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adipose remodeling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142243/genetic-risk-scores-for-body-fat-distribution-attenuate-weight-loss-in-women-during-dietary-intervention
#1
M Svendstrup, K H Allin, T I A Sørensen, T H Hansen, N Grarup, T Hansen, H Vestergaard
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The well-established link between body fat distribution and metabolic health has been suggested to act through an impact on the remodeling capacity of the adipose tissue. Remodeling of the adipose tissue has been shown to affect body fat distribution and might affect the ability to lose weight. We aimed to study the effect of weighted genetic risk scores (GRSs) on weight loss based on single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with waist-hip-ratio adjusted for body mass index (WHRadjBMI)...
November 16, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138256/low-neonatal-plasma-n-6-n-3-pufa-ratios-regulate-offspring-adipogenic-potential-and-condition-adult-obesity-resistance
#2
Michael C Rudolph, Matthew R Jackman, David M Presby, Julie A Houck, Patricia G Webb, Ginger C Johnson, Taylor K Soderborg, Becky A de la Houssaye, Ivana V Yang, Jacob E Friedman, Paul S MacLean
Adipose tissue expansion (ATE) progresses rapidly during postnatal life, influenced by both prenatal maternal factors and postnatal developmental cues. The ratio of n-6 relative to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is thought to regulate perinatal adipogenesis, but the cellular mechanisms and long-term effects are not well understood. We lowered the fetal and postnatal n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio exposure in wildtype offspring, under standard maternal dietary fat amounts, to test effects of low n-6/n-3 ratios on offspring adipogenesis and adipogenic potential...
November 14, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128541/a-pegylated-platelet-free-plasma-hydrogel-based-composite-scaffold-enables-stable-vascularization-and-targeted-cell-delivery-for-volumetric-muscle-loss
#3
Amit Aurora, Nicole Wrice, Thomas J Walters, Robert J Christy, Shanmugasundaram Natesan
Extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffolds are being used for the clinical repair of soft tissue injuries. Although improved functional outcomes have been reported, ECM scaffolds show limited tissue specific remodeling response with concomitant deposition of fibrotic tissue. One plausible explanation is the regression of blood vessels which may be limiting the diffusion of oxygen and nutrients across the scaffold. Herein we develop a composite scaffold as a vasculo-inductive platform by integrating PEGylated platelet free plasma (PFP) hydrogel with a muscle derived ECM scaffold (m-ECM)...
November 8, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115380/combination-treatment-of-adipose-derived-stem-cells-and-adiponectin-attenuates-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-in-rats-by-inhibiting-pulmonary-arterial-smooth-muscle-cell-proliferation-and-regulating-the-ampk-bmp-smad-pathway
#4
Li Luo, Wuhong Zheng, Guili Lian, Huaning Chen, Ling Li, Changsheng Xu, Liangdi Xie
The present study aimed to assess the effects of therapy with adiponectin (APN) gene-modified adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) on pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in rats and the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms. ADSCs were successfully isolated from the rats and characterized. ADSCs were effectively infected with the green fluorescent protein (GFP)-empty (ADSCs-V) or the APN-GFP (ADSCs-APN) lentivirus and the APN expression was evaluated by ELISA. Sprague-Dawley rats were administered monocrotaline (MCT) to develop PAH...
October 31, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113711/the-lives-and-times-of-brown-adipokines
#5
REVIEW
Francesc Villarroya, Aleix Gavaldà-Navarro, Marion Peyrou, Joan Villarroya, Marta Giralt
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is responsible for adaptive non-shivering thermogenesis. Moreover, brown fat secretes regulatory factors, so-called brown adipokines, that have autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine actions. Brown adipokines are either polypeptides or nonpeptidic molecules including lipid molecules and microRNAs. The secretory properties of brown fat are essential for tissue remodeling adaptations to thermogenic necessities. The endocrine properties of brown adipokines are thought to contribute to the association between BAT activity and a healthy metabolic profile in relation to glucose and lipid homeostasis...
