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adipose remodeling

Takeshi Akama, Tae-Hwa Chun
The visceral (VIS) and subcutaneous (SQ) fat pads are developmentally distinct white adipose tissue depots and contribute differently to inflammation and insulin resistance associated with obesity. The basic helix-loop-helix transcriptional regulator transcription factor 21 (TCF21) is a marker gene for white adipose tissues and is abundantly expressed in VIS-derived adipose stem cells (ASCs), but not in SQ-derived ASCs. However, TCF21's role in regulating fat depot-specific gene expression and function is incompletely understood...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Qingbo Chen, Lei Huang, Dongning Pan, Lihua J Zhu, Yong-Xu Wang
Transcriptional co-activator Prdm16 controls brown fat development and white fat browning, but how this thermogenic function is modulated post-translationally is poorly understood. Here, we report that Cbx4, a Polycomb group protein, is a SUMO E3 ligase for Prdm16 and that Cbx4-mediated sumoylation of Prdm16 is required for thermogenic gene expression. Cbx4 expression is enriched in brown fat and is induced in adipose tissue by acute cold exposure. Sumoylation of Prdm16 at lysine 917 by Cbx4 blocks its ubiquitination-mediated degradation, thereby augmenting its stability and thermogenic function...
March 13, 2018: Cell Reports
Mazaher Gholipourmalekabadi, Alexander M Seifalian, Aleksandra M Urbanska, Mir Davood Omrani, John G Hardy, Zahra Madjd, Seyed Mahmoud Hashemi, Hossein Ghanbarian, Peiman Brouki Milan, Masoud Mozafari, Rui L Reis, Subhas C Kundu, Ali Samadikuchaksaraei
Severe burn injuries can lead to delay in healing and devastating scar formation. Attempts are made to develop a suitable skin substitute for scarless healing of such skin wounds. Currently, there is no effective strategy yet for a complete scarless healing after the thermal injuries. In our recent work we fabricate and evaluated a 3D protein-based artificial skin made from decellularized human amniotic membrane (AM) and electrospun nanofibrous silk fibroin (ESF) in vitro. We also characterize both biophysical and cell culture investigation to establish in vitro performance of the developed bilayer scaffolds...
March 12, 2018: Biomacromolecules
Maryam Safahani, Hadi Aligholi, Farshid Noorbakhsh, Mahmoud Djalali, Hamideh Pishva, Sayed Mostafa Modarres Mousavi, Fatemeh Alipour, Ali Gorji, Fariba Koohdani
OBJECTIVE: Adult hypothalamic neurogenesis has been considered a central regulator of energy balance. Resveratrol (RSV), a natural polyphenol, influences the body fat mass and reduces the amount of adipose tissue. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of RSV on dynamic of hypothalamic neurons in a diet-induced obesity model of mice. METHODS: Apoptosis, neurogenesis, the expression of the main trophic factors, and the fate of newborn cells were evaluated in the hypothalamus of adult male C57 BL/6 J mice fed a normal diet, a high-fat (HF) diet, or an HF diet supplemented with 400 mg/kg RSV (HF + RSV) for 6 wk...
December 2, 2017: Nutrition
Tiange Li, Jing Gao, Min Du, Jiajia Song, Xueying Mao
Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM), a protein-lipid complex surrounding the fat globules in milk, has many health benefits. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether MFGM could prevent obesity through inhibiting adipogenesis and promoting brown remodeling of white adipose tissue (WAT) in mice fed with high-fat diet. C57BL/6 mice were fed a normal diet (ND), high-fat diet (HFD), HFD plus MFGM at 100 mg/kg BW, 200 mg/kg BW or 400 mg/kg BW for 8 weeks. Results showed that MFGM suppressed body weight gain induced by HFD, reduced white adipose tissue (WAT) mass accompanied with the decrease in adipocyte sizes...
March 9, 2018: Nutrients
Ting Shen, Qing-Qing Zheng, Jiang Shen, Qiu-Shi Li, Xing-Hui Song, Hong-Bo Luo, Chao-Yang Hong, Ke Yao
Background: Corneal stromal cells (CSCs) are components of the corneal endothelial microenvironment that can be induced to form a functional tissue-engineered corneal endothelium. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) have been reported as an important component of regenerative medicine and cell therapy for corneal stromal damage. We have demonstrated that the treatment with ADSCs leads to phenotypic changes in CSCs in vitro. However, the underlying mechanisms of such ADSC-induced changes in CSCs remain unclear...
March 20, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
Saverio La Francesca, Johnathon M Aho, Matthew R Barron, Ellen W Blanco, Sherif Soliman, Lena Kalenjian, Ariel D Hanson, Elisaveta Todorova, Matthew Marsh, KaLia Burnette, Harout DerSimonian, Robert D Odze, Dennis A Wigle
Treatment of esophageal disease can necessitate resection and reconstruction of the esophagus. Current reconstruction approaches are limited to utilization of an autologous conduit such as stomach, small bowel, or colon. A tissue engineered construct providing an alternative for esophageal replacement in circumferential, full thickness resection would have significant clinical applications. In the current study, we demonstrate that regeneration of esophageal tissue is feasible and reproducible in a large animal model using synthetic polyurethane electro-spun grafts seeded with autologous adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (aMSCs) and a disposable bioreactor...
