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"Evolutionary mechanisms"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098220/comparative-transcriptome-analysis-of-raccoon-dog-skin-to-determine-melanin-content-in-hair-and-melanin-distribution-in-skin
#1
Zhanyu Du, Kai Huang, Jiaping Zhao, Xingchao Song, Xiumei Xing, Qiong Wu, Linbo Zhang, Chao Xu
The raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) is an important canid fur-bearing animal species worldwide. Chinese raccoon dogs that present a white mutation, especially those with a white coat. Exploring melanin biosynthesis in the hair and skin of raccoon dogs is important for understanding the survival and evolutionary mechanisms of them. In this study, we measured the content of melanin in the hair of two types of raccoon dog and generated stained slices of skin tissue. The results indicated that melanin biosynthesis occurs in the wild-type (W) and white-type (B) raccoon dog skin, although less melanin is produced in B skin...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096403/crystal-structure-of-pistol-a-class-of-self-cleaving-ribozyme
#2
Laura A Nguyen, Jimin Wang, Thomas A Steitz
Small self-cleaving ribozymes have been discovered in all evolutionary domains of life. They can catalyze site-specific RNA cleavage, and as a result, they have relevance in gene regulation. Comparative genomic analysis has led to the discovery of a new class of small self-cleaving ribozymes named Pistol. We report the crystal structure of Pistol at 2.97-Å resolution. Our results suggest that the Pistol ribozyme self-cleavage mechanism likely uses a guanine base in the active site pocket to carry out the phosphoester transfer reaction...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080995/rapid-emergence-of-pathogens-in-agro-ecosystems-global-threats-to-agricultural-sustainability-and-food-security
#3
REVIEW
Bruce A McDonald, Eva H Stukenbrock
Agricultural ecosystems are composed of genetically depauperate populations of crop plants grown at a high density and over large spatial scales, with the regional composition of crop species changing little from year to year. These environments are highly conducive for the emergence and dissemination of pathogens. The uniform host populations facilitate the specialization of pathogens to particular crop cultivars and allow the build-up of large population sizes. Population genetic and genomic studies have shed light on the evolutionary mechanisms underlying speciation processes, adaptive evolution and long-distance dispersal of highly damaging pathogens in agro-ecosystems...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076419/stability-of-a-coevolving-host-parasite-system-peaks-at-intermediate-productivity
#4
Xin-Feng Zhao, Yi-Qi Hao, Quan-Guo Zhang
Habitat productivity may affect the stability of consumer-resource systems, through both ecological and evolutionary mechanisms. We hypothesize that coevolving consumer-resource systems show more stable dynamics at intermediate resource availability, while very low-level resource supply cannot support sufficiently large populations of resource and consumer species to avoid stochastic extinction, and extremely resource-rich environments may promote escalatory arms-race-like coevolution that can cause strong fluctuations in species abundance and even extinction of one or both trophic levels...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052323/complex-dynamics-underlie-the-evolution-of-imperfect-wing-pattern-convergence-in-butterflies
#5
Susan D Finkbeiner, Adriana D Briscoe, Sean P Mullen
Adaptive radiation is characterized by rapid diversification that is strongly associated with ecological specialization. However, understanding the evolutionary mechanisms fueling adaptive diversification requires a detailed knowledge of how natural selection acts at multiple life-history stages. Butterflies within the genus Adelpha represent one of the largest and most diverse butterfly lineages in the Neotropics. Although Adelpha species feed on an extraordinary diversity of larval hosts, convergent evolution is widespread in this group suggesting that selection for mimicry may contribute to adaptive divergence among species...
January 4, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036113/evolutionary-ecology-of-virus-emergence
#6
John J Dennehy
The cross-species transmission of viruses into new host populations, termed virus emergence, is a significant issue in public health, agriculture, wildlife management, and related fields. Virus emergence requires overlap between host populations, alterations in virus genetics to permit infection of new hosts, and adaptation to novel hosts such that between-host transmission is sustainable, all of which are the purview of the fields of ecology and evolution. A firm understanding of the ecology of viruses and how they evolve is required for understanding how and why viruses emerge...
December 30, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018913/evolution-of-bopa-gene-in-burkholderia-a-case-of-convergent-evolution-as-a-mechanism-for-bacterial-autophagy-evasion
#7
Dong Yu, Zhiqiu Yin, Yuan Jin, Jing Zhou, Hongguang Ren, Mingda Hu, Beiping Li, Wei Zhou, Long Liang, Junjie Yue
Autophagy is an important defense mechanism targeting intracellular bacteria to restrict their survival and growth. On the other hand, several intracellular pathogens have developed an antiautophagy mechanism to facilitate their own replication or intracellular survival. Up to now, no information about the origin or evolution of the antiautophagic genes in bacteria is available. BopA is an effector protein secreted by Burkholderia pseudomallei via the type three secretion system, and it has been shown to play a pivotal role in their escape from autophagy...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018642/competing-metabolic-strategies-in-a-multilevel-selection-model
#8
André Amado, Lenin Fernández, Weini Huang, Fernando F Ferreira, Paulo R A Campos
The evolutionary mechanisms of energy efficiency have been addressed. One important question is to understand how the optimized usage of energy can be selected in an evolutionary process, especially when the immediate advantage of gathering efficient individuals in an energetic context is not clear. We propose a model of two competing metabolic strategies differing in their resource usage, an efficient strain which converts resource into energy at high efficiency but displays a low rate of resource consumption, and an inefficient strain which consumes resource at a high rate but at low yield...
