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adipose remodeling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916721/loss-of-cardiac-carnitine-palmitoyltransferase-2-results-in-rapamycin-resistant-acetylation-independent-hypertrophy
#1
Andrea S Pereyra, Like Y Hasek, Kate L Harris, Alycia G Berman, Frederick W Damen, Craig J Goergen, Jessica M Ellis
Cardiac hypertrophy is closely linked to impaired fatty acid oxidation, but the molecular basis of this link is unclear. Here, we investigated the loss of an obligate enzyme in mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid oxidation, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 (CPT2), on muscle and heart structure, function, and molecular signatures in a muscle- and heart-specific CPT2-deficient mouse (Cpt2M-/-) model. CPT2 loss in heart and muscle reduced complete oxidation of long-chain fatty acids by 87% and 69%, respectively, without altering body weight, energy expenditure, respiratory quotient, or adiposity...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915322/hormonal-regulation-of-adipogenesis
#2
Mi-Jeong Lee
Adipose tissue includes multiple anatomical depots that serve as an energy reserve that can expand or contract to maintain metabolic homeostasis. During normal growth and in response to overnutrition, adipose tissue expands by increasing the volume of preexisting adipocytes (hypertrophy) and/or by generating new adipocytes (hyperplasia) via recruitment and differentiation of adipose progenitors. This so-called healthy expansion through hyperplasia is thought to be beneficial in that it protects against obesity associated metabolic disorders by allowing for the "safe" storage of excess energy...
September 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914400/an-in-vivo-study-on-endothelialized-vascular-grafts-produced-by-autologous-biotubes-and-adipose-stem-cells-adscs
#3
Yu Chieh Tseng, Jun Neng Roan, Ying Chiang Ho, Chih Chan Lin, Ming Long Yeh
Currently, commercial synthetic vascular grafts made from Dacron and ePTFE for small-diameter, vascular applications (<6 mm) show limited reendothelization and are less compliant, often resulting in thrombosis and intimal hyperplasia. Although good blood compatibility can be achieved in autologous arteries and veins, the number of high quality harvest sites is limited, and the grafts are size-mismatched for use in the fistula or cardiovascular bypass surgery; thus, alternative small graft substitutes must be developed...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895584/effects-of-lobeglitazone-a-novel-thiazolidinedione-on-adipose-tissue-remodeling-and-brown-and-beige-adipose-tissue-development-in-db-db-mice
#4
G Kim, Y-H Lee, M R Yun, J-Y Lee, E G Shin, B-W Lee, E S Kang, B-S Cha
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: We investigated the effect of long-term treatment with lobeglitazone, a novel thiazolidinedione-based activator of PPARγ, on adipose tissue (AT), focusing on its effects on insulin resistance in obese db/db mice. METHODS: Seven-week-old male db/db mice were assigned to either a vehicle-treated (n=8) or lobeglitazone-treated (n=8) group. Lobeglitazone (1 mg/kg daily) was injected intraperitoneally for 20 weeks. RESULTS: Lobeglitazone treatment for 20 weeks resulted in a remarkably improved glycemic index, including significantly decreased glucose levels, enhanced insulin sensitivity, and preserved pancreatic beta cells...
September 12, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888114/carotid-stiffness-extra-media-thickness-and-visceral-adiposity-in-young-adults
#5
Wesley K Lefferts, Susan D Sperry, Randall S Jorgensen, Ari G Kasprowicz, Michael R Skilton, Arturo Figueroa, Kevin S Heffernan
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Carotid extra-media thickness (EMT) encompasses arterial adventitia and perivascular adipose tissue (PAT). Adventitial remodeling and PAT may contribute independently to functional (stiffness) and structural (remodeling) changes in artery wall properties. Visceral adiposity may contribute to PAT, thereby affecting artery stiffness. We investigated the relationships between carotid artery stiffness, EMT, and visceral adiposity in young, healthy individuals. METHODS: 135 healthy males (20 ± 2 yr, body mass index [BMI] 24...