November 4, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102145/modulating-adipose-tissue-lipolysis-and-remodeling-to-improve-immune-function-during-the-transition-period-and-early-lactation-of-dairy-cows
#6
G Andres Contreras, Clarissa Strieder-Barboza, Jenne De Koster
Despite major advances in our understanding of transition and early lactation cow physiology and the use of advanced dietary, medical, and management tools, at least half of early lactation cows are reported to develop disease and over half of cow deaths occur during the first week of lactation. Excessive lipolysis, usually measured as plasma concentrations of free fatty acids (FFA), is a major risk factor for the development of displaced abomasum, ketosis, fatty liver, and metritis, and may also lead to poor lactation performance...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101170/the-prorenin-receptor-in-the-cardiovascular-system-and-beyond
#7
Matthew T Hennrikus, Alexis A Gonzalez, Minolfa C Prieto
Since the prorenin receptor (PRR) was first reported, investigations into its role in many cellular processes have been underway. Renin and prorenin binding to PRR and its soluble form (sPRR) increases angiotensin I formation and intracellular pathways resulting in induction of profibrotic factors. The PRR has supplementary roles as a vital accessory protein of the vacuolar-type H+-ATPase and also as an intermediate in Wnt signaling. As a component of the H-ATPase, the PRR has been found upregulated during cardiac stress...
November 3, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101070/metabolic-syndrome-alters-expression-of-insulin-signaling-related-genes-in-swine-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#8
Sabena M Conley, Xiang-Yang Zhu, Alfonso Eirin, Hui Tang, Amir Lerman, Andre J van Wijnen, Lilach O Lerman
AIMS: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with insulin resistance (IR) and impaired glucose metabolism in muscle, fat, and other cells, and may induce inflammation and vascular remodeling. Endogenous reparative systems, including adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC), are responsible for repair of damaged tissue. MSC have also been proposed as an exogenous therapeutic intervention in patients with cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease (CKD). The feasibility of using autologous cells depends on their integrity, but whether in MetS IR involves adipose tissue-derived MSC remains unknown...
October 31, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089532/calpain-inhibition-attenuates-adipose-tissue-inflammation-and-fibrosis-in-diet-induced-obese-mice
#9
Latha Muniappan, Aida Javidan, Weihua Jiang, Shayan Mohammadmoradi, Jessica J Moorleghen, Wendy S Katz, Anju Balakrishnan, Deborah A Howatt, Venkateswaran Subramanian
Adipose tissue macrophages have been proposed as a link between obesity and insulin resistance. However, the mechanisms underlying these processes are not completely defined. Calpains are calcium-dependent neutral cysteine proteases that modulate cellular function and have been implicated in various inflammatory diseases. To define whether activated calpains influence diet-induced obesity and adipose tissue macrophage accumulation, mice that were either wild type (WT) or overexpressing calpastatin (CAST Tg), the endogenous inhibitor of calpains were fed with high (60% kcal) fat diet for 16 weeks...
October 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077154/the-differentiation-of-beige-adipocyte-in-pericardial-and-epicardial-adipose-tissues-induces-atrial-fibrillation-development
#10
Y He, N Ma, M Tang, Z-L Jiang, H Liu, J Mei
OBJECTIVE: Growing evidence has identified that excessive accumulation of pericardial adipose tissues (PAT) and epicardial adipose tissues (EAT) is associated with atrial fibrillation (AF) development. Moreover, beige adipocytes, present in PAT and EAT, have been proved beneficial in consumption of fatty acid and promotion of weight lose by nonshivering thermogenesis. The objective of this prospective, observational study was to reveal the potential association between beige adipocytes and AF development...
October 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072701/caspase-2-deficiency-enhances-whole-body-carbohydrate-utilisation-and-prevents-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity
#11
Claire H Wilson, Andrej Nikolic, Stephen J Kentish, Marianne Keller, George Hatzinikolas, Loretta Dorstyn, Amanda J Page, Sharad Kumar
Caspase-2 has been shown to be involved in metabolic homeostasis. Here, we show that caspase-2 deficiency alters basal energy metabolism by shifting the balance in fuel choice from fatty acid to carbohydrate usage. At 4 weeks of age, whole-body carbohydrate utilisation was increased in Casp2(-/-) mice and was maintained into adulthood. By 17 weeks of age, Casp2(-/-) mice had reduced white adipose mass, smaller white adipocytes decreased fasting blood glucose and plasma triglycerides but maintained normal insulin levels...