November 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005004/functional-evolution-of-a-morphogenetic-gradient
#9
Chun Wai Kwan, Jackie Gavin-Smyth, Edwin L Ferguson, Urs Schmidt-Ott
Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) pattern the dorsal-ventral axis of bilaterian embryos; however, their roles in the evolution of body plan are largely unknown. We examined their functional evolution in fly embryos. BMP signaling specifies two extraembryonic tissues, the serosa and amnion, in basal-branching flies such as Megaselia abdita, but only one, the amnioserosa, in Drosophila melanogaster. The BMP signaling dynamics are similar in both species until the beginning of gastrulation, when BMP signaling broadens and intensifies at the edge of the germ rudiment in Megaselia, while remaining static in Drosophila...
December 22, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004835/genomes-of-coral-dinoflagellate-symbionts-highlight-evolutionary-adaptations-conducive-to-a-symbiotic-lifestyle
#10
M Aranda, Y Li, Y J Liew, S Baumgarten, O Simakov, M C Wilson, J Piel, H Ashoor, S Bougouffa, V B Bajic, T Ryu, T Ravasi, T Bayer, G Micklem, H Kim, J Bhak, T C LaJeunesse, C R Voolstra
Despite half a century of research, the biology of dinoflagellates remains enigmatic: they defy many functional and genetic traits attributed to typical eukaryotic cells. Genomic approaches to study dinoflagellates are often stymied due to their large, multi-gigabase genomes. Members of the genus Symbiodinium are photosynthetic endosymbionts of stony corals that provide the foundation of coral reef ecosystems. Their smaller genome sizes provide an opportunity to interrogate evolution and functionality of dinoflagellate genomes and endosymbiosis...
December 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003446/transcriptional-regulation-of-a-horizontally-transferred-gene-from-bacterium-to-chordate
#11
Yasunori Sasakura, Yosuke Ogura, Nicholas Treen, Rui Yokomori, Sung-Joon Park, Kenta Nakai, Hidetoshi Saiga, Tetsushi Sakuma, Takashi Yamamoto, Shigeki Fujiwara, Keita Yoshida
The horizontal transfer of genes between distantly related organisms is undoubtedly a major factor in the evolution of novel traits. Because genes are functionless without expression, horizontally transferred genes must acquire appropriate transcriptional regulations in their recipient organisms, although the evolutionary mechanism is not known well. The defining characteristic of tunicates is the presence of a cellulose containing tunic covering the adult and larval body surface. Cellulose synthase was acquired by horizontal gene transfer from Actinobacteria...
December 28, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920798/evolutionary-and-functional-features-of-copy-number-variation-in-the-cattle-genome
#12
Brittney N Keel, Amanda K Lindholm-Perry, Warren M Snelling
Genomic structural variations are an important source of genetic diversity. Copy number variations (CNVs), gains and losses of large regions of genomic sequence between individuals of a species, have been associated with a wide variety of phenotypic traits. However, in cattle, as well as many other species, relatively little is understood about CNV, including frequency of CNVs in the genome, sizes, and locations, chromosomal properties, and evolutionary processes acting to shape CNV. In this work, we focused on copy number variation in the bovine genome, with the aim to detect CNVs in Bos taurus coding sequence and explore potential evolutionary mechanisms shaping these CNV...
2016: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909020/the-design-and-transformation-of-biofundamentals-a-nonsurvey-introductory-evolutionary-and-molecular-biology-course
#13
Michael W Klymkowsky, Jeremy D Rentsch, Emina Begovic, Melanie M Cooper
Many introductory biology courses amount to superficial surveys of disconnected topics. Often, foundational observations and the concepts derived from them and students' ability to use these ideas appropriately are overlooked, leading to unrealistic expectations and unrecognized learning obstacles. The result can be a focus on memorization at the expense of the development of a meaningful framework within which to consider biological phenomena. About a decade ago, we began a reconsideration of what an introductory course should present to students and the skills they need to master...
2016: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878094/host-mediated-shift-in-the-cold-tolerance-of-an-invasive-insect
#14
Amy C Morey, Robert C Venette, Erica C Nystrom Santacruz, Laurel A Mosca, W D Hutchison
While many insects cannot survive the formation of ice within their bodies, a few species can. On the evolutionary continuum from freeze-intolerant (i.e., freeze-avoidant) to freeze-tolerant insects, intermediates likely exist that can withstand some ice formation, but not enough to be considered fully freeze tolerant. Theory suggests that freeze tolerance should be favored over freeze avoidance among individuals that have low relative fitness before exposure to cold. For phytophagous insects, numerous studies have shown that host (or nutrition) can affect fitness and cold-tolerance strategy, respectively, but no research has investigated whether changes in fitness caused by different hosts of polyphagous species could lead to systematic changes in cold-tolerance strategy...
