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Celeste Schultz, Janet Thorlton
Consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables helps to reduce childhood obesity and improves academic achievement and attendance. However, providing fresh fruits and vegetables is challenging for some schools due to cost, administrative burden, and concern for food waste. To address these challenges, the Fruit and Vegetable Access for Children Act proposes to allow federally funded programs to substitute fresh fruits and vegetables with canned, frozen, or pureed versions. In this policy analysis, we propose options for providing fresh fruits and vegetables to children enrolled in the National School Lunch Program...
January 1, 2018: Journal of School Nursing: the Official Publication of the National Association of School Nurses
Sara Javanparast, Toby Freeman, Fran Baum, Ronald Labonté, Anna Ziersch, Tamara Mackean, Richard Reed, David Sanders
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, there are competing norms driving health system changes and reorganisation. One such norm is that of health systems' responsibilities for population health as distinct from a focus on clinical services. In this paper we report on a case study of population health planning in Australian primary health care (PHC) organisations (Medicare Locals, 2011-2015). Drawing on institutional theory, we describe how institutional forces, ideas and actors shaped such planning...
March 20, 2018: BMC Public Health
Elham Kateeb, Elizabeth Momany
BACKGROUND: Beliefs about oral health during pregnancy demographic factors, such as level of education and socioeconomic status, are associated with an increased risk of oral diseases during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to assess the oral health status of pregnant women and the relation to the women's oral health knowledge, beliefs, behaviour, and access to dental care. METHODS: For this cross-sectional study, pregnant women visiting pre-natal care clinics at the Palestinian Ministry of Health centres in the Jerusalem governorate were invited to complete a structured interview with questions about beliefs about oral health care and their oral hygiene practices...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Folakemi T Odedina, R R Reams, E Kaninjing, J Nguyen, B Mochona, D E Lyon, N Askins, L S Behar-Horenstein
With the growing burden of cancer in minority populations and limited progress in eliminating cancer disparities, it has become important to develop a diverse oncology workforce in basic, clinical, and behavioral research who will address cancer disparities and increase the participation of minority populations in clinical trials. To address the lack of well-trained underrepresented minority cancer scientists in Florida, the University of Florida collaborated with Florida A&M University in 2012 to establish the Florida Prostate Cancer Research Training Opportunities for Outstanding Leaders (ReTOOL) Program...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
Bunny J Pozehl, Rita Mcguire, Kathleen Duncan, Melody Hertzog, Pallav Deka, Joseph Norman, Nancy T Artinian, Matthew A Saval, Steven J Keteyian
BACKGROUND: Few studies report objective accelerometer-measured daily physical activity levels in patients with heart failure (HF). OBJECTIVE: We examined baseline accelerometer-measured physical activity from the Heart Failure Exercise and Resistance Training Camp trial, a federally funded (R01-HL112979) 18-month intervention study to promote adherence to exercise in patients with HF. Factors associated with physical activity levels were also explored. METHODS: Patients with diagnosed HF (stage C chronic HF confirmed by echocardiography and clinical evaluation) were recruited from 2 urban medical centers...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing
Sebastian T Tong, Camille J Hochheimer, Wendy B Barr, Matteo Leveroni-Calvi, Nicholas M Lefevre, Jordyn T Wallenborn, Lars E Peterson
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Prior research found that 24% of graduating family medicine residents intend to provide obstetrical deliveries, but only 9% of family physicians 1 to 10 years into practice are doing so. Our study aims to describe the individual and residency program characteristics associated with intention to provide obstetrical deliveries and prenatal care. METHODS: Cross-sectional data on 2014-2016 graduating residents were obtained from the American Board of Family Medicine certification examination demographic questionnaire that asked about intended provision of specific clinical activities...
March 8, 2018: Family Medicine
Michael A Skinnider, David D W Twa, Jordan W Squair, Norman D Rosenblum, Christine D Lukac
CONTEXT: MD/PhD programmes provide structured paths for physician-scientist training. However, considerable proportions of graduates of these programmes do not pursue careers in research consistent with their training. OBJECTIVES: We sought to identify factors associated with sustained involvement in research after completion of all postgraduate training. METHODS: Anonymised data from a national survey of Canadian MD/PhD programme graduates who had completed all physician-scientist training (n = 70) were analysed...
