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"Evolutionary mechanisms"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533897/introduction-to-the-special-issue-tree-invasions-towards-a-better-understanding-of-their-complex-evolutionary-dynamics
#1
Heidi Hirsch, David M Richardson, Johannes J Le Roux
Many invasive plants show evidence of trait-based evolutionary change, but these remain largely unexplored for invasive trees. The increasing number of invasive trees and their tremendous impacts worldwide, however, illustrates the urgent need to bridge this knowledge gap to apply efficient management. Consequently, an interdisciplinary workshop, held in 2015 at Stellenbosch University in Stellenbosch, South Africa, brought together international researchers to discuss our understanding of evolutionary dynamics in invasive trees...
May 2017: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532797/genetic-basis-for-loss-of-immuno-reactive-o-chain-in-salmonella-enterica-serovar-enteritidis-veterinary-isolates
#2
Istvan Szabo, Marianne Grafe, Nicole Kemper, Ernst Junker, Burkhard Malorny
Fifty-two rough Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) isolates from broilers and the environment were characterized for their serological and genotypic properties. Under routine diagnostic serotyping methods such isolates lack the immuno-reactivity of the O-chain of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and are referred to as non-typeable. Using a modified slide agglutination method, the isolates could be differentiated into three different serological variants. Twenty-six isolates (50%) were defined as semi-rough, nineteen isolates (37%) as deep-rough, four isolates (8%) as rough and three isolates could not be assigned...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521939/developmental-and-evolutionary-mechanisms-shaping-butterfly-eyespots
#3
REVIEW
Patrícia Beldade, Carolina M Peralta
Butterfly eyespots are visually compelling models to study the reciprocal interactions between evolutionary and developmental processes that shape phenotypic variation. They are evolutionarily diversified, ecologically relevant, and developmentally tractable, and have made key contributions to linking genotype, development, phenotype and fitness. Advances in the availability of analytical tools (e.g. gene editing and visualization techniques) and resources (e.g. genomic and transcriptomic data) are boosting the detailed dissection of the mechanisms underlying eyespot development and evolution...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514442/architecture-of-the-human-interactome-defines-protein-communities-and-disease-networks
#4
Edward L Huttlin, Raphael J Bruckner, Joao A Paulo, Joe R Cannon, Lily Ting, Kurt Baltier, Greg Colby, Fana Gebreab, Melanie P Gygi, Hannah Parzen, John Szpyt, Stanley Tam, Gabriela Zarraga, Laura Pontano-Vaites, Sharan Swarup, Anne E White, Devin K Schweppe, Ramin Rad, Brian K Erickson, Robert A Obar, K G Guruharsha, Kejie Li, Spyros Artavanis-Tsakonas, Steven P Gygi, J Wade Harper
The physiology of a cell can be viewed as the product of thousands of proteins acting in concert to shape the cellular response. Coordination is achieved in part through networks of protein-protein interactions that assemble functionally related proteins into complexes, organelles, and signal transduction pathways. Understanding the architecture of the human proteome has the potential to inform cellular, structural, and evolutionary mechanisms and is critical to elucidating how genome variation contributes to disease...
May 17, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510588/evolutionary-restoration-of-fertility-in-an-interspecies-hybrid-yeast-by-whole-genome-duplication-after-a-failed-mating-type-switch
#5
Raúl A Ortiz-Merino, Nurzhan Kuanyshev, Stephanie Braun-Galleani, Kevin P Byrne, Danilo Porro, Paola Branduardi, Kenneth H Wolfe
Many interspecies hybrids have been discovered in yeasts, but most of these hybrids are asexual and can replicate only mitotically. Whole-genome duplication has been proposed as a mechanism by which interspecies hybrids can regain fertility, restoring their ability to perform meiosis and sporulate. Here, we show that this process occurred naturally during the evolution of Zygosaccharomyces parabailii, an interspecies hybrid that was formed by mating between 2 parents that differed by 7% in genome sequence and by many interchromosomal rearrangements...
