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Disgust reactivity

Dorina Winter, Martin Bohus, Stefanie Lis
Self-conscious emotions, such as guilt, shame, or self-disgust, as well as self-related motives, such as self-enhancement or self-verification, influence how people perceive, evaluate, memorize, and respond to self-related information. They not only influence peoples' concepts of themselves but may also affect their behavior in social environments. In the current review, we describe alterations of self-related processing in borderline personality disorder (BPD). We chose BPD as an example of a mental disorder of which impairments in self-functioning and identity constitute a major feature...
March 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
Florence Philipp-Wiegmann, Michael Rösler, Petra Retz-Junginger, Wolfgang Retz
The purpose of this study is to analyse individual differences in the ability of emotional facial recognition in violent offenders, who were characterised as either reactive or proactive in relation to their offending. In accordance with findings of our previous study, we expected higher impairments in facial recognition in reactive than proactive violent offenders. To assess the ability to recognize facial expressions, the computer-based Facial Emotional Expression Labeling Test (FEEL) was performed. Group allocation of reactive und proactive violent offenders and assessment of psychopathic traits were performed by an independent forensic expert using rating scales (PROREA, PCL-SV)...
March 3, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Christopher T Sege, Margaret M Bradley, Peter J Lang
This research examined human defensive reactivity when exposure to an aversive event could be escaped but not entirely avoided. Prolonged visual cues indicated whether exposure to an upcoming aversive (i.e., disgusting) picture could be terminated after onset (escaped) or not, or that a neutral go signal would appear. Acoustically elicited startle reflexes were measured during each cue interval, as were cardiac and skin conductance activity. Early in the cuing interval, startle reflexes were potentiated during both escape and inescapable exposure trials, compared to the simple motor context...
February 20, 2017: Psychophysiology
Heather A Berlin, Emily R Stern, Johnny Ng, Sam Zhang, David Rosenthal, Rachel Turetzky, Cheuk Tang, Wayne Goodman
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients show increased insula activation to disgust-inducing images compared to healthy controls (HC). We explored whether this disgust reactivity was also present in the olfactory domain by conducting the first fMRI study of olfaction in OCD. Neural activation in response to pleasant and unpleasant odors (vs. unscented air) was investigated in 15 OCD and 15 HC participants using fMRI. OCD participants (vs. HC) had increased left anterior insula activation to unpleasant odors (vs...
April 30, 2017: Psychiatry Research
C Alex Brake, Sasha M Rojas, Christal L Badour, Courtney E Dutton, Matthew T Feldner
Suicide risk is highly prevalent among individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Self-disgust, defined as disgust directed internally and comprised of disgust with oneself (disgusting self) and with one's behaviors (disgusting ways), may impact this increased risk. The present study examined self-disgust as a putative mechanism linking PTSD symptoms with suicide risk. A sample of 347 trauma-exposed undergraduates completed measures of PTSD symptoms, suicide risk, self-disgust, and depressive symptoms...
January 8, 2017: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Miiamaaria V Kujala, Sanni Somppi, Markus Jokela, Outi Vainio, Lauri Parkkonen
Facial expressions are important for humans in communicating emotions to the conspecifics and enhancing interpersonal understanding. Many muscles producing facial expressions in humans are also found in domestic dogs, but little is known about how humans perceive dog facial expressions, and which psychological factors influence people's perceptions. Here, we asked 34 observers to rate the valence, arousal, and the six basic emotions (happiness, sadness, surprise, disgust, fear, and anger/aggressiveness) from images of human and dog faces with Pleasant, Neutral and Threatening expressions...
2017: PloS One
Noam Markovitch, Liat Netzer, Maya Tamir
Why do people expose themselves to certain emotional stimuli and avoid others? We propose that what people want to feel is linked to attitudes toward emotions. In 3 studies, we show that individuals with more (vs. less) negative attitudes toward an emotion were more (vs. less) likely to avoid stimuli that induce that emotion. People who evaluated disgust (or joy) less favorably than others were less likely to expose themselves to disgusting (or joyful) pictures (Study 1). These links were emotion-specific and could not be explained by differences in state or trait emotion (Study 2) or in emotional reactivity (Study 3)...
