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Michael J Cooney
Enzyme kinetics is the study of the chemical reactions that are catalyzed by enzymes, with a focus on their reaction rates. The study of an enzyme's kinetics considers the various stages of activity, reveals the catalytic mechanism of this enzyme, correlates its value to assay conditions, and describes how a drug or a poison might inhibit the enzyme. Victor Henri initially reported that enzyme reactions were initiated by a bond between the enzyme and the substrate. By 1910, Michaelis and Menten were advancing their work by studying the kinetics of an enzyme saccharase which catalyzes the hydrolysis of sucrose into glucose and fructose...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Leo H Wang, Michael A Elliott, Lily Jung Henson, Elba Gerena-Maldonado, Susan Strom, Sharon Downing, Jennifer Vetrovs, Paige Kayihan, Piper Paul, Kate Kennedy, Joshua O Benditt, Michael D Weiss
OBJECTIVES: To describe the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients who sought medication under the Washington State Death with Dignity (DWD) Act since its inception in 2009. METHODS: Chart review at 3 tertiary medical centers in the Seattle/Puget Sound region and comparison to publicly available data of ALS and all-cause DWD cohorts from Washington and Oregon. RESULTS: In Washington State, 39 patients with ALS requested DWD from the University of Washington, Virginia Mason, and Swedish Medical Centers beginning in 2009...
October 21, 2016: Neurology
Eddie Y Liu, Bo Li, Cindy M L Hutnik
Wet lab and surgical simulation can reduce the learning curve of difficult surgical techniques, accelerate the rate for trainees to achieve surgical competency, and improve patient safety. To provide the most up-to-date information and hands-on experiences with novel ophthalmic surgical techniques and instruments, the Department of Ophthalmology at Western University has created a wet lab-based, multilevel microsurgery skills transfer course through collaboration with various industry partners. Several elements in the course goal and design differentiate this type of surgical course from typical wet labs: the format is multileveled surgical training, with a beginner level targeting undergraduate medical students, an intermediate level for ophthalmology residents, and an advanced level for trained ophthalmologist...
October 2016: Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. Journal Canadien D'ophtalmologie
Michèle M Kislan, Adam T Bernstein, Loretta R Fearrington, Timothy J Ives
BACKGROUND: Clinical Pharmacist Practitioners are advanced practicing pharmacists in North Carolina that provide disease-specific management. The purpose of this retrospective cohort study was to compare the efficacy and charges from referrals to a Clinical Pharmacist Practitioner by the primary care provider, to those managed by a primary care provider alone. METHODS: Patients were separated into cohorts depending if they had at least two appointments with a Clinical Pharmacist Practitioner from November 2008 to November 2011...
October 21, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
Jingjing Yu, Yuling Huang, Lijuan Liu, Jing Wang, Jiye Yin, Lihua Huang, Shaojun Chen, Jingao Li, Hong Yuan, Guoping Yang, Wenyu Liu, Hai Wang, Qi Pei, Chengxian Guo
Radiotherapy (RT) is the normative therapeutic treatment for primary nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of genes in Wnt/β-catenin pathway are correlated to the development, prognosis, and treatment benefit of various cancers. However, it has not been established whether SNPs of Wnt/β-catenin pathway are associated with nasopharyngeal tumorigenesis and the efficacy of RT in NPC patients. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to investigate the nine potentially functional SNPs of four genes in the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and genotyped these in 188 NPC patients treated with RT...
October 19, 2016: Oncotarget
Alan F Cowman, Julie Healer, Danushka Marapana, Kevin Marsh
Malaria has been a major global health problem of humans through history and is a leading cause of death and disease across many tropical and subtropical countries. Over the last fifteen years renewed efforts at control have reduced the prevalence of malaria by over half, raising the prospect that elimination and perhaps eradication may be a long-term possibility. Achievement of this goal requires the development of new tools including novel antimalarial drugs and more efficacious vaccines as well as an increased understanding of the disease and biology of the parasite...
