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Health enhancing physical exercise

Jonas Geuens, Thijs Willem Swinnen, Rene Westhovens, Kurt de Vlam, Luc Geurts, Vero Vanden Abeele
BACKGROUND: Chronic arthritis (CA), an umbrella term for inflammatory rheumatic and other musculoskeletal diseases, is highly prevalent. Effective disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs for CA are available, with the exception of osteoarthritis, but require a long-term commitment of patients to comply with the medication regimen and management program as well as a tight follow-up by the treating physician and health professionals. Additionally, patients are advised to participate in physical exercise programs...
October 13, 2016: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
Chorong Oh, Byeong Hwan Jeon, Shaun Nicholas Reid Storm, Sunkug Jho, Jae-Kyung No
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the types and levels of physical activity in conjunction with protein intake and vitamin D on sarcopenia and obesity status in an elderly population. METHODS: Study participants (N = 4452) were ages ≥60 y and included 1929 men and 2523 women who completed a body composition analysis with a dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and provided health and dietary data. RESULTS: Higher appendicular skeletal muscle mass/weight was observed in the non-obese group, although obese participants had greater weights...
June 23, 2016: Nutrition
Margaret A Nosek, Susan Robinson-Whelen, Rosemary B Hughes, Thomas M Nosek
Purpose: To examine the feasibility of an online self-esteem enhancement group program for women with disabilities. Method: A sample of 19 racially and ethnically diverse, community-living women with physical disabilities, 22 to 61 years old, participated in a 7-session interactive group intervention (extending Hughes et al., 2004) in the 3-D, immersive, virtual environment of, using avatars with voice and text communication. Baseline and postintervention questionnaires were administered online...
October 6, 2016: Rehabilitation Psychology
Laurie A Malone, Jennifer L Rowland, Rebecca Rogers, Tapan Mehta, Sangeetha Padalabalanarayanan, Mohanraj Thirumalai, James H Rimmer
OBJECTIVE: For active videogaming (AVG) to be a meaningful, health-enhancing physical activity option for youth with physical disability, factors related to game performance and enjoyment must be understood. The objective was to explore associations between quality of gameplay, controller usage, heart rate (HR), physical function, and enjoyment during AVG play in youth with physical disability. METHODS: Participants (5 girls, 11 boys, mean age 13.8 ± 2.7 years) played four AVGs on three platforms (Nintendo(®) Wii™, Sony PlayStation3 Move, and Microsoft Xbox(®) Kinect), across three sessions...
October 3, 2016: Games for Health
Jonathan Hoffman, C Philip Gabel
Background: Over recent decades, mind-body exercise methods have gained international popularity and importance in the management of musculoskeletal disorders. Objectives: The scope of this paper was to investigate: the origins of Western mind-body methods, their philosophies, exercises, and relationship with mainstream healthcare over the last two centuries. Major findings: Within a few decades of the turn of the 20th century, a cluster of mind-body exercise methods emerged from at least six pioneering founders: Checkley, Müller, Alexander, Randell, Pilates, and Morris...
November 2, 2015: Physical Therapy Reviews: PTR
Morag E Taylor, Stephen R Lord, Henry Brodaty, Susan E Kurrle, Sarah Hamilton, Elisabeth Ramsay, Lyndell Webster, Narelle L Payne, Jacqueline C T Close
BACKGROUND: Older people with dementia are at increased risk of physical decline and falls. Balance and mood are significant predictors of falls in this population. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a tailored home-based exercise program in community-dwelling older people with dementia. METHODS: Forty-two participants with mild to moderate dementia were recruited from routine health services. All participants were offered a six-month home-based, carer-enhanced, progressive, and individually tailored exercise program...
