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fat t regulatory cell

Myung-Shik Lee
Low-grade systemic inflammation in adipose tissues or liver, is an important etiologic factor in insulin resistance. LPS is an important element causing such metabolic inflammation, and intestinal flora is considered a major source of systemic LPS. We studied changes of intestinal microbiota associated with high-fat diet (HFD) that causes insulin resistance and metabolic stress. 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that HFD significantly decreased the abundance of a mucin-degrading bacterium Akkermansia muciniphila compared to control diet...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Motoko Morimoto, Noritsugu Azuma, Hikaru Kadowaki, Tatsuya Abe, Yoshiko Suto
Helminth-induced type 2 cytokines increase the number of regulatory T cells and alternatively activated macrophages, resulting in modulation of the host-immune system. Studies on these parasite-induced immunoregulatory mechanisms might contribute to the development of new therapies for inflammatory diseases, including type 2 diabetes (T2D). Previous studies have suggested that progression of obesity-associated metabolic abnormalities is under pathophysiological control of CD4+ T cells. Glucose absorption through the intestinal epithelium reduced after infection in a STAT-6-dependent manner...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Myung-Shik Lee
Low-grade systemic inflammation in adipose tissues or liver, is an important etiologic factor in insulin resistance. LPS is an important element causing such metabolic inflammation, and intestinal flora is considered a major source of systemic LPS. We studied changes of intestinal microbiota associated with high-fat diet (HFD) that causes insulin resistance and metabolic stress. 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that HFD significantly decreased the abundance of a mucin-degrading bacterium Akkermansia muciniphila compared to control diet...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Xia Li, Xiao-Han Tang, Li-Li Tang, Hai-Bo Yu, Zhi-Guo Xie, Zhi-Guang Zhou
Objective To investigate the changes of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and whether Tregs can modulate the distribution of macrophage subtypes in visceral adipose tissue in the early stage of obesity.Methods After C57BL/6 mice obesity models were successfully established,metabolic parameters and numbers of Tregs and M1/M2 macrophage were measured at 4,10,and 20 weeks.The changes of metabolic parameters and adipose tissue inflammation in obesity mice after rapamycin intervention were evaluated. Results The early-stage obesity models were successfully established...
August 2016: Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae
E C Halvorsen, M J Hamilton, A Young, B J Wadsworth, N E LePard, H N Lee, N Firmino, J L Collier, K L Bennewith
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a crucial physiological role in the regulation of immune homeostasis, although recent data suggest Tregs can contribute to primary tumor growth by suppressing antitumor immune responses. Tregs may also influence the development of tumor metastases, although there is a paucity of information regarding the phenotype and function of Tregs in metastatic target organs. Herein, we demonstrate that orthotopically implanted metastatic mammary tumors induce significant Treg accumulation in the lungs, which is a site of mammary tumor metastasis...
June 2016: Oncoimmunology
Steven Kesten, John K Fraser
Adipose derived regenerative cells (ADRCs) are a heterogeneous population of cells including multipotent adipose derived stems cells, other progenitor cells, fibroblasts, T-regulatory cells, and macrophages. Preclinical data exist supporting benefits that are predominantly through angiogenesis, modulation of inflammation, and wound remodeling. Such effects are likely paracrine in nature. The application of autologous ADRCs has been investigated across multiple therapeutic areas. While there are numerous publications, there is a relative lack of double-blind, well-controlled, randomized clinical trials in the literature...
July 29, 2016: Surgical Technology International
Jean-Marc Zingg, Syeda T Hasan, Kiyotaka Nakagawa, Elisa Canepa, Roberta Ricciarelli, Luis Villacorta, Angelo Azzi, Mohsen Meydani
Curcumin, a polyphenol from turmeric (Curcuma longa), reduces inflammation, atherosclerosis, and obesity in several animal studies. In Ldlr(-/-) mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD), curcumin reduces plasma lipid levels, therefore contributing to a lower accumulation of lipids and to reduced expression of fatty acid transport proteins (CD36/FAT, FABP4/aP2) in peritoneal macrophages. In this study, we analyzed the molecular mechanisms by which curcumin (500, 1000, 1500 mg/kg diet, for 4 months) may influence plasma and tissue lipid levels in Ldlr(-/-) mice fed an HFD...
