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Posttranscriptional modification

Lianghua Bin, Donald Y M Leung
BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by the complex interaction of genetic, immune and environmental factors. There have many recent discoveries involving the genetic and epigenetic studies of AD. METHODS: A retrospective PubMed search was carried out from June 2009 to June 2016 using the terms "atopic dermatitis", "association", "eczema", "gene", "polymorphism", "mutation", "variant", "genome wide association study", "microarray" "gene profiling", "RNA sequencing", "epigenetics" and "microRNA"...
2016: Allergy, Asthma, and Clinical Immunology
Erika Varkonyi-Gasic
Plant microRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in the posttranscriptional regulation of protein-coding genes, and they are essential for a normal development and survival. Mature miRNAs are cleaved from larger precursor RNAs and are typically 21-22 nt long.The small size, the lack of a common feature like a poly(A) tail, 3' end-modifications, and presence of a precursor-all these factors affect the detection and hinder the quantification of miRNAs. The stem-loop qRT-PCR method described here is designed to detect and quantify mature miRNAs in a fast, specific, accurate, and reliable manner...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Toshio Tanaka, Masashi Narazaki, Kazuya Masuda, Tadamitsu Kishimoto
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a prototypical cytokine with functional pleiotropy and plays an important role in host defense. When infections or tissue injuries occur, IL-6 is promptly produced by monocytes and macrophages and contributes to removal of infectious agents and restoration of damaged tissues through activation of immune, hematological, and acute-phase responses. Once stress is removed from the host, IL-6 synthesis ends, but uncontrolled excessive or persistent IL-6 production plays a pathological role in the development of various inflammatory diseases and cancers, indicating that IL-6 is a double-edged sword for the host...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
L S Resende, C E Amaral, R B S Soares, A S Alves, L Alves-Dos-Santos, L R G Britto, S Chiavegatto
MAX is a conserved constitutive small phosphoprotein from a network of transcription factors that are extensively studied in tumorigenesis and whose functions affect cell proliferation, differentiation and death. Inspired by its higher expression during development and in regions involved in emotional behaviors, we hypothesized its involvement in cerebral changes caused by early-life stress. We studied the effects of repeated social stress during adolescence on behaviors and on MAX and its putative partner MYC...
October 11, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
Zhaoxia Li, Xinrui Zhang, Xiuxia Liu, Yajie Zhao, Baomei Wang, Juren Zhang
Maize is a globally important crop, and a low phosphate (LP) supply frequently limits maize yields in many areas. microRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in plant development and environmental adaptation. In this study, spatio-temporal miRNA transcript profiling and some of the target genes in the roots and leaves of the maize inbred line Q319 were analyzed in response to LP. Complex small RNA populations were detected after LP culture, and they displayed different patterns in the roots and leaves. Differentially expressed miRNAs can be grouped into 'early' miRNAs, which respond rapidly and are often non-specific to phosphate deficiency, and 'late' miRNAs, which alter the morphology, physiology or metabolism of plants upon prolonged phosphate deficiency...
November 2016: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Izabela Papiewska-Pająk, Maria A Kowalska, Joanna Boncela
Inhibition of E-cadherin gene expression by transcription factor SNAIL is known to be a crucial element of Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition; EMT. Epigenetic regulation of E-cadherin expression is regulated by SNAIL binding to E-box sequences in the CDH1 gene promoter and recruiting enzymes belonging to repressor complexes that are directly engaged in histone modifications and DNA methylation leading to the modification of chromatin structure. SNAIL involvement in cell acquisition of invasive phenotype is based on direct suppression of tight-junction and gap junction proteins...
2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
Xiangjun Li, Chaoyuan Li, Xiaoxia Li, Peihe Cui, Qifeng Li, Qiaoyan Guo, Hongbo Han, Shujun Liu, Guangdong Sun
Diabetic nephropathy (DN), a common complication associated with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), characterized by glomerular mesangial expansion, inflammation, accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) protein, and hypertrophy, is the major cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Increasing evidence suggested that p21-dependent glomerular and mesangial cell (MC) hypertrophy play key roles in the pathogenesis of DN. Recently, posttranscriptional modifications (PTMs) have uncovered novel molecular mechanisms involved in DN...
