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adipose remodeling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334696/mast-cells-participate-in-chronic-low-grade-inflammation-within-adipose-tissue
#1
REVIEW
P Żelechowska, J Agier, E Kozłowska, E Brzezińska-Błaszczyk
Obesity is reckoned as one of the civilization diseases, posing a considerable global health issue. Evidence points towards a contribution of multitude immune cell populations in obesity pathomechanism and the development of chronic low-grade inflammation in the expanded adipose tissue. Notably, adipose tissue is a reservoir of mast cells which number in individuals with obesity particularly increased. Some of them tend to degranulation what generate secretion of strong pro-inflammatory and regulatory mediators, as well as cytokines/chemokines...
January 15, 2018: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331057/manifestations-and-mechanisms-of-myocardial-lipotoxicity-in-obesity
#2
Arthur C Sletten, Linda R Peterson, Jean E Schaffer
Environmental and socioeconomic changes over the past thirty years have contributed to a dramatic rise in the worldwide prevalence of obesity. Heart disease is among the most serious health risks of obesity, with increases in both atherosclerotic coronary heart disease and heart failure among obese individuals. In this review, we focus on primary myocardial alterations in obesity that include hypertrophic remodeling and diastolic dysfunction. Obesity-associated perturbations in myocardial and systemic lipid metabolism are important contributors to cardiovascular complications of obesity...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329013/antiobesity-effect-of-lactobacillus-reuteri-263-associated-with-energy-metabolism-remodeling-of-white-adipose-tissue-in-high-energy-diet-fed-rats
#3
Li-Han Chen, Yi-Hsing Chen, Kuan-Chen Cheng, Ting-Yi Chien, Ching-Hung Chan, Shu-Ping Tsao, Hui-Yu Huang
Obesity is a serious and costly issue to the medical welfare worldwide. Probiotics have been suggested as one of the candidates to resolve the obesity-associated problems, but how they combat obesity is not fully understood. Herein, we investigated the effects of Lactobacillus reuteri 263 (L. reuteri 263) on antiobesity using four groups of Sprague-Dawley rats (n=10/group), namely, C (normal diet with vehicle treatment), HE [high-energy diet (HED) with vehicle treatment], 1X (HED with 2.1×109 CFU/kg/day of L...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327704/emerging-nonmetabolic-functions-of-skin-fat
#4
REVIEW
Christian F Guerrero-Juarez, Maksim V Plikus
Although the major white adipose depots evolved primarily to store energy, secrete hormones and thermo-insulate the body, multiple secondary depots developed additional specialized and unconventional functions. Unlike any other fat tissue, dermal white adipose tissue (dWAT) evolved a large repertoire of novel features that are central to skin physiology, which we discuss in this Review. dWAT exists in close proximity to hair follicles, the principal appendages of the skin that periodically grow new hairs. Responding to multiple hair-derived signals, dWAT becomes closely connected to cycling hair follicles and periodically cycles itself...
January 12, 2018: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321243/adipose-depot-specific-effects-of-ileal-interposition-surgery-in-ucd-t2d-rats-unexpected-implications-for-obesity-and-diabetes
#5
Connie Hung, Casey Bronec, Eleonora Napoli, James Graham, Kimber L Stanhope, Ilaria Marsilio, Maria Cecilia Giron, Peter J Havel, Cecilia Giulivi
Ileal interposition (IT) surgery delays the onset of diabetes in a rat model of type-2 diabetes (UCD-T2DM). Here, to gain a deeper understanding of the molecular events underlying the effects of IT surgery, we examined the changes in the proteome of 4 white adipose depots (retroperitoneal, mesenteric, inguinal, and epididymal), and plasma free fatty acid profile in pre-diabetic rats 1.5 months following IT or sham surgery. The IT-mediated changes were exerted mainly in mesenteric fat, and spanned from delayed adipocyte maturation to a neuroendocrine remodeling...
