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adipose remodeling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428261/ebf2-transcriptionally-regulates-brown-adipogenesis-via-the-histone-reader-dpf3-and-the-baf-chromatin-remodeling-complex
#1
Suzanne N Shapira, Hee-Woong Lim, Sona Rajakumari, Alexander P Sakers, Jeff Ishibashi, Matthew J Harms, Kyoung-Jae Won, Patrick Seale
The transcription factor early B-cell factor 2 (EBF2) is an essential mediator of brown adipocyte commitment and terminal differentiation. However, the mechanisms by which EBF2 regulates chromatin to activate brown fat-specific genes in adipocytes were unknown. ChIP-seq (chromatin immunoprecipitation [ChIP] followed by deep sequencing) analyses in brown adipose tissue showed that EBF2 binds and regulates the activity of lineage-specific enhancers. Mechanistically, EBF2 physically interacts with the chromatin remodeler BRG1 and the BAF chromatin remodeling complex in brown adipocytes...
April 20, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425841/adipocyte-hypertrophy-hyperplasia-balance-contributes-to-weight-loss-after-bariatric-surgery
#2
Lindsey A Muir, Nicki A Baker, Alexandra R Washabaugh, Christopher K Neeley, Carmen G Flesher, Jennifer B DelProposto, Lynn M Geletka, Amir A Ghaferi, Jonathan F Finks, Kanakadurga Singer, Oliver A Varban, Carey N Lumeng, Robert W O'Rourke
Predictors of weight loss responses are not well-defined. We hypothesized that adipose tissue phenotypic features related to remodeling would be associated with bariatric surgery weight loss responses. Visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues collected from patients during bariatric surgery were studied with flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, and QRTPCR, and results correlated with weight loss outcomes. Age, male sex, and a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes were associated with less weight loss. Adipocyte size was increased and preadipocyte frequency was decreased in visceral adipose tissue from diabetic subjects...
January 27, 2017: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425576/bone-marrow-adipose-and-lung-tissue-derived-murine-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-release-different-mediators-and-differentially-affect-airway-and-lung-parenchyma-in-experimental-asthma
#3
Soraia C Abreu, Mariana A Antunes, Debora G Xisto, Fernanda F Cruz, Vivian C Branco, Elga Bandeira, Jamil Zola Kitoko, Almair F de Araújo, Ludmilla Dellatorre-Texeira, Priscilla C Olsen, Daniel J Weiss, Bruno L Diaz, Marcelo M Morales, Patricia R M Rocco
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from different sources have differential effects on lung injury. To compare the effects of murine MSCs from bone marrow (BM), adipose tissue (AD), and lung tissue (LUNG) on inflammatory and remodeling processes in experimental allergic asthma, female C57BL/6 mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA) or saline (C). Twenty-four hours after the last challenge, mice received either saline (50 µl, SAL), BM-MSCs, AD-MSCs, or LUNG-MSCs (10(5) cells per mouse in 50 µl total volume) intratracheally...
April 20, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422570/an-induced-adipocyte-sheet-reduces-inflammatory-reactions-during-remodeling-of-xenogeneic-scaffolds-in-vivo
#4
Tong Yi, Qiang Wang, Fan Fan, Gouhui Fan
Surgical therapy of cardiovascular diseases frequently requires replacement of diseased tissues with prosthetic devices or grafts. Calcification is the main reason for the degeneration of implanted grafts. However, some factors reduce stenosis and attenuate calcification of implanted grafts. In this study, we used an autologous induced adipocyte cell-sheet (IACS) as a drug delivery system to determine whether its secretion ability has a beneficial effect on the remodeling process of grafts in a rat subcutaneous model...
April 19, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409151/temporal-changes-in-gene-expression-profile-during-mature-adipocyte-dedifferentiation
#5
Julie Anne Côté, Frédéric Guénard, Julie Lessard, Marc Lapointe, Simon Biron, Marie-Claude Vohl, André Tchernof
Objective. To characterize changes in gene expression profile during human mature adipocyte dedifferentiation in ceiling culture. Methods. Subcutaneous (SC) and omental (OM) adipose tissue samples were obtained from 4 participants paired for age and BMI. Isolated adipocytes were dedifferentiated in ceiling culture. Gene expression analysis at days 0, 4, 7, and 12 of the cultures was performed using Affymetrix Human Gene 2.0 STvi arrays. Hierarchical clustering according to similarity of expression changes was used to identify overrepresented functions...
