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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732719/evaluation-of-visceral-adipose-tissue-oxygenation-by-blood-oxygen-level-dependent-mri-in-zucker-diabetic-fatty-rats
#1
Hong-Jian Shi, Yan-Feng Li, Wen-Jie Ji, Zhi-Chun Lin, Wei Cai, Tao Chen, Bin Yuan, Xiu-Long Niu, Han-Ying Li, Wen Shu, Yu-Ming Li, Fei Yuan, Xin Zhou, Zhuoli Zhang
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of blood oxygen level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-MRI) to evaluate visceral adipose tissue (VAT) oxygenation in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats and its associations with systemic metaflammation. METHODS: Five-week-old ZDF rats and Zucker lean (ZL) rats were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 18 weeks. A baseline BOLD-MRI scan of perirenal adipose tissue was performed after 8 weeks of HFD feeding, and then the rats were randomized to receive pioglitazone or a vehicle for the following 10 weeks...
May 7, 2018: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708512/hypercholesterolemia-induces-t-cell-expansion-in-humanized-immune-mice
#2
Jonathan D Proto, Amanda C Doran, Manikandan Subramanian, Hui Wang, Mingyou Zhang, Erdi Sozen, Christina C Rymond, George Kuriakose, Vivette D'Agati, Robert Winchester, Megan Sykes, Yong-Guang Yang, Ira Tabas
Emerging data suggest that hypercholesterolemia has stimulatory effects on adaptive immunity and that these effects can promote atherosclerosis and perhaps other inflammatory diseases. However, research in this area has relied primarily on inbred strains of mice whose adaptive immune system can differ substantially from that of humans. Moreover, the genetically induced hypercholesterolemia in these models typically results in plasma cholesterol levels that are much higher than those in most humans. To overcome these obstacles, we studied human immune system-reconstituted mice (hu-mice) rendered hypercholesterolemic by treatment with adeno-associated virus 8-proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (AAV8-PCSK9) and a high-fat/high-cholesterol Western-type diet (WD)...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680640/overexpression-of-srebf-chaperone-scap-enhances-nuclear-srebp1-translocation-to-upregulate-fatty-acid-synthase-fasn-gene-expression-in-bovine-mammary-epithelial-cells
#3
L Q Han, T Y Gao, G Y Yang, J J Loor
Fatty acid synthase is a key enzyme for the synthesis of milk fat in the ruminant mammary gland. In nonruminants, sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1) is a regulator of FASN gene expression, and SREBF chaperone (SCAP) is essential for SREBP1 maturation and activity. However, the role of SCAP on the regulation of FASN gene expression in ruminants is unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate the transcriptional regulation of FASN by overexpressing SCAP in bovine mammary epithelial cells...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670627/sex-differences-in-adipose-tissue-cd8-t-cells-and-regulatory-t-cells-in-middle-aged-mice
#4
Hilda Ahnstedt, Meaghan Roy-O'Reilly, Monica S Spychala, Alexis S Mobley, Javiera Bravo-Alegria, Anjali Chauhan, Jaroslaw Aronowski, Sean P Marrelli, Louise D McCullough
The prevalence of cardiovascular disease has increased among middle-aged women in the United States, yet has declined in middle-aged men. In experimental stroke, middle-aged females have larger strokes and greater inflammation than age-matched males or younger females. The mechanism underlying this shift from an "ischemia-protected" to an "ischemia-sensitive" phenotype in aging females is unknown. One potential factor is an age-related increase in systemic factors that induce inflammation...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596828/nfatc3-deficiency-protects-against-high-fat-diet-hfd-induced-hypothalamus-inflammation-and-apoptosis-via-p38-and-jnk-suppression
#5
Meng-Jun Liao, Hua Lin, Yun-Wu He, Cong Zou
Hypothalamic inflammation and apoptosis cause neural injury, playing an important role in metabolic syndrome development. Nuclear Factors of Activated T cells (NFATc3) show many physiological and pathological effects. However, the function of NFATc3 in high fat diet (HFD)-induced hypothalamus injury remains unknown. The wild type (WT) and NFATc3-knockout (KO) mice were subjected to HFD feeding for 16 weeks to examine NFATc3 function in vivo. Astrocytes isolated from WT or KO mice were cultured and exposed to fructose (Fru) in vitro...