March 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
Adam C Lehnig, Kristin I Stanford
The beneficial effects of exercise on skeletal muscle and the cardiovascular system have long been known. Recent studies have focused on investigating the effects of exercise on adipose tissue and the effects that these exercise-induced adaptations have on overall metabolic health. Examination of exercise-induced adaptations in both white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) has revealed marked differences in each tissue with exercise. In WAT, there are changes to both subcutaneous WAT (scWAT) and visceral WAT (vWAT), including decreased adipocyte size and lipid content, increased expression of metabolic genes, altered secretion of adipokines and increased mitochondrial activity...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Theresa Schoettl, Ingrid P Fischer, Siegfried Ussar
Adipose tissue is a central metabolic organ. Unlike other organs, adipose tissue is compartmentalized into individual depots and distributed throughout the body. These different adipose depots show major functional differences and risk associations for developing metabolic syndrome. Recent advances in lineage tracing demonstrate that individual adipose depots are composed of adipocytes that are derived from distinct precursor populations, giving rise to different populations of energy-storing white adipocytes...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Emil Andersen, Lars Roed Ingerslev, Odile Fabre, Ida Donkin, Ali Altıntaş, Soetkin Versteyhe, Thue Bisgaard, Viggo B Kristiansen, David Simar, Romain Barrès
BACKGROUND: Deterioration of the adipogenic potential of preadipocytes may contribute to adipose tissue dysfunction in obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Here, we hypothesized that extracellular factors in obesity epigenetically reprogram adipogenesis potential and metabolic function of preadipocytes. METHODS: The transcriptomic profile of visceral adipose tissue preadipocytes collected from Lean, Obese and Obese with T2D was assessed throughout in vitro differentiation using RNA sequencing...
February 20, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Soon-Hee Kim, Hee-Sook Park, Moon Ju Hong, Haeng Jeon Hur, Dae Young Kwon, Myung-Sunny Kim
SCOPE: This study investigated the effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), a bioactive component of honeybee hives, on the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome (MetS) by comparing the efficacy of CAPE intake at the beginning of obesity and after obesity. The functional mechanism of CAPE was also investigated. METHODS AND RESULTS: C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) containing 0.05% CAPE (HFD+C) for 12 weeks (HFD+C(Pre) group) or received HFD+C for 6 weeks after consuming the HFD for 6 weeks (HFD+C(Post) group)...
March 5, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Stella de Souza Vieira, Ednei Luiz Antonio, Brunno Lemes de Melo, Leslie Andrews Portes, Jairo Montemor, Helenita Antônia Oliveira, Flavia Leticia Martins, Camila Zogbi, Adriana Costa Girardi, José Antônio Silva, Paulo de Tarso Camillo de Carvalho, Paulo José Ferreira Tucci, Andrey Jorge Serra
BACKGROUND: Preconditioning of cell recipients may exert a significant role in attenuating the hostility of the infarction milieu, thereby enhancing the efficacy of cell therapy. This study was conducted to examine whether exercise training potentiates the cardioprotective effects of adipose-derived stem cell (ADSC) transplantation following myocardial infarction (MI) in rats. METHODS: Four groups of female Fisher-344 rats were studied: Sham; non-trained rats with MI (sMI); non-trained rats with MI submitted to ADSCs transplantation (sADSC); trained rats with MI submitted to ADSCs (tADSC)...
November 22, 2017: Heart, Lung & Circulation
Mengle Shao, Lavanya Vishvanath, Napoleon C Busbuso, Chelsea Hepler, Bo Shan, Ankit X Sharma, Shiuhwei Chen, Xinxin Yu, Yu A An, Yi Zhu, William L Holland, Rana K Gupta
Pathologic expansion of white adipose tissue (WAT) in obesity is characterized by adipocyte hypertrophy, inflammation, and fibrosis; however, factors triggering this maladaptive remodeling are largely unknown. Here, we test the hypothesis that the potential to recruit new adipocytes from Pdgfrβ+ preadipocytes determines visceral WAT health in obesity. We manipulate levels of Pparg, the master regulator of adipogenesis, in Pdgfrβ+ precursors of adult mice. Increasing the adipogenic capacity of Pdgfrβ+ precursors through Pparg overexpression results in healthy visceral WAT expansion in obesity and adiponectin-dependent improvements in glucose homeostasis...
March 1, 2018: Nature Communications
Loreta Casquel De Tomasi, Dijon Henrique Salomé Campos, Paula Grippa Sant'Ana, Katashi Okoshi, Carlos Roberto Padovani, Gilson Masahiro Murata, Son Nguyen, Stephen C Kolwicz, Antonio Carlos Cicogna
Pathological cardiac hypertrophy leads to derangements in lipid metabolism that may contribute to the development of cardiac dysfunction. Since previous studies, using high saturated fat diets, have yielded inconclusive results, we investigated whether provision of a high-unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) diet was sufficient to restore impaired lipid metabolism and normalize diastolic dysfunction in the pathologically hypertrophied heart. Male, Wistar rats were subjected to supra-valvar aortic stenosis (SVAS) or sham surgery...