September 1, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884865/physical-training-improves-visceral-adipose-tissue-health-by-remodelling-extracellular-matrix-in-rats-with-estrogen-absence-a-gene-expression-analysis
#6
Fernanda O Duarte, Camila do Valle Gomes-Gatto, Jorge C Oishi, Anderson Diogo de S Lino, Uliana S Stotzer, Maria Fernanda C Rodrigues, Guilherme H Gatti da Silva, Heloisa S Selistre-de-Araújo
Adipose tissue development is associated with modifications involving extracellular matrix remodelling, and metalloproteinases play a significant role in this process. Reduced circulating sexual hormones cause impacts on the size, morphology and functions of the adipose tissue, increasing susceptibility to diseases. This study investigated whether exercise training may be an alternative strategy to combat the effects promoted by estrogen decay through modulation in gene expression patterns in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of visceral adipose tissue of ovariectomized rats...
September 8, 2017: International Journal of Experimental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875689/liver-fibrosis-in-the-context-of-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-the-role-of-adipokines
#7
Giovanni DI Maira, Mirella Pastore, Fabio Marra
Liver fibrosis is a multifaceted process that occurs as a consequence of chronic liver injury. This process is characterized by inflammation, activation of matrix-producing cells, matrix deposition and remodeling, and epithelial cell regeneration. In subjects with chronic liver damage, fibrogenesis is favored by the presence of obesity and insulin resistance, which are also relevant risk factors for the development and progression of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). It is now well-known that adipose tissue is not only involved in energy storage but also functions as an endocrine organ that secretes various bioactive substances known as adipokines...
September 5, 2017: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857355/galectin-1-from-conditioned-medium-of-three-dimensional-culture-of-adipose-derived-stem-cells-accelerates-migration-and-proliferation-of-human-keratinocytes-and-fibroblasts
#8
Min Ho Kim, Wen Hao Wu, Jee Hyun Choi, Ji Hyun Kim, Jin Hyun Jun, Yong Ko, Jong Hun Lee
Keratinocytes and fibroblasts cells play important roles in the skin-wound healing process and are the cell types activated by trauma. Activated cells participate in epithelialization, granulation, scar-tissue formation, wound remodeling, and angiogenesis via a series of cellular activities including migration and proliferation. Previous studies reported that the conditioned medium (CM) of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) stimulated the migration and proliferation of cell types involved in the skin-wound healing process; however, these studies only show ADSC-CM effects that were obtained using 2-dimensional (2D) culture...
August 30, 2017: Wound Repair and Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852792/human-pancreatic-neuro-insular-network-in-health-and-fatty-infiltration
#9
Shiue-Cheng Tang, Luc Baeyens, Chia-Ning Shen, Shih-Jung Peng, Hung-Jen Chien, David W Scheel, Chester E Chamberlain, Michael S German
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Identification of a pancreatic neuro-insular network in mice suggests that a similar integration of islets and nerves may be present in the human pancreas. To characterise the neuro-insular network and the intra-pancreatic ganglia in a clinically related setting, we examined human pancreases in health and with fatty infiltration via 3-dimensional (3D) histology and compared the human pancreatic microenvironment with its counterpart in mice. METHODS: Human pancreatic specimens from individuals with normal BMI, high BMI (≥ 25) and type 2 diabetes were used to investigate the neuro-insular network...
August 29, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844130/proteomic-analysis-of-human-adipose-derived-stem-cells-during-small-molecule-chemical-stimulated-pre-neuronal-differentiation
#10
Jerran Santos, Bruce K Milthorpe, Benjamin R Herbert, Matthew P Padula
Background: Adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) are acquired from abdominal liposuction yielding a thousand fold more stem cells per millilitre than those from bone marrow. A large research void exists as to whether ADSCs are capable of transdermal differentiation toward neuronal phenotypes. Previous studies have investigated the use of chemical cocktails with varying inconclusive results. Methods: Human ADSCs were treated with a chemical stimulant, beta-mercaptoethanol, to direct them toward a neuronal-like lineage within 24 hours...
August 31, 2017: International Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838042/the-role-of-infiltrating-immune-cells-in-dysfunctional-adipose-tissue
#11
Tomasz J Guzik, Dominik S Skiba, Rhian M Touyz, David G Harrison
Adipose tissue (AT) dysfunction, characterized by loss of its homeostatic functions, is a hallmark of non-communicable diseases. It is characterized by chronic low-grade inflammation and is observed in obesity, metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance and diabetes. While classically it has been identified by increased cytokine or chemokine expression, such as increased MCP-1, RANTES, IL-6, interferon (IFN) gamma or TNFα, mechanistically, immune cell infiltration is a prominent feature of the dysfunctional AT...