March 26, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587266/overexpression-of-ptpn2-in-visceral-adipose-tissue-ameliorated-atherosclerosis-via-t-cells-polarization-shift-in-diabetic-apoe-mice
#6
Ya Li, Huimin Zhou, Feng Wang, Lu Han, Minghao Liu, Yihui Li, Zhihao Wang, Mengxiong Tang, Wei Zhang, Ming Zhong
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Dysregulated inflammation in adipose tissue, marked by increased pro-inflammatory T-cell accumulation and reduced regulatory T cells (Treg), contributes to diabetes-associated insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying T-cell-mediated inflammation in adipose tissue remain largely unknown. METHODS: Sixty apolipoprotein E (ApoE-/-) mice were randomly divided into chow and diabetes groups. Diabetes was induced by a high-fat and high-sugar diet combined with low-dose streptozotocin...
March 21, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562463/-rapamycin-affect-the-apoptosis-of-splenic-cd4-cd25-regulatory-t-cells-of-mouse-severe-aplastic-anemia-model
#7
Z H Lin, H Liu, L Zhu, X Yang, Y P Zhang, J Qian, H Y Liu
Objective: To explore the effects and possible mechanism of rapamycin (RAPA) on apoptosis of CD4+ CD25+ Tregs from the mouse severe aplastic anemia (SAA) model. Methods: The BALB/c female SAA model mice were induced by interferon-gamma in combination with busulphan. The SAA model mice were intraperitoneal injection with RAPA at daily dose of 0.5 mg/kg for 5 days (the RAPA-treated group, n =15) in the SAA group ( n =15) and the un-treated group ( n =15) were control. Bone marrow hematopoiesis changes were observed by the patho-morphological examination of femurs...
March 14, 2018: Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Xueyexue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543869/n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-restore-th17-and-treg-balance-in-collagen-antibody-induced-arthritis
#8
Ji Young Kim, Kyu Lim, Kyung Hee Kim, Jin Hyun Kim, Jin Sun Choi, Seung-Cheol Shim
N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have anti-inflammatory effects and were considered useful for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Recently, several studies suggested that n-3 PUFAs attenuated arthritis in animal model and human, however the mechanism is still unclear. Interleukin 17 (IL-17) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine mainly produced by T helper 17 (Th17) cells which cause tissue inflammation and bone erosion leading to joint destruction. In contrast, regulatory T (Treg) cells down-regulate various immune responses by suppression of naïve T cells...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29513568/overexpression-of-hexokinase-2-reduces-mitochondrial-calcium-overload-in-coronary-endothelial-cells-of-type-2-diabetic-mice
#9
Minglin Pan, Ying Han, Aninda Basu, Anzhi Dai, Rui Si, Conor Willson, Angela Balistrieri, Brian T Scott, Ayako Makino
Coronary microvascular rarefaction due to endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction is one of the causes of increased morbidity and mortality in diabetes. Coronary ECs in diabetes are more apoptotic due partly to mitochondrial calcium overload. This study was designed to investigate the role of hexokinase 2 (HK2, an endogenous inhibitor of voltage-dependent anion channel) in coronary endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetes. We used mouse coronary ECs (MCECs) isolated from type 2 diabetic mice and human coronary ECs (HCECs) from type 2 diabetic patients to examine protein levels and mitochondrial functions...
March 7, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509047/adipocyte-cd1d-determines-adipose-inflammation-and-insulin-resistance-in-obesity
#10
Jin Young Huh, Yoon Jeong Park, Jae Bum Kim
Obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation is regulated by various immune cells for innate and adaptive immunity. Among adipose tissue immune cells, it has been proposed that invariant Natural Killer T (iNKT) cells play crucial roles in anti-inflammatory responses in obesity. iNKT cells recognize 'lipid' antigens loaded on CD1d of antigen presenting cells and modulate immune responses by secreting Th1 or Th2 type cytokines depending on species of lipid antigens, antigen presenting cell types, and environmental cytokine milieu...