January 12, 2017: Emotion
Maike C Herbort, Jenny Iseev, Christopher Stolz, Benedict Roeser, Nora Großkopf, Torsten Wüstenberg, Rainer Hellweg, Henrik Walter, Isabel Dziobek, Björn H Schott
We present the ToMenovela, a stimulus set that has been developed to provide a set of normatively rated socio-emotional stimuli showing varying amount of characters in emotionally laden interactions for experimental investigations of (i) cognitive and (ii) affective Theory of Mind (ToM), (iii) emotional reactivity, and (iv) complex emotion judgment with respect to Ekman's basic emotions (happiness, anger, disgust, fear, sadness, surprise, Ekman and Friesen, 1975). Stimuli were generated with focus on ecological validity and consist of 190 scenes depicting daily-life situations...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Shu Imaizumi, Manami Furuno, Haruo Hibino, Shinichi Koyama
Trypophobia refers to disgust for a cluster of objects, and is considered an extension of disgust for dangerous objects. Furthermore, trypophobic images possess certain spatial properties that can induce perceptually unpleasant states (i.e., visual discomfort). We examined whether trypophobia is associated with disgust sensitivity, empathic traits, and visual discomfort. Japanese adults (n = 126) completed four scales: the Trypophobia Questionnaire, which measures trypophobia proneness; the Disgust Scale-Revised, which measures disgust sensitivity; the Interpersonal Reactivity Index, which measures empathic traits; and the Visual Discomfort Scale, which measures proneness to visual discomfort...
2016: SpringerPlus
Juliana Paes, Leticia de Oliveira, Mirtes Garcia Pereira, Isabel David, Gabriela Guerra Leal Souza, Ana Paula Sobral, Walter Machado-Pinheiro, Izabela Mocaiber
It is well established that emotions are organized around two motivational systems: the defensive and the appetitive. Individual differences are relevant factors in emotional reactions, making them more flexible and less stereotyped. There is evidence that health professionals have lower emotional reactivity when viewing scenes of situations involving pain. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the rating of pictures of surgical procedure depends on their personal/occupational relevance. Fifty-two female Nursing (health discipline) and forty-eight Social Work (social science discipline) students participated in the experiment, which consisted of the presentation of 105 images of different categories (e...
2016: PloS One
Patricia Gasalla, Azucena Begega, Alberto Soto, Dominic Michael Dwyer, Matías López
The present experiment examined the neuronal networks involved in the latent inhibition of conditioned disgust by measuring brain oxidative metabolism. Rats were given nonreinforced intraoral (IO) exposure to saccharin (exposed groups) or water (non-exposed groups) followed by a conditioning trial in which the animals received an infusion of saccharin paired (or unpaired) with LiCl. On testing, taste reactivity responses displayed by the rats during the infusion of the saccharin were examined. Behavioral data showed that preexposure to saccharin attenuated the development of LiCl-induced conditioned disgust reactions, indicating that the effects of taste aversion on hedonic taste reactivity had been reduced...
December 15, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Demet Çek, Alvaro Sánchez, Kiara R Timpano
Attention bias to threat (e.g., disgust faces) is a cognitive vulnerability factor for social anxiety occurring in early stages of information processing. Few studies have investigated the relationship between social anxiety and attention biases, in conjunction with emotional and cognitive responses to a social stressor. Elucidating these links would shed light on maintenance factors of social anxiety and could help identify malleable treatment targets. This study examined the associations between social anxiety level, attention bias to disgust (AB-disgust), subjective emotional and physiological reactivity to a social stressor, and subsequent post-event processing (PEP)...
May 2016: Behavior Therapy
Alice Verstaen, Janet A Eckart, Luma Muhtadie, Marcela C Otero, Virginia E Sturm, Claudia M Haase, Bruce L Miller, Robert W Levenson
Disgust is an emotion that helps us deal with potential contamination (Rozin & Fallon, 1987). It produces a distinctive facial expression (e.g., wrinkled nose) and a physiological response that is accompanied by strong visceral sensations (e.g., nausea). Given the important role that the anterior insula plays in processing and integrating visceral information (Craig, 2009), it is likely to be centrally involved in disgust. Despite this, few studies have examined the link between insular degeneration and the experience, physiology, and expression of disgust...