July 1, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835473/fatty-acid-metabolic-remodelling-during-type-2-diabetes-remission-after-bariatric-surgery
#12
Thomas Grenier-Larouche, Anne-Marie Carreau, Alain Geloën, Frédérique Frisch, Laurent Biertho, Simon Marceau, Stéfane Lebel, Frédéric-Simon Hould, Denis Richard, André Tchernof, André C Carpentier
Hypertrophic remodelling of white adipose tissues is associated with lean organs overexposure to circulating triglycerides (TG) and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), ultimately leading to insulin resistance. Bariatric surgery promotes type 2 diabetes (T2D) remission by a succession of weight-loss dependent and independent mechanisms. However, the longitudinal contribution of adipocytes size reduction and fatty acid metabolic handling remain unknown. Here, we show that severely obese participants with T2D display hypertriglyceridemia and excessive systemic lipolysis during intravenous lipid overload...
August 23, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835451/obesity-induced-vascular-inflammation-involves-elevated-arginase-activity
#13
Lin Yao, Anil Bhatta, Zhimin Xu, Jijun Chen, Haroldo A Toque, Yongjun Chen, Yiming Xu, Zsolt Bagi, Rudolf Lucas, Yuqing Huo, Ruth B Caldwell, Robert W Caldwell
Obesity-induced vascular dysfunction involves pathological remodeling of the visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and increased inflammation. Our previous studies showed that arginase 1 (A1) in endothelial cells (EC) is critically involved in obesity-induced vascular dysfunction. We tested the hypothesis that EC A1 activity also drives obesity-related VAT remodeling and inflammation. Our studies utilized wild-type and EC-A1 knockout (KO) mice made obese by high fat/high sucrose (HFHS) diet. HFHS diet induced increases in body weight, fasting blood glucose, and VAT expansion...
August 23, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831023/mild-cold-induced-thermogenesis-are-bat-and-skeletal-muscle-synergistic-partners
#14
Naresh C Bal, Santosh K Maurya, Sunil Pani, Chinmayee Sethy, Ananya Banerjee, Sarita Das, Srinivas Patanaik, Chanakya N Kundu
There are two well-described thermogenic sites; brown adipose tissue (BAT) and skeletal muscle, which utilize distinct mechanisms of heat production. In BAT, mitochondrial metabolism is the molecular basis of heat generation, while it serves only a minor role in supplying  energy for thermogenesis in muscle. Here, we wanted to document changes in mitochondrial ultrastructure in these two tissue types upon adaptation to mild (16°C) and severe (4°C) cold in mice. When reared at thermoneutrality (29°C), mitochondria in both tissues were loosely packed with irregular cristae...
August 22, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830979/alterations-in-fatty-acid-metabolism-and-sirtuin-signaling-characterize-early-type-2-diabetic-hearts-of-fructose-fed-rats
#15
Phing-How Lou, Eliana Lucchinetti, Katrina Y Scott, Yiming Huang, Manoj Gandhi, Martin Hersberger, Alexander S Clanachan, Hélène Lemieux, Michael Zaugg
Despite the fact that skeletal muscle insulin resistance is the hallmark of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), inflexibility in substrate energy metabolism has been observed in other tissues such as liver, adipose tissue, and heart. In the heart, structural and functional changes ultimately lead to diabetic cardiomyopathy. However, little is known about the early biochemical changes that cause cardiac metabolic dysregulation and dysfunction. We used a dietary model of fructose-induced T2DM (10% fructose in drinking water for 6 weeks) to study cardiac fatty acid metabolism in early T2DM and related signaling events in order to better understand mechanisms of disease...