March 6, 2018: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487713/mmtv-neut-attac-mice-a-new-model-for-studying-the-stromal-tumor-microenvironment
#11
Hongyan Yuan, Xiaoyi Wang, Jin Lu, Qiongsi Zhang, Irina Brandina, Ilya Alexandrov, Robert I Glazer
One of the central challenges in cancer prevention is the identification of factors in the tumor microenvironment (TME) that increase susceptibility to tumorigenesis. One such factor is stromal fibrosis, a histopathologic negative prognostic criterion for invasive breast cancer. Since the stromal composition of the breast is largely adipose and fibroblast tissue, it is important to understand how alterations in these tissues affect cancer progression. To address this question, a novel transgenic animal model was developed by crossing MMTV-NeuT mice containing a constitutively active ErbB2 gene into the FAT-ATTAC (fat apoptosis through targeted activation of caspase 8) background, which expresses an inducible caspase 8 fusion protein targeted to mammary adipose tissue...
January 30, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444453/efferocytosis-in-atherosclerotic-lesions-malfunctioning-regulatory-pathways-and-control-mechanisms
#12
REVIEW
Amir Tajbakhsh, Mehdi Rezaee, Petri T Kovanen, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Atherosclerosis is a dynamic and progressive inflammatory process in the intimal layer of large and medium-sized arteries, and it is the major contributor to the atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD), the leading cause of death worldwide. In an atherosclerotic plaque, phagocytosis of apoptotic cells occurs through an intricate process designated efferocytosis. Defective efferocytosis has emerged as a causal factor in the etiopathogenesis of atherosclerosis and its progression into overt ACVD. Both specialized phagocytes (macrophages and dendritic cells) and non-specialized cells with phagocytic capabilities (smooth muscle and endothelial cells) are involved in the efferocytotic process...
February 11, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371695/metformin-ameliorates-experimental-obesity-associated-autoimmune-arthritis-by-inducing-fgf21-expression-and-brown-adipocyte-differentiation
#13
Eun-Kyung Kim, Seung Hoon Lee, Seon-Young Lee, Jae-Kyung Kim, Joo Yeon Jhun, Hyun Sik Na, Se-Young Kim, Jong Young Choi, Chul Woo Yang, Sung-Hwan Park, Mi-La Cho
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease involving excessive inflammation. Recently, RA associated with a metabolic disorder was revealed to be non-responsive to RA medications. Metformin has been reported to have a therapeutic effect on RA and obesity. The aim of this investigation was to study the therapeutic effect and the underlying mechanism of metformin's action in an experimental model of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) associated with obesity. Metformin was administered daily for 13 weeks to mice with CIA that had been fed a high-fat diet...
January 26, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314270/association-of-leptin-with-disease-severity-and-inflammation-indicators-in-chinese-obese-children-with-allergic-rhinitis
#14
Wenlong Liu, Qingxiang Zeng, Lifeng Zhou, Renzhong Luo, Haipeng Dong
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of both obesity and allergic diseases in children has increased over the last several decades. However, the direct relationship between diverse allergic diseases and obesity has varied in different studies. Therefore, we aimed to examine the effect of obesity on the incidence and severity of allergic rhinitis (AR) and the possible key inflammation mediators during AR. METHODS: A total of 3126 healthy students (without chronic diseases) were recruited from 14 randomly selected secondary schools in Guangzhou, China...
March 2018: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228364/age-dependent-changes-in-mean-and-variance-of-gene-expression-across-tissues-in-a-twin-cohort
#15
Ana Viñuela, Andrew A Brown, Alfonso Buil, Pei-Chien Tsai, Matthew N Davies, Jordana T Bell, Emmanouil T Dermitzakis, Timothy D Spector, Kerrin S Small
Changes in the mean and variance of gene expression with age have consequences for healthy aging and disease development. Age-dependent changes in phenotypic variance have been associated with a decline in regulatory functions leading to increase in disease risk. Here, we investigate age-related mean and variance changes in gene expression measured by RNA-seq of fat, skin, whole blood and derived lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) expression from 855 adult female twins. We see evidence of up to 60% of age effects on transcription levels shared across tissues, and 47% of those on splicing...
