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"Evolutionary mechanisms"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782933/whole-genome-sequencing-and-analyses-identify-high-genetic-heterogeneity-and-diversity-of-rotavirus-genotype-p-6-strains-circulating-in-africa
#1
Martin M Nyaga, Yi Tan, Mapaseka L Seheri, Rebecca A Halpin, Asmik Akopov, Karla M Stucker, Nadia B Fedorova, Susmita Shrivastava, A Duncan Steele, Jason M Mwenda, Brett E Pickett, Suman R Das, M Jeffery Mphahlele
Rotavirus A (RVA) exhibits a wide genotype diversity globally. Little is known about the genetic composition of genotype P[6] from Africa. This study investigated possible evolutionary mechanisms leading to genetic diversity of genotype P[6] VP4 sequences. Phylogenetic analyses on 167 P[6] VP4 full-length sequences were conducted, which included six porcine-origin sequences. Of the 167 sequences, 57 were newly acquired through whole genome sequencing as part of this study. The other 110 sequences were all publicly-available global P[6] VP4 full-length sequences downloaded from GenBank...
May 18, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772096/signatures-of-diversifying-selection-and-convergence-acting-on-passerine-toll-like-receptor-4-in-an-evolutionary-context
#2
Tereza Králová, Tomáš Albrecht, Josef Bryja, David Hořák, Arild Johnsen, Jan T Lifjeld, Marian Novotný, Ondřej Sedláček, Hana Velová, Michal Vinkler
Positive selection acting on Toll-like receptors (TLRs) has been recently investigated to reveal evolutionary mechanisms of host-pathogen molecular co-adaptation. Much of this research, however, has focused mainly on the identification of sites predicted to be under positive selection, bringing little insight into the functional differences and similarities among species and a limited understanding of convergent evolution in the innate immune molecules. In this study we provide evidence of phenotypic variability in the avian TLR4 ligand-binding region (LBR), the direct interface between host and pathogen molecular structures...
May 17, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760903/function-related-drivers-of-skull-morphometric-variation-and-sexual-size-dimorphism-in-a-subterranean-rodent-plateau-zokor-eospalax-baileyi
#3
Junhu Su, Ibrahim M Hegab, Weihong Ji, Zhibiao Nan
Sexual dimorphism is prevalent in most living organisms. The difference in size between sexes of a given species is generally known as sexual size dimorphism (SSD). The magnitude of the SSD is determined by Rensch's rule where size dimorphism increases with increasing body size when the male is the larger sex and decreases with increasing average body size when the female is the larger sex. The unique underground environment that zokors ( Eospalax baileyi ) live under in the severe habitat of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) could create SSD selection pressures that may or may not be supported by Rensch's rule, making this scientific question worthy of investigation...
May 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760781/understanding-aneuploidy-in-cancer-through-the-lens-of-system-inheritance-fuzzy-inheritance-and-emergence-of-new-genome-systems
#4
REVIEW
Christine J Ye, Sarah Regan, Guo Liu, Sarah Alemara, Henry H Heng
Background: In the past 15 years, impressive progress has been made to understand the molecular mechanism behind aneuploidy, largely due to the effort of using various -omics approaches to study model systems (e.g. yeast and mouse models) and patient samples, as well as the new realization that chromosome alteration-mediated genome instability plays the key role in cancer. As the molecular characterization of the causes and effects of aneuploidy progresses, the search for the general mechanism of how aneuploidy contributes to cancer becomes increasingly challenging: since aneuploidy can be linked to diverse molecular pathways (in regards to both cause and effect), the chances of it being cancerous is highly context-dependent, making it more difficult to study than individual molecular mechanisms...
2018: Molecular Cytogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760140/evolution-of-antibiotic-resistance-in-biofilm-and-planktonic-p-aeruginosa-populations-exposed-to-sub-inhibitory-levels-of-ciprofloxacin
#5
Marwa N Ahmed, Andreas Porse, Morten Otto Alexander Sommer, Niels Høiby, Oana Ciofu
The opportunistic Gram-negative pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa , known for its intrinsic and acquired antibiotic resistance, has a notorious ability to form biofilms, which often facilitate chronic infections. The evolutionary paths to antibiotic resistance have mainly been investigated in planktonic cultures and are less studied in biofilms. We experimentally evolved P. aeruginosa PAO1 colony-biofilms and stationary-phase planktonic cultures for seven passages in the presence of sub-inhibitory levels (0.1 mg/L) of ciprofloxacin (CIP) and performed a genotypic (whole bacterial population sequencing) and phenotypic assessment of the populations...
