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fat t regulatory cell

Ji Young Kim, Kyu Lim, Kyung Hee Kim, Jin Hyun Kim, Jin Sun Choi, Seung-Cheol Shim
N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have anti-inflammatory effects and were considered useful for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Recently, several studies suggested that n-3 PUFAs attenuated arthritis in animal model and human, however the mechanism is still unclear. Interleukin 17 (IL-17) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine mainly produced by T helper 17 (Th17) cells which cause tissue inflammation and bone erosion leading to joint destruction. In contrast, regulatory T (Treg) cells down-regulate various immune responses by suppression of naïve T cells...
2018: PloS One
Minglin Pan, Ying Han, Aninda Basu, Anzhi Dai, Rui Si, Conor Willson, Angela Balistrieri, Brian T Scott, Ayako Makino
Coronary microvascular rarefaction due to endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction is one of the causes of increased morbidity and mortality in diabetes. Coronary ECs in diabetes are more apoptotic due partly to mitochondrial calcium overload. This study was designed to investigate the role of hexokinase 2 (HK2, an endogenous inhibitor of voltage-dependent anion channel) in coronary endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetes. We used mouse coronary ECs (MCECs) isolated from type 2 diabetic mice and human coronary ECs (HCECs) from type 2 diabetic patients to examine protein levels and mitochondrial functions...
March 7, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Jin Young Huh, Yoon Jeong Park, Jae Bum Kim
Obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation is regulated by various immune cells for innate and adaptive immunity. Among adipose tissue immune cells, it has been proposed that invariant Natural Killer T (iNKT) cells play crucial roles in anti-inflammatory responses in obesity. iNKT cells recognize 'lipid' antigens loaded on CD1d of antigen presenting cells and modulate immune responses by secreting Th1 or Th2 type cytokines depending on species of lipid antigens, antigen presenting cell types, and environmental cytokine milieu...
March 6, 2018: Adipocyte
Hongyan Yuan, Xiaoyi Wang, Jin Lu, Qiongsi Zhang, Irina Brandina, Ilya Alexandrov, Robert I Glazer
One of the central challenges in cancer prevention is the identification of factors in the tumor microenvironment (TME) that increase susceptibility to tumorigenesis. One such factor is stromal fibrosis, a histopathologic negative prognostic criterion for invasive breast cancer. Since the stromal composition of the breast is largely adipose and fibroblast tissue, it is important to understand how alterations in these tissues affect cancer progression. To address this question, a novel transgenic animal model was developed by crossing MMTV-NeuT mice containing a constitutively active ErbB2 gene into the FAT-ATTAC (fat apoptosis through targeted activation of caspase 8) background, which expresses an inducible caspase 8 fusion protein targeted to mammary adipose tissue...
January 30, 2018: Oncotarget
Amir Tajbakhsh, Mehdi Rezaee, Petri T Kovanen, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Atherosclerosis is a dynamic and progressive inflammatory process in the intimal layer of large and medium-sized arteries, and it is the major contributor to the atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD), the leading cause of death worldwide. In an atherosclerotic plaque, phagocytosis of apoptotic cells occurs through an intricate process designated efferocytosis. Defective efferocytosis has emerged as a causal factor in the etiopathogenesis of atherosclerosis and its progression into overt ACVD. Both specialized phagocytes (macrophages and dendritic cells) and non-specialized cells with phagocytic capabilities (smooth muscle and endothelial cells) are involved in the efferocytotic process...
February 11, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Eun-Kyung Kim, Seung Hoon Lee, Seon-Young Lee, Jae-Kyung Kim, Joo Yeon Jhun, Hyun Sik Na, Se-Young Kim, Jong Young Choi, Chul Woo Yang, Sung-Hwan Park, Mi-La Cho
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease involving excessive inflammation. Recently, RA associated with a metabolic disorder was revealed to be non-responsive to RA medications. Metformin has been reported to have a therapeutic effect on RA and obesity. The aim of this investigation was to study the therapeutic effect and the underlying mechanism of metformin's action in an experimental model of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) associated with obesity. Metformin was administered daily for 13 weeks to mice with CIA that had been fed a high-fat diet...