January 10, 2018: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320711/anatomical-physiological-and-functional-diversity-of-adipose-tissue
#6
REVIEW
Rachel K Zwick, Christian F Guerrero-Juarez, Valerie Horsley, Maksim V Plikus
Adipose tissue depots can exist in close association with other organs, where they assume diverse, often non-traditional functions. In stem cell-rich skin, bone marrow, and mammary glands, adipocytes signal to and modulate organ regeneration and remodeling. Skin adipocytes and their progenitors signal to hair follicles, promoting epithelial stem cell quiescence and activation, respectively. Hair follicles signal back to adipocyte progenitors, inducing their expansion and regeneration, as in skin scars. In mammary glands and heart, adipocytes supply lipids to neighboring cells for nutritional and metabolic functions, respectively...
January 9, 2018: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310935/degradation-of-brown-adipocyte-purine-nucleotides-regulates-uncoupling-protein-1-activity
#7
Tobias Fromme, Karin Kleigrewe, Andreas Dunkel, Angelika Retzler, Yongguo Li, Stefanie Maurer, Natascha Fischer, Rolf Diezko, Timo Kanzleiter, Verena Hirschberg, Thomas Hofmann, Martin Klingenspor
OBJECTIVE: Non-shivering thermogenesis in mammalian brown adipose tissue depends on thermogenic uncoupling protein 1. Its activity is triggered by free fatty acids while purine nucleotides mediate inhibition. During activation, it is thought that free fatty acids overcome purine-mediated inhibition. We measured the cellular concentration and the release of purine nucleotide metabolites to uncover a possible role of purine nucleotide degradation in uncoupling protein 1 activation. METHODS: With mass spectrometry, purine nucleotide metabolites were quantified in cellular homogenates and supernatants of cultured primary brown adipocytes...
December 26, 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298894/tumor-extrinsic-discoidin-domain-receptor-1-promotes-mammary-tumor-growth-by-regulatingadipose-stromal-interleukin-6-production-in-mice
#8
Xiujie Sun, Kshama Gupta, Bogang Wu, Deyi Zhang, Bin Yuan, Xiaowen Zhang, Huai-Chin Chiang, Chi Zhang, Tyler J Curiel, Michelle P Bendeck, Stephen Hursting, Yanfen Hu, Rong Li
Discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1) is a collagen receptor that mediates cell communications with the extracellular matrix (ECM). Aberrant expression and activity of DDR1 in tumor cells are known to promote tumor growth. Although elevated DDR1 levels in stroma of breast tumors are associated with poor patient outcome, a causal role for tumor-extrinsic DDR1 in cancer promotion remains unclear, however. Here, we report that murine mammary tumor cells transplanted to syngeneic recipient mice in which Ddr1 has been knocked out (KO) grow less robustly than in WT mice...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295860/reduced-ppar%C3%AE-2-expression-in-adipose-tissue-of-male-rat-offspring-from-obese-dams-is-associated-with-epigenetic-modifications
#9
Simon Lecoutre, Charlène Pourpe, Laura Butruille, Lucie Marousez, Christine Laborie, Céline Guinez, Jean Lesage, Didier Vieau, Jérôme Eeckhoute, Anne Gabory, Frédérik Oger, Delphine Eberlé, Christophe Breton
According to the Developmental Origin of Health and Disease (DOHaD) concept, maternal obesity and accelerated growth in neonates program obesity later in life. White adipose tissue (WAT) has been the focus of developmental programming events, although underlying mechanisms remain elusive. In rodents, WAT development primarily occurs during lactation. We previously reported that adult rat offspring from dams fed a high-fat (HF) diet exhibited fat accumulation and decreased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) mRNA levels in WAT...
January 2, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278852/adipokines-in-neurovascular-diseases
#10
REVIEW
Radka Opatrilova, Martin Caprnda, Peter Kubatka, Vanda Valentova, Sona Uramova, Vladimir Nosal, Ludovit Gaspar, Lukas Zachar, Ioana Mozos, Daniel Petrovic, Jozef Dragasek, Slavomira Filipova, Dietrich Büsselberg, Anthony Zulli, Luis Rodrigo, Peter Kruzliak, Vladimir Krasnik
Adipose tissue is now described as an endocrine organ secreting a number of adipokines contributing to the development of inflammation and metabolic imbalance, but also endothelial dysfunction, vascular remodeling, atherosclerosis, and ischemic stroke. Leptin, adiponectin, and resistin are the most studied adipokines which play important roles in the regulation of cardiovascular homeostasis. Leptin and adiponectin mediate both proatherogenic and antiatherogenic responses. Leptin and adiponectin have been linked to the development of coronary heart disease and may be involved in the underlying biological mechanism of ischemic stroke...