October 26, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070899/impaired-bkca-channel-function-in-native-vascular-smooth-muscle-from-humans-with-type-2-diabetes
#12
Madeline Nieves-Cintrón, Arsalan U Syed, Olivia R Buonarati, Robert R Rigor, Matthew A Nystoriak, Debapriya Ghosh, Kent C Sasse, Sean M Ward, Luis F Santana, Johannes W Hell, Manuel F Navedo
Large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated potassium (BKCa) channels are key determinants of vascular smooth muscle excitability. Impaired BKCa channel function through remodeling of BKCa β1 expression and function contributes to vascular complications in animal models of diabetes. Yet, whether similar alterations occur in native vascular smooth muscle from humans with type 2 diabetes is unclear. In this study, we evaluated BKCa function in vascular smooth muscle from small resistance adipose arteries of non-diabetic and clinically diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients...
October 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069204/cardiac-metabolic-and-molecular-profiles-of-sedentary-rats-in-the-initial-moment-of-obesity
#13
Bruno Barcellos Jacobsen, Ana Paula Lima Leopoldo, Jóctan Pimentel Cordeiro, Dijon Henrique Salomé de Campos, André Ferreira do Nascimento, Mário Mateus Sugizaki, Antônio Carlos Cicogna, Carlos Roberto Padovani, André Soares Leopoldo
BACKGROUND: Different types of high-fat and/or high-energy diets have been used to induce obesity in rodents. However, few studies have reported on the effects observed at the initial stage of obesity induced by high-fat feeding on cardiac functional and structural remodelling. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the initial moment of obesity and investigate both metabolic and cardiac parameters. In addition, the role of Ca2+ handling in short-term exposure to obesity was verified...
October 19, 2017: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068567/therapeutic-administration-of-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-reduces-airway-inflammation-without-upregulating-tregs-in-experimental-asthma
#14
Jamil Z Kitoko, Ligia L de Castro, Ana P Nascimento, Soraia C Abreu, Fernanda F Cruz, Ana C Arantes, Debora G Xisto, Marco A Martins, Marcelo M Morales, Patricia R M Rocco, Priscilla C Olsen
BACKGROUND: Prophylactic administration of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) derived from adipose (AD-MSC) and bone marrow tissue (BM-MSC) in ovalbumin-induced asthma hinders inflammation in a Treg-dependent manner. It is uncertain whether MSCs act through Tregs when inflammation is already established in asthma induced by a clinically relevant allergen. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the effect of therapeutic administration of MSCs on inflammation and Treg cells in house dust mite (HDM)-induced asthma...
October 25, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061705/polyphenol-and-caffeine-rich-post-fermented-pu-er-tea-improves-diet-induced-metabolic-syndrome-by-remodeling-intestinal-homeostasis-in-mice
#15
Xiaoyu Gao, Qiuhong Xie, Ping Kong, Ling Liu, Sheng Sun, Boyu Xiong, Baojia Huang, Liang Yan, Jun Sheng, Hongyu Xiang
Post-fermented Pu-er tea (PE) protects against metabolic syndrome (MS), but little is known regarding its underlying mechanisms. Animal experiments were performed to determine whether gut microbiota mediated the improvement in diet-induced MS by PE and its main active components (PEAC). We confirmed that PE altered the body composition and energy efficiency; attenuated metabolic endotoxemia and systemic and multiple-tissue inflammation; and improved the glucose and lipid metabolism disorder in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice via multiple pathways...