November 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856734/control-of-hoxd-gene-transcription-in-the-mammary-bud-by-hijacking-a-preexisting-regulatory-landscape
#15
Ruben Schep, Anamaria Necsulea, Eddie Rodríguez-Carballo, Isabel Guerreiro, Guillaume Andrey, Thi Hanh Nguyen Huynh, Virginie Marcet, Jozsef Zákány, Denis Duboule, Leonardo Beccari
Vertebrate Hox genes encode transcription factors operating during the development of multiple organs and structures. However, the evolutionary mechanism underlying this remarkable pleiotropy remains to be fully understood. Here, we show that Hoxd8 and Hoxd9, two genes of the HoxD complex, are transcribed during mammary bud (MB) development. However, unlike in other developmental contexts, their coexpression does not rely on the same regulatory mechanism. Hoxd8 is regulated by the combined activity of closely located sequences and the most distant telomeric gene desert...
November 29, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851751/environmental-predictors-of-diversity-in-recent-planktonic-foraminifera-as-recorded-in-marine-sediments
#16
Isabel S Fenton, Paul N Pearson, Tom Dunkley Jones, Andy Purvis
Global diversity patterns are thought to result from a combination of environmental and historical factors. This study tests the set of ecological and evolutionary hypotheses proposed to explain the global variation in present-day coretop diversity in the macroperforate planktonic foraminifera, a clade with an exceptional fossil record. Within this group, marine surface sediment assemblages are thought to represent an accurate, although centennial to millennial time-averaged, representation of recent diversity patterns...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836984/recurrent-innovation-at-genes-required-for-telomere-integrity-in-drosophila
#17
Yuh Chwen G Lee, Courtney Leek, Mia T Levine
Telomeres are nucleoprotein complexes at the ends of linear chromosomes. These specialized structures ensure genome integrity and faithful chromosome inheritance. Recurrent addition of repetitive, telomere-specific DNA elements to chromosome ends combats end-attrition, while specialized telomere-associated proteins protect naked, double-stranded chromosome ends from promiscuous repair into end-to-end fusions. Although telomere length homeostasis and end-protection are ubiquitous across eukaryotes, there is sporadic but building evidence that the molecular machinery supporting these essential processes evolves rapidly...
November 11, 2016: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834144/evolutionary-considerations-on-the-emerging-subculture-of-the-e-psychonauts-and-the-novel-psychoactive-substances-a-comeback-to-the-shamanism
#18
Laura Orsolini, Paul St John-Smith, Daniel McQueen, Duccio Papanti, John Corkery, Fabrizio Schifano
BACKGROUND: Evolutionary research on drug abuse has hitherto been restricted to proximate studies, considering aetiology, mechanism, and ontogeny. However, in order to explain the recent emergency of a new behavioral pattern (e.g. 'the e-psychonaut style') of novel psychoactive substances' (NPS) intake, a complementary evolutionary model may be needed. OBJECTIVE: A range of evolutionary interpretations on the 'psychonaut style' and the recent emergency of NPS was here considered...
November 11, 2016: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830770/lineage-diversification-homo-and-heterologous-reassortment-and-recombination-shape-the-evolution-of-chicken-orthoreoviruses
#19
Szilvia L Farkas, Szilvia Marton, Eszter Dandár, Renáta Kugler, Bence Gál, Ferenc Jakab, Ádám Bálint, Sándor Kecskeméti, Krisztián Bányai
The near complete genome sequences of ten field avian orthoreovirus (ARV) strains collected from young chicken between 2002 and 2011 in Hungary have been determined in order to explore the genetic diversity and evolutionary mechanisms affecting ARVs in this region. Sequence analyses and phylogenetic calculations revealed similar geographic distribution and distinct evolution in case of eight studied strains that were closely related to the recently described Hungarian strain T1781. The remaining two strains showed the highest similarity with the US origin AVS-B...
November 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794577/sex-reversal-in-reptiles-reproductive-oddity-or-powerful-driver-of-evolutionary-change
#20
Clare E Holleley, Stephen D Sarre, Denis O'Meally, Arthur Georges
Is sex a product of genes, the environment, or both? In this review, we describe the diversity of sex-determining mechanisms in reptiles, with a focus on systems that display gene-environment interactions. We summarise the field and laboratory-based evidence for the occurrence of environmental sex reversal in reptiles and ask whether this is a widespread evolutionary mechanism affecting the evolution of sex chromosomes and speciation in vertebrates. Sex determination systems exist across a continuum of genetic and environmental influences, blurring the lines between what was once considered a strict dichotomy between genetic sex determination and temperature-dependent sex determination...
2016: Sexual Development: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution, Endocrinology, Embryology, and Pathology of Sex Determination and Differentiation
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