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Adolph V Lombardi, Antonio G Manocchio, Keith R Berend, Michael J Morris, Joanne B Adams
INTRODUCTION: Short stem femoral components in primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) have increased in popularity since the advent of minimally invasive surgical techniques. The concept of a short stem is particularly compatible with tapered designs where the goal is to offload forces proximally in the femur. The purpose of this retrospective review was to review our early experience with a short, tapered titanium femoral component with updated design features. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Beginning in November 2011 through February 2012, 92 consented patients (93 hips), at a single center, were treated with primary cementless THA using a short stem, tapered femoral component (Taperloc® Complete Microplasty; Zimmer Biomet, Warsaw, Indiana) and were available for review with a minimum two-year follow-up...
March 12, 2018: Surgical Technology International
Dylan Tanzer, Karen Smith, Michael Tanzer
BACKGROUND: The implementation of care pathways in hip arthroplasty programs has been shown to result in a decreased length of stay (LOS), but often multiple elements of a care pathway are implemented at the same time. As a result, it is difficult to understand the impact each of the individual modifications has made to the patient's prepathway care. In particular, it is unknown what the role of patient expectations pertaining to anticipated LOS alone is on the LOS after primary THA. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) Does changing the patient's expectations regarding his or her anticipated LOS, without intentionally changing the rest of the care pathway, result in a change in the patient's LOS after primary THA? (2) Is the resultant LOS associated with the patient's age, gender, or day of the week the surgery was performed? METHODS: We retrospectively compared the LOS in 100 consecutive patients undergoing THA immediately after the implementation of a 4-day care pathway (4-day Group) with 100 consecutive patients, 3 months later, who were also in the same pathway but were told by their surgeon preoperatively and in the hospital to expect a LOS of 2 days (2-day Group)...
February 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Gulraj S Matharu, Andrew Judge, David W Murray, Hemant G Pandit
BACKGROUND: Metal-on-metal hip replacement (MoMHR) revision surgery for adverse reactions to metal debris (ARMD) has been associated with an increased risk of early complications and reoperation and inferior patient-reported outcome scores compared with non-ARMD revisions. As a result, early revision specifically for ARMD with adoption of a lower surgical threshold has been widely recommended with the goal of improving the subsequent prognosis after ARMD revisions. However, no large cohorts have compared the risk of complications and reoperation after MoMHR revision surgery for ARMD (an unanticipated revision indication) with those after non-ARMD revisions (which represent conventional modes of arthroplasty revision)...
February 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Fang He, Peng-Fei Luo, Tao Tang, Fang Zhang, He Fang, Shi-Zhao Ji, Yu Sun, Guo-Sheng Wu, Bo-Han Pan, Zhi-Bao Huo, Guang-Yi Wang, Zhao-Fan Xia
Rapid repair of vascular injury is an important prognostic factor for electrical burns. This repair is achieved mainly via stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1α promoting the mobilization, chemotaxis, homing, and targeted differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) into endothelial cells. Forming a concentration gradient from the site of local damage in the circulation is essential to the role of SDF-1α. In a previous study, we developed reactive oxygen species (ROS)-sensitive PPADT nanoparticles containing SDF-1α that could degrade in response to high concentration of ROS in tissue lesions, achieving the goal of targeted SDF-1α release...
2018: PloS One
Thomas F Pettigrew
Social psychology experiences recurring so-called "crises." This article maintains that these episodes actually mark advances in the discipline; these "crises" have enhanced relevance and led to greater methodological and statistical sophistication. New statistical tools have allowed social psychologists to begin to achieve a major goal: placing psychological phenomena in their larger social contexts. This growing trend is illustrated with numerous recent studies; they demonstrate how cultures and social norms moderate basic psychological processes...
March 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Jessica M Kramer, Christine Helfrich, Melissa Levin, I-Ting Hwang, Preethy S Samuel, Ann Carrellas, Ariel E Schwartz, Aleksandrina Goeva, Eric D Kolaczyk
AIM: Project TEAM (Teens making Environment and Activity Modifications) teaches transition-age young people with developmental disabilities, including those with co-occurring intellectual or cognitive disabilities, to identify and resolve environmental barriers to participation. We examined its effects on young people's attainment of participation goals, knowledge, problem-solving, self-determination, and self-efficacy. METHOD: We used a quasi-experimental, repeated measures design (initial, outcome, 6-week follow-up) with two groups: (1) Project TEAM (28 males, 19 females; mean age 17y 6mo); and (2) goal-setting comparison (21 males, 14 females; mean age 17y 6mo)...