December 23, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277338/hypothalamic-abnormalities-growth-failure-due-to-defects-of-the-ghrh-receptor
#11
Manuel H Aguiar-Oliveira, Caridad Davalos, Viviane C Campos, Luiz A Oliveira Neto, Cindi G Marinho, Carla R P Oliveira
Several acquired or congenital hypothalamic abnormalities may cause growth failure (GF). We described two of these congenital abnormalities. First, a case of CHARGE syndrome, an epigenetic disorder mostly caused by heterozygous mutations in the gene encoding CHD7, a chromatin remodeling protein, causing several malformations, some life-threatening, with additional secondary hypothalamus-hypophyseal dysfunction, including GF. Second, a cohort of individuals with genetic isolated severe GH deficiency (IGHD), due to a homozygous mutation in the GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) receptor gene described in Itabaianinha County, in northeast Brazil...
December 20, 2017: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249357/il-10-signaling-remodels-adipose-chromatin-architecture-to-limit-thermogenesis-and-energy-expenditure
#12
Prashant Rajbhandari, Brandon J Thomas, An-Chieh Feng, Cynthia Hong, Jiexin Wang, Laurent Vergnes, Tamer Sallam, Bo Wang, Jaspreet Sandhu, Marcus M Seldin, Aldons J Lusis, Loren G Fong, Melanie Katz, Richard Lee, Stephen G Young, Karen Reue, Stephen T Smale, Peter Tontonoz
Signaling pathways that promote adipose tissue thermogenesis are well characterized, but the limiters of energy expenditure are largely unknown. Here, we show that ablation of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 improves insulin sensitivity, protects against diet-induced obesity, and elicits the browning of white adipose tissue. Mechanistic studies define bone marrow cells as the source of the IL-10 signal and adipocytes as the target cell type mediating these effects. IL-10 receptor alpha is highly enriched in mature adipocytes and is induced in response to differentiation, obesity, and aging...
December 8, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243809/obesity-induced-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-porcine-adipose-tissue-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#13
Yu Meng, Alfonso Eirin, Xiang-Yang Zhu, Hui Tang, Pritha Chanana, Amir Lerman, Andre J van Wijnen, Lilach O Lerman
BACKGROUND: Transplantation of autologous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) may be a viable option for treatment of several diseases. MSCs efficacy depends on adequate function of their mitochondria, which might be impaired in a noxious milieu. OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that obesity compromises MSCs mitochondrial structure and function, possibly via micro-RNA (miRNA)-based mechanisms. METHODS: MSCs were collected from swine abdominal adipose tissue after 16 weeks of Lean or Obese diet (n = 7 each)...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242563/ck2-modulates-adipocyte-insulin-signaling-and-is-up-regulated-in-human-obesity
#14
Christian Borgo, Gabriella Milan, Francesca Favaretto, Fabio Stasi, Roberto Fabris, Valentina Salizzato, Luca Cesaro, Anna Belligoli, Marta Sanna, Mirto Foletto, Luca Prevedello, Vincenzo Vindigni, Romeo Bardini, Arianna Donella-Deana, Roberto Vettor
Insulin plays a major role in glucose metabolism and insulin-signaling defects are present in obesity and diabetes. CK2 is a pleiotropic protein kinase implicated in fundamental cellular pathways and abnormally elevated in tumors. Here we report that in human and murine adipocytes CK2-inhibition decreases the insulin-induced glucose-uptake by counteracting Akt-signaling and GLUT4-translocation to the plasma membrane. In mice CK2 acts on insulin-signaling in adipose tissue, liver and skeletal muscle and its acute inhibition impairs glucose tolerance...