March 13, 2018: Medical Education
David Showalter
BACKGROUND: The United States prohibited federal funding for syringe exchange programs for people who inject drugs nearly continuously from 1988 to 2015, despite growing scientific evidence, diminishing AIDS-related controversy, and tens of thousands of deaths from injection-related AIDS. This study investigates the political and institutional bases of this long-term failure to support lifesaving public policy. METHODS: This study draws on national, regional, and local media coverage, archival sources, and semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 6 long-time syringe exchange researchers and activists from California...
March 8, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Snehal N Shah, Eleni Digenis-Bury, Elizabeth T Russo, Shannon O'Malley, Nineequa Blanding, Anne McHugh, Roy Wada
Well documented, persistent racial/ethnic health disparities in obesity and hypertension in the US demonstrate the continued need for interventions that focus on people of color who may be at higher risk. We evaluated a demonstration project funded by the CDC's Racial/Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (REACH) program at four federally qualified health centers (FQHC) and YMCA fitness and wellness centers in Boston. No-cost YMCA memberships were offered from June 2014 to June 2015 to non-Latino black and Latino adults with a diagnosis of hypertension...
June 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
Jack Tsai, Jianxun Shen, Steven M Southwick, Spencer Greenberg, Aislinn Pluta, Robert H Pietrzak
There has been little study of public literacy regarding posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Public knowledge and attitudes about PTSD are important for encouraging treatment, prevention, and informing policies. Using a national online survey of 541 adults across 47 U.S. states in November 2016, we assessed attitudes and knowledge about PTSD. Most notably with respect to attitudes, 76-94% of the sample endorsed more federal funding for research, training, and practice for PTSD; and 76% of the sample also believed people with PTSD should have restricted access to firearms...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Ana Beatriz Pinto de Almeida Vasconcellos, Leides Barroso Azevedo de Moura
The aim of this study was to analyze the situation with the decentralization of the Brazilian National System of Food and Nutritional Security (SISAN), created in 2006 under the Brazilian National Food and Nutritional Security Act (LOSAN). Based on the criteria for joining SISAN, as set out in Decree 7,272 of August 25, 2010, the authors analyzed data from the basic information surveys of the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, 2014 (Estadic e Munic/2014). The results show that decentralization of SISAN is still incipient at the municipal level, although all the states of Brazil have already joined the system...
March 1, 2018: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Sabrina Roy, Fred H Hochberg, Pamela S Jones
This article aims to document the growth in extracellular vesicle (EV) research. Here, we report the growth in EV-related studies, patents, and grants as well as emerging companies with major intent on exosomes. Four different databases were utilized for electronic searches of published literature: two general databases - Scopus/Elsevier and Web of Science (WoS), as well as two specialized US government databases - the USA Patent and Trademark Office and National Institutes of Health (NIH) of the Department of Health and Human Services...
2018: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
Emma M Smith, Lynn Roberts, Mary Ann McColl, Kathleen A Martin Ginis, William C Miller
BACKGROUND: Wheelchairs, scooters, and related equipment are essential for the well-being of individuals with limited mobility and impact participation, health, and quality of life. PURPOSE: Our objective was to identify and evaluate policies governing equipment funding for Canadian adults. We reviewed funding legislation and program documentation for adult Canadians (≥18 years of age) covered by their provincial, territorial, or federal health care plan. Documents were obtained online or through administrative staff...
February 2018: Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy. Revue Canadienne D'ergothérapie
Marcie Fisher-Borne, Alexander J Preiss, Molly Black, Kate Roberts, Debbie Saslow
OBJECTIVE: Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine coverage in the United States remains low compared with other adolescent vaccines. As the largest primary care network in the United States, safety net clinics such as federally qualified health centers (FQHCs) serve patients at a disproportionate risk of HPV-related cancers. In this pilot project, the American Cancer Society (ACS) leveraged its primary care workforce to implement quality improvement interventions in the unique context of 30 FQHC systems across the country, including 130 clinic sites reaching >20,000 adolescents in a variety of geographic settings...
