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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762561/diet-induced-obesity-causes-visceral-but-not-subcutaneous-lymph-node-hyperplasia-via-increases-in-specific-immune-cell-populations
#1
A M Magnuson, D P Regan, J K Fouts, A D Booth, S W Dow, M T Foster
OBJECTIVES: The spatial proximity of adipose depots to secondary lymph nodes allows a unique relation between the two systems. Obesity, predominately visceral adiposity, links to numerous diseases; hence, we postulate that secondary lymphatics within this region contributes to disease risk. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Male C57BL/6 mice were fed standard CHOW (18% kcal fat) or Western diet (45% kcal fat) for 7 weeks. Visceral and subcutaneous lymph nodes and associated adipose depots they occupy were excised...
October 2017: Cell Proliferation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757363/poly-i-c-alleviates-obesity-related-pro-inflammatory-status-and-promotes-glucose-homeostasis
#2
Ying-Hui Wang, Yu-Gen Zhang
Obesity associated insulin resistance (IR) is implicated in chronic inflammation that mediated by the immune system. Imbalance between anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory response contributes to the origins and drivers of IR. However, cells of innate and adaptive immune system participate in the pathogenesis of IR, while glucose homeostasis related immune tolerance could be compromised high fat diet (HFD) reduced metabolic disorder. Although previous studies have demonstrated that anti-inflammatory therapy has a protective role in alleviating the pro-inflammatory status in HFD induced IR, the precise mechanism is still unclear...
July 27, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736524/immune-and-metabolic-regulation-mechanism-of-dangguiliuhuang-decoction-against-insulin-resistance-and-hepatic-steatosis
#3
Hui Cao, Lingling Tuo, Yali Tuo, Ziyun Xia, Rong Fu, Yang Liu, Yihong Quan, Jue Liu, Zhihong Yu, Ming Xiang
Dangguiliuhuang decoction (DGLHD) is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula, which mainly consists of angelica, radix rehmanniae, radix rehmanniae praeparata, scutellaria baicalensis, coptis chinensis, astragalus membranaceus, and golden cypress, and used for the treatment of diabetes and some autoimmune diseases. In this study, we explored the potential mechanism of DGLHD against insulin resistance and fatty liver in vivo and in vitro. Our data revealed that DGLHD normalized glucose and insulin level, increased the expression of adiponectin, diminished fat accumulation and lipogenesis, and promoted glucose uptake...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736203/oral-administration-of-visceral-adipose-tissue-antigens-ameliorates-metabolic-disorders-in-mice-and-elevates-visceral-adipose-tissue-resident-cd4-cd25-foxp3-regulatory-t-cells
#4
Xiangyu Chen, Dali Zhang, Xiaoling Chen, Gang Meng, Qian Zheng, Wenli Mai, Yuzhang Wu, Lilin Ye, Li Wang
Obesity and type 2 diabetes are linked with chronic, low-grade inflammation in visceral adipose tissue (VAT). A unique population of VAT-resident CD4(+)Foxp3(+) Tregs plays a crucial role in regulating VAT inflammation and metabolic homeostasis. VAT-resident Tregs display a highly restricted TCR repertoire, suggesting they recognize certain autoantigen(s) in VAT. A dramatic reduction of VAT-resident Tregs has been shown to closely correlate with obesity-related VAT chronic inflammation and metabolic disorders...
August 16, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726642/coordinated-transcriptional-control-of-adipocyte-triglyceride-lipase-atgl-by-transcription-factors-sp1-and-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-ppar%C3%AE-during-adipocyte-differentiation
#5
Debasish Roy, Kenneth T Farabaugh, Jing Wu, Alyssa Charrier, Cynthia Smas, Maria Hatzoglou, Kavitha Thirumurugan, David A Buchner
The breakdown of stored fat deposits into its components is a highly regulated process that maintains plasma levels of free fatty acids to supply energy to cells. Insulin-mediated transcription of Atgl, the enzyme that mediates the rate-limiting step in lipolysis, is a key point of this regulation. Under conditions such as obesity or insulin resistance, Atgl transcription is often misregulated, which can contribute to overall disease progression. The mechanisms by which Atgl is induced during adipogenesis are not fully understood...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659029/the-mixture-of-anemarrhena-asphodeloides-and-coptis-chinensis-attenuates-high-fat-diet-induced-colitis-in-mice
#6
Su-Min Lim, Hyun-Sik Choi, Dong-Hyun Kim
Anemarrhena asphodeloides (AA, family Liliaceae) inhibits macrophage activation by inhibiting IRAK1 phosphorylation and helper T (Th)17 differentiation. Coptis chinensis (CC, family Ranunculaceae), which inhibits macrophage activation by inhibiting the binding of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on toll-like receptor 4 and inducing regulatory T (Treg) cell differentiation. The mixture of AA and CC (AC-mix) synergistically attenuates 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid or dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice by inhibiting NF-[Formula: see text]B activation and regulating Th17/Treg balance...