January 26, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
Wenlong Liu, Qingxiang Zeng, Lifeng Zhou, Renzhong Luo, Haipeng Dong
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of both obesity and allergic diseases in children has increased over the last several decades. However, the direct relationship between diverse allergic diseases and obesity has varied in different studies. Therefore, we aimed to examine the effect of obesity on the incidence and severity of allergic rhinitis (AR) and the possible key inflammation mediators during AR. METHODS: A total of 3,126 healthy students (without chronic diseases) were recruited from 14 randomly selected secondary schools in Guangzhou, China...
January 4, 2018: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Ana Viñuela, Andrew A Brown, Alfonso Buil, Pei-Chien Tsai, Matthew N Davies, Jordana T Bell, Emmanouil T Dermitzakis, Timothy D Spector, Kerrin S Small
Changes in the mean and variance of gene expression with age have consequences for healthy aging and disease development. Age-dependent changes in phenotypic variance have been associated with a decline in regulatory functions leading to increase in disease risk. Here, we investigate age-related mean and variance changes in gene expression measured by RNA-seq of fat, skin, whole blood and derived lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) expression from 855 adult female twins. We see evidence of up to 60% of age effects on transcription levels shared across tissues, and 47% of those on splicing...
February 15, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
Urszula Skalska, Ewa Kuca-Warnawin, Anna Kornatka, Iwona Janicka, Urszula Musiałowicz, Tomasz Burakowski, Ewa Kontny
Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) have immunoregulatory properties, but their activity is dependent on signals provided by the local microenvironment. It is likely that highly inflammatory milieu of rheumatoid joint affects ASCs activity. To test this hypothesis, the function of rheumatoid ASCs derived from articular adipose tissue (AT-ASCs) and ASCs derived from subcutaneous adipose tissue (Sc-ASCs) has been analysed. Articular adipose tissue (infrapatellar fat pad) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (from the site of skin closure with sutures) were obtained from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients undergoing total knee joint replacement surgery...
December 2017: Autoimmunity
Kemika Praengam, Yuraporn Sahasakul, Piengchai Kupradinun, Siriwan Sakarin, Wanwisa Sanitchua, Anudep Rungsipipat, Kasem Rattanapinyopituk, Pornpimon Angkasekwinai, Khaimuk Changsri, Wuttichai Mhuantong, Sithichoke Tangphatsornruang, Siriporn Tuntipopipat
The present study was aimed to investigate the impacts of brown rice (BR) and retrograded brown rice (R-BR) consumption on colonic health and gut microbiota in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced colitis mice. Thirty two female C57Bl/6Mlac mice were fed with modified AIN 93G diets by replacing cornstarch in the original composition with white rice (WR), BR and R-BR powder. The mice were divided into 4 groups and fed with the following experimental diets for 4 weeks: (1) negative control (WR: diet with WR), (2) positive control (DSS_WR: DSS and diet with WR), (3) DSS_BR: DSS and diet with BR, and (4) DSS_R-BR: DSS and diet with R-BR...
December 13, 2017: Food & Function
Yuling Tian, Xiao Liang, Yue Wu
Naturally regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a critical role in the regulation of T cell-mediated immune responses in atherosclerosis. However, the regulatory mechanism underlying Tregs upon long-term development of atherosclerosis remains unknown. Therefore, in this study, atherosclerotic model was induced in ApoE-/- mice by feeding fat-diet for 10 weeks. Quantification of atherosclerotic lesions was done by calculating the lesion size in the aortic sinus every 2 weeks. The lipid levels and inflammatory mediators were detected in serum sample...
November 8, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Chunxi Ge, Guisheng Zhao, BinBin Li, Yan Li, William P Cawthorn, Ormond A MacDougald, Renny T Franceschi
A common feature of many skeletal diseases is the accumulation of marrow fat. A reciprocal relationship exists between osteogenesis and adipogenesis in bone marrow that is mediated by the relative activity of PPARγ and RUNX2 transcription factors. The ERK/MAPK pathway is an important inducer of MSC differentiation to osteoblasts and an inhibitor of adipogenesis that functions by phosphorylating RUNX2 and PPARγ. To begin to assess the importance of this regulation in vivo, we examined the consequences of blocking one arm of this pathway, PPARγ S112 phosphorylation, by evaluating the bone phenotype of PPARγ S112A mutant mice...
February 2018: Bone
J T Qiao, C Cui, L Qing, L S Wang, T Y He, F Yan, F Q Liu, Y H Shen, X G Hou, L Chen
BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common result of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Hepatocyte injury and metabolic disorders are hallmarks of NAFLD. Stimulator of interferon genes (STING) and its downstream factor interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) trigger inflammatory reaction in response to the presence of cytosolic DNA. STING has recently been shown to play an important role in early alcoholic liver disease. However, little is known about the role of STING-IRF3 pathway in hepatocyte injury...