2017: International Journal of Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389415/g-protein-coupled-receptor-kinase-2-grk2-as-an-integrative-signalling-node-in-the-regulation-of-cardiovascular-function-and-metabolic-homeostasis
#6
REVIEW
Federico Mayor, Marta Cruces-Sande, Alba C Arcones, Rocío Vila-Bedmar, Ana M Briones, Mercedes Salaices, Cristina Murga
G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) is emerging as a pivotal signalling hub able to integrate different transduction cascades. This ability appears to underlie its central role in different physiological and pathological conditions. Key mediators of cardiovascular function (such as catecholamines or angiotensin II) and components of the systemic milieu altered in insulin resistance conditions converge in increasing GRK2 levels in diverse cardiovascular cell types. In turn, GRK2 would simultaneously modulate several cardiovascular regulatory pathways, including GPCR and insulin signalling cascades, NO bioavailability and mitochondrial function...
April 4, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386236/metabolic-response-of-visceral-white-adipose-tissue-of-obese-mice-exposed-for-5-days-to-human-room-temperature-compared-to-mouse-thermoneutrality
#7
Inge van der Stelt, Femke Hoevenaars, Jitka Široká, Lidwien de Ronde, David Friedecký, Jaap Keijer, Evert van Schothorst
Housing of laboratory mice at room temperature (22°C) might be considered a constant cold stress, which induces a thermogenic program in brown adipose tissue (BAT). However, the early adaptive response of white adipose tissue (WAT), the fat storage organ of the body, to a change from thermoneutrality to room temperature is not known. This was investigated here for various WAT depots, focusing on epididymal WAT (eWAT), widely used as reference depot. Male adult diet-induced obese (DIO) C57BL/6JOlaHsd mice housed at thermoneutrality (29°C), were for 5 days either switched to room temperature (22°C) or remained at thermoneutrality...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385042/macrophage-response-to-allogeneic-adipose-tissue-derived-stromal-cells-in-hyaluronan-based-hydrogel-in-a-porcine-vocal-fold-injury-model
#8
Suzanne N King, Joo Hyun Woo, Sharon Tang, Susan L Thibeault
OBJECTIVE: Adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ASC) embedded in hyaluronan scaffold is a beneficial prophylactic treatment for vocal fold (VF) surgical scar. Here, we investigated the macrophage inflammatory response to allogeneic ASC-constructs and identified changes in lamina propria extracellular matrix. METHOD: Pig ASC were characterized and transfected with GFP+ lentivirus. Thirty-three pigs underwent VF biopsies, and after 3 days, gel alone, gel+pASC, placebo, or pASC alone was injected into wound bed...
June 2017: Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379384/osteocyte-protein-expression-is-altered-in-low-turnover-osteoporosis-caused-by-mutations-in-wnt1-and-pls3
#9
Katherine Wesseling-Perry, Riikka E Mäkitie, Ville-Valtteri Välimäki, Tero Laine, Christine M Laine, Matti J Välimäki, Renata C Pereira, Outi Mäkitie
Context: Osteocytes express proteins that regulate bone remodeling and mineralization as well as osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation. Objective: To evaluate the relationship between osteocyte-specific protein expression and bone histology in patients with monogenic osteoporosis due to WNT1 or PLS3 mutations. Design and Setting: Cross-sectional cohort study at a University Hospital. Participants: 6 patients (4 males, age range 14-72 years) with a heterozygous WNT1 mutation and 5 patients (4 males, age 9-70 years) with a hetero-/hemizygous PLS3 mutation...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373675/grape-seed-proanthocyanidin-supplementation-reduces-adipocyte-size-and-increases-adipocyte-number-in-obese-rats
#10
A Pascual-Serrano, A Arola-Arnal, S Suárez-Garcia, F I Bravo, M Suárez, L Arola, C Bladé
OBJECTIVES: White adipose tissue (WAT) expands through hypertrophy (increased adipocyte size) and/or hyperplasia (increased adipocyte number). Hypertrophy has been associated with insulin resistance and dyslipidemia independently of body composition and fat distribution. In contrast, hyperplasia protects against metabolic alterations. Proanthocyanidins, which are the most abundant flavonoids in the human diet, improve metabolic disturbances associated with diet-induced obesity without reducing body weight or adiposity...