2018: PloS One
Corinna Storz, Susanne Rospleszcz, Roberto Lorbeer, Holger Hetterich, Sigrid D Auweter, Wieland Sommer, Jürgen Machann, Sergios Gatidis, Wolfgang Rathmann, Margit Heier, Birgit Linkohr, Christa Meisinger, Maximilian Reiser, Udo Hoffmann, Annette Peters, Christopher L Schlett, Fabian Bamberg
INTRODUCTION: Detailed mechanisms in the pathophysiology of diabetes disease are poorly understood, but structural alterations in various organ systems incur an elevated risk for cardiovascular events and adverse outcome. The aim of this study was to compare multiorgan subclinical disease phenotypes by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to study differences between subjects with prediabetes, diabetes, and normal controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Subjects without prior cardiovascular disease were enrolled in a prospective case-control study and underwent multiorgan MR for the assessment of metabolic and arteriosclerotic alterations, including age-related white matter changes, hepatic proton density fat fraction, visceral adipose tissue volume, left ventricular remodeling index, carotid plaque, and late gadolinium enhancement...
February 28, 2018: Investigative Radiology
Ning Kon, Donglai Wang, Tongyuan Li, Le Jiang, Li Qiang, Wei Gu
Although cell-cycle arrest, senescence and apoptosis remain as major canonical activities of p53 in tumor suppression, the emerging role of p53 in metabolism has been a topic of great interest. Nevertheless, it is not completely understood how p53-mediated metabolic activities are regulated in vivo and whether this part of the activities has an independent role beyond tumor suppression. Mdmx (also called Mdm4), like Mdm2, acts as a major suppressor of p53 but the embryonic lethality of mdmx-null mice creates difficulties to evaluate its physiological significance in metabolism...
January 26, 2018: Oncotarget
Ludovic Melly, Giulia Cerino, Aurélien Frobert, Stéphane Cook, Marie-Noëlle Giraud, Thierry Carrel, Hendrik T Tevaearai Stahel, Friedrich Eckstein, Benoît Rondelet, Anna Marsano, Andrea Banfi
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) can induce normal or aberrant angiogenesis depending on the amount secreted in the microenvironment around each cell. Towards a possible clinical translation, we developed a Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting (FACS)-based technique to rapidly purify transduced progenitors that homogeneously express a desired specific VEGF level from heterogeneous primary populations. Here, we sought to induce safe and functional angiogenesis in ischaemic myocardium by cell-based expression of controlled VEGF levels...
February 25, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Anna Elisa Laria, Sebastiano Messineo, Biagio Arcidiacono, Mariaconcetta Varano, Eusebio Chiefari, Robert K Semple, Nuno Rocha, Diego Russo, Giovanni Cuda, Marco Gaspari, Antonio Brunetti, Daniela P Foti
In the obese state, as adipose tissue expands, adipocytes become hypoxic and dysfunctional, leading to changes in the pattern of adipocyte-secreted proteins. To better understand the role of hypoxia in the mechanisms linked to obesity, we comparatively analyzed the secretome of murine differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes exposed to normoxia or hypoxia for 24 h. Proteins secreted into the culture media were precipitated by trichloroacetic acid and then digested with trypsin. The peptides were labeled with dimethyl labeling and analyzed by reversed phase nanoscale liquid chromatography coupled to a quadrupole Orbitrap mass spectrometer...
February 21, 2018: Proteomics
Bianca N Lourenço, Nora L Springer, Daniel Ferreira, Carla Oliveira, Pedro L Granja, Claudia Fischbach
CD44, an abundantly expressed adhesion molecule, and its alternative splice variants have been associated with tumorigenesis and metastasis. In the context of gastric cancer (GC), de novo expression of CD44 variant 6 (CD44v6) is found in more than 60% of GCs, but its role in the pathogenesis and progression of this type of cancer remains unclear. Using a combination of media conditioning experiments and decellularized extracellular matrices (ECMs), this study investigates the hypothesis that CD44v6 overexpression enhances tumor cell malignant behavior by modulating stromal cell-mediated ECM remodeling...
February 16, 2018: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
S Becerril, A Rodríguez, V Catalán, L Méndez-Giménez, B Ramírez, N Sáinz, M Llorente, X Unamuno, J Gómez-Ambrosi, G Frühbeck
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Obesity is related to a dynamic extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling, which involves the synthesis and degradation of different proteins, such as tenascin C (TNC) in the adipose tissue (AT). Given the functional relationship between leptin and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), our aim was to analyze the impact of the absence of the iNOS gene in AT inflammation and ECM remodeling in ob/ob mice. SUBJECTS/METHODS: The expression of genes involved in inflammation and ECM remodeling was evaluated in 10-week-old male double knockout (DBKO) mice simultaneously lacking the ob and iNOS genes as well as in ob/ob mice classified into three groups [control, leptin-treated (1 mg kg -1 day -1 ) and pair-fed]...
February 15, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
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