August 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826677/extracellular-matrix-remodeling-and-matrix-metalloproteinase-inhibition-in-visceral-adipose-during-weight-cycling-in-mice
#16
Cíntia Rabelo E Paiva Caria, Érica Martins Ferreira Gotardo, Paola Souza Santos, Simone Coghetto Acedo, Thainá Rodrigues de Morais, Marcelo Lima Ribeiro, Alessandra Gambero
Extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling is necessary for a health adipose tissue (AT) expansion and also has a role during weight loss. We investigate the ECM alteration during weight cycling (WC) in mice and the role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) was assessed using GM6001, an MMP inhibitor, during weight loss (WL). Obesity was induced in mice by a high-fat diet. Obese mice were subject to caloric restriction for WL followed by reintroduction to high-fat diet for weight regain (WR), resulting in a WC protocol...
August 19, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821457/spontaneous-mutation-of-dock7-results-in-lower-trabecular-bone-mass-and-impaired-periosteal-expansion-in-aged-female-misty-mice
#17
Phuong T Le, Kathleen A Bishop, David E Maridas, Katherine J Motyl, Daniel J Brooks, Kenichi Nagano, Roland Baron, Mary L Bouxsein, Clifford J Rosen
Misty mice (m/m) have a loss of function mutation in Dock7 gene, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor, resulting in low bone mineral density, uncoupled bone remodeling and reduced bone formation. Dock7 has been identified as a modulator of osteoblast number and in vitro osteogenic differentiation in calvarial osteoblast culture. In addition, m/m exhibit reduced preformed brown adipose tissue innervation and temperature as well as compensatory increase in beige adipocyte markers. While the low bone mineral density phenotype is in part due to higher sympathetic nervous system (SNS) drive in young mice, it is unclear what effect aging would have in mice homozygous for the mutation in the Dock7 gene...
August 15, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819366/paracrine-potential-of-the-human-adipose-tissue-derived-stem-cells-to-modulate-balance-between-matrix-metalloproteinases-and-their-inhibitors-in-the-osteoarthritic-cartilage-in-vitro
#18
Jaroslav Denkovskij, Edvardas Bagdonas, Ilona Kusleviciute, Zygmunt Mackiewicz, Ausra Unguryte, Narunas Porvaneckas, Sandrine Fleury, Algirdas Venalis, Christian Jorgensen, Eiva Bernotiene
Adipose tissue represents an abundant source of stem cells. Along with anti-inflammatory effects, ASC secrete various factors that may modulate metabolism of extracellular matrix in osteoarthritic (OA) cartilage, suggesting that the presence of ASC could be advantageous for OA cartilage due to the recovery of homeostasis between matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). To evaluate these effects, cartilage explants (CE) were cocultured with ASC for 3 and 7 days under stimulation with or without IL-1β...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811968/il-32%C3%AE-induced-inflammation-constitutes-a-link-between-obesity-and-colon-cancer
#19
Victoria Catalán, Javier Gómez-Ambrosi, Amaia Rodríguez, Beatriz Ramírez, Victor A Ortega, José Luis Hernández-Lizoain, Jorge Baixauli, Sara Becerril, Fernando Rotellar, Víctor Valentí, Rafael Moncada, Camilo Silva, Javier Salvador, Gema Frühbeck
Growing evidence indicates that adipose tissue inflammation is an important mechanism whereby obesity promotes cancer risk and progression. Since IL-32 is an important inflammatory and remodeling factor in obesity and is also related to colon cancer (CC) development, the aim of this study was to explore whether IL-32 could function as an inflammatory factor in human obesity-associated CC promoting a microenvironment favorable for tumor growth. Samples obtained from 84 subjects [27 lean (LN) and 57 obese (OB)] were used in the study...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805158/pp2a-regulatory-subunit-b55%C3%AE-is-a-gatekeeper-of-osteoblast-maturation-and-lineage-maintenance
#20
Anastassia Serguienko, Robert Hanes, Iwona Grad, Meng-Yu Wang, Ola Myklebost, Else Munthe
Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM MSCs) mediate skeletal remodeling by differentiating into osteoblasts. However, this remodeling is impaired with aging as well as following long-term glucocorticoid treatment, resulting in osteoporosis. Here we report a novel factor of osteoblast differentiation - PP2A regulatory subunit B55γ. We show that B55γ is induced by glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in human primary BM MSCs during differentiation to osteoblast, but not to adipocytes, and is required for osteoblast morphogenesis and mineralization...
August 12, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
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