October 23, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047209/effects-of-cryopreservation-on-adipose-tissue-derived-microvascular-fragments
#16
Matthias W Laschke, Philipp Karschnia, Claudia Scheuer, Alexander Heß, Wolfgang Metzger, Michael D Menger
Adipose tissue-derived microvascular fragments (ad-MVF) are effective vascularization units for tissue engineering. They rapidly reassemble into new microvascular networks after seeding on scaffolds and subsequent in vivo implantation. Herein, we analyzed whether the vascularization capacity of ad-MVF is affected by cryopreservation. Ad-MVF were isolated from the epididymal fat pads of C57BL/6 mice and cryopreserved for 7 days to compare their morphology, viability, cellular composition and protein expression with freshly isolated control ad-MVF...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043068/meta-fibrosis-links-positive-energy-balance-and-mitochondrial-metabolism-to-insulin-resistance
#17
REVIEW
Daniel S Lark, David H Wasserman
Obesity and insulin resistance often emerge from positive energy balance and generally are linked to low-grade inflammation. This low-grade inflammation has been called "meta-inflammation" because it is a consequence of the metabolic dysregulation that can accompany overnutrition. One means by which meta-inflammation is linked to insulin resistance is extracellular matrix expansion secondary to meta-inflammation, which we define here as "meta-fibrosis". The significance of meta-fibrosis is that it reflects a situation in which the extracellular matrix functions as a multi-level integrator of local (for example, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production) and systemic (for example, inflammation) inputs that couple to cellular processes creating insulin resistance...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042658/exosomes-secreted-by-human-adipose-mesenchymal-stem-cells-promote-scarless-cutaneous-repair-by-regulating-extracellular-matrix-remodelling
#18
Lu Wang, Li Hu, Xin Zhou, Zehuan Xiong, Chenguang Zhang, Hassan M A Shehada, Bo Hu, Jinlin Song, Lili Chen
Scar formation is an intractable medical problem that appears after skin wounds have healed. Recent research has shown that exosomes secreted by human adipose mesenchymal stem cells (ASC-Exos) can benefit wound healing. To further explore the therapeutic potential of ASC-Exos, we investigated their effects on mitigating scar formation, and the underlying mechanisms of these effects. We found that intravenous injection of ASC-Exos decreased the size of scars and increased the ratio of collagen III to collagen I in murine incisional wounds...
October 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038363/moderate-exercise-training-does-not-prevent-the-reduction-in-myocardial-l-type-ca-2-channels-protein-expression-at-obese-rats
#19
Vitor L da Silva, Ana P Lima-Leopoldo, Artur J T Ferron, Jóctan P Cordeiro, Paula P Freire, Dijon H S de Campos, Carlos R Padovani, Mário M Sugizaki, Antonio C Cicogna, André S Leopoldo
Authors have showed that obesity implicates cardiac dysfunction associated with myocardial L-type calcium channels (LTCCs) activity impairments, as well as moderate exercise training (MET) seems to be an important therapeutic tool. We tested the hypothesis that MET promotes improvements on LTCCS activity and protein expression at obesity induced by unsaturated high-fat diets, which could represent a protective effects against development of cardiovascular damage. Male Wistar rats were randomized in control (C, n = 40), which received a standard diet and obese (Ob; n = 40), which received high-fat diet...
October 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038101/influence-of-intramyocardial-adipose-tissue-on-the-accuracy-of-endocardial-contact-mapping-of-the-chronic-myocardial-infarction-substrate
#20
Rahul Samanta, Saurabh Kumar, William Chik, Pierre Qian, Michael A Barry, Sara Al Raisi, Abhishek Bhaskaran, Melad Farraha, Fazlur Nadri, Eddy Kizana, Aravinda Thiagalingam, Pramesh Kovoor, Jim Pouliopoulos
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have demonstrated that intramyocardial adipose tissue (IMAT) may contribute to ventricular electrophysiological remodeling in patients with chronic myocardial infarction. Using an ovine model of myocardial infarction, we aimed to determine the influence of IMAT on scar tissue identification during endocardial contact mapping and optimal voltage-based mapping criteria for defining IMAT dense regions. METHOD AND RESULTS: In 7 sheep, left ventricular endocardial and transmural mapping was performed 84 weeks (15-111 weeks) post-myocardial infarction...
October 2017: Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
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