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adipose remodeling

Wook-Jin Chung
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a life-threatening disorder with a poor prognosis and causes pulmonary vascular remodeling accompanied with increased pulmonary arterial medial wall thickness and fibrosis, which leads to vascular and right ventricular (RV) dysfunction. Despite treatment with prostacyclin, endothelin antagonist, and phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors the 1-year mortality rate of PAH still remains high. Recent registries, clinical trials, and basic researches have been increasing the knowledge of PAH and it would contribute to potential therapeutic strategies and better clinical outcome...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
L Dollet, J Magré, M Joubert, C Le May, A Ayer, L Arnaud, C Pecqueur, V Blouin, B Cariou, X Prieur
Loss-of-function mutations in BSCL2 are responsible for Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy, a rare disorder characterized by near absence of adipose tissue associated with insulin resistance. Seipin-deficient (Bscl2(-/-)) mice display an almost total loss of white adipose tissue (WAT) with residual brown adipose tissue (BAT). Previous cellular studies have shown that seipin deficiency alters white adipocyte differentiation. In this study, we aimed to decipher the consequences of seipin deficiency in BAT...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
Gwendalyn J Randolph, Shashi Bala, Jean-François Rahier, Michael W Johnson, Peter L Wang, ILKe Nalbantoglu, Laurent Dubuquoy, Amélie Chau, Benjamin Pariente, Alex Kartheuser, Bernd H Zinselmeyer, Jean-Frederic Colombel
Early pathological descriptions of Crohn disease (CD) argued for a potential defect in lymph transport; however, this concept has not been thoroughly investigated. In mice, poor healing in response to infection-induced tissue damage can cause hyperpermeable lymphatic collecting vessels in mesenteric adipose tissue that impair antigen and immune cell access to mesenteric lymph nodes (LNs), which normally sustain appropriate immunity. To investigate whether analogous changes might occur in human intestinal disease, we established a three-dimensional imaging approach to characterize the lymphatic vasculature in mesenteric tissue from controls or patients with CD...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Pathology
Chelsea Hepler, Rana K Gupta
The rising incidence of obesity and associated metabolic diseases has increased the urgency in understanding all aspects of adipose tissue biology. This includes the function of adipocytes, how adipose tissue expands in obesity, and how expanded adipose tissues in adults can impact physiology. Here, we highlight the growing appreciation for the importance of de novo adipocyte differentiation to adipose tissue expansion in adult humans and animals. We detail recent efforts to identify adipose precursor populations that contribute to the physiological postnatal recruitment of white, brown, and beige adipocytes in mice, and summarize new data that reveal the complexity of adipose tissue development in vivo...
October 12, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Zhijin Li, Fangfang Xu, Zhifa Wang, Taiqiang Dai, Chao Ma, Bin Liu, Yanpu Liu
Macrophages are involved in the full processes of tissue healing or regeneration and play an important role in the regeneration of a variety of tissues. Although recent evidence suggests the role of different macrophage phenotypes in adipose tissue expansion, metabolism, and remodeling, the spectrum of macrophage phenotype in the adipose tissue engineering field remains unknown. The present study established a rat model of adipose tissue regeneration using a tissue engineering chamber. Macrophage phenotypes were assessed during the regenerative process in the model...
October 2016: Artificial Organs
Bernardo Sousa-Pinto, Laura Gonçalves, Adriana R Rodrigues, Inês Tomada, Henrique Almeida, Delminda Neves, Alexandra M Gouveia
Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of obesity, influencing the release of inflammation mediators and promoting remodeling and collagen deposition in the adipose tissue (AT). In this context, this work aims to elucidate whether TGF-β and Smad-dependent or Smad-independent signaling pathways contribute to regional differentiation of AT in high-fat diet (HFD) and energy-restricted (ER) rat models. For this, TGF-β, TGF-β receptors I and II, PAI-1 and GLUT4 mRNA levels were quantified by real-time PCR, and western blotting assays allowed the semiquantification of TGF-β and proteins from Smad3, ERK1/2 and Akt signaling pathways in subcutaneous and visceral (epididymal, retroperitoneal and mesenteric) fat depots from control, HFD and ER-treated rats...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Xi Fang, Matthew J Stroud, Kunfu Ouyang, Li Fang, Jianlin Zhang, Nancy D Dalton, Yusu Gu, Tongbin Wu, Kirk L Peterson, Hsien-Da Huang, Ju Chen, Nanping Wang
Adipose tissue is a key endocrine organ that governs systemic homeostasis. PPARγ is a master regulator of adipose tissue signaling that plays an essential role in insulin sensitivity, making it an important therapeutic target. The selective PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone (RSG) has been used to treat diabetes. However, adverse cardiovascular effects have seriously hindered its clinical application. Experimental models have revealed that PPARγ activation increases cardiac hypertrophy. RSG stimulates cardiac hypertrophy and oxidative stress in cardiomyocyte-specific PPARγ knockout mice, implying that RSG might stimulate cardiac hypertrophy independently of cardiomyocyte PPARγ...
