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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768199/the-autism-related-protein-chd8-cooperates-with-c-ebp%C3%AE-to-regulate-adipogenesis
#1
Yasuyuki Kita, Yuta Katayama, Taichi Shiraishi, Takeru Oka, Tetsuya Sato, Mikita Suyama, Yasuyuki Ohkawa, Keishi Miyata, Yuichi Oike, Michiko Shirane, Masaaki Nishiyama, Keiichi I Nakayama
The gene encoding the chromatin remodeler CHD8 is the most frequently mutated gene in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Heterozygous mutations in CHD8 give rise to ASD that is often accompanied by macrocephaly, gastrointestinal complaints, and slender habitus. Whereas most phenotypes of CHD8 haploinsufficiency likely result from delayed neurodevelopment, the mechanism underlying slender habitus has remained unknown. Here, we show that CHD8 interacts with CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) and promotes its transactivation activity during adipocyte differentiation...
May 15, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764718/metabolic-syndrome-associates-with-left-atrial-dysfunction
#2
K Nyman, M Granér, M O Pentikäinen, J Lundbom, A Hakkarainen, R Sirén, M S Nieminen, M-R Taskinen, N Lundbom, K Lauerma
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are risk factors of atrial fibrillation (AF), but limited data exist on their effect on left atrial (LA) function. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of cardiac, hepatic and intra-abdominal ectopic fat depots and cardiometabolic risk factors on LA function in non-diabetic male subjects. METHODS AND RESULTS: Myocardial and hepatic triglyceride contents were measured with 1.5T 1 H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy and LA and left ventricular function, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), epicardial and pericardial fat by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 33 men with MetS and 40 men without MetS...
February 21, 2018: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748196/interleukin-10-treatment-ameliorates-high-fat-diet-induced-inflammatory-atrial-remodeling-and-fibrillation
#3
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Obesity, characterized by systemic low-grade inflammation, is considered a well-known risk for atrial fibrillation. In fact, IL-10 (interleukin 10), which is a potent anti-inflammatory cytokine, has been reported to decrease in obese and diabetic patients. We tested the hypotheses forwarding that genetic deletion of IL-10 exacerbates high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity-caused atrial inflammation, lipidosis, fibrosis, and fibrillation and that IL-10 therapy inhibits this pathology...
May 2018: Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747379/magnesium-deprivation-potentiates-human-mesenchymal-stem-cell-transcriptional-remodeling
#4
Azzurra Sargenti, Sara Castiglioni, Elena Olivi, Francesca Bianchi, Alessandra Cazzaniga, Giovanna Farruggia, Concettina Cappadone, Lucia Merolle, Emil Malucelli, Carlo Ventura, Jeanette A M Maier, Stefano Iotti
Magnesium plays a pivotal role in energy metabolism and in the control of cell growth. While magnesium deprivation clearly shapes the behavior of normal and neoplastic cells, little is known on the role of this element in cell differentiation. Here we show that magnesium deficiency increases the transcription of multipotency markers and tissue-specific transcription factors in human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells exposed to a mixture of natural molecules, i.e., hyaluronic, butyric and retinoid acids, which tunes differentiation...
May 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732732/monocyte-derived-extracellular-vesicles-stimulate-cytokine-secretion-and-gene-expression-of-matrix-metalloproteinases-by-mesenchymal-stem-stromal-cells
#5
Arjen Gebraad, Roman Kornilov, Sippy Kaur, Susanna Miettinen, Suvi Haimi, Hilkka Peltoniemi, Bettina Mannerstrӧm, Riitta Seppӓnen-Kaijansinkko
Intercellular communication is essential in bone remodelling to ensure that new bone is formed with only temporary bone loss. Monocytes and osteoclasts actively take part in controlling bone remodelling by providing signals that promote osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs). Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have attracted attention as regulators of bone remodelling. EVs facilitate intercellular communication by transferring a complex cargo of biologically active molecules to target cells...
May 6, 2018: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721017/elevated-and-correlated-expressions-of-mir-24-mir-30d-mir-146a-and-sfrp-4-in-human-abdominal-adipose-tissue-play-a-role-in-adiposity-and-insulin-resistance
#6
Yury O Nunez Lopez, Gabriella Garufi, Magdalena Pasarica, Attila A Seyhan
Objective: We explored the relationships among microRNAs (miRNAs) and SFRP4, as they relate to adipose tissue functions including lipolysis, glucose and glycerol turnover, and insulin sensitivity. Methods: Abdominal adipose tissue (AbdAT) levels of thirteen microRNAs (miRNAs), SFRP4, and VEGF in lean nondiabetic subjects ( n = 7), subjects with obesity ( n = 5), and subjects with obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) ( n = 5) were measured by qPCR. Insulin sensitivity was measured by the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp...