October 26, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Bo Wang, Xiaopeng Wang, Huifang Sun, Lili Hu, Jianbo Gao
This study was aimed to observe the level of T helper 17 (Th17) cells and CD4(+) CD25(+) Foxp(3+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) and their related factors in carotid atherosclerosis (AS) patients and AS model rats to explore the influence of Th17 on the pathological process of AS and its specific mechanism. 60 cases with AS in our hospital from July 2012 to July 2014 were recruited for this study as the observation group, and 40 healthy people who came to the hospital for a physical examination were the control group...
September 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Jing-Jing Liu, Nicholas T Bello, Zhiping P Pang
Synaptic transmission controls brain activity and behaviors, including food intake. Leptin, an adipocyte-derived hormone, acts on neurons located in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) to maintain energy homeostasis and regulate food intake behavior. The specific synaptic mechanisms, cell types, and neural projections mediating this effect remain unclear. In male mice, using pathway-specific retrograde tracing, whole-cell patch-clamp recordings and post hoc cell type identification, we found that leptin reduces excitatory synaptic strength onto both melanin-concentrating hormone- and orexin-expressing neurons projecting from the LHA to the ventral tegmental area (VTA), which may affect dopamine signaling and motivation for feeding...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Y Bao
Non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD) are liver diseases which are strongly associated with obesity. The incidence of NAFLD has been gradually increased in recent years. According to different pathology of the liver, NAFLD include three disease states: simple fatty liver, hepatitis (nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, NASH) and fatty liver cirrhosis. The accumulations of fat around the internal organs, which secrete a wide range of adipokines, such as interleukin-6, contribute the development and progress of NAFLD in obesity...
July 20, 2017: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
Kazunari Kaneko, Shoji Tsuji, Takahisa Kimata
Nephrotic syndrome characterized by heavy proteinuria and edema is the most common chronic kidney disease in children. It is classified into three categories, of which the idiopathic type accounts for the vast majority of cases. As indicated by the name, the etiology of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome remains unknown though it has been suggested that impaired T cell function is involved. Recently, evidence has mounted to suggest that dysfunction in regulatory T cells plays an important role in the development of allergic disease, a recognized comorbid condition for children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome...
October 2017: Medical Hypotheses
Marianna Roselli, Chiara Devirgiliis, Paola Zinno, Barbara Guantario, Alberto Finamore, Rita Rami, Giuditta Perozzi
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a complex pathology associated with dysbiosis, metabolic alterations, and low-grade chronic inflammation promoted by immune cells, infiltrating and populating the adipose tissue. Probiotic supplementation was suggested to be capable of counteracting obesity-associated immune and microbial alterations, based on its proven immunomodulatory activity and positive effect on gut microbial balance. Traditional fermented foods represent a natural source of live microbes, including environmental strains with probiotic features, which could transiently colonise the gut...
2017: Genes & Nutrition
Jianzhen Lv, Wen Xiong, Tiantian Lei, Hailian Wang, Minghan Sun, Erwei Hao, Zhiping Wang, Xiaoqi Huang, Shaoping Deng, Jiagang Deng, Yi Wang
Previous studies have demonstrated that regulatory T cells (Tregs) are pivotal in the regulation of T cell‑mediated immune responses in atherosclerosis, a chronic autoimmune‑like disease. In the authors' previous studies, it was demonstrated that amygdalin ameliorated atherosclerosis by the regulation of Tregs in apolipoprotein E‑deficient (ApoE‑/‑) mice. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the therapeutic effect of amygdalin on low‑density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor deficient (LDLR‑/‑) mice, and to examine its immune regulatory function by the stimulation of Tregs...
December 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
A M Magnuson, D P Regan, J K Fouts, A D Booth, S W Dow, M T Foster
OBJECTIVES: The spatial proximity of adipose depots to secondary lymph nodes allows a unique relation between the two systems. Obesity, predominately visceral adiposity, links to numerous diseases; hence, we postulate that secondary lymphatics within this region contributes to disease risk. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Male C57BL/6 mice were fed standard CHOW (18% kcal fat) or Western diet (45% kcal fat) for 7 weeks. Visceral and subcutaneous lymph nodes and associated adipose depots they occupy were excised...
October 2017: Cell Proliferation
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