February 15, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212384/articular-and-subcutaneous-adipose-tissues-of-rheumatoid-arthritis-patients-represent-equal-sources-of-immunoregulatory-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#16
Urszula Skalska, Ewa Kuca-Warnawin, Anna Kornatka, Iwona Janicka, Urszula Musiałowicz, Tomasz Burakowski, Ewa Kontny
Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) have immunoregulatory properties, but their activity is dependent on signals provided by the local microenvironment. It is likely that highly inflammatory milieu of rheumatoid joint affects ASCs activity. To test this hypothesis, the function of rheumatoid ASCs derived from articular adipose tissue (AT-ASCs) and ASCs derived from subcutaneous adipose tissue (Sc-ASCs) has been analysed. Articular adipose tissue (infrapatellar fat pad) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (from the site of skin closure with sutures) were obtained from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients undergoing total knee joint replacement surgery...
December 2017: Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147700/brown-rice-and-retrograded-brown-rice-alleviate-inflammatory-response-in-dextran-sulfate-sodium-dss-induced-colitis-mice
#17
Kemika Praengam, Yuraporn Sahasakul, Piengchai Kupradinun, Siriwan Sakarin, Wanwisa Sanitchua, Anudep Rungsipipat, Kasem Rattanapinyopituk, Pornpimon Angkasekwinai, Khaimuk Changsri, Wuttichai Mhuantong, Sithichoke Tangphatsornruang, Siriporn Tuntipopipat
The present study was aimed to investigate the impacts of brown rice (BR) and retrograded brown rice (R-BR) consumption on colonic health and gut microbiota in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced colitis mice. Thirty two female C57Bl/6Mlac mice were fed with modified AIN 93G diets by replacing cornstarch in the original composition with white rice (WR), BR and R-BR powder. The mice were divided into 4 groups and fed with the following experimental diets for 4 weeks: (1) negative control (WR: diet with WR), (2) positive control (DSS_WR: DSS and diet with WR), (3) DSS_BR: DSS and diet with BR, and (4) DSS_R-BR: DSS and diet with R-BR...
December 13, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136784/the-alternation-of-autophagy-apoptosis-in-cd4-cd25-foxp3-tregs-on-the-developmental-stages-of-atherosclerosis
#18
Yuling Tian, Xiao Liang, Yue Wu
Naturally regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a critical role in the regulation of T cell-mediated immune responses in atherosclerosis. However, the regulatory mechanism underlying Tregs upon long-term development of atherosclerosis remains unknown. Therefore, in this study, atherosclerotic model was induced in ApoE-/- mice by feeding fat-diet for 10 weeks. Quantification of atherosclerotic lesions was done by calculating the lesion size in the aortic sinus every 2 weeks. The lipid levels and inflammatory mediators were detected in serum sample...
January 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107124/genetic-inhibition-of-ppar%C3%AE-s112-phosphorylation-reduces-bone-formation-and-stimulates-marrow-adipogenesis
#19
Chunxi Ge, Guisheng Zhao, BinBin Li, Yan Li, William P Cawthorn, Ormond A MacDougald, Renny T Franceschi
A common feature of many skeletal diseases is the accumulation of marrow fat. A reciprocal relationship exists between osteogenesis and adipogenesis in bone marrow that is mediated by the relative activity of PPARγ and RUNX2 transcription factors. The ERK/MAPK pathway is an important inducer of MSC differentiation to osteoblasts and an inhibitor of adipogenesis that functions by phosphorylating RUNX2 and PPARγ. To begin to assess the importance of this regulation in vivo, we examined the consequences of blocking one arm of this pathway, PPARγ S112 phosphorylation, by evaluating the bone phenotype of PPARγ S112A mutant mice...
February 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106945/activation-of-the-sting-irf3-pathway-promotes-hepatocyte-inflammation-apoptosis-and-induces-metabolic-disorders-in-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#20
J T Qiao, C Cui, L Qing, L S Wang, T Y He, F Yan, F Q Liu, Y H Shen, X G Hou, L Chen
BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common result of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Hepatocyte injury and metabolic disorders are hallmarks of NAFLD. Stimulator of interferon genes (STING) and its downstream factor interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) trigger inflammatory reaction in response to the presence of cytosolic DNA. STING has recently been shown to play an important role in early alcoholic liver disease. However, little is known about the role of STING-IRF3 pathway in hepatocyte injury...
October 26, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
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