October 3, 2016: International Psychogeriatrics
Jeremiah Weinstock, Margaret R Farney, Noel M Elrod, Craig E Henderson, Edward P Weiss
Substance use disorders (SUDs) are maladaptive patterns of substance use that are associated with psychiatric comorbidity, unhealthy lifestyle choices, and high rates of relapse. Exercise is associated with a wide range of acute and long-term benefits for both mental and physical health and is presently being investigated as a promising adjunctive treatment for SUD. Despite positive effects of regular physical activity on treatment outcomes and risk factors for relapse, low adherence and high attrition rates limit the benefits derived from exercise interventions...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
William J Chopik, Ed O'Brien
Objective: Happy people are healthy people. However, past research has largely overlooked the influence of romantic partners' happiness on physical health, particularly how a person's own emotional and physical well-being might also be affected by the happiness and health of their partner. Method: The current study helps fill this gap. In a large nationally representative sample (N = 1,981 couples), a multilevel modeling procedure was employed to explore whether spousal life satisfaction contributes to self-health over and above the contribution of one's own life satisfaction...
September 19, 2016: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
Gregory L Stonerock, James A Blumenthal
Although healthy lifestyles (HL) offer a number of health benefits, nonadherence to recommended lifestyle changes remains a frequent and difficult obstacle to realizing these benefits. Behavioral counseling can improve adherence to a HL. However, individuals' motivation for change and resistance to altering unhealthy habits must be considered when developing an effective approach to counseling. In the present article, we review psychological, behavioral, and environmental factors that may promote adherence and contribute to nonadherence...
September 14, 2016: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
Maria Lindqvist, Marie Lindkvist, Eva Eurenius, Margareta Persson, Anneli Ivarsson, Ingrid Mogren
BACKGROUND: Physical activity during pregnancy is generally considered safe and beneficial for both the pregnant woman and her fetus. The overall aim was to investigate pregnant women's pre-pregnancy and early pregnancy physical activity and its associations with maternal characteristics and pregnancy outcomes. METHODS: This cross-sectional study combined data from the Maternal Health Care Register in Västerbotten (MHCR-VB) and the Salut Programme Register (Salut-R)...
October 2016: Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare: Official Journal of the Swedish Association of Midwives
Vidhi Gaur, Timothy Connor, Andrew Sanigorski, Sheree D Martin, Clinton R Bruce, Darren C Henstridge, Simon T Bond, Kevin A McEwen, Lyndal Kerr-Bayles, Trent D Ashton, Cassandra Fleming, Min Wu, Lisa S Pike Winer, Denise Chen, Gregg M Hudson, John W R Schwabe, Keith Baar, Mark A Febbraio, Paul Gregorevic, Frederick M Pfeffer, Ken R Walder, Mark Hargreaves, Sean L McGee
Drugs that recapitulate aspects of the exercise adaptive response have the potential to provide better treatment for diseases associated with physical inactivity. We previously observed reduced skeletal muscle class IIa HDAC (histone deacetylase) transcriptional repressive activity during exercise. Here, we find that exercise-like adaptations are induced by skeletal muscle expression of class IIa HDAC mutants that cannot form a corepressor complex. Adaptations include increased metabolic gene expression, mitochondrial capacity, and lipid oxidation...
September 13, 2016: Cell Reports
Emma V Richardson, Brett Smith, Anthony Papathomas
PURPOSE: Individuals with physical disabilities are among the most inactive population in society, arguably due to the lack of suitable environments to exercise. The gym is a space dedicated to improving physical fitness in a controlled environment with specialized equipment and qualified instructors. The feasibility of using this space to promote health to this population, however, is yet to be established. METHOD: Over an 18-month period, 21 people with physical disabilities were interviewed regarding their experiences in the gym...
September 14, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
Judy Robertson, Ruth Jepson, Andrew Macvean, Stuart Gray
Many public health interventions are less effective than expected in 'real life settings', yet little work is undertaken to understand the reasons why. The effectiveness of complex public health interventions can often be traced back to a robust programme theory (how and why an intervention brings about a change in outcome(s)) and assumptions that are made about the context in which it is implemented. Understanding whether effectiveness (or lack thereof) is due to the intervention or the context is hugely helpful in decisions about whether to a) modify the intervention; b) modify the context; c) stop providing the intervention...