March 2018: Academic Pediatrics
Jens Christian König, Andrea Titieni, Martin Konrad
Hereditary cystic kidney diseases comprise a complex group of genetic disorders representing one of the most common causes of end-stage renal failure in childhood. The main representatives are autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease, nephronophthisis, Bardet-Biedl syndrome, and hepatocyte nuclear factor-1beta nephropathy. Within the last years, genetic efforts have brought tremendous progress for the molecular understanding of hereditary cystic kidney diseases identifying more than 70 genes. Yet, genetic heterogeneity, phenotypic variability, a lack of reliable genotype-phenotype correlations and the absence of disease-specific biomarkers remain major challenges for physicians treating children with cystic kidney diseases...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Michelle Freund, Anna Taylor, Cathy Ng, A Roger Little
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) NeuroBioBank is a federally funded research resource for human neurologic diseases and disorders. This chapter will discuss the principles that guided the creation of the NIH NeuroBioBank and the rationale for the resource model selected. In addition, we will describe some performance metrics in the first 2 years and highlight recent advances in biomedical neuroscience that could only have been achieved using postmortem human tissues. The NIH NeuroBioBank was created in order to increase availability of high-quality postmortem human brain tissues to the research community across a broad spectrum of neurologic diseases and disorders, and to achieve economies of scale over previous funding and organizational models...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
S García-Martínez, M A Sánchez-Hurtado, H Gutiérrez, F M Sánchez-Margallo, R Romar, R Latorre, P Coy, O López-Albors
STUDY QUESTION: Is O2 tension in the pig oviduct and uterus affected by the estrous cycle stage and the animal's age, and can the outcome of in vitro embryo development be improved by mimicking these physiological values? SUMMARY ANSWER: O2 tension within the pig reproductive organs is affected by the animal's age, and values close to those measured in vivo have a positive impact on embryo development and quality when used during IVF and embryo culture (EC). WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: To obtain a healthy embryo in vitro, it is necessary to adopt a culture microenvironment that approximates physiological conditions...
February 27, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
Ana Paula Loch, Maria Ines Battistella Nemes, Maria Altenfelder Santos, Ana Maroso Alves, Regina Melchior, Cáritas Relva Basso, Joselita Maria de Magalhães Caraciolo, Maria Teresa Seabra Soares de Britto E Alves, Elen Rose Lodeiro Castanheira, Wania Maria do Espírito Santo Carvalho, Ruth Terezinha Kehrig, Aline Aparecida Monroe
Health services play a crucial role in reaching the 90-90-90 target of controlling the HIV epidemic. This study evaluates the organization of Brazilian health services in improving, monitoring, and retention in HIV care and adherence support. Percentage variation (PV) was used to compare the responses by services to an evaluation questionnaire on organizational quality (Qualiaids) in 2007 and 2010. The study analyzed the 419 services that completed the questionnaire in 2007 (83.1% of respondents) and 2010 (63...
February 19, 2018: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Ahmed U Mishuk, Jingjing Qian, Jennifer N Howard, Ilene Harris, Gavriella Frank, Zippora Kiptanui, Richard Hansen
BACKGROUND: Generic drugs are bioequivalent and cost-effective alternatives to brand drugs. In 2014, $254 billion was saved because of the use of generic drugs in the United States. OBJECTIVE: To critically assess evidence on the association between patient characteristics and generic drug use in order to inform the development of educational outreach for improving generic drug use among patients. METHODS: We systematically searched the literature between January 2005 and December 2016 using PubMed, Web of Science, Ovid MEDLINE, Google Scholar, and EBSCO IPA-MEDLINE for potentially relevant studies...
March 2018: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
Danielle Martin, Ashley P Miller, Amélie Quesnel-Vallée, Nadine R Caron, Bilkis Vissandjée, Gregory P Marchildon
Access to health care based on need rather than ability to pay was the founding principle of the Canadian health-care system. Medicare was born in one province in 1947. It spread across the country through federal cost sharing, and eventually was harmonised through standards in a federal law, the Canada Health Act of 1984. The health-care system is less a true national system than a decentralised collection of provincial and territorial insurance plans covering a narrow basket of services, which are free at the point of care...
February 22, 2018: Lancet
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