December 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231990/tendon-explant-cultures-to-study-the-communication-between-adipose-stem-cells-and-native-tendon-niche
#15
Raquel Costa-Almeida, Dominika Berdecka, Márcia T Rodrigues, Rui L Reis, Manuela E Gomes
Poor clinical outcomes of tendon repair, together with limited regenerative capacity of the tissue, have triggered the search for alternative regenerative medicine strategies. Human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) are being investigated as a promising cell source in contributing for tendon repopulation and reconstruction. However, the mechanisms involved in a potential beneficial effect in tendon regeneration are still to be uncovered. To gain further insights on the bi-directional crosstalk occurring between stem cells and the native tendon niche, it was used an indirect (trans-well) system for co-culturing human tendon explants and hASCs...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229414/lipid-droplets-induced-by-secreted-phospholipase-a2and-unsaturated-fatty-acids-protect-breast-cancer-cells-from-nutrient-and-lipotoxic-stress
#16
Eva Jarc, Ana Kump, Petra Malavašič, Thomas O Eichmann, Robert Zimmermann, Toni Petan
Cancer cells driven by the Ras oncogene scavenge unsaturated fatty acids (FAs) from their environment to counter nutrient stress. The human group X secreted phospholipase A2(hGX sPLA2) releases FAs from membrane phospholipids, stimulates lipid droplet (LD) biogenesis in Ras-driven triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells and enables their survival during starvation. Here we examined the role of LDs, induced by hGX sPLA2and unsaturated FAs, in protection of TNBC cells against nutrient stress. We found that hGX sPLA2releases a mixture of unsaturated FAs, including ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs), from TNBC cells...
December 8, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224089/cellular-mechanisms-driving-sex-differences-in-adipose-tissue-biology-and-body-shape-in-humans-and-mouse-models
#17
Kalypso Karastergiou, Susan K Fried
Sex differences in adipose tissue distribution and the metabolic, endocrine, and immune functions of different anatomical fat depots have been described, but they are incompletely documented in the literature. It is becoming increasingly clear that adipose depots serve distinct functions in males and females and have specific physiological roles. However, the mechanisms that regulate the size and function of specific adipose tissues in men and women remain poorly understood. New insights from mouse models have advanced our understanding of depot differences in adipose growth and remodeling via the proliferation and differentiation of adipose progenitors that can expand adipocyte number in the tissue or simply replace dysfunctional older and larger adipocytes...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216525/high-refined-carbohydrate-diet-promotes-detrimental-effects-on-alveolar-bone-and-femur-microarchitecture
#18
C C Montalvany-Antonucci, M C Zicker, S Macari, T S F Pereira, I M A Diniz, I Andrade, A V M Ferreira, T A Silva
The impact of high-refined carbohydrate (HC) diet on fat accumulation, adipokines secretion and systemic inflammation is well described. However, it remains unclear whether these processes affect bone remodeling. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of HC diet in the alveolar bone and femur parameters. METHODS: BalbC mice were fed with conventional chow or HC diet for 12 weeks. After experimental time maxillae, femur, blood and white adipose tissue samples were collected...
November 28, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215729/crosstalk-between-adipose-stem-cells-and-tendon-cells-reveals-a-temporal-regulation-of-tenogenesis-by-matrix-deposition-and-remodeling
#19
Raquel Costa-Almeida, Isabel Calejo, Rui L Reis, Manuela E Gomes
Tendon injuries constitute an unmet clinical challenge owing to the limited intrinsic regenerative ability of this tissue. Cell-based therapies aim at improving tendon healing through the delicate orchestration of tissue rebuilding and regain of function. Hence, human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) have been proposed as a promising cell source for boosting tendon regeneration. In this work, we investigated the influence of hASCs on native human tendon-derived cells (hTDCs) through the establishment of a direct contact co-culture system...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211319/clinical-implications-of-bone-marrow-adiposity
#20
REVIEW
Annegreet G Veldhuis-Vlug, Clifford J Rosen
Marrow adipocytes, collectively termed marrow adipose tissue (MAT), reside in the bone marrow in close contact to bone cells and hematopoietic cells. Marrow adipocytes arise from the mesenchymal stem cell and share their origin with the osteoblastst. Shifts in the lineage allocation of the mesenchymal stromal cell could potentially explain the association between increased MAT and increased fracture risk in diseases such as postmenopausal osteoporosis, anorexia nervosa and diabetes. Functionally, marrow adipocytes secrete adipokines, such as adiponectin, and cytokines, such as RANK-ligand and stem cell factor...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
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