October 20, 2016: Cell
Emily R R Burdett, Amanda J Lucas, Daphna Buchsbaum, Nicola McGuigan, Lara A Wood, Andrew Whiten
This study examined whether instrumental and normative learning contexts differentially influence 4- to 7-year-old children's social learning strategies; specifically, their dispositions to copy an expert versus a majority consensus. Experiment 1 (N = 44) established that children copied a relatively competent "expert" individual over an incompetent individual in both kinds of learning context. In experiment 2 (N = 80) we then tested whether children would copy a competent individual versus a majority, in each of the two different learning contexts...
2016: PloS One
Paolo Gabrieli, Francesca Scolari
The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a pest species with extremely high agricultural relevance. This is due to its reproductive behavior: females damage the external surface of fruits and vegetables when they lay eggs and the hatched larvae feed on their pulp. Wild C. capitata populations are traditionally controlled through insecticide spraying and/or eco-friendly approaches, the most successful being the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). The SIT relies on mass-rearing, radiation-based sterilization and field release of males that retain their capacity to mate but are not able to generate fertile progeny...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Yong-Cheng Dong, Zhi-Jian Wang, Zhen-Zhong Chen, Anthony R Clarke, Chang-Ying Niu
RNA interference (RNAi) is a genetic technique which has novel application for sustainable pest control. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) uses releases of mass-produced, sterile male insects to out-compete wild males for mates to reduce pest populations. RNAi sterilization of SIT males would have several advantages over radiation sterilization, but to achieve this appropriate target genes must first be identified and then targeted with interference technology. With this goal, eight spermatogenesis related candidate genes were cloned and tested for potential activity in Bactrocera dorsalis...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Yu Jiang, Changying Li, Fumiomi Takeda
Currently, blueberry bruising is evaluated by either human visual/tactile inspection or firmness measurement instruments. These methods are destructive, time-consuming, and subjective. The goal of this paper was to develop a non-destructive approach for blueberry bruising detection and quantification. Experiments were conducted on 300 samples of southern highbush blueberry (Camellia, Rebel, and Star) and on 1500 samples of northern highbush blueberry (Bluecrop, Jersey, and Liberty) for hyperspectral imaging analysis, firmness measurement, and human evaluation...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Moira S Lewitt, Emma Strage, David Church
BACKGROUND: Achieving insulin independence is emerging as a realistic therapeutic goal in the management of feline diabetes mellitus. CASE PRESENTATION: The management of an 11-year-old spayed female Burmese cat presenting with diabetes mellitus after corticosteroid administration is described. Remission was achieved after the frequency of insulin administration was increased to four times a day, and supported by intensive home blood glucose monitoring and a high protein, low carbohydrate diet...
October 20, 2016: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Madhav V Deo
A buzzword in Indian press and amongst the policy makers is that India is short of the WHO recommended doctor to population ratio of 1:1000. The recommendations were formulated to facilitate programs to achieve some of the health related UN-Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Infections and malnutrition, which can be comfortably handled by a basic MBBS doctor, were the dominant health issues at the time of the formulation of the MDGs. However, all countries worldwide are going through health epidemiological transition and health impact of the non-communicable disorders (NCDs) can be no more ignored even by the low income nations...
October 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Paul D Burstein, David M Zalenski, John L Edwards, Ishrat Z Rafi, Jennifer F Darden, Cassandra Firneno, Palmira Santos
OBJECTIVE: To establish multifactorial shoulder dystocia response and management protocol to promote sustainable practice change. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: Primary data collection was conducted over 3 years. Implementation of the protocol spanned 13 months. Data collection occurred at five sites, which were chosen for their diversity in both patient mix and geographical location. STUDY DESIGN: Case study evaluation methodology was used to examine clinician engagement and protocol adoption...
October 21, 2016: Health Services Research
Man-Chiu Poon, Adrienne Lee
Prophylaxis is considered optimal care for hemophilia patients to prevent bleeding and to preserve joint function thereby improving quality of life (QoL). The evidence for prophylaxis is irrefutable and is the standard of care in developed nations. Prophylaxis can be further individualized to improve outcomes and cost effectiveness. Individualization is best accomplished taking into account the bleeding phenotype, physical activity/lifestyle, joint status, and pharmacokinetic handling of specific clotting factor concentrates, all of which vary among individuals...