May 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507050/tumor-dormancy-and-relapse-from-a-natural-byproduct-of-evolution-to-a-disease-state
#6
REVIEW
Masoud H Manjili
Species evolve by mutations and epigenetic changes acting on individuals in a population; tumors evolve by similar mechanisms at a cellular level in a tissue. This article reviews growing evidence about tumor dormancy and suggests that (i) cellular malignancy is a natural byproduct of evolutionary mechanisms, such as gene mutations and epigenetic modifications, which is manifested in the form of tumor dormancy in healthy individuals as well as in cancer survivors; (ii) cancer metastasis could be an early dissemination event that could occur during malignant dormancy even before primary cancer is clinically detectable; and (iii) chronic inflammation is a key factor in awakening dormant malignant cells at the primary site, leading to primary cancer development, and at distant sites, leading to advanced stage diseases...
May 15, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503179/molecular-and-evolutionary-mechanisms-of-cuticular-wax-for-plant-drought-tolerance
#7
REVIEW
Dawei Xue, Xiaoqin Zhang, Xueli Lu, Guang Chen, Zhong-Hua Chen
Cuticular wax, the first protective layer of above ground tissues of many plant species, is a key evolutionary innovation in plants. Cuticular wax safeguards the evolution from certain green algae to flowering plants and the diversification of plant taxa during the eras of dry and adverse terrestrial living conditions and global climate changes. Cuticular wax plays significant roles in plant abiotic and biotic stress tolerance and has been implicated in defense mechanisms against excessive ultraviolet radiation, high temperature, bacterial and fungal pathogens, insects, high salinity, and low temperature...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493321/local-genes-for-local-bacteria-evidence-of-allopatry-in-the-genomes-of-transatlantic-campylobacter-populations
#8
Ben Pascoe, Guillaume Méric, Koji Yahara, Helen Wimalarathna, Susan Murray, Matthew D Hitchings, Emma L Sproston, Catherine D Carrillo, Eduardo N Taboada, Kerry K Cooper, Steven Huynh, Alison J Cody, Keith A Jolley, Martin C J Maiden, Noel D McCarthy, Xavier Didelot, Craig T Parker, Samuel K Sheppard
The genetic structure of bacterial populations can be related to geographical locations of isolation. In some species, there is a strong correlation between geographical distance and genetic distance, which can be caused by different evolutionary mechanisms. Patterns of ancient admixture in Helicobacter pylori can be reconstructed in concordance with past human migration, whereas in Mycobacterium tuberculosis it is the lack of recombination that causes allopatric clusters. In Campylobacter, analyses of genomic data and molecular typing have been successful in determining the reservoir host species, but not geographical origin...
May 10, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484234/inferring-the-evolutionary-mechanism-of-the-chloroplast-genome-size-by-comparing-whole-chloroplast-genome-sequences-in-seed-plants
#9
Zheng Xiao-Ming, Wang Junrui, Feng Li, Liu Sha, Pang Hongbo, Qi Lan, Li Jing, Sun Yan, Qiao Weihua, Zhang Lifang, Cheng Yunlian, Yang Qingwen
The chloroplast genome originated from photosynthetic organisms and has retained the core genes that mainly encode components of photosynthesis. However, the causes of variations in chloroplast genome size in seed plants have only been thoroughly analyzed within small subsets of spermatophytes. In this study, we conducted the first comparative analysis on a large scale to examine the relationship between sequence characteristics and genome size in 272 seed plants based on cross-species and phylogenetic signal analysis...
May 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475810/draft-genome-sequence-of-the-tibetan-medicinal-herb-rhodiola-crenulata
#10
Yuanyuan Fu, Liangwei Li, Shijie Hao, Rui Guan, Guangyi Fan, Chengcheng Shi, Haibo Wan, Wenbin Chen, He Zhang, Guocheng Liu, Jihua Wang, Lulin Ma, Jianling You, Xuemei Ni, Zhen Yue, Xun Xu, Xiao Sun, Xin Liu, Simon Ming-Yuen Lee
Background: Rhodiola crenulata , a well-known medicinal Tibetan herb, is mainly grown in high-altitude regions of Tibet, Yunnan and Sichuan provinces in China. In the past few years increasing numbers of studies have been published on the potential pharmacological activities of R. crenulata , strengthening our understanding into its putitive active ingredient composition, pharmacological activity and mechanism of action. These findings also provide strong evidence supporting the important medicinal and economical value of R...