June 28, 2017: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646856/the-imbalance-of-th17-treg-cells-is-involved-in-the-progression-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-mice
#7
Beihui He, Liyan Wu, Wei Xie, Yitong Shao, Jianping Jiang, Zhenzhong Zhao, Maoxiang Yan, Zhiyun Chen, Dawei Cui
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common, chronic liver disease worldwide. Recent studies have shown that T helper (Th) 17 and regulatory T (Treg) cells play critical roles in various disorders of liver inflammation. Here, we explored the value of polyene phosphatidylcholine capsules (PPC) for regulating the imbalance of Th17/Treg cells in the pathogenesis of mice with NAFLD. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into three groups as follows:normal diet (ND), high-fat diet (HF),and HF plus PPC(HF + PPC)...
June 24, 2017: BMC Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638138/immune-regulation-by-oral-tolerance-induces-alternate-activation-of-macrophages-and-reduces-markers-of-plaque-destabilization-in-apob-tm2sgy-ldlr-tm1her-j-mice
#8
Lakshmi Narasimha Thota, Thiruvelselvan Ponnusamy, Sheena Philip, Xinjie Lu, Lakshmi Mundkur
Atherosclerosis is the leading cause for cardiovascular mortality. We determined the effect of multi-antigenic construct expressing three peptides AHC (ApoB100, HSP60 and outer membrane protein of chlamydia pneumonia) in stabilizing advanced atherosclerosis in Apob(tm2Sgy)/Ldlr(tm1Her/J) mice. Atherosclerosis was induced by feeding high fat diet (HFD) to mice for 10 weeks, followed by five oral dosing with purified AHC or ovalbumin on alternate days and continued on HFD for another 10 weeks. Tolerance was associated with significantly higher numbers of regulatory T cells both in aortic sinus and spleen with higher mRNA expression of CTLA4 (3 fold), Foxp3 (1...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626026/protein-kinase-c%C3%AE-activates-fat-mass-and-obesity-associated-protein-by-influencing-its-ubiquitin-proteasome-degradation
#9
Haoran Tai, Xiaobo Wang, Jiao Zhou, Xiaojuan Han, Tingting Fang, Hui Gong, Ning Huang, Honghan Chen, Jianqiong Qin, Ming Yang, Xiawei Wei, Li Yang, Hengyi Xiao
PKCβ is a serine-threonine kinase associated with obesity and diabetic complications; its activation contributes to weight gain, and deletion of its gene results in resistance to genetic- and diet-induced obesity. Fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) protein is a recently identified RNA demethylase, and its overexpression in mice leads to increased body weight as well as fat mass. Although sharing some features in anabolism regulation, PKCβ and FTO have not been investigated together; therefore, their relationship has not been established...
June 16, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479226/bifidobacterium-adolescentis-im38-ameliorates-high-fat-diet-induced-colitis-in-mice-by-inhibiting-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation-and-lipopolysaccharide-production-by-gut-microbiota
#10
Su-Min Lim, Dong-Hyun Kim
Gut microbiota play essential roles in the regulation of human metabolism via symbiotic interactions with the host. Prolonged consumption of high-fat diet (HFD) elevates the Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) production by gut microbiota, thereby increasing the probability of developing metabolic and immune disorders such as obesity and colitis. The use of probiotics with anti-inflammatory properties has been suggested to counteract this effect. Here, we tested whether Bifidobacterium adolescentis IM38, which inhibited nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation in Caco-2 cells and peritoneal macrophages and inhibited Escherichia coli LPS production, exerted an anticolitic effect in mice with HFD-induced obesity...