2016: Journal of Diabetes Research
Litao Sun, Ana Cristina Gomes, Weiwei He, Huihao Zhou, Xiaoyun Wang, David W Pan, Paul Schimmel, Tao Pan, Xiang-Lei Yang
Fidelity of translation, which is predominately dictated by the accuracy of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases in pairing amino acids with correct tRNAs, is of central importance in biology. Yet, deliberate modifications of translational fidelity can be beneficial. Here we found human and not E. coli AlaRS has an intrinsic capacity for mispairing alanine onto nonalanyl-tRNAs including tRNA(Cys). Consistently, a cysteine-to-alanine substitution was found in a reporter protein expressed in human cells. All human AlaRS-mischarged tRNAs have a G4:U69 base pair in the acceptor stem...
October 5, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Sippy Kaur, Johanna E Lotsari-Salomaa, Riitta Seppänen-Kaijansinkko, Päivi Peltomäki
Epigenetic alterations such as DNA methylation, histone modifications and non-coding RNA (including microRNA) associated gene silencing have been identified as a major characteristic in human cancers. These alterations may occur more frequently than genetic mutations and play a key role in silencing tumor suppressor genes or activating oncogenes, thereby affecting multiple cellular processes. In recent years, studies have shown that microRNAs, that act as posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression are frequently deregulated in colorectal cancer (CRC), via aberrant DNA methylation...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Klara Piletič, Tanja Kunej
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs that act as important regulators of gene expression as part of the epigenetic machinery. In addition to posttranscriptional gene silencing by miRNAs, the epigenetic mechanisms also include DNA methylation, histone modifications and their crosstalk. Epigenetic modifications were reported to play an important role in many disease onsets and progressions and can be used to explain several features of complex diseases, such as late onset and fluctuation of symptoms. However, miRNAs not only function as a part of epigenetic machinery, but are also epigenetically modified by DNA methylation and histone modification like any other protein-coding gene...
October 2016: Archives of Toxicology
Lyudmil Tserovski, Mark Helm
In this study, we investigated the reaction of the osmium tetroxide-bipyridine complex with pyrimidines in RNA. This reagent, which reacts with the diastereotopic 5-6 double bond, thus leading to the formation of two diastereomers, was used in the past to label thymidine and 5-methylcytosine in DNA. In light of the growing interest in post-transcriptional RNA modifications, we addressed the question of whether this reagent could be used for labeling of the naturally occurring RNA modifications 5-methylcytosine and 5-methyluridine...
September 21, 2016: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Maisarah Mohamad, Norhazlina Abdul Wahab, Rosna Yunus, Nor Azian Abdul Murad, Zulkifli Md Zainuddin, Murali Sundaram, Norfilza Mohd Mokhtar
BACKGROUND: There is an increasing concern in the role of microRNA (miRNA) in the pathogenesis of bone metastasis (BM) secondary to prostate cancer (CaP). In this exploratory study, we hypothesized that the expression of vinculin (VCL) and chemokine X3C ligand 1 (CX3CL1) might be downregulated in clinical samples, most likely due to the posttranscriptional modification by microRNAs. Targeted genes would be upregulated upon transfection of the bone metastatic prostate cancer cell line, PC3, with specific microRNA inhibitors...
2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Yulong Wang, Yiqing Wang, Zhaoqing Song, Huiyong Zhang
Extensive studies in various plants show that the anthocyanin biosynthetic process is affected by environmental factors and regulated by many transcription factors through sophisticated regulatory networks. However, it remains largely unclear about the roles of microRNA in this process. Here, we demonstrate that miR858a is a positive regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis seedlings. Overexpression of miR858a enhances the accumulation of anthocyanins, whereas the reduced miR858a activity results in low levels of anthocyanins in STTM858 transgenic plants...