April 4, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361303/macrophage-type-modulates-osteogenic-differentiation-of-adipose-tissue-mscs
#11
Yang Zhang, Thomas Böse, Ronald E Unger, John A Jansen, Charles James Kirkpatrick, Jeroen J J P van den Beucken
Since the reconstruction of large bone defects remains a challenge, knowledge about the biology of bone healing is desirable to develop novel strategies for improving the treatment of bone defects. In osteoimmunology, macrophages are the central component in the early stage of physiological response after bone injury and bone remodeling in the late stage. During this process, a switch of macrophage phenotype from pro-inflammatory (M1) to anti-inflammatory (M2) is observed. An appealing option for bone regeneration would be to exploit this regulatory role for the benefit of osteogenic differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells (e...
March 30, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348113/nongenomic-effects-via-the-mineralocorticoid-receptor
#12
Stefanie Ruhs, Alexander Nolze, Ralf Hübschmann, Claudia Grossmann
The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) belongs to the steroid hormone receptor family and classically functions as a ligand-dependent transcription factor. It is involved in water-electrolyte homeostasis and blood pressure regulation but independently from these effects also furthers inflammation, fibrosis, hypertrophy and remodeling in cardiovascular tissues. Next to genomic effects, aldosterone elicits very rapid actions within minutes that do not require transcription or translation and that occur both in classical MR epithelial target organs like kidney and colon but also in nonepithelial tissues with special pathophysiological relevance like heart and vasculature and adipose tissue...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339908/obesity-associated-cardiac-pathogenesis-in-broiler-breeder-hens-pathological-adaption-of-cardiac-hypertrophy1-2
#13
C Y Chen, H Y Lin, Y W Chen, Y J Ko, Y J Liu, Y H Chen, R L Walzem, S E Chen
Broiler hens consuming feed to appetite (ad libitum; AL) show increased mortality. Feed restriction (R) typically improves reproductive performance and livability of hens. Rapidly growing broilers can exhibit increased mortality due to cardiac insufficiency but it is unknown whether the increased mortality of non-R broiler hens is also due to cardiac compromise. To assess cardiac growth and physiology in fully mature birds, 45-week-old hens were either continued on R rations or assigned to AL feeding for 7 or 21 days...
March 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338809/resveratrol-derivative-btm-0512-mitigates-obesity-by-promoting-beige-remodeling-of-subcutaneous-preadipocytes
#14
Qingqing Li, Kuansong Wang, Yipeng Ma, Chunxiang Qin, Changsheng Dong, Ping Jin, Yan Wu, Xiaoming Xiong, Niansheng Li, Changping Hu, Jun Peng, Zhichun Yang
Recent studies revealed that sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is involved in the regulation of energy metabolism and its agonist resveratrol showed anti-obesity effect. This study aims to determine whether BTM-0512, a novel derivative of resveratrol, acts as an antagonist of obesity and to explore its possible mechanisms. High-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice were intragastrically administered with BTM-0512 (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg/day) or resveratrol (10 mg/kg/day). It was found that the body weight, Lee's index, ratio of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) to body weight, and blood glucose were significantly reduced in BTM-0512-treated mice when compared with those in mice treated with resveratrol...
February 24, 2017: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333993/integrated-transcriptomic-and-proteomic-analysis-of-the-molecular-cargo-of-extracellular-vesicles-derived-from-porcine-adipose-tissue-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#15
Alfonso Eirin, Xiang-Yang Zhu, Amrutesh S Puranik, John R Woollard, Hui Tang, Surendra Dasari, Amir Lerman, Andre J van Wijnen, Lilach O Lerman
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stromal/stem cell (MSC) transplantation is a promising therapy for tissue regeneration. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by MSCs act as their paracrine effectors by delivering proteins and genetic material to recipient cells. To assess how their cargo mediates biological processes that drive their therapeutic effects, we integrated miRNA, mRNA, and protein expression data of EVs from porcine adipose tissue-derived MSCs. METHODS: Simultaneous expression profiles of miRNAs, mRNAs, and proteins were obtained by high-throughput sequencing and LC-MS/MS proteomic analysis in porcine MSCs and their daughter EVs (n = 3 each)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330662/pericardial-but-not-hepatic-fat-by-ct-is-associated-with-cv-outcomes-and%C3%A2-structure-the-multi-ethnic-study-of-atherosclerosis
#16
Ravi V Shah, Amanda Anderson, Jingzhong Ding, Matthew Budoff, Oliver Rider, Steffen E Petersen, Majken Karoline Jensen, Manja Koch, Matthew Allison, Nadine Kawel-Boehm, Jessica Wisocky, Michael Jerosch-Herold, Kenneth Mukamal, Joao A C Lima, Venkatesh L Murthy
OBJECTIVES: The study sought to determine the associations between local (pericardial) fat and incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) events and cardiac remodeling independent of markers of overall adiposity. BACKGROUND: The impact of pericardial fat-a local fat depot encasing the heart-on myocardial function and long-term CV prognosis independent of systemic consequences of adiposity or hepatic fat is an area of active debate. METHODS: We studied 4,234 participants enrolled in the MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) study with concomitant cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography (CT) measurements for pericardial fat volume and hepatic attenuation (a measure of liver fat)...