May 14, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755152/eco-evolutionary-processes-generating-diversity-among-bottlenose-dolphin-tursiops-truncatus-populations-off-baja-california-mexico
#6
Iris Segura-García, Liliana Rojo-Arreola, Axayácatl Rocha-Olivares, Gisela Heckel, Juan Pablo Gallo-Reynoso, Rus Hoelzel
For highly mobile species that nevertheless show fine-scale patterns of population genetic structure, the relevant evolutionary mechanisms determining structure remain poorly understood. The bottlenose dolphin ( Tursiops truncatus ) is one such species, exhibiting complex patterns of genetic structure associated with local habitat dependence in various geographic regions. Here we studied bottlenose dolphin populations in the Gulf of California and Pacific Ocean off Baja California where habitat is highly structured to test associations between ecology, habitat dependence and genetic differentiation...
2018: Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720713/treatment-resistance-in-urothelial-carcinoma-an-evolutionary-perspective
#7
REVIEW
Panagiotis J Vlachostergios, Bishoy M Faltas
The emergence of treatment-resistant clones is a critical barrier to cure in patients with urothelial carcinoma. Setting the stage for the evolution of resistance, urothelial carcinoma is characterized by extensive mutational heterogeneity, which is detectable even in patients with early stage disease. Chemotherapy and immunotherapy both act as selective pressures that shape the evolutionary trajectory of urothelial carcinoma throughout the course of the disease. A detailed understanding of the dynamics of evolutionary drivers is required for the rational development of curative therapies...
May 2, 2018: Nature Reviews. Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712649/tolerance-to-paternal-genotoxic-damage-promotes-survival-during-embryo-development-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#8
Cristina Fernández-Díez, Silvia González-Rojo, Marta Lombó, M Paz Herráez
Spermatozoa carry DNA damage that must be repaired by the oocyte machinery upon fertilization. Different strategies could be adopted by different vertebrates to face the paternal genotoxic damage. Mammals have strong sperm selection mechanisms and activate a zygotic DNA damage response (DDR) (including cell cycle arrest, DNA repair and alternative apoptosis) in order to guarantee the genomic conformity of the reduced progeny. However, external fertilizers, with different reproductive strategies, seem to proceed distinctively...
April 30, 2018: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691402/repeated-evolution-of-self-compatibility-for-reproductive-assurance
#9
Bart P S Nieuwenhuis, Sergio Tusso, Pernilla Bjerling, Josefine Stångberg, Jochen B W Wolf, Simone Immler
Sexual reproduction in eukaryotes requires the fusion of two compatible gametes of opposite sexes or mating types. To meet the challenge of finding a mating partner with compatible gametes, evolutionary mechanisms such as hermaphroditism and self-fertilization have repeatedly evolved. Here, by combining the insights from comparative genomics, computer simulations and experimental evolution in fission yeast, we shed light on the conditions promoting separate mating types or self-compatibility by mating-type switching...
April 24, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669895/thermal-niche-evolution-across-replicated-anolis-lizard-adaptive-radiations
#10
Alex R Gunderson, D Luke Mahler, Manuel Leal
Elucidating how ecological and evolutionary mechanisms interact to produce and maintain biodiversity is a fundamental problem in evolutionary ecology. Here, we focus on how physiological evolution affects performance and species coexistence along the thermal niche axis in replicated radiations of Anolis lizards best known for resource partitioning based on morphological divergence. We find repeated divergence in thermal physiology within these radiations, and that this divergence significantly affects performance within natural thermal environments...