March 12, 2018: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Janet E Fischel, Doreen M Olvet, Richard J Iuli, Wei-Hsin Lu, Latha Chandran
AIM: Curriculum reform in medical schools continues to be an ever-present and challenging activity in medical education. This paper describes one school's experiences with specific curricular innovations that were developed or adapted and targeted to meet a clear set of curricular goals during the curriculum reform process. Those goals included: (a) promoting active learning and learner engagement; (b) establishing early professional identity; and (c) developing physician competencies in an integrated and contextual manner while allowing for individualized learning experiences for the millennial student...
March 11, 2018: Medical Teacher
Isaac R Galatzer-Levy, Kelly Ruggles, Zhe Chen
Diverse environmental and biological systems interact to influence individual differences in response to environmental stress. Understanding the nature of these complex relationships can enhance the development of methods to: (1) identify risk, (2) classify individuals as healthy or ill, (3) understand mechanisms of change, and (4) develop effective treatments. The Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative provides a theoretical framework to understand health and illness as the product of multiple inter-related systems but does not provide a framework to characterize or statistically evaluate such complex relationships...
January 2018: Chronic Stress
R Modi, K R Amico, A Knudson, A O Westfall, J Keruly, H M Crane, E B Quinlivan, C Golin, J Willig, A Zinski, R Moore, S Napravnik, L Bryan, M S Saag, M J Mugavero
In the first year after HIV diagnosis, patients are simultaneously processing with their diagnosis, typically with an emotional component, while also developing a routine of regular medical care visits and antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence. Maintaining "HIV adherence" and integrating it into one's daily life is required to sustain viral load suppression (VS) over time. The HIV care continuum or "treatment cascade," an epidemiological snapshot of the national epidemic in the United States (US), indicates that a minority of persons living with HIV (PLWH) have achieved VS...
March 8, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Thomas S Maldonado, Nilo J Mosquera, Peter Lin, Raffaello Bellosta, Michael Barfield, Albeir Moussa, Robert Rhee, Marc Schermerhorn, Jeffrey Weinberger, Marald Wikkeling, Jan Heyligers, Frank J Veith, Ross Milner, Michel P J Reijnen
OBJECTIVE: The Gore Iliac Branch Endoprosthesis (IBE; W. L. Gore & Associates, Flagstaff, Ariz) has recently been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for treatment of common iliac artery (CIA) aneurysms. Despite early excellent results in clinical trial, none of 63 patients were treated for bilateral iliac aneurysms. The goal of this study was to examine real-world experience using the Gore IBE for bilateral CIA aneurysms. METHODS: A retrospective review of an international multicenter (16 U...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Vascular Surgery
Chien-Heng Shen, Shui-Yi Tung, Min-Jen Tseng, Yu-Wei Leu
Notch signaling is a candidate pathway that transmits environmental information into the cell and interferes with the epigenome of gastric cancer. This study aimed to explore if the Notch pathway was abnormally regulated during gastric tumorigenesis. To achieve the goal, Delta-like ligands (DLL1) gene expression, Notch upstream signal, promoter methylation and its correlation with DLL1 expression were examined by methylation-specific PCR and real time (RT)-PCR in cultured gastric cancer cell lines or gastric cancer patient samples...
March 12, 2018: Chinese Journal of Physiology
S Liyanaarachchi, S Muthukumaran, Joshua Kaiser, Paul Rogers, Li Shu, Ho Kyong Shon, V Jegatheesan
Diffusion coefficient of solutes through a porous membrane media is different from diffusion coefficient through a free homogenous media. Porosity, tortuosity and the thickness of the membrane significantly affect the diffusion through a specific thickness of a membrane and therefore it is termed as effective diffusion coefficient (Deff ) which is lower than the actual diffusion coefficient, D. The Deff of single or dual solutes through a porous membrane layer are well documented but not for multiple salts...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Paul Whitehead, Gianbattista Bussi, Mohammed Abed Hossain, Michaela Dolk, Partho Das, Sean Comber, Rebecca Peters, Katrina J Charles, Rob Hope, Sarwar Hossain
River water quality in rapidly urbanising Asian cities threatens to damage the resource base on which human health, economic growth and poverty reduction all depend. Dhaka reflects the challenges and opportunities for balancing these dynamic and complex trade-offs which goals can be achieved through effective policy interventions. There is a serious problem of water pollution in central Dhaka, in the Turag-Tongi-Balu River system in Bangladesh with the river system being one of the most polluted in the world at the moment...