May 5, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472922/phenotypic-disparity-in-iberian-short-horned-grasshoppers-acrididae-the-role-of-ecology-and-phylogeny
#11
Vicente García-Navas, Víctor Noguerales, Pedro J Cordero, Joaquín Ortego
BACKGROUND: The combination of model-based comparative techniques, disparity analyses and ecomorphological correlations constitutes a powerful method to gain insight into the evolutionary mechanisms that shape morphological variation and speciation processes. In this study, we used a time-calibrated phylogeny of 70 Iberian species of short-horned grasshoppers (Acrididae) to test for patterns of morphological disparity in relation to their ecology and phylogenetic history. Specifically, we examined the role of substrate type and level of ecological specialization in driving different aspects of morphological evolution (locomotory traits, chemosensitive organs and cranial morphology) in this recent radiation...
May 4, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470724/evolutionary-mechanisms-that-generate-morphology-and-neural-circuit-diversity-of-the-cerebellum
#12
REVIEW
Masahiko Hibi, Koji Matsuda, Miki Takeuchi, Takashi Shimizu, Yasunori Murakami
The cerebellum is derived from the dorsal part of the anterior-most hindbrain. The vertebrate cerebellum contains glutamatergic granule cells (GCs) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic Purkinje cells (PCs). These cerebellar neurons are generated from neuronal progenitors or neural stem cells by mechanisms that are conserved among vertebrates. However, vertebrate cerebella are widely diverse with respect to their gross morphology and neural circuits. The cerebellum of cyclostomes, the basal vertebrates, has a negligible structure...
May 4, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459453/the-nephila-clavipes-genome-highlights-the-diversity-of-spider-silk-genes-and-their-complex-expression
#13
Paul L Babb, Nicholas F Lahens, Sandra M Correa-Garhwal, David N Nicholson, Eun Ji Kim, John B Hogenesch, Matjaž Kuntner, Linden Higgins, Cheryl Y Hayashi, Ingi Agnarsson, Benjamin F Voight
Spider silks are the toughest known biological materials, yet are lightweight and virtually invisible to the human immune system, and they thus have revolutionary potential for medicine and industry. Spider silks are largely composed of spidroins, a unique family of structural proteins. To investigate spidroin genes systematically, we constructed the first genome of an orb-weaving spider: the golden orb-weaver (Nephila clavipes), which builds large webs using an extensive repertoire of silks with diverse physical properties...
May 1, 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458915/the-diversification-of-begomovirus-populations-is-predominantly-driven-by-mutational-dynamics
#14
Alison T M Lima, José C F Silva, Fábio N Silva, Gloria P Castillo-Urquiza, Fabyano F Silva, Yee M Seah, Eduardo S G Mizubuti, Siobain Duffy, F Murilo Zerbini
Begomoviruses (single-stranded DNA plant viruses) are responsible for serious agricultural threats. Begomovirus populations exhibit a high degree of within-host genetic variation and evolve as quickly as RNA viruses. Although the recombination-prone nature of begomoviruses has been extensively demonstrated, the relative contribution of recombination and mutation to the genetic variation of begomovirus populations has not been assessed. We estimated the genetic variability of begomovirus datasets from around the world...
January 2017: Virus Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454877/ancient-bacterial-endosymbionts-of-insects-genomes-as-sources-of-insight-and-springboards-for-inquiry
#15
Jennifer J Wernegreen
Ancient associations between insects and bacteria provide models to study intimate host-microbe interactions. Currently, a wealth of genome sequence data for long-term, obligately intracellular (primary) endosymbionts of insects reveals profound genomic consequences of this specialized bacterial lifestyle. Those consequences include severe genome reduction and extreme base compositions. This minireview highlights the utility of genome sequence data to understand how, and why, endosymbionts have been pushed to such extremes, and to illuminate the functional consequences of such extensive genome change...