2018: International Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719250/mitophagy-directs-muscle-adipose-crosstalk-to-alleviate-dietary-obesity
#7
Tingting Fu, Zhisheng Xu, Lin Liu, Qiqi Guo, Hao Wu, Xijun Liang, Danxia Zhou, Liwei Xiao, Lei Liu, Yong Liu, Min-Sheng Zhu, Quan Chen, Zhenji Gan
The quality of mitochondria in skeletal muscle is essential for maintaining metabolic homeostasis during adaptive stress responses. However, the precise control mechanism of muscle mitochondrial quality and its physiological impacts remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that FUNDC1, a mediator of mitophagy, plays a critical role in controlling muscle mitochondrial quality as well as metabolic homeostasis. Skeletal-muscle-specific ablation of FUNDC1 in mice resulted in LC3-mediated mitophagy defect, leading to impaired mitochondrial energetics...
May 1, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717149/author-correction-exosomes-secreted-by-human-adipose-mesenchymal-stem-cells-promote-scarless-cutaneous-repair-by-regulating-extracellular-matrix-remodelling
#8
Lu Wang, Li Hu, Xin Zhou, Zehuan Xiong, Chenguang Zhang, Hassan M A Shehada, Bo Hu, Jinlin Song, Lili Chen
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.
May 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705934/exosomes-secreted-by-adipose-derived-stem-cells-contribute-to-angiogenesis-of-brain-microvascular-endothelial-cells-following-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-in-vitro-through-microrna-181b-trpm7-axis
#9
Yujia Yang, Yue Cai, Yuan Zhang, Juan Liu, Zhiqiang Xu
Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) have been demonstrated to promote cerebral vascular remodeling processes after stroke. However, the exact molecular mechanism by which ADSCs exert protective roles in ischemic stroke is still poorly understood. In this study, we identified the role of exosomal microRNA-181b-5p (181b-Exos) in regulating post-stroke angiogenesis. The results of migration assay and capillary network formation assay showed that exosomes secreted by ADSCs (ADSCs-Exos) promoted the mobility and angiogenesis of brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) after oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)...
April 29, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704126/dermal-white-adipose-tissue-undergoes-major-morphological-changes-during-the-spontaneous-and-induced-murine-hair-follicle-cycling-a-reappraisal
#10
April R Foster, Carina Nicu, Marlon R Schneider, Eleanor Hinde, Ralf Paus
In murine skin, dermal white adipose tissue (DWAT) undergoes major changes in thickness in synchrony with the hair cycle (HC); however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We sought to elucidate whether increased DWAT thickness during anagen is mediated by adipocyte hypertrophy or adipogenesis, and whether lipolysis or apoptosis can explain the decreased DWAT thickness during catagen. In addition, we compared HC-associated DWAT changes between spontaneous and depilation-induced hair follicle (HF) cycling to distinguish between spontaneous and HF trauma-induced events...
April 27, 2018: Archives of Dermatological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702291/multilayered-coating-of-titanium-implants-promotes-coupled-osteogenesis-and-angiogenesis-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#11
Weizhen Chen, Kui Xu, Bailong Tao, Liangliang Dai, Yonglin Yu, Caiyun Mu, Xinkun Shen, Yan Hu, Ye He, Kaiyong Cai
We used surface-modified titanium (Ti) substrates with a multilayered structure composed of chitosan-catechol (Chi-C), gelatin (Gel) and hydroxyapatite (HA) nanofibers, which were previously shown to improve osteogenesis, as a platform to investigate the interaction of osteogenesis and angiogenesis during bone healing. Combined techniques of Transwell co-culture, wound healing assay, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), western blotting and immunohistochemical staining were used to evaluate adhesion, morphology and migration of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (Ad-MSCs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) grown on different Ti substrates...
April 24, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693099/deciphering-the-role-of-substrate-stiffness-in-enhancing-the-internalization-efficiency-of-plasmid-dna-in-stem-cells-using-lipid-based-nanocarriers
#12
Saman Modaresi, Settimio Pacelli, Jonathan Whitlow, Arghya Paul
This study investigates the role of substrate stiffness in the non-viral transfection of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) with the aim to maximize the hASC expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The results confirm the direct effect of substrate stiffness in regulating cytoskeletal remodeling and corresponding plasmid internalization.
April 25, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692363/jak-tgf%C3%AE-cross-talk-links-transient-adipose-tissue-inflammation-to-beige-adipogenesis
#13
Rohollah Babaei, Maximilian Schuster, Irina Meln, Sarah Lerch, Rayane A Ghandour, Didier F Pisani, Irem Bayindir-Buchhalter, Julia Marx, Shuang Wu, Gabriele Schoiswohl, Adrian T Billeter, Damir Krunic, Jan Mauer, Yun-Hee Lee, James G Granneman, Lars Fischer, Beat P Müller-Stich, Ez-Zoubir Amri, Erin E Kershaw, Mathias Heikenwälder, Stephan Herzig, Alexandros Vegiopoulos
The transient activation of inflammatory networks is required for adipose tissue remodeling including the "browning" of white fat in response to stimuli such as β3-adrenergic receptor activation. In this process, white adipose tissue acquires thermogenic characteristics through the recruitment of so-called beige adipocytes. We investigated the downstream signaling pathways impinging on adipocyte progenitors that promote de novo formation of adipocytes. We showed that the Jak family of kinases controlled TGFβ signaling in the adipose tissue microenvironment through Stat3 and thereby adipogenic commitment, a function that was required for beige adipocyte differentiation of murine and human progenitors...
