs. HC) had increased left anterior insula activation to unpleasant odors (vs...
April 30, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126678/self-disgust-as-a-potential-mechanism-underlying-the-association-between-ptsd-and-suicide-risk
#10
C Alex Brake, Sasha M Rojas, Christal L Badour, Courtney E Dutton, Matthew T Feldner
Suicide risk is highly prevalent among individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Self-disgust, defined as disgust directed internally and comprised of disgust with oneself (disgusting self) and with one's behaviors (disgusting ways), may impact this increased risk. The present study examined self-disgust as a putative mechanism linking PTSD symptoms with suicide risk. A sample of 347 trauma-exposed undergraduates completed measures of PTSD symptoms, suicide risk, self-disgust, and depressive symptoms...
April 2017: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114335/human-empathy-personality-and-experience-affect-the-emotion-ratings-of-dog-and-human-facial-expressions
#11
Miiamaaria V Kujala, Sanni Somppi, Markus Jokela, Outi Vainio, Lauri Parkkonen
Facial expressions are important for humans in communicating emotions to the conspecifics and enhancing interpersonal understanding. Many muscles producing facial expressions in humans are also found in domestic dogs, but little is known about how humans perceive dog facial expressions, and which psychological factors influence people's perceptions. Here, we asked 34 observers to rate the valence, arousal, and the six basic emotions (happiness, sadness, surprise, disgust, fear, and anger/aggressiveness) from images of human and dog faces with Pleasant, Neutral and Threatening expressions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080089/what-you-like-is-what-you-try-to-get-attitudes-toward-emotions-and-situation-selection
#12
Noam Markovitch, Liat Netzer, Maya Tamir
Why do people expose themselves to certain emotional stimuli and avoid others? We propose that what people want to feel is linked to attitudes toward emotions. In 3 studies, we show that individuals with more (vs. less) negative attitudes toward an emotion were more (vs. less) likely to avoid stimuli that induce that emotion. People who evaluated disgust (or joy) less favorably than others were less likely to expose themselves to disgusting (or joyful) pictures (Study 1). These links were emotion-specific and could not be explained by differences in state or trait emotion (Study 2) or in emotional reactivity (Study 3)...
January 12, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994562/the-tomenovela-a-photograph-based-stimulus-set-for-the-study-of-social-cognition-with-high-ecological-validity
#13
Maike C Herbort, Jenny Iseev, Christopher Stolz, Benedict Roeser, Nora Großkopf, Torsten Wüstenberg, Rainer Hellweg, Henrik Walter, Isabel Dziobek, Björn H Schott
We present the ToMenovela, a stimulus set that has been developed to provide a set of normatively rated socio-emotional stimuli showing varying amount of characters in emotionally laden interactions for experimental investigations of (i) cognitive and (ii) affective Theory of Mind (ToM), (iii) emotional reactivity, and (iv) complex emotion judgment with respect to Ekman's basic emotions (happiness, anger, disgust, fear, sadness, surprise, Ekman and Friesen, 1975). Stimuli were generated with focus on ecological validity and consist of 190 scenes depicting daily-life situations...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27652025/trypophobia-is-predicted-by-disgust-sensitivity-empathic-traits-and-visual-discomfort
#14
Shu Imaizumi, Manami Furuno, Haruo Hibino, Shinichi Koyama
Trypophobia refers to disgust for a cluster of objects, and is considered an extension of disgust for dangerous objects. Furthermore, trypophobic images possess certain spatial properties that can induce perceptually unpleasant states (i.e., visual discomfort). We examined whether trypophobia is associated with disgust sensitivity, empathic traits, and visual discomfort. Japanese adults (n = 126) completed four scales: the Trypophobia Questionnaire, which measures trypophobia proneness; the Disgust Scale-Revised, which measures disgust sensitivity; the Interpersonal Reactivity Index, which measures empathic traits; and the Visual Discomfort Scale, which measures proneness to visual discomfort...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27518897/the-perception-of-aversiveness-of-surgical-procedure-pictures-is-modulated-by-personal-occupational-relevance
#15
Juliana Paes, Leticia de Oliveira, Mirtes Garcia Pereira, Isabel David, Gabriela Guerra Leal Souza, Ana Paula Sobral, Walter Machado-Pinheiro, Izabela Mocaiber