April 25, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442318/brownian-model-of-transcriptome-evolution-and-phylogenetic-network-visualization-between-tissues
#16
Xun Gu, Hang Ruan, Zhixi Su, Yangyun Zou
While phylogenetic analysis of transcriptomes of the same tissue is usually congruent with the species tree, the controversy emerges when multiple tissues are included, that is, whether species from the same tissue are clustered together, or different tissues from the same species are clustered together. Recent studies have suggested that phylogenetic network approach may shed some lights on our understanding of multi-tissue transcriptome evolution; yet the underlying evolutionary mechanism remains unclear...
April 22, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440800/the-trichodesmium-consortium-conserved-heterotrophic-co-occurrence-and-genomic-signatures-of-potential-interactions
#17
Michael D Lee, Nathan G Walworth, Erin L McParland, Fei-Xue Fu, Tracy J Mincer, Naomi M Levine, David A Hutchins, Eric A Webb
The nitrogen (N)-fixing cyanobacterium Trichodesmium is globally distributed in warm, oligotrophic oceans, where it contributes a substantial proportion of new N and fuels primary production. These photoautotrophs form macroscopic colonies that serve as relatively nutrient-rich substrates that are colonized by many other organisms. The nature of these associations may modulate ocean N and carbon (C) cycling, and can offer insights into marine co-evolutionary mechanisms. Here we integrate multiple omics-based and experimental approaches to investigate Trichodesmium-associated bacterial consortia in both laboratory cultures and natural environmental samples...
April 25, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438164/aggregation-dispersion-transitions-of-t4-phage-triggered-by-environmental-ion-availability
#18
Bożena Szermer-Olearnik, Marek Drab, Mateusz Mąkosa, Maria Zembala, Jakub Barbasz, Krystyna Dąbrowska, Janusz Boratyński
BACKGROUND: Bacteriophage survives in at least two extremes of ionic environments: bacterial host (high ionic-cytosol) and that of soil (low ionic-environmental water). The impact of ionic composition in the micro- and macro-environments has not so far been addressed in phage biology. RESULTS: Here, we discovered a novel mechanism of aggregation/disaggregation transitions by phage virions. When normal sodium levels in phage media (150 mM) were lowered to 10 mM, advanced imaging by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and dynamic light scattering all revealed formation of viral packages, each containing 20-100 virions...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438095/arcobacter-an-emerging-food-borne-zoonotic-pathogen-its-public-health-concerns-and-advances-in-diagnosis-and-control%C3%A2-%C3%A2-a-comprehensive-review
#19
Thadiyam Puram Ramees, Kuldeep Dhama, Kumaragurubaran Karthik, Ramswaroop Singh Rathore, Ashok Kumar, Mani Saminathan, Ruchi Tiwari, Yashpal Singh Malik, Raj Kumar Singh
Arcobacter has emerged as an important food-borne zoonotic pathogen, causing sometimes serious infections in humans and animals. Newer species of Arcobacter are being incessantly emerging (presently 25 species have been identified) with novel information on the evolutionary mechanisms and genetic diversity among different Arcobacter species. These have been reported from chickens, domestic animals (cattle, pigs, sheep, horses, dogs), reptiles (lizards, snakes and chelonians), meat (poultry, pork, goat, lamb, beef, rabbit), vegetables and from humans in different countries...
December 2017: Veterinary Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430395/flower-colour-polymorphism%C3%A2-in-the-mediterranean-basin-occurrence-maintenance-and-implications-for-speciation
#20
REVIEW
E Narbona, H Wang, P L Ortiz, M Arista, E Imbert
Flower colour polymorphism (FCP) is the occurrence of at least two discrete flower colour variants in the same population. Despite a vast body of research concerning the maintenance and evolutionary consequences of FCP, only recently has the spatial variation in morph frequencies among populations been explored. Here we summarise the biochemical and genetic basis of FCP, the factors that have been proposed to explain their maintenance, and the importance of FCP and its geographic variation in the speciation process...
April 21, 2017: Plant Biology
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