April 25, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643508/aspm-knockout-ferret-reveals-an-evolutionary-mechanism-governing-cerebral-cortical-size
#11
Matthew B Johnson, Xingshen Sun, Andrew Kodani, Rebeca Borges-Monroy, Kelly M Girskis, Steven C Ryu, Peter P Wang, Komal Patel, Dilenny M Gonzalez, Yu Mi Woo, Ziying Yan, Bo Liang, Richard S Smith, Manavi Chatterjee, Daniel Coman, Xenophon Papademetris, Lawrence H Staib, Fahmeed Hyder, Joseph B Mandeville, P Ellen Grant, Kiho Im, Hojoong Kwak, John F Engelhardt, Christopher A Walsh, Byoung-Il Bae
The human cerebral cortex is distinguished by its large size and abundant gyrification, or folding. However, the evolutionary mechanisms that drive cortical size and structure are unknown. Although genes that are essential for cortical developmental expansion have been identified from the genetics of human primary microcephaly (a disorder associated with reduced brain size and intellectual disability) 1 , studies of these genes in mice, which have a smooth cortex that is one thousand times smaller than the cortex of humans, have provided limited insight...
April 11, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606909/early-stages-of-xy-sex-chromosomes-differentiation-in-the-fish-hoplias-malabaricus-characiformes-erythrinidae-revealed-by-dna-repeats-accumulation
#12
Natália Lourenço de Freitas, Ahmed Basheer Hamid Al-Rikabi, Luiz Antonio Carlos Bertollo, Tariq Ezaz, Cassia Fernanda Yano, Ezequiel Aguiar de Oliveira, Terumi Hatanaka, Marcelo de Bello Cioffi
Background: Species with 'young' or nascent sex chromosomes provide unique opportunities to understand early evolutionary mechanisms (e.g. accumulation of repetitive sequences, cessation of recombination and gene loss) that drive the evolution of sex chromosomes. Among vertebrates, fishes exhibit highly diverse and a wide spectrum of sex-determining mechanisms and sex chromosomes, ranging from cryptic to highly differentiated ones, as well as, from simple to multiple sex chromosome systems...
April 2018: Current Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600656/-characterization-and-pathophysiological-changes-of-cerebral-infarction-rat-model-with-qi-deficiency-and-blood-stasis-syndrome
#13
Ying Li, Lei-Sha Wang, Jian-Xun Liu, Wen-Ting Song, Li Xu, Hong-Hai Li, Jun-Mei Li, Bin Yang, Xiao-Xia Dong, Guang-Rui Wang, Ming-Jiang Yao, Cheng-Ren Lin
This study aimed to observe the general state and changes in pathophysiological indexes of multiple cerebral infarction rat model with Qi-deficienty and Blood-stasis syndrome. Rats were randomly divided into 4 groups(with 30 in each group): the normal group, the sham group, the model group and the Yiqi Huoxue recipe group. Rats in the model group and Yiqi Huoxue group were provided with interruptable sleep deprivation for 7 days before the multiple cerebral infarction operation, and followed by another 4 weeks of sleep deprivation; rats in the Yiqi Huoxue group were intragastrically administrated with drug at a dose of 26 g·kg⁻¹, once a day for 4 weeks...
February 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588141/random-walks-on-binary-strings-applied-to-the-somatic-hypermutation-of-b-cells
#14
Irene Balelli, Vuk Milišić, Gilles Wainrib
Within the germinal center in follicles, B-cells proliferate, mutate and differentiate, while being submitted to a powerful selection: a micro-evolutionary mechanism at the heart of adaptive immunity. A new foreign pathogen is confronted to our immune system, the mutation mechanism that allows B-cells to adapt to it is called somatic hypermutation: a programmed process of mutation affecting B-cell receptors at extremely high rate. By considering random walks on graphs, we introduce and analyze a simplified mathematical model in order to understand this extremely efficient learning process...