September 2016: Emotion
Ilona Croy, Edda Drechsler, Paul Hamilton, Thomas Hummel, Håkan Olausson
Touch can be highly emotional, and depending on the environment, it can be perceived as pleasant and comforting or disgusting and dangerous. Here, we studied the impact of context on the processing of tactile stimuli using a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigm. This was achieved by embedding tactile stimulation in a variable olfactory environment. Twenty people were scanned with BOLD fMRI while receiving the following stimulus blocks: Slow stroking Touch, Civette odor (feces like), Rose odor, Touch+Civette, and Touch+Rose...
July 15, 2016: NeuroImage
Brooke L Reidy, Stephan Hamann, Cory Inman, Katrina C Johnson, Patricia A Brennan
In adults and children, sleep loss is associated with affective dysregulation and increased responsivity to negative stimuli. Adult functional neuroimaging (fMRI) studies have demonstrated associations between restricted sleep and neural alterations in the amygdala and reward circuitry when viewing emotional picture and face stimuli. Despite this, few studies have examined the associations between short sleep duration and emotional responsivity in typically developing children, and no studies have investigated this relationship using fMRI...
April 2016: Neuropsychologia
José A Soto, Elizabeth A Lee, Nicole A Roberts
Much empirical work documents the downsides of suppressing emotions. Emerging research points to the need for a more sophisticated and culturally informed approach to understanding the consequences of emotion regulation. To that end, we employed behavioral, self-report, and psychophysiological measures to examine the consequences of two types of emotion regulation (suppression and amplification) in a sample of 28 Asian Americans and 31 European Americans. Participants were shown a neutral film and then a series of disgust-eliciting films during which they were asked to regulate their response by suppressing or amplifying their emotional behavior (counterbalanced)...
January 2016: Psychophysiology
Anne Schienle, Rottraut Ille, Albert Wabnegger
OBJECTIVE: Amygdala abnormalities have been discussed as a possible mechanism underlying reduced reactivity to negative stimuli in Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: The present investigation used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in order to test this hypothesis. We compared brain activation of 17 nondepressed and nondemented PD patients with 22 healthy controls during the elicitation of negative affective states. The patients suffered from moderate motor symptoms for an average of 75 months and had stopped their antiparkinson medication 10-12h prior to the fMRI testing...
November 16, 2015: Neuroscience Letters
Korhan Buyukturkoglu, Hans Roettgers, Jens Sommer, Mohit Rana, Leonie Dietzsch, Ezgi Belkis Arikan, Ralf Veit, Rahim Malekshahi, Tilo Kircher, Niels Birbaumer, Ranganatha Sitaram, Sergio Ruiz
INTRODUCTION: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common and chronic condition that can have disabling effects throughout the patient's lifespan. Frequent symptoms among OCD patients include fear of contamination and washing compulsions. Several studies have shown a link between contamination fears, disgust over-reactivity, and insula activation in OCD. In concordance with the role of insula in disgust processing, new neural models based on neuroimaging studies suggest that abnormally high activations of insula could be implicated in OCD psychopathology, at least in the subgroup of patients with contamination fears and washing compulsions...
2015: PloS One
Amelia Aldao, Katherine L Dixon-Gordon, Andres De Los Reyes
People often regulate their emotions by resorting to avoidance, a putatively maladaptive strategy. Prior work suggests that increased psychopathology symptoms predict greater spontaneous utilisation of this strategy. Extending this work, we examined whether heightened resting cardiac vagal tone (which reflects a general ability to regulate emotions in line with contextual demands) predicts decreased spontaneous avoidance. In Study 1, greater resting vagal tone was associated with reduced spontaneous avoidance in response to disgust-eliciting pictures, beyond anxiety and depression symptoms and emotional reactivity...
August 2016: Cognition & Emotion
Sylvia D Kreibig, Andrea C Samson, James J Gross
The replicability of emotion-related physiological changes constitutes a fundamental issue in affective science. We undertook a direct replication of the physiological differentiation of amusement, disgust, and a mixed emotional state as previously reported (Kreibig, Samson, & Gross, 2013). In the current study, 48 women watched 54 amusing, disgusting, and mixed emotional film clips while cardiovascular, electrodermal, and respiratory measures were obtained. Primary analyses indicated physiological differentiation of the mixed emotional state from amusement and disgust...
July 2015: Psychophysiology
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