May 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457552/lactation-performance-of-holstein-cows-treated-with-2-formulations-of-recombinant-bovine-somatotropin-in-a-large-commercial-dairy-herd-in-brazil
#11
J P G de Morais, A P da S Cruz, N S Minami, L P Veronese, T A Del Valle, J Aramini
The objectives of this controlled study were to compare the effects of 2 different formulations of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) on milk yield, milk composition (fat and protein), milk somatic cell count, and body condition score (BCS) among dairy cattle in a large commercial herd. Regulatory approved 500-mg zinc sesame oil base rbST (ZSO-rbST; Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN) and vitamin E lecithin base rbST (VEL-rbST; LG Life Sciences, Seoul, South Korea) formulations were administered per the manufacturers' recommendations every 14 d over 17 injection cycles starting at 57 to 70 d of lactation (90 cows per rbST group)...
July 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411232/wnt5a-regulates-adipose-tissue-angiogenesis-via-antiangiogenic-vegf-a165b-in-obese-humans
#12
Shakun Karki, Doan T M Ngo, Melissa G Farb, Song Young Park, Samantha M Saggese, Naomi M Hamburg, Brian Carmine, Donald T Hess, Kenneth Walsh, Noyan Gokce
Experimental studies have suggested that Wingless-related integration site 5A (WNT5A) is a proinflammatory secreted protein that is associated with metabolic dysfunction in obesity. Impaired angiogenesis in fat depots has been implicated in the development of adipose tissue capillary rarefaction, hypoxia, inflammation, and metabolic dysfunction. We have recently demonstrated that impaired adipose tissue angiogenesis is associated with overexpression of antiangiogenic factor VEGF-A165b in human fat and the systemic circulation...
July 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246016/gut-specific-delivery-of-t-helper-17-cells-reduces-obesity-and%C3%A2-insulin-resistance-in-mice
#13
Chun-Pyo Hong, Areum Park, Bo-Gie Yang, Chang Ho Yun, Min-Jung Kwak, Gil-Woo Lee, Jung-Hwan Kim, Min Seong Jang, Eun-Jung Lee, Eun-Ji Jeun, Gihoon You, Kwang Soon Kim, Youngwoo Choi, Ji-Hwan Park, Daehee Hwang, Sin-Hyeog Im, Jihyun F Kim, Yoon-Keun Kim, Ju-Young Seoh, Charles D Surh, You-Me Kim, Myoung Ho Jang
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Obesity and metabolic syndrome have been associated with alterations to the intestinal microbiota. However, few studies examined the effects of obesity on the intestinal immune system. We investigated changes in subsets of intestinal CD4(+) T-helper (TH) cells with obesity and the effects of gut-tropic TH17 cells in mice on a high-fat diet (HFD). METHODS: We isolated immune cells from small intestine and adipose tissue of C57BL/6 mice fed a normal chow diet or a HFD for 10 weeks and analyzed the cells by flow cytometry...
June 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222218/reduced-inflammatory-responses-of-follicular-helper-t-cell-promote-the-development-of-regulatory-b-cells-after-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass
#14
Junfang Zhan, Liyu Huang, Haiyong Ma, Huan Chen, Yuan Yang, Sheng Tan, Wendy Song, Weiguo Zhao, Xiaojiang Dai
Bariatric surgery is currently the most effective strategy in treating severe obesity and its comorbidities, such as type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, the mechanism through which bariatric surgery mediates its benefits is not completely understood. Since obesity and T2D represent yet another inflammatory disease, and follicular helper T (Tfh) cells play important roles in inflammatory disorders, we investigated whether the Tfh activity was altered after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), one of the most common bariatric surgery procedures...