October 6, 2016: JCI Insight
Tracy N Clevenger, Gabriel Luna, Daniel Boctor, Steven K Fisher, Dennis O Clegg
One of the most common regenerative therapies is autologous fat grafting, which frequently suffers from unexpected volume loss. One approach is to deliver adipose stem cells encapsulated in the engineered hydrogels supportive of cell survival, differentiation, and integration after transplant. We describe an encapsulating, biomimetic poly(ethylene)-glycol hydrogel, with embedded peptides for attachment and biodegradation. Poly(ethylene)-glycol hydrogels containing an Arg-Gly-Asp attachment sequence and a matrix metalloprotease 3/10 cleavage site supported adipose stem cell survival and showed remodeling initiated by adipogenic differentiation...
January 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering
Jacqueline K Andersen, Ingvild Oma, Richard A Prayson, Ingjerd Lien Kvelstad, Sven Martin Almdahl, Morten Wang Fagerland, Ivana Hollan
BACKGROUND: The cause of premature cardiovascular disease (CVD) in inflammatory rheumatic diseases (IRDs) has not been fully elucidated. As inflammation may play a role, we wanted to compare the occurrence and extent of inflammatory cell infiltrates (ICIs), small vessel vasculitis, and the amount of adipose tissue and collagen in cardiac biopsies taken from patients with coronary artery disease with and without IRDs. METHODS: From among the Feiring Heart Biopsy Study subjects, we selected patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting from whom paraffin-embedded, formalin-fixed specimens from the right atrium were available...
October 12, 2016: Arthritis Research & Therapy
G Andres Contreras, Kyan Thelen, Sarah E Schmidt, Clarissa Strieder-Barboza, Courtney L Preseault, William Raphael, Matti Kiupel, John Caron, Adam L Lock
Excessive rates of demand lipolysis in the adipose tissue (AT) during periods of negative energy balance (NEB) are associated with increased susceptibility to disease and limited lactation performance. Lipolysis induces a remodeling process within AT that is characterized by an inflammatory response, cellular proliferation, and changes in the extracellular matrix (ECMT). The adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) is a key component of the inflammatory response. Infiltration of ATM-forming cellular aggregates was demonstrated in transition cows, suggesting that ATM trafficking and phenotype changes may be associated with disease...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Iana M de Araujo, Carlos E G Salmon, Andressa K Nahas, Marcello H Nogueira-Barbosa, Jorge Elias Junior, Francisco Ja de Paula
OBJECTIVE: To assess the association of bone mass and marrow adipose tissue (MAT) with other fat depots, insulin resistance, bone remodeling markers, adipokines and glucose control in type 2 diabetes and obesity. DESIGN AND METHODS: Cross-sectional study; comprised 24 controls (C), 26 obese (O) and 28 type 2 diabetes. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to determine bone mineral density (BMD). Blood samples were collected for biochemical measurements. 1H Magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to assess MAT in the L3 vertebra and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess intrahepatic lipids, visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue...
October 5, 2016: European Journal of Endocrinology
Sofie Perdu, Barbara Castellana, Yoona Kim, Kathy Chan, Lauren DeLuca, Alexander G Beristain
Over one-fifth of North American women of childbearing age are obese, putting these women at risk for a variety of detrimental chronic diseases. In addition, obesity increases the risk for developing major complications during pregnancy. The mechanisms by which obesity contributes to pregnancy complications and loss remain unknown. Increasing evidence indicates that obesity results in major changes to adipose tissue immune cell composition and function; whether or not obesity also affects immune function in the uterus has not been explored...
July 21, 2016: JCI Insight
Francesc Villarroya, Marion Peyrou, Marta Giralt
Regulated transcription of the uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) gene, and subsequent UCP1 protein synthesis, is a hallmark of the acquisition of the differentiated, thermogenically competent status of brown and beige/brite adipocytes, as well as of the responsiveness of brown and beige/brite adipocytes to adaptive regulation of thermogenic activity. The 5' non-coding region of the UCP1 gene contains regulatory elements that confer tissue specificity, differentiation dependence, and neuro-hormonal regulation to UCP1 gene transcription...
October 5, 2016: Biochimie
Min Ye, Weiqin Lu, Xiaojie Wang, Cong Wang, James L Abbruzzese, Guang Liang, Xiaokun Li, Yongde Luo
The anti-obese and anti-diabetic FGF21 regulates lipid metabolism and energy homeostasis by targeting the betaKlotho-FGFR1 binary complex in adipose tissue adipocytes. Since lipid droplet is the organelle responsible for storing lipid energy in adipocytes, it is the plausible target of FGF21 action. However, the impact of the FGF21-betaKlotho-FGFR1 signaling pathway on the functions of the lipid droplet is not clearly understood. Using our mouse models of adipocyte-specific FGFR1 ablation and hepatic overexpression of FGF21 with diet-induced obesity established previously, we analyzed the alterations of the pathways involved in energy and substrate metabolism that is attributable to the dynamic functions of the lipid droplet...