June 29, 2016: BioFactors
T Mayama, A K Marr, T Kino
Glucocorticoids have strong regulatory actions on the immune system and act as potent therapeutic compounds for autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. We previously reported that the long noncoding RNA growth arrest-specific 5 (Gas5), which accumulates inside the cells in response to cellular starvation/growth arrest, functions as a potent repressor of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) through its RNA "glucocorticoid response element (GRE)". To evaluate potential roles of Gas5 in immune-related disorders, we examined Gas5 RNA levels in various autoimmune, inflammatory, and infectious diseases using the microarray data available in the Gene Expression Omnibus...
August 2016: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
Bodo C Melnik, Swen Malte John, Pedro Carrera-Bastos, Gerd Schmitz
BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding has protective effects for the development of allergies and atopy. Recent evidence underlines that consumption of unboiled farm milk in early life is a key factor preventing the development of atopic diseases. Farm milk intake has been associated with increased demethylation of FOXP3 and increased numbers of regulatory T cells (Tregs). Thus, the questions arose which components of farm milk control the differentiation and function of Tregs, critical T cell subsets that promote tolerance induction and inhibit the development of allergy and autoimmunity...
2016: Clinical and Translational Allergy
Daniel Jahn, Monika Rau, Julia Wohlfahrt, Heike M Hermanns, Andreas Geier
Non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) disease is defined by an accumulation of liver fat exceeding 5% of its weight in the absence of significant alcoholic intake. In 5-20%, there is a progression from NAFL to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Until now, it is not well understood why only some patients develop NASH, and currently, no drugs are licensed for this indication. Different T-cell populations such as T-regulatory, Th1 and Th17 cells play a central role in the immunopathogenesis of fatty liver disease and open the option of future interleukin (IL)-17-based therapeutics...
2016: Digestive Diseases
Aleida Núñez Ruiz, Juan Diego Cortés-Garcia, Nancy Cortez-Espinosa, Paola Indira Herrera-Rojas, Víctor Manuel Ruíz-Rodríguez, Mariana Salgado-Bustamante, Mariana Haydee García-Hernández, Elizabeth Reynaga-Hernández, Veronica Del Carmen Martínez-Jimenez, Diana Patricia Portales-Pérez
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to identify regulatory T cell (Treg) subsets residing in adipose tissue, demonstrate their immunosuppressive functions, and assess the possible role of Sirt1 in their function in overweight subjects. METHODS: Fat samples were obtained by lipoaspiration from healthy overweight (n = 15) and normoweight (n = 11) subjects. We obtained the stromal vascular fraction and then isolated the mononuclear cells by Ficoll-Hypaque sedimentation...
September 2016: Nutrition
Lorna M Dickson, Shriya Gandhi, Brian T Layden, Ronald N Cohen, Barton Wicksteed
Adipose tissue PKA has roles in adipogenesis, lipolysis, and mitochondrial function. PKA transduces the cAMP signal downstream of G protein-coupled receptors, which are being explored for therapeutic manipulation to reduce obesity and improve metabolic health. This study aimed to determine the overall physiological consequences of PKA activation in adipose tissue. Mice expressing an activated PKA catalytic subunit in adipose tissue (Adipoq-caPKA mice) showed increased PKA activity in subcutaneous, epididymal, and mesenteric white adipose tissue (WAT) depots and brown adipose tissue (BAT) compared with controls...
July 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
J Wang, M Jiang, Y N Xin, N Geng, X J Li, S Y Xuan
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of chitooligosaccharide (COS) on hepatic triglyceride (TG) metabolism and related mechanisms. METHODS: The LO2 cells treated by 1 mmol/L fatty acid were used as model group, the cells treated by 1 mmol/L fatty acid and 0.5 mg/ml COS were used as COS group, and the untreated cells were used as control group. The TG content in cells was measured. RT-PCR and Western blot were used to measure the mRNA and protein expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and carnitine palmityl transferase 1A (CPT1A) in each group...
March 20, 2016: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
Fayun Zhang, Wenjuan Dong, Wenfeng Zeng, Lei Zhang, Chao Zhang, Yuqi Qiu, Luoyang Wang, Xiaozhe Yin, Chunling Zhang, Wei Liang
BACKGROUND: Targeting the TGF-β1 pathway for breast cancer metastasis therapy has become an attractive strategy. We have previously demonstrated that naringenin significantly reduced TGF-β1 levels in bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis and effectively prevented pulmonary metastases of tumors. This raised the question of whether naringenin can block TGF-β1 secretion from breast cancer cells and inhibit their pulmonary metastasis. METHODS: We transduced a lentiviral vector encoding the mouse Tgf-β1 gene into mouse breast carcinoma (4T1-Luc2) cells and inoculated the transformant cells (4T1/TGF-β1) into the fourth primary fat pat of Balb/c mice...