March 24, 2018: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29583156/genome-wide-analysis-of-the-glycerol-3-phosphate-acyltransferase-gpat-gene-family-reveals-the-evolution-and-diversification-of-plant-gpats
#15
Edgar Waschburger, Franceli Rodrigues Kulcheski, Nicole Moreira Veto, Rogerio Margis, Marcia Margis-Pinheiro, Andreia Carina Turchetto-Zolet
sn-Glycerol-3-phosphate 1-O-acyltransferase (GPAT) is an important enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of an acyl group from acyl-CoA or acyl-ACP to the sn-1 or sn-2 position of sn-glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P) to generate lysophosphatidic acids (LPAs). The functional studies of GPAT in plants demonstrated its importance in controlling storage and membrane lipid. Identifying genes encoding GPAT in a variety of plant species is crucial to understand their involvement in different metabolic pathways and physiological functions...
March 19, 2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580271/local-adaptation-in-european-populations-affected-the-genetics-of-psychiatric-disorders-and-behavioral-traits
#16
Renato Polimanti, Manfred H Kayser, Joel Gelernter
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have used genome-wide data to investigate evolutionary mechanisms related to behavioral phenotypes, identifying widespread signals of positive selection. Here, we conducted a genome-wide investigation to study whether the molecular mechanisms involved in these traits were affected by local adaptation. METHODS: We performed a polygenic risk score analysis in a sample of 2455 individuals from 23 European populations with respect to variables related to geo-climate diversity, pathogen diversity, and language phonological complexity...
March 26, 2018: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580205/primordial-origin-and-diversification-of-plasmids-in-lyme-disease-agent-bacteria
#17
Sherwood R Casjens, Lia Di, Saymon Akther, Emmanuel F Mongodin, Benjamin J Luft, Steven E Schutzer, Claire M Fraser, Wei-Gang Qiu
BACKGROUND: With approximately one-third of their genomes consisting of linear and circular plasmids, the Lyme disease agent cluster of species has the most complex genomes among known bacteria. We report here a comparative analysis of plasmids in eleven Borreliella (also known as Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato) species. RESULTS: We sequenced the complete genomes of two B. afzelii, two B. garinii, and individual B. spielmanii, B. bissettiae, B. valaisiana and B...
March 27, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576471/extremely-divergent-haplotypes-in-two-toxin-gene-complexes-encode-alternative-venom-types-within-rattlesnake-species
#18
Noah L Dowell, Matt W Giorgianni, Sam Griffin, Victoria A Kassner, Jane E Selegue, Elda E Sanchez, Sean B Carroll
Natural selection is generally expected to favor one form of a given trait within a population. The presence of multiple functional variants of traits involved in activities such as feeding, reproduction, or the defense against predators is relatively uncommon within animal species. The genetic architecture and evolutionary mechanisms underlying the origin and maintenance of such polymorphisms are of special interest. Among rattlesnakes, several instances of the production of biochemically distinct neurotoxic or hemorrhagic venom types within the same species are known...
March 7, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572503/a-genomics-approach-reveals-insights-into-the-importance-of-gene-losses-for-mammalian-adaptations
#19
Virag Sharma, Nikolai Hecker, Juliana G Roscito, Leo Foerster, Bjoern E Langer, Michael Hiller
Identifying the genomic changes that underlie phenotypic adaptations is a key challenge in evolutionary biology and genomics. Loss of protein-coding genes is one type of genomic change with the potential to affect phenotypic evolution. Here, we develop a genomics approach to accurately detect gene losses and investigate their importance for adaptive evolution in mammals. We discover a number of gene losses that likely contributed to morphological, physiological, and metabolic adaptations in aquatic and flying mammals...
March 23, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572464/concurrent-action-of-purifying-selection-and-gene-conversion-results-in-extreme-conservation-of-the-major-stress-inducible-hsp70-genes-in-mammals
#20
Kyle Hess, Ryan Oliverio, Peter Nguyen, Dat Le, Jacqueline Ellis, Brianna Kdeiss, Sara Ord, Dimitra Chalkia, Nikolas Nikolaidis
Several evolutionary mechanisms alter the fate of mutations and genes within populations based on their exhibited functional effects. To understand the underlying mechanisms involved in the evolution of the cellular stress response, a very conserved mechanism in the course of organismal evolution, we studied the patterns of natural genetic variation and functional consequences of polymorphisms of two stress-inducible Hsp70 genes. These genes, HSPA1A and HSPA1B, are major orchestrators of the cellular stress response and are associated with several human diseases...
March 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
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