2016: PloS One
David Lubans, Justin Richards, Charles Hillman, Guy Faulkner, Mark Beauchamp, Michael Nilsson, Paul Kelly, Jordan Smith, Lauren Raine, Stuart Biddle
CONTEXT: Physical activity can improve cognitive and mental health, but the underlying mechanisms have not been established. OBJECTIVE: To present a conceptual model explaining the mechanisms for the effect of physical activity on cognitive and mental health in young people and to conduct a systematic review of the evidence. DATA SOURCES: Six electronic databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, SCOPUS, Ovid Medline, SportDiscus, and Embase) were used. STUDY SELECTION: School-, home-, or community-based physical activity intervention or laboratory-based exercise interventions were assessed...
September 2016: Pediatrics
Markus Gerber, Edith Holsboer-Trachsler, Uwe Pühse, Serge Brand
Major depressive disorders (MDDs) are a widespread and burdensome mental illness associated with a high comorbidity with other conditions and a significantly reduced life expectancy compared to the general population. Therefore, targeted actions are needed to improve physical health in people with MDDs, in addition to ongoing efforts to enhance psychological well-being. Meanwhile, the positive effects of exercise training on the treatment of MDDs are well documented, while compelling evidence exists that exercise interventions can improve cardiorespiratory fitness in clinically meaningful ways...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Philippa A Jackson, Vincent Pialoux, Dale Corbett, Lauren Drogos, Kirk I Erickson, Gail A Eskes, Marc J Poulin
The rise in incidence of age-related cognitive impairment is a global health concern. Ageing is associated with a number of changes in the brain that, collectively, contribute to the declines in cognitive function observed in older adults. Structurally, the ageing brain atrophies as white and grey matter volumes decrease. Oxidative stress and inflammation promote endothelial dysfunction thereby hampering cerebral perfusion and thus delivery of energy substrates and nutrients. Further, the development of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles contributes to neuronal loss...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Jung-Eun Byun, Eun-Bum Kang
PURPOSE: This study was to investigate the impacts of senior brain heath exercise (SBHE) program for 12 weeks to basic active physical fitness, cognitive function and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in elderly women. METHODS: Subject of this study is total of 24 women in the age of 65-79 who can conduct normal daily activity and communication but have not participated in regular exercise in recent 6 months. The study groups were divided into an exercise group (EG, n=13) and a control group (CG, n=11)...
June 2016: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
T N Zaripova, L V Zhilyakova, Z P Bulanova
UNLABELLED: The importance of the development of the new methods for the rehabilitation of the patients presenting with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease under conditions of the spa and health resort-based treatment arises from the high prevalence and the progressive character of this disease, poor quality of the patients' life, great economic losses due to the reduction of the working capacity of the patients, and the high cost of COPD treatment. AIM: The objective of the present study was to substantiate the advisability of inclusion of high-frequency intrapulmonary ventilation in the program of the therapeutic and rehabilitative treatment of the patients with COPD based at a spa and health resort facility...
2016: Voprosy Kurortologii, Fizioterapii, i Lechebnoĭ Fizicheskoĭ Kultury
David Thivel, Grace OʼMalley
Children and adolescents spend a considerable amount of time engaged in sedentary behaviors that have been shown to favor weight gain and impaired physical fitness. Active video games have been proposed to increase physical activity levels. Although active video games may offer an interesting alternative to reducing sedentary time for children, the present commentary aimed to determine whether there is adequate evidence that compared active video gaming to real-life play and exercise. Given the dearth of data, it is not possible at present to support the use of active video games as substitutes for traditional forms of active play and health-enhancing physical activity...
January 2016: Pediatric Physical Therapy
Karine Mathilde Campestrini Dallagnol, Aline Pertile Remor, Rodrigo Augusto da Silva, Rui Daniel Prediger, Alexandra Latini, Aderbal Silva Aguiar
Exercise improves mental health and synaptic function in the aged brain. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in exercise-induced healthy brain aging are not well understood. Evidence supports the role of neurogenesis and neuroplasticity in exercise-induced neuroplasticity. The gene silencing transcription factor neuronal RE1-silencing transcription factor (REST)/neuron-restrictive silencer factor (NRSF) and an anti-inflammatory role of exercise are also candidate mechanisms. We evaluate the effect of 8 weeks of physical activity on running wheels (RW) on motor and depressive-like behavior and hippocampal gene expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), REST, and interleukins IL-1β and IL-10 of adult and aged C57BL/6 mice...
July 29, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
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