April 24, 2018: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692362/transient-inflammatory-signaling-promotes-beige-adipogenesis
#14
REVIEW
Kai Sun, Zhanguo Gao, Mikhail G Kolonin
Inflammatory signaling has been implicated in adipose tissue remodeling and metabolism. In this issue of Science Signaling , Babaei et al report that lipolysis induced by β3-adrenergic signaling triggers transient inflammation that directs progenitor cells toward beige adipogenesis.
April 24, 2018: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690607/lipidomic-profiling-of-murine-macrophages-treated-with-fatty-acids-of-varying-chain-length-and-saturation-status
#15
Kevin Huynh, Gerard Pernes, Natalie A Mellett, Peter J Meikle, Andrew J Murphy, Graeme I Lancaster
Macrophages are abundant within adipose tissue depots where they are exposed to fatty acids, leading to lipid accumulation. Herein, we have determined the effects of various fatty acids on the macrophage lipidome. Using targeted mass-spectrometry, we were able to detect 641 individual lipid species in primary murine macrophages treated with a variety of saturated fatty acids and an un-saturated fatty acid, either alone or in combination. The most pronounced effects were observed for the long-chain saturated fatty acid palmitate, which increased the total abundance of numerous classes of lipids...
April 23, 2018: Metabolites
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688621/an-epigenetic-signature-in-adipose-tissue-is-linked-to-nicotinamide-n-methyltransferase-gene-expression
#16
Ana B Crujeiras, Pavlos Pissios, Jose M Moreno-Navarrete, Angel Diaz-Lagares, Juan Sandoval, Antonio Gomez, Wilfredo Ricart, Manel Esteller, Felipe F Casanueva, Jose M Fernandez-Real
SCOPE: The enzyme nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (NNMT) is a major methyltransferase in adipose tissue. We hypothesized an epigenetic signature in association with NNMT gene expression in adipose tissue. METHODS AND RESULTS: The global human methylome was analyzed in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) from morbidly obese patients using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array (discovery cohort: n  =  11). The findings were confirmed in two additional independent cohorts (Cohort 1: n  =  60; BMI 20-60 kg/m2 and cohort 2: n  =  40; BMI >40 kg/m2 ) and validated after weight loss (using microarray data)...
April 24, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679615/novel-protective-role-of-kallistatin-in-obesity-by-limiting-adipose-tissue-low-grade-inflammation-and-oxidative-stress
#17
Gema Frühbeck, Javier Gómez-Ambrosi, Amaia Rodríguez, Beatriz Ramírez, Víctor Valentí, Rafael Moncada, Sara Becerril, Xabier Unamuno, Camilo Silva, Javier Salvador, Victoria Catalán
OBJECTIVE: Kallistatin plays an important role in the inhibition of inflammation, oxidative stress, fibrosis and angiogenesis. We aimed to determine the impact of kallistatin on obesity and its associated metabolic alterations as well as its role in adipocyte inflammation and oxidative stress. METHODS: Samples obtained from 95 subjects were used in a case-control study. Circulating concentrations and expression levels of kallistatin as well as key inflammation, oxidative stress and extracellular matrix remodelling-related genes were analyzed...
April 18, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675584/brown-adipokines
#18
Francesc Villarroya, Aleix Gavaldà-Navarro, Marion Peyrou, Joan Villarroya, Marta Giralt
Brown adipokines are regulatory factors secreted by brown and beige adipocytes that exhibit endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine actions. Peptidic and non-peptidic molecules, including miRNAs and lipids, are constituents of brown adipokines. Brown adipose tissue remodeling to meet thermogenic needs is dependent on the secretory properties of brown/beige adipocytes. The association between brown fat activity and a healthy metabolic profile, in relation to energy balance and glucose and lipid homeostasis, is influenced by the endocrine actions of brown adipokines...
April 20, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675428/ptx3-a-potential-biomarker-in-thyroid-associated-ophthalmopathy
#19
Pei Mou, Ziyu Chen, Lihong Jiang, Jinwei Cheng, Ruili Wei
Background: Thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) is an autoimmune disease, which involves inflammation and tissue remodeling. Pentraxin-3 (PTX3) is a component of innate immune system and recently implicated in autoimmunity. This observation may indicate that PTX3 participates in the inflammatory process of TAO. Methods: All studies were performed on TAO patients and healthy controls (45: 28 in total). RNA-seq was used to detect differential gene expression of orbital adipose-connective tissue...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673856/2-3-7-8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-dose-dependently-increases-bone-mass-and-decreases-marrow-adiposity-in-juvenile-mice
#20
Kelly A Fader, Rance Nault, Sandi Raehtz, Laura R McCabe, Timothy R Zacharewski
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and other aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists have been shown to regulate bone development and remodeling in a species-, ligand-, and age-specific manner, however the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In this study, we characterized the effect of 0.01-30 μg/kg TCDD on the femoral morphology of male and female juvenile mice orally gavaged every 4 days for 28 days and used RNA-Seq to investigate gene expression changes associated with the resultant phenotype...
April 16, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
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