2016: Thrombosis Journal
Rolf Ljung
Retrospective and prospective studies unambiguously show that prophylactic treatment of severe hemophilia A or B should be started as primary prophylaxis at 1-2 years' of age and ideally before the first joint bleed. The dose and dose frequency should be individually tailored depending on the goal of treatment, venous access and the bleeding phenotype. The circumstances during the first exposures of factor VIII concentrates in hemophilia A may have an impact on the risk of developing inhibitors. Enhanced half-life products, in particular in hemophilia B, will facilitate treatment in patients with difficult venous access but also in achieving a higher trough level...
2016: Thrombosis Journal
Kozo Kataoka, Kenichi Nakamura, Carmela Caballero, Serge Evrard, Anastassia Negrouk, Manabu Shiozawa, Laurence Collette, Haruhiko Fukuda, Denis Lacombe
The demand for international collaboration in cancer clinical trials has grown stronger to maximize efficiency, avoid duplication of effort and to achieve effective implementation of research results into medical practice. Infrastructures that could facilitate intercontinental collaboration not only between Europe and United States  but also between Europe and Asia are urgently needed. The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer, one of the major cancer clinical research infrastructure in Europe, initiated collaboration with the Japan Clinical Oncology Group, the largest cancer research cooperative group in Japan...
October 20, 2016: Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology
Maria P Rebollo, Moses J Bockarie
Interventions against neglected tropical diseases (NTD), including lymphatic filariasis (LF), scaled up dramatically after the signing of the London Declaration (LD) in 2012. LF is targeted for elimination by 2020, but some countries are considered not on track to meet the 2020 target using the recommended preventive chemotherapy and morbidity management strategies. In this Opinion article we review the prospects for achieving LF elimination by 2020 in the light of the renewed global action against NTDs and the global efforts to achieve the sustainable development goals (SDGs) by 2030...
October 17, 2016: Trends in Parasitology
Aimee K Gardner, Matthew Kosemund, Deborah Hogg, Abraham Heymann, Joseph Martinez
INTRODUCTION: The role of goal setting within post-simulation debriefing is not well known. This study sought to examine how inclusion of group-level goals, individual-level goals, or no goals in the debriefing process impacts teamwork. METHODS: Students participated in two high-fidelity team training scenarios. Between scenarios, teams were assigned to one of three debriefing groups: jointly creating five teamwork goals for the group to achieve (group-level goals); independently creating five teamwork goals for each individual to attain (individual-level goals); or no goals...
October 8, 2016: American Journal of Surgery
Aart Mookhoek, Kapil Krishnan, Sam Chitsaz, Heide Kuang, Liang Ge, Paul H Schoof, Ad J J C Bogers, Johanna J M Takkenberg, Elaine E Tseng
BACKGROUND: Progressive autograft dilatation after a Ross operation suggests that remodeling does not effectively reproduce native aortic root biomechanics. In the first of this two-part series, we compared mechanical properties of explanted autografts to pulmonary roots at pulmonary pressures. The goal of this study was to compare mechanical properties of explanted autografts to native aortic roots at systemic pressures. METHODS: Autograft specimens were obtained from patients undergoing reoperation after Ross operation...
October 17, 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Shaniece Criss, Emily Oken, Lauren Guthrie, Marie-France Hivert
BACKGROUND: Gestational weight gain (GWG) is an important predictor of short and long-term pregnancy outcomes for both mother and child, and women who set a GWG goal are more likely to gain within recommended ranges. Little information is available regarding potentially modifiable factors that underlie a woman's GWG goals. Our aims were to explore women's perceptions regarding factors that affect GWG, their understanding of appropriate GWG, their goal-setting experiences including patient-health care provider (HCP) conversations, and supportive interventions they would most like to help them achieve the recommended GWG...
October 20, 2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
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