March 10, 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326537/gax-suppresses-chemerin-cmklr1-induced-preadipocyte-biofunctions-through-the-inhibition-of-akt-mtor-and-erk-signaling-pathways
#17
Yunqi Jiang, Ping Liu, Wenlin Jiao, Juan Meng, Jinbo Feng
Adipose tissue is closely associated with angiogenesis and vascular remodeling. Chemerin is involved in inflammatory reaction and vascular dysfunction. However, the mechanisms of chemerin participating in vascular remodeling and whether Growth arrest-specific homeobox (Gax) can effectively intervene it remain obscured. Here, 3T3-F442A preadipocytes were cultured, injected into athymic mice to model fat pads, and treated respectively with Ad-chemerin, Ad-Gax, or specific inhibitors in vitro and in vivo. MTT, flow cytometry, Western blotting, and imunohisto(cyto)-chemistry analyses showed that chemerin enhanced the expression of FABP4 and VEGF, activated Akt/mTOR and ERK pathways, increased the cell percent of S phase, decreased the percent of G0-G1 phase and apoptotic cells, and augmented neovascular density in fat pads...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325852/extended-multiplexing-of-tmt-labeling-reveals-age-and-high-fat-diet-specific-proteome-changes-in-mouse-epididymal-adipose-tissue
#18
Deanna L Plubell, Phillip A Wilmarth, Yuqi Zhao, Alexandra M Fenton, Jessica Minnier, Ashok P Reddy, John Klimek, Xia Yang, Larry L David, Nathalie Pamir
The lack of high-throughput methods to analyze the adipose tissue protein composition limits our understanding of the protein networks responsible for age and diet related metabolic response. We have developed an approach using multiple-dimension liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and extended multiplexing (24 biological samples) with TMT labeling to analyze proteomes of epididymal adipose tissues isolated from mice fed either low or high fat diet for a short or a long-term, and from mice that aged on low vs...
March 21, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323977/short-term-vs-long-term-effects-of-adipocyte-toll-like-receptor-4-activation-on-insulin-resistance-in-male-mice
#19
Caroline Tao, William L Holland, Qiong A Wang, Mengle Shao, Lin Jia, Kai Sun, Xiaoli Lin, Yi-Chun Kuo, Joshua A Johnson, Ruth Gordillo, Joel K Elmquist, Philipp E Scherer
Chronic exposure to diets high in saturated fat (HFD) increases the prevalence of obesity and contributes to the development of low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance. A possible mediator accounting for obesity-associated inflammation and insulin resistance is Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). We investigated the role of adipocyte TLR4 in lipid and glucose homeostasis through an inducible, adipocyte-specific deletion of TLR4, the "TADIPO mouse". Consistent with a critical role for inflammation as a positive force for healthy adipose tissue expansion, chronic HFD exposure resulted in exacerbated whole body and muscle insulin resistance in the absence of TLR4 in the adipocyte...
February 24, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318324/subchondral-bone-response-to-injected-adipose-derived-stromal-cells-for-treating-osteoarthritis-using-an-experimental-rabbit-model
#20
A Parrilli, G Giavaresi, A Ferrari, F Salamanna, G Desando, B Grigolo, L Martini, M Fini
Although articular cartilage is the target of osteoarthritis (OA), its deterioration is not always clearly associated with patient symptoms. Because a functional interaction between cartilage and bone is crucial, the pathophysiology of OA and its treatment strategy must focus also on subchondral bone. We investigated whether adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) injected into a joint at two different concentrations could prevent subchondral bone damage after the onset of mild OA in a rabbit model. We measured both volumetric and densitometric aspects of bone remodeling...
2017: Biotechnic & Histochemistry: Official Publication of the Biological Stain Commission
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