It is well established that emotions are organized around two motivational systems: the defensive and the appetitive. Individual differences are relevant factors in emotional reactions, making them more flexible and less stereotyped. There is evidence that health professionals have lower emotional reactivity when viewing scenes of situations involving pain. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the rating of pictures of surgical procedure depends on their personal/occupational relevance. Fifty-two female Nursing (health discipline) and forty-eight Social Work (social science discipline) students participated in the experiment, which consisted of the presentation of 105 images of different categories (e...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27491591/functional-brain-networks-underlying-latent-inhibition-of-conditioned-disgust-in-rats
#16
Patricia Gasalla, Azucena Begega, Alberto Soto, Dominic Michael Dwyer, Matías López
The present experiment examined the neuronal networks involved in the latent inhibition of conditioned disgust by measuring brain oxidative metabolism. Rats were given nonreinforced intraoral (IO) exposure to saccharin (exposed groups) or water (non-exposed groups) followed by a conditioning trial in which the animals received an infusion of saccharin paired (or unpaired) with LiCl. On testing, taste reactivity responses displayed by the rats during the infusion of the saccharin were examined. Behavioral data showed that preexposure to saccharin attenuated the development of LiCl-induced conditioned disgust reactions, indicating that the effects of taste aversion on hedonic taste reactivity had been reduced...
December 15, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27157031/social-anxiety-linked-attention-bias-to-threat-is-indirectly-related-to-post-event-processing-via-subjective-emotional-reactivity-to-social-stress
#17
Demet Çek, Alvaro Sánchez, Kiara R Timpano
Attention bias to threat (e.g., disgust faces) is a cognitive vulnerability factor for social anxiety occurring in early stages of information processing. Few studies have investigated the relationship between social anxiety and attention biases, in conjunction with emotional and cognitive responses to a social stressor. Elucidating these links would shed light on maintenance factors of social anxiety and could help identify malleable treatment targets. This study examined the associations between social anxiety level, attention bias to disgust (AB-disgust), subjective emotional and physiological reactivity to a social stressor, and subsequent post-event processing (PEP)...
May 2016: Behavior Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27148847/insular-atrophy-and-diminished-disgust-reactivity
#18
Alice Verstaen, Janet A Eckart, Luma Muhtadie, Marcela C Otero, Virginia E Sturm, Claudia M Haase, Bruce L Miller, Robert W Levenson
Disgust is an emotion that helps us deal with potential contamination (Rozin & Fallon, 1987). It produces a distinctive facial expression (e.g., wrinkled nose) and a physiological response that is accompanied by strong visceral sensations (e.g., nausea). Given the important role that the anterior insula plays in processing and integrating visceral information (Craig, 2009), it is likely to be centrally involved in disgust. Despite this, few studies have examined the link between insular degeneration and the experience, physiology, and expression of disgust...
September 2016: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27138206/olfactory-modulation-of-affective-touch-processing-a-neurophysiological-investigation
#19
Ilona Croy, Edda Drechsler, Paul Hamilton, Thomas Hummel, Håkan Olausson
Touch can be highly emotional, and depending on the environment, it can be perceived as pleasant and comforting or disgusting and dangerous. Here, we studied the impact of context on the processing of tactile stimuli using a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigm. This was achieved by embedding tactile stimulation in a variable olfactory environment. Twenty people were scanned with BOLD fMRI while receiving the following stimulus blocks: Slow stroking Touch, Civette odor (feces like), Rose odor, Touch+Civette, and Touch+Rose...
July 15, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26821063/decreased-sleep-duration-is-associated-with-increased-fmri-responses-to-emotional-faces-in-children
#20
Brooke L Reidy, Stephan Hamann, Cory Inman, Katrina C Johnson, Patricia A Brennan
In adults and children, sleep loss is associated with affective dysregulation and increased responsivity to negative stimuli. Adult functional neuroimaging (fMRI) studies have demonstrated associations between restricted sleep and neural alterations in the amygdala and reward circuitry when viewing emotional picture and face stimuli. Despite this, few studies have examined the associations between short sleep duration and emotional responsivity in typically developing children, and no studies have investigated this relationship using fMRI...
April 2016: Neuropsychologia
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