March 8, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Rocío Martínez, Carlos Torrente
A 3-month-old intact male Prague ratter was presented to the emergency service for evaluation of progressive lethargy, weakness, coughing and labour breathing after an episode of resistance to oral deworming. The patient exhibited depression, increased respiratory effort and cyanosis at initial presentation. Results of first diagnostic work-up (complete blood cell count, biochemistry panel and thoracic x-rays) were all consistent with aspiration pneumonia. The puppy was initially treated with balanced isotonic crystalloids, broad spectrum antibiotics, nebulization with thoracic coupage and was transferred to an infant incubator with a sustained FiO2 of 40-50%...
December 2017: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
Yanxue Liu, Kefeng Liu, Xiaomin Li, Shangzhen Xiao, Dan Zheng, Pengbo Zhu, Chunxiao Li, Jing Liu, Jing He, Jiandu Lei, Luying Wang
The application of non-toxic carriers to increase drug loading, multi-drug delivery, and extremely small size of nano-drugs to construct a tremendous transmission system is the goal for all researchers to be pursued. The proposal of natural pectin nano-platform for delivery of multiple drugs is critical for biomedical research, especially a particle size of below 100nm with high yield. Here we design a new core-shell structure pectin-eight-arm polyethylene glycol-ursolic acid/hydrooxycampothecin nanoparticle (Pec-8PUH NPs) through a special self-assembly method for stabilizing and dispersing particles, improving water-solubility, and achieving drug controlled release...
May 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Hugo Lopes, Céu Mateus, Nicoletta Rosati
OBJECTIVES: To identify the survival time, the mortality risk factors and the individuals' characteristics associated with cognitive and physical status at discharge, among the Portuguese long-term care (LTC) populations. SETTINGS: Home-and-Community-Based Services (HCBS) and three types of Nursing Homes (NH). PARTICIPANTS: 20,984 individuals admitted and discharged in 2015. MEASUREMENTS: The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and the Cox Proportional Hazards Models were used to study the mortality risk; the Wilcoxon signed-rank test to identify the number of individuals with cognitive and physical changes between admission and discharge; two cumulative odds ordinal logistic regressions to predict the cognitive and physical dependence levels at discharge RESULTS: The mortality rate at HCBS was 30%, and 17% at the NH, with a median survival time of 173 and 200 days, respectively...
February 20, 2018: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
Jie Wen, Yong Xu, Zuoyong Li, Zhongli Ma, Yuanrong Xu
Least square regression is a very popular supervised classification method. However, two main issues greatly limit its performance. The first one is that it only focuses on fitting the input features to the corresponding output labels while ignoring the correlations among samples. The second one is that the used label matrix, i.e., zero-one label matrix is inappropriate for classification. To solve these problems and improve the performance, this paper presents a novel method, i.e., inter-class sparsity based discriminative least square regression (ICS_DLSR), for multi-class classification...
February 21, 2018: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
Désirée Goubert, Mihály Koncz, Antal Kiss, Marianne G Rots
Epigenetic editing is a promising approach to modulate the local chromatin environment of target genes with the ultimate goal of stable gene expression reprogramming. Epigenetic editing tools minimally consist of a DNA-binding domain and an effector domain. The CRISPR/dCas9 platform, where mutations in the nuclease domains render the Cas9 protein inactive, is widely used to guide epigenetic effectors to their intended genomic loci. Its flexible nature, simple use, and relatively low cost have revolutionized the research field of epigenetic editing...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Aekyoung Kim, Sam J Maglio
Happiness can be conceptualized as a positive affective state or as a goal whose pursuit ironically pulls the pursuer away from achieving it (Mauss, Tamir, Anderson, & Savino in Emotion, 11(4), 807-815, 2011). But how do people think about time during this latter, never-ending pursuit of happiness? The present investigation asks how seeking happiness influences perceptions of time availability. Four studies demonstrated that trait-level happiness seeking (Study 1) as well as direct manipulation of happiness seeking (Studies 2, 3, and 4) consistently reveal the same pattern: reduced feelings of time availability while pursuing happiness...
March 9, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Karen Rego, Kristen Pereira, James MacDougall, William Cruikshank
BACKGROUND: Accurate identification of individuals with TB infection, is required to achieve the WHO's End TB Strategy goals. While there is general acceptance that the T-SPOT.TB test borderline category provides an opportunity to increase test resolution of results around the test cut-off point, this has not been investigated. METHODS: 645,947 tests were analyzed to determine frequency of borderline results, effect of age and time between tests and associations between subjects' clinical risk factors and retest results...
January 2018: Tuberculosis
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