2016: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
Jie Li, Sara McArdle, Amin Gholami, Takayuki Kimura, Dennis Wolf, Teresa Gerhardt, Jacqueline Miller, Christian Weber, Klaus Ley
RATIONALE: CD4 T cells are involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, but atherosclerosis-specific CD4 T cells have not been described. Moreover, the chemokine(s) that regulates T-cell trafficking to the atherosclerotic lesions is also unknown. OBJECTIVE: In Apoe(-/-) mice with mature atherosclerotic lesions (5 months of high fat diet), we find that most aortic T cells express CCR5 and interferon-γ with a unique combination of cell surface markers (CD4(+)CD25(-)CD44(hi)CD62L(lo)) and transcription factors (FoxP3(+)T-bet(+))...
May 13, 2016: Circulation Research
Lizhen Chen, Man Jiang, Yongning Xin, Jian Wang, Yang Liu, Xiangjun Jiang, Shiying Xuan
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role and mechanism of action of fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF-21) in reducing triglyceride (TG) in the in vitro and in vivo models of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: (1) A mixture of free fatty acids was used to establish a model of steatosis in L02 cells, and the cells were treated with various concentrations of FGF-21 or fenofibrate. Twenty-four hours later, oil red O staining was performed to observe the degree of steatosis, and intracellular TG content was determined...
February 2016: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
P Ramos-Ramírez, C Malmhäll, K Johansson, J Lötvall, A Bossios
Adipose tissue produces multiple mediators that modulate the immune response. Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived cytokine that exhibits metabolic and anti-inflammatory effects. Adiponectin acts through binding to adiponectin receptor 1 and 2 (AdipoR1/AdipoR2). AdipoR1 is ubiquitously expressed, whereas AdipoR2 is restricted to skeletal muscle and liver. AdipoR1 expression has been reported on a small percentage of T cells; nevertheless, it is still unknown whether Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) express AdipoR1...
April 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
Mohammed Alsaweed, Ching Tat Lai, Peter E Hartmann, Donna T Geddes, Foteini Kakulas
Human milk (HM) contains regulatory biomolecules including miRNAs, the origin and functional significance of which are still undetermined. We used TaqMan OpenArrays to profile 681 mature miRNAs in HM cells and fat, and compared them with maternal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and plasma, and bovine and soy infant formulae. HM cells and PBMCs (292 and 345 miRNAs, respectively) had higher miRNA content than HM fat and plasma (242 and 219 miRNAs, respectively) (p < 0.05). A strong association in miRNA profiles was found between HM cells and fat, whilst PBMCs and plasma were distinctly different to HM, displaying marked inter-individual variation...
2016: Scientific Reports
Amanda C Foks, Daniel Engelbertsen, Felicia Kuperwaser, Noah Alberts-Grill, Ayelet Gonen, Joseph L Witztum, James Lederer, Petr Jarolim, Rosemarie H DeKruyff, Gordon J Freeman, Andrew H Lichtman
OBJECTIVE: T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain (Tim) proteins are expressed by numerous immune cells, recognize phosphatidylserine on apoptotic cells, and function as costimulators or coinhibitors. Tim-1 is expressed by activated T cells but is also found on dendritic cells and B cells. Tim-4, present on macrophages and dendritic cells, plays a critical role in apoptotic cell clearance, regulates the number of phosphatidylserine-expressing activated T cells, and is genetically associated with low low-density lipoprotein and triglyceride levels...
March 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
E Gailly-Fabre, V Kerlan, S Christin-Maitre
Pregnancy is an immunological paradox that implies that a semi-allogeneic fetus is not rejected by the maternal immune system, from implantation of the embryo to delivery. Progesterone (P4), estradiol (E2) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), contribute to the transformation of immune cells in a transient tolerance state, necessary to the maintenance of pregnancy. The effects of pregnancy hormones depend probably of their maternal plasma level. hCG is dangerous at high concentrations because it can stimulate autoantibodies production, whereas in physiological concentrations, hCG, P4 and E2 upregulate immune response expanding regulatory T and B cells, allowing the fetus to grow within the maternal uterus in a protective environment...
October 2015: Annales D'endocrinologie
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