October 3, 2016: Endocrinology
Giulia Ferrannini, Maria Namwanje, Bin Fang, Manashree Damle, Dylan Li, Qiongming Liu, Mitchell A Lazar, Li Qiang
OBJECTIVE: Genetic background largely contributes to the complexity of metabolic responses and dysfunctions. Induction of brown adipose features in white fat, known as brown remodeling, has been appreciated as a promising strategy to offset the positive energy balance in obesity and further to improve metabolism. Here we address the effects of genetic background on this process. METHODS: We investigated browning remodeling in a depot-specific manner by comparing the response of C57BL/6J, 129/Sv and FVB/NJ mouse strains to cold...
October 2016: Molecular Metabolism
Gerald Grandl, Sebastian Müller, Hansjörg Moest, Caroline Moser, Bernd Wollscheid, Christian Wolfrum
OBJECTIVE: Adipose tissue shows a high degree of plasticity, and adipocyte hyperplasia is an important mechanism for adipose tissue expansion. Different adipose depots respond differently to an increased demand for lipid storage. Orchestrating cellular expansion in vivo requires extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling and a high degree of interaction between cells and ECM. METHODS: We studied decellularized primary adipose stromal cell derived ECM of different adipose depots and reseeded them with primary adipose precursors...
October 2016: Molecular Metabolism
Ismail Çimen, Begüm Kocatürk, Seda Koyuncu, Özlem Tufanlı, Umut I Onat, Asli D Yıldırım, Onur Apaydın, Şeyma Demirsoy, Zaliha G Aykut, Uyen T Nguyen, Steven M Watkins, Gökhan S Hotamışlıgil, Ebru Erbay
De novo lipogenesis (DNL), the conversion of glucose and other substrates to lipids, is often associated with ectopic lipid accumulation, metabolic stress, and insulin resistance, especially in the liver. However, organ-specific DNL can also generate distinct lipids with beneficial metabolic bioactivity, prompting a great interest in their use for the treatment of metabolic diseases. Palmitoleate (PAO), one such bioactive lipid, regulates lipid metabolism in liver and improves glucose utilization in skeletal muscle when it is generated de novo from the obese adipose tissue...
September 28, 2016: Science Translational Medicine
Hua Shen, Ioannis Kormpakis, Necat Havlioglu, Stephen W Linderman, Shelly E Sakiyama-Elbert, Isaac E Erickson, Thomas Zarembinski, Matthew J Silva, Richard H Gelberman, Stavros Thomopoulos
BACKGROUND: The clinical outcomes following intrasynovial flexor tendon repair are highly variable. Excessive inflammation is a principal factor underlying the formation of adhesions at the repair surface and affecting matrix regeneration at the repair center that limit tendon excursion and impair tendon healing. A previous in-vitro study revealed that adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (ASCs) modulate tendon fibroblast response to macrophage-induced inflammation. The goal of the current study was therefore to explore the effectiveness of autologous ASCs on the inflammatory stage of intrasynovial tendon healing in vivo using a clinically relevant animal model...
September 27, 2016: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Jong-Ho Kim, Hyung Joon Joo, Mina Kim, Seung-Cheol Choi, Jeong Ik Lee, Soon Jun Hong, Do-Sun Lim
Adipose-derived stem cell (ADSC) transplantation has been proposed to improve cardiac function acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Recently, cell sheet technology has been investigated for its potential applicability in cardiac injury. However, detailed comparison of the functional recovery in the injured myocardium between cell sheets and conventional cell injection has not been adequately examined. ADSCs were isolated from the inguinal fat tissue of ICR mice. Three groups of AMI induction only (sham), intramyocardial injection of ADSCs (imADSC), and ADSC sheet transplantation (shADSC) were compared using rat AMI models...
September 27, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Marta Pelczyńska, Teresa Grzelak, Marcelina Walczak, Krystyna Czyżewska
In recent years, attention has been focused on pleiotropic directions of effects exerted by vitamin D. Epidemiological data indicate that deficiency of vitamin D in various population groups represents an increasingly widespread phenomenon, while a decreased serum concentration of calcitriol correlates with manifestation of civilization-linked diseases, including visceral obesity. This study aims at a review and synthesis of data linked to relationships between lowered vitamin D concentrations in blood and manifestation of obesity, and potential mechanisms which affect the concentration of the vitamin in conditions of an excessive accumulation of adipose tissue...
September 2016: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
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