October 10, 2016: Molecular Plant
Samantha B Shelton, Calder Reinsborough, Blerta Xhemalce
RNA levels are widely thought to be predictive of RNA function. However, the existence of more than a hundred chemically distinct modifications of RNA alone is a major indication that these moieties may impart distinct functions to subgroups of RNA molecules that share a primary sequence but display distinct RNA "epigenetic" marks. RNAs can be modified on many sites, including 5' and 3' ends, the sugar phosphate backbone, or internal bases, which collectively provide many opportunities for posttranscriptional regulation through a variety of mechanisms...
July 2016: PLoS Genetics
Kai Xu, Jing Lin, Roza Zandi, Jack A Roth, Lin Ji
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in targeted gene silencing by facilitating posttranscriptional and translational repression. However, the precise mechanism of mammalian miRNA-mediated gene silencing remains to be elucidated. Here, we used a stem-loop array reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction assay to analyse miRNA-induced mRNA recognition, cleavage, posttranscriptional modification, and degradation. We detected endogenous let-7 miRNA-induced and Argonaute-catalysed endonucleolytic cleavage on target mRNAs at various sites within partially paired miRNA:mRNA sequences...
2016: Scientific Reports
Ihor Rokytskyy, Oksana Koshla, Victor Fedorenko, Bohdan Ostash
BACKGROUND: The gene bldA for leucyl [Formula: see text] is known for almost 30 years as a key regulator of morphogenesis and secondary metabolism in genus Streptomyces. Codon UUA is the rarest one in Streptomyces genomes and is present exclusively in genes with auxiliary functions. Delayed accumulation of translation-competent [Formula: see text] is believed to confine the expression of UUA-containing transcripts to stationary phase. Implicit to the regulatory function of UUA codon is the assumption about high accuracy of its translation, e...
2016: SpringerPlus
Yi-Ping Tian, Yi-Min Zhu, Xiao-Hui Sun, Mao-De Lai
OBJECTIVE: Aberrant expression of ten-eleven translocation 1 (TET1) plays a critical role in tumor development and progression. We systematically summarized the latest research progress on the role and mechanisms of TET1 in cancer biology. DATA SOURCES: Relevant articles published in English from 1980 to April 2016 were selected from the PubMed database. The terms "ten-eleven translocation 1," "5mC," "5hmC," "microRNA," "hypoxia," and "embryonic stem cell" were used for the search...
July 20, 2016: Chinese Medical Journal
Ling Li, Xu Song
It is clear that RNA is more than just a messenger between gene and protein. The mammalian genome is pervasively transcribed, giving rise to tens of thousands of noncoding transcripts, especially long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). Whether all of these large transcripts are functional remains to be elucidated, but it is evident that there are many lncRNAs that seem not to be the "noise" of the transcriptome. Recent studies have set out to decode the regulatory role and functional diversity of lncRNAs in human physiological and pathological processes, and accumulating evidence suggests that most of the functional lncRNAs achieve their biological functions by controlling gene expression...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Y Doyon, J Côté
Nucleosomes, the basic units of chromatin, are decorated with a myriad of posttranslational modifications (PTMs) by the action of chromatin modifiers. These enzymes function almost exclusively as part of stable protein complexes that assist their recruitment to specific genomic loci, specify their substrate, and provide allosteric control. By altering the interactions within nucleosomes or with neighboring nucleosomes and serving as a platform to engage effector proteins, PTMs deposited by histone-modifying complexes influence virtually every nuclear process and are at the heart of the epigenetic mechanisms...
2016: Methods in Enzymology
Xiaoyu Wang, Xiaohui Shan, Ying Wu, Shengzhong Su, Shipeng Li, Hongkui Liu, Junyou Han, Chunmei Xue, Yaping Yuan
UNLABELLED: To date, transcriptome profile analysis of maize seedlings in response to cold stress have been well documented; however, changes in protein species abundance of maize seedlings in response to cold stress are still unknown. Herein, leaves from the maize inbred line W9816 (a cold-resistance genotype) were harvested at three-leaf stage, and were used to identify the differential abundance protein species (DAPS) between chilling stress (4°C) and control conditions (25°C). iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic were used in this study...
September 2, 2016: Journal of Proteomics
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