February 21, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192190/%C3%AE-7-integrin-and-madcam-1-play-opposing-roles-during-the-development-of-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis
#15
Hannah K Drescher, Angela Schippers, Thomas Clahsen, Hacer Sahin, Heidi Noels, Mathias Hornef, Norbert Wagner, Christian Trautwein, Konrad L Streetz, Daniela C Kroy
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a leading cause of chronic liver disease in Western countries. It is unclear how infiltrating leukocytes affect NASH-development. Our study aims to investigate the role of the homing/receptor, pair mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1)/β7-Integrin, on immune cell recruitment and disease progression in a steatohepatitis model. METHODS: Constitutive β7-Integrin deficient (β7(-/-)) and MAdCAM-1 deficient (MAdCAM-1(-/-)) mice were fed a high fat diet (HFD) for 26weeks or methionine-choline-deficient-diet (MCD) for 4weeks...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180060/gprc6a-jack-of-all-metabolism-or-master-of-none
#16
REVIEW
Min Pi, Satoru Kenneth Nishimoto, L Darryl Quarles
BACKGROUND: GPRC6A, a widely expressed G-protein coupled receptor, is proposed to be a master regulator of complex endocrine networks and metabolic processes. GPRC6A is activated by multiple ligands, including osteocalcin (Ocn), testosterone (T), basic amino acids, and various cations. SCOPE OF REVIEW: We review the controversy surrounding GPRC6A functions. In mice, GPRC6A is proposed to integrate metabolic functions through the coordinated secretion of hormones, including insulin, GLP-1, T, and IL-6, and direct effects of this receptor to control glucose and fat metabolism in the liver, skeletal muscle, and fat...
February 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150448/ppar-%C3%AE-agonist-ameliorates-liver-pathology-accompanied-by-increasing-regulatory-b-and-t-cells-in-high-fat-diet-mice
#17
Zhipeng Xu, Gang Wang, Yuxiao Zhu, Ran Liu, Jingwei Song, Yangyue Ni, Hongzhi Sun, Bingya Yang, Min Hou, Lin Chen, Minjun Ji, Zan Fu
OBJECTIVE: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ plays critical roles in human metabolic disorders. However, the mechanism remains incompletely understood. Regulatory cells contribute to these metabolic improvements; therefore, whether PPAR-γ agonist regulates regulatory cells was investigated. METHODS: C57BL/6J mice received a normal or high-fat diet (HFD) with or without pioglitazone treatment. Mice were sacrificed for detecting the metabolic parameters...
March 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123720/vitamin-d-improves-immune-function-in-immunosuppressant-mice-induced-by-glucocorticoid
#18
Zongye Wang, Ying Wang, Bingxin Xu, Junli Liu, Ye Ren, Zhuojie Dai, Di Cui, Xiaoming Su, Shaoyan Si, Shu Jun Song
Vitamin D is an essential fat-soluble vitamin with multiple functions. Vitamin D receptor has been shown to be expressed in several types of immune cells suggesting vitamin D may have immune regulatory roles. Vitamin D insufficiency has been suggested to increase the risk of autoimmune diseases. However, little is known regarding its immunomodulatory effects in the condition of immune suppression. The aim of the present study was to investigate the regulatory effects of vitamin D on immune function in immunosuppressant mice...
January 2017: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114815/changes-in-cd4-cd25-tregs-in-the-pathogenesis-of-atherosclerosis-in-apoe-mice
#19
Li Xue-Mei, Chen Jie, Dai Xuan, Liao Xiao-Xing, Hu Chun-Lin, Li Yu-Jie
The goal of this study was to observe the pathological characteristics of atherosclerotic plaques in the aortic walls of ApoE(-/-) and C57BL/6J mice and the changes of CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) in atherosclerotic mice. Twenty ApoE(-/-) mice were split into high-fat diet (AH) and normal diet (AN) groups and 10 C57BL/6J male mice were designated as the control group (BN). The serum concentrations of IL-10 and TGF-β1 were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; paraffin sections of the aorta were stained with hematoxylin & eosin, and morphometric parameters were measured using the Image Pro Plus 6...
May 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103301/differences-in-beef-quality-between-angus-bos-taurus-taurus-and-nellore-bos-taurus-indicus-cattle-through-a-proteomic-and-phosphoproteomic-approach
#20
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Rafael Torres de Souza Rodrigues, Mario Luiz Chizzotti, Camilo Elber Vital, Maria Cristina Baracat-Pereira, Edvaldo Barros, Karina Costa Busato, Rafael Aparecido Gomes, Márcio Machado Ladeira, Taiane da Silva Martins
Proteins are the major constituents of muscle and are key molecules regulating the metabolic changes during conversion of muscle to meat. Brazil is one of the largest exporters of beef and most Brazilian cattle are composed by zebu (Nellore) genotype. Bos indicus beef is generally leaner and tougher than Bos taurus such as Angus. The aim of this study was to compare the muscle proteomic and phosphoproteomic profile of Angus and Nellore. Seven animals of each breed previously subjected the same growth management were